Rust - This is the most common disease of the leaves, from which the whole pear suffers.
Harm to a tree, it brings a very substantial and can affect not only a pear, but also an apple tree, quince and many other fruit crops.
The appearance of rust is very easy to notice. It is important to find out the foci of leaf disease in time and start the rust treatment, then the pear and the crop will be saved, and the rust will be defeated.
If you are faced with such a disease as rust on a pear and do not know what treatment is necessary for the disease, then in this article you will find what control measures you need to take than to heal and spray.
What is pear rust?
Rust pear disease - This is a fungus spreading spores, treatment and control of them is very difficult, in the article you will see photos of this disease on the leaves.
It mainly affects the leaves, but sometimes the shoots and even the fruit of the pear. The main the carrier of this disease is juniper. Always he is the first to suffer from rust.
On juniper, rust appears in the form of yellowed swollen twigs, in which the harmful fungus multiplies.
The ideal option for a pear would be the absence of a number of juniper bushes, then rust is not terrible.
But this is not always the case, because juniper can grow in the neighboring area. Next you will see pictures of the disease of the pear "rust" - this will help to recognize the disease by external signs.
How to recognize the danger in time?
The first signs of the disease appear on the leaves of the pear already in the end of April. On the top of the leaves, small orange-red spots appear with a yellow border.
They quickly grow, darken and become covered with gray stains resembling mold. Over time, if the disease is not treated, appear on the back of the leaves rusty growths, in the form of small conical needles.
They contain spores of the fungus, which re-infect juniper and all the apples and pears growing nearby.
The affected leaves dry out and soon fall off.
A tree devoid of leaves is very weak; reduced immunityand if not to take action in time, it ceases to bear fruit and may even die.
Sometimes rust affects the shoots, branches and fruit of the pear. Strongly affected shoots cease to grow, thicken, become covered with red and yellow spots and dry out.
With a weak defeat, the bark on the branches and the trunk cracks. How can you help pear?
Many gardeners, after finding a disease on a pear in their garden, are looking for answers to the questions: What measures to combat? How to treat and spray?
Immediately you can answer that getting rid of the disease of pear such as rust is very difficult, but here you will find all the tips and methods of struggle.
First thing removed and burned all affected leaves and branches. How to treat pear leaves from rust?
All fallen leaves are also burned, and the ground around the plant is carefully dug up. It is desirable to process all sections with 1% copper sulphate.
Pear diseases such as scab, rust, powdery mildew are treated with systemic fungicides.
Fungicides process pear regularly, at least 4-5 times per season.
The first treatment with any drug spend to the swelling of the kidneys.
In early spring, the tree can be treated with 1% Bordeaux mixture or copper oxychloride.
This treatment is best done at an established positive temperature in cool and dry weather.
The second spraying is carried out at the very beginning of flowering, the third - immediately after, the fourth - after another 10 days.
Colloidal sulfur is applied 5 times per season: before leaflets, before flowering, after flowering, during the formation of fruits and after leaf fall (40 grams per bucket of water).
Poliram also copes with signs of rust. Processing is carried out at least 4 times.
First - at the beginning of the swelling of the kidneys, the second - in the formation of buds, the third - after flowering, and fourth - on small emerging fruits.
In this case, the last spraying should be carried out no earlier than 2 months before harvesting (2 grams per bucket of water).
Is fast is a universal fungicide that helps to get rid of not only rust, but also scab and other unpleasant diseases of the pear. They are processed at least 3 times a year: before leaflets, before flowering and after. This drug is effective for 20 days (2 ml per bucket of water).
Bayleton (triadimefon) - A good healing fungicide, used about 5-6 times per season (10 grams per bucket of water).
First processing preferably carried out at the first sign of illness. Second one and subsequent, with an interval of 2-4 weeks.
At the very beginning of March all the affected shoots and branches are cut, capturing 5-10 cm of healthy tissue.
In the autumn, after the fall of all the leaves, always well spray the pear with a strong urea solution (700 g per bucket of water).
The soil around the tree is constantly loosened, weeded and dug for the winter. Do not forget about the timely introduction of phosphate-potassium fertilizers and regular cleaning of fallen leaves. But from the use of nitrogen fertilizers is better to refrain. If there is such an opportunity, it is better to remove the juniper growing nearby, or try to protect the pear from it.
Some gardeners use folk remedies in rust treatment. Such as an infusion of wood ash (500 grams per bucket of water) and an infusion of slurry. However, such methods do not bring tangible results, and are suitable only as preventive measures.
The most important point in protecting a tree from rust is placement of pear seedlings as far as possible from any coniferous plantings.
If this is not possible, the pear is separated from them using a high hedge or a special screen.
Always need timely pear pruning. To clean fallen leaves, cultivate the soil around the tree.
First processing carried out before the first leaves, the second - after flowering and, after 12-14 days - the third. If the pear is not resistant to scab and is regularly treated against this disease, then no additional spraying against rust is carried out.
When the first signs of rust appear on a growing juniper row, it is also carefully treated and all damaged branches are pruned.
Among the summer varieties of pear resistant to rust: Rapidly, Williams, Ilyinka, Sugar, Bere Giffard, Chizhovskaya.
From resistant autumn varieties can be noted: Bere Bosk, Autumn Deck, Borovinka Red.
Winter varieties are rarely affected by rust: Bere Liguel, Belarusian late, Yakovlevskaya, Nika.
To prevent the appearance of rust on the site, it is important to observe certain conditions: protect the pear from the neighborhood with juniper or other conifers, regularly prune and fertilize the tree, process it with fungicides for prevention.
With proper care and timely protection of the tree, rust damage can be avoided. Any disease is better to prevent than to cure. And in the case of rust - even more so.
Dealing with it is very difficult., and even after complete healing of the tree, it continues to be vigorously processed for several more years.
Watch the video about rust on pear.
Types of diseases
The scab, or fungus Fusicladium pirinum, can infect to the same degree pears and other fruit plants.
Leaf plate on the back side with a scab becomes stained. They have a dark green color, and the top covered with bloom.
This bloom is a colony of fungi. Developing, the disease spreads to ripening fruits. Pears affected by scab are dotted with black spots. Over time, the rind on them begins to crack, and the flesh in the affected areas becomes hard.
The best prevention - treatment Bordeaux liquid. To this end, the pear is treated three times. The first time - with the appearance of the first green on the tree. Next time - as soon as the buds turn pink, and a third time - spray the plant after flowering.
Fresh air, getting to the trunk, is also a prevention of this disease in trees. Too dense crown of a pear prevents the flow of air. You must regularly thin out the crown, cutting off excess branches. Places cut after thinning must be treated with garden pitch.
Roots also need air intake. To do this, carefully loosen the soil near the trunk circle. Do not neglect sanitary cleaning, regularly collect fallen fruits and leaves.
At the end of the season, it is better to burn all the collected garbage away from the trees. Trees infected with scab should be treated with Nitrafen or Dnok paste with the arrival of autumn.
Resistant to scab varieties of pears: "Muratovskaya", "January".
If a pear has blackened leaves, then it is most likely a defeat of the plant with a black fungus. Black bloom, which can appear on the leaves in the middle of summer, looks like soot.
In the first place, the victims of the fungus are weaker individuals affected by various ailments and insect parasites.
Such parasitic insects, like aphid, secrete a sugar substance, which is a wonderful soil for the habitat of black fungus.
The aphid exudates damage the very structure of the tree, and the black fungus instantly sneaks into the cracks formed. Yes, and weakened plant immunity, undermined by insect parasites, does not allow the plant to resist the disease.
The black fungus waits for winter under the bark of the plant or among the fallen leaves, and with the arrival of spring it begins to look for new victims.
Blacken leaves on pear video:
Struggle and prevention:
Insecticide "Calypso" - used for the prevention of blackening of pear leaves, it destroys insects and vectors. To control the spread of the fungus in the complex, the "Fitover" fungicide is used.
Sustainable variety: "Cathedral."
Peary Mealy Dew
Mildew spread marsupials. Manifestations of the disease are very characteristic, not like other diseases. The appearance of powdery mildew in the form of white powdery plaque can be seen with the appearance of young leaves on the trees.
Then the white bloom begins to acquire a red color, and soon the sick leaves and buds wither and fall.
For young shoots - this is a real disaster, they are attacked by whole colonies of these fungi.
Prevention and control methods:
Dried and diseased branches and leaves are immediately removed and then burned so as not to spread the infection. It is very effective to use periodically preparations "Fundazol" and "Sulfite".
There are also popular ways of dealing with powdery mildew on a pear.
For the treatment of trees from powdery mildew, a special solution is prepared. 50 grams of soda ash and 10 grams of liquid soap are added to 10 liters of water.
It is also possible to use a weak, 1% solution of potassium permanganate, which is sprayed with trees.
Resistant varieties of powdery mildew are varieties of pears "Muscovite" and "Dukhmyanaya." Also good grade "January".
Pear Leaves Rust
Leaf rust is a disease so serious that it can even destroy a pear. Gymnosporangium sabinae fungi cause rust.
It is very curious that for the life and reproduction of this mushroom uses two plants: a pear and juniper. Winter mushrooms are waited in the juniper bush, and with the arrival of spring they are settled on a pear tree.
Colonies of these mushrooms will easily destroy the entire harvest of pears. Fighting rust must begin immediately.
Settling on juniper, rust affects literally all parts of the plant. Most often, this disease for juniper is chronic. Lesions on the bush are manifested in the form of wounds and blisters. And the large jelly-like orange appendages are a mycelium settled on a plant.
With the arrival of spring heat, in wet weather, the spores of this fungus move to a pear. The infection spreads quite quickly and infects foliage and fruit.
On pear leaves, rust appears as red round spots. Spots appear shortly after pear blossom, usually at the end of April.
Gradually spreading, by mid-summer, the disease can affect almost all foliage. Then black dots appear on the spots themselves. The greatest development of the disease reaches the fall, when the red spots swell, and shoots emerge on them.
It is in these processes that spores of fungi live, which are then looking for another juniper bush for themselves in order to repeat the whole circle anew from the beginning of spring.
The main way to prevent this disease on the pear is to eliminate the source of the infection. For this it is necessary to cut and destroy the diseased part of the juniper.
How to deal with rust
First, you need to remove all infected parts of the plant. It is necessary to cut branches live, 10 centimeters below the sore point.
Affected areas must be cleaned with a knife to healthy wood.
Wounds are carefully treated with 5% copper sulfate solution for disinfection.
After this, the cutting site is treated with a garden pitch.
Secondly, with the beginning of spring spraying Bordeaux liquid, 1% solution. Instead, you can use copper oxychloride.
The second spraying is carried out at the beginning of flowering, and after a week the spraying is repeated. After ten days spend the last, fourth spraying.
You can also instead of Bordeaux fluid spray sprayed with a solution of copper sulfate. Count on 10 liters of water 50 milliliters of the drug.
Gardeners also recommend using an infusion of wood ash. It is prepared in the following way: 500 grams of ash are added to 10 liters of water and insist for two days.
Rust resistant pear varieties: Nanaziri, Suniani, Chizhovka.
Bacterial Pear Burn
The most common cause of the formation of black leaves in pears is a pseudobacter burn. The disease is very dangerous for such trees.
Get rid of the disease can only be with an integrated approach. The pathogen bacterium is transmitted by insects, spreads with gusts of wind and rain through the air.
The first signs of the disease can be seen when the pear begins to bloom. The flowers wither, change their color, and the leaves turn black and curl.
Then the inflorescences rapidly lose their appearance, becoming brown and shriveled. The tree begins to exfoliate and die off the bark.
Bacterial burn is spreading rapidly. Weakened and young trees can quickly die. Stronger and healthier
plants will not be able to bear fruit for several years, and only then their functions will be restored.
How to treat
Sick branches immediately need to be amputated. You will have to cut it off alive, grabbing about another 20 centimeters of living tissue.
Infected shoots are destroyed away from the site. After working with a diseased plant, all working tools are necessarily treated in a disinfectant solution.
Some gardeners use the following treatment method: lubricate the wounds on the pear with an antibiotic solution. To do this, 2.5 tablets of rifampicin or gentamicin diluted in a liter of water and carefully treated wounds.
The remaining medicine is used for spraying the whole plant. Spring carry out the processing of all trees in the garden Bordeaux liquid.
Over the entire growing season, 8-9 sprays should be carried out.
Sections on the tree can be processed with fungicides. For this purpose, 1% copper sulphate and 0.7% iron sulphate will be suitable.
Pear: diseases and pests. What to do to fight
It is important to understand that treatments can be different for each specific situation and pear varieties. Therefore, before you begin to do something, make sure that this does not entail irreparable consequences.
Many gardeners in a panic run into the shops of the garden and cottage industry, and buy all the most expensive drugs and fertilizers, hoping that this will solve the problem. However, improper use of drugs for pears can cause the development of more complex diseases.
Most novice gardeners who do not have much experience in the identification and prevention of diseases of the pear, can ignore the appearance of any defects on the bark, fruits or leaves due to the lack of theoretical and practical base. At best, someone will tell him and help. At worst - do not avoid serious complications. It is known that most diseases are caused by disease-causing fungi transmitted in different ways.
In the scientific world, the disease is called phytopathology. It develops with prolonged exposure to rainy and cool weather. The first symptoms manifest themselves as the appearance of olive-colored spots with a fungal patina on the back.
Gradually, the fruits become diseased with it, and on their skin dark spots of rot become visible, which eventually form one spot. Among methods of struggle and effective preventive measures should be such:
- in the springtime, it is recommended to spray the pear with Bordeaux mixture with a concentration of 1% and 7% urea solution. The procedure is carried out in the period of the appearance of greenery and after flowering,
- для обеспечения хорошей вентиляции, которая способствует быстрому выведению болезни, рекомендуется проводить обрезку дерева,
- в осенний период нужно сжигать старые листья и собирать падалицу.
If the above actions are ineffective, you will have to use different fungicides. In such a case, drugs Dnok, Skor and Nitrafen show themselves well. But for their use to be successful, it is important to follow a number of operating rules that are proposed in step-by-step instructions. Experts recommend buying only proven varieties of seedlings with good resistance to fungal manifestations. It is also important to choose high-quality planting material in good nurseries.
Fruit Rot, or Moniliasis
The disease begins to progress from mid-July, when fruit ripening season begins. Symptoms are represented by the appearance of black spots, which soon develop into white growths in the form of fungus spores. Periodically remove them, because fungal spores have the ability to quickly spread throughout the garden. In no case do not use infected fruit for food. Burn them.
To prevent further development of the fungus, pay attention to a number of recommendations from experienced gardeners:
- Spray the plant and the ground around the Bordeaux mixture or copper chloride based compound. Do it better in the spring,
- for the prevention of disease, you must use milk of lime, diluting it with water in a ratio of 1 to 10,
- Immunostimulants in the form of Actophyte, Ekoberin or Baikal can be used to strengthen the immunity of a pear. Also periodically thin out the crown.
Proper wood processing can save your harvest.
Among other extremely dangerous diseases should be highlighted. black fungus. Its presence is accompanied by black bloom on the fruits of pear, resembling soot. Young and weak plants that have been attacked by other pests and infections come under the influence of a dangerous disease.
The most favorable environment for the development of problems is the deterioration of ventilation, cold weather and dampness. Used for the treatment of drugs based on fungicidesthat prevent the further development of fungal "infection".
Also a big danger for wood is powdery mildew. The pathogenic activity of the fungus leads to the formation of white plaque on the young leaves of the tree. Plaque resembles a small layer of flour, but over time, it turns to rust, which causes temporary wilting and drying of the shoots.
If you do not take a number of measures, the whole plant is threatened with death. Prophylactic measures include the removal and destruction of diseased parts, as well as the use of Fundazole and Sulfite preparations.
Rust. Education orange spots on the leaves indicates the presence of a pear lesion by another very dangerous fungus called rust. Sheets of pears begin to curl, and then become covered with yellowish spotting. In the process of developing the disease, its color becomes darker.
To save the plant from the disease, it is best to apply bordeaux mixture, with the help of which the tree is processed in the spring time before the beginning of the growing season, and in the fall - after the leaf fall. Throughout the season, use the composition of carbamide and fungicide Bayleton.
Black cancer As is the case with humans, a plant cancer develops over several years. The first symptoms lead tobark depletion, because of which spots appear on it, and then cracks, which begin to grow and burst, exposing the inside of the branch. Along the edges of the gap may first turn red, and then find a black shade. To combat the parasite use copper sulphatesmeared with pre-cut bark with a healthy part.
Less common diseases of pear
Among other diseases of the pear, which are less common than the others, it is important to highlight:
- Boringness In the scientific world is called entomosporiosis, which belongs to the group of diseases of sheets. They quickly cover themselves with small spots with a brown or grayish tinge, in the center of which dark dots appear. Further development of the disease is accompanied by the defeat of the whole leaf and falling away. To prevent the disease in the spring cut off the diseased shoots and treat them with bactericidal solutions. To provide sustainable protection against the progression of the fungus, mineral fertilizers and fertilizers are used,
- Cytosporosis. Another pear pathogen is Cytosporosis. In the people it is called "stem rot", because The disease causes various diseases of the bark, which dries out and becomes reddish-brown. The diseased area is treated with a knife and covered with clay. As a preventive measure, whitewash is used,
- Bacterial burn. Another common disease is a bacterial burn. As the disease progresses, foxes begin to curl and turn black, but still remain on the tree. The infected pear needs complex care, which consists of timely cutting of diseased shoots and spraying healthy ones. For processing using an antibiotic solution, which is prepared with 2-3 tablets per liter of water.
In most cases, the causative agent of the disease is the bacterium Erwinia amylovora, which brings insects, wind or rain. The first symptoms are manifested by the rapid withering of the inflorescences during the flowering period and the appearance of a brownish color.
It is important to understand that fungal diseases can manifest themselves in different ways, and the methods of struggle almost always remain the same. Regular preventive measures in the form of spring and summer processing, cutting and destruction of autumn leaves will allow you to save the tree and save it from many parasites. As a result, the list of diseases and pests will significantly decrease.
Pear pests on leaves
Very often different things appear on the pear. insects, which may look like ordinary harmless creatures, but during reproduction they turn into the most dangerous enemies of the tree, capable of destroying it for the season. Among those:
- Green aphid. Colonies of the parasite can suck the nourishing juice from the leaves, impairing the growth efficiency. The sweet product of pest life activity attracts not only ants, but also various pathogenic fungi,
- The pathway. If you see a caterpillar when you look at the fruit of a pear, this may indicate one very undesirable phenomenon - the presence in the fruit of a caterpillar-fruit track that eats the sweet pulp of the fruit,
- Medianitsa. He likes to eat juice from buds and leaves. The affected sheets begin to curl and then fall off,
- Mite. If there are bloating on the leaves, the tree most likely became infected with a mite sucking the juice. To prevent further reproduction of the parasite, it is better to use a number of fungicides and special preparations. This will reduce the chance of death of fruitful shoots and the tree as a whole.
Methods of struggle
Methods to combat pests and diseases of pear enough. For effective protection, it is recommended to spray the pear three times per season: before budding, during flowering, and before the appearance of ovaries. For this purpose, you can apply Kinmiks, Agravertin and Iskra.
Among the most effective drugs should pay attention to decoctions of chamomile, dandelion and a solution of laundry soap. If you intend to grow healthy and fruitful plant, consider the obligation of preventive measures.
With the right choice of variety, many diseases of the pear tolerate without complications or serious signs. Before you buy seedlings, make sure that they are suitable for growing in your regions. Caring for the affected tree can give the gardener a lot of trouble and cause a deterioration in yield, and sometimes the complete destruction of the tree. With advanced application preventive and therapeutic measures the plant will be restored in a short time.
Adding an article to a new collection
Diseases and pests of pears are capable of destroying the plant in a short time and leaving the gardener without a crop. To avoid this, you need to give preference to resistant varieties. And it is also useful to know how to treat a pear from diseases.
Both stem and leaves, and ripening fruits can suffer from fungi and viruses. Most of the diseases of pear and apple are identical. And the fight against them comes down to proper care, regular preventive spraying and timely treatment when the first signs of the disease are detected.
To know what and how to save the tree, you need to correctly identify the disease by symptoms. In our material we describe the most dangerous diseases of the pear and their treatment.
Pathogen - fungus Fusicladium pirinum - affects many garden and garden crops. This is the most common disease of the fruit of pear, but often leaves of the tree also suffer.
At the initial stage of the disease, spots of olive and yellowish colors with a velvety patina appear on the underside of the leaf plate (this is an accumulation of fungal spores). After that, the disease passes to the fruits: they are covered with dark putrefactive spots, and in these places the peel cracks. Fruits deform and become tasteless.
Control and prevention measures
For the prevention of scab, trees are sprayed with 1% Bordeaux liquid 3 times per season: in the spring when the leaves are blooming, in buds and after flowering. In addition, the crown of trees is punctured in a timely manner so that the plants are well ventilated. The gooseberries are cleaned regularly, and the fallen leaves are burned. If the trees are heavily infected, they are sprayed with the fungicide Scor (according to the instructions).
Scale pears are relatively resistant to scab, as Muratovskaya, Rusanovskaya, January.
Diseases and pests of pears are diverse (I have previously paid attention to similar problems with currants and cherries), are uneven in Eurasia, but most of the dangerous pests of pear parasitize in the southern regions, almost not moving to Central Russia and beyond the Urals. Diseases of trees are less selective in terms of territory and climate, although they have their own preferences. Some pests and diseases of pears are not specialized, they can migrate to trees from other cultivated plants and wild plants.
Description of the main dangerous diseases of pears
The fungus develops in dampness and coolness. There is a monilial burn - drying of shoots, flowers and ovaries. Ripening pears spoils the brown fruit rot.
In wet weather, yellowish spots are formed on the leaves of the plants (usually from the bottom). Then the sheet darkens and flies. The spots on the fruits are round, dark with a bright edge. Yield quality is deteriorating, trees are weakening.
Diseases lead to delayed development and reduced winter hardiness.
- Septoria: grayish spots appear after flowering on the leaves, and they die early.
- Phyllosticosis: brownish spotted leaf plate necrosis is more likely to develop in the southern regions, leading to abundant premature leaf fall.
The foliage at the bottom is covered with red spots and falls early. Juniper can be a source of plant disease.
Black cancer (Antonov fire), European open cancer
Cancer infections penetrate the trees through wounds, burns, freezers. The bark is covered with ulcers, dies and cracks to wood. Fruits are mummified. The tree risks perishing in 1-2 seasons. Pear can be saved by cutting and stripping the affected areas. Then the wounds are burned with Iron (3%) or Copper (1%) vitriol, covered with pitch. Next you need caring care.
Aphids, mites, leaf-feeding larvae and caterpillars
These pests damage the leaves of the pear, its young shoots, sometimes the buds, feeding on plant tissues or sucking juices. They represent a great danger in a mass invasion, especially for young plants.
When pests are found, trees are treated with biological pesticides (Fitoverm, Akarin) or folk remedies (bitter red pepper extracts, tomato tops, garlic).
Gallic pear mite
It is more common in southern gardens, the approximate northern boundary of the distribution - Tula region. Pincers measuring 0.25 mm overwinter in the kidneys and harm from the beginning of the season until August. The parasites pierce the leaves from below and suck out the juices, which is why galls (plaques) up to 3 mm in size are formed on the leaf plates, which change color from light green to brown. The foliage on the lower and middle branches, closer to their base, suffers and even dies. Ticks also damage the plant buds, sometimes shoots and fruits. The destruction of the buds and the death of the foliage of the trees in some years lead to a lack of harvest.
On a pear eats several types of aphids: some are widespread, others (aphid-twisting) to the southern regions. Colonies of these pests significantly weaken the young growth. Against aphids, an ash-soap solution or green soap can be effective.
Larvae and caterpillars
In the crown of the pear, the eggs are laid by various butterflies (peppered moth, hawthorn, Lyperias, etc.) and other insects (for example, leaf gallitsa). Hatching caterpillars and worm-like larvae actively destroy foliage. It is not difficult to defeat these plant pests with such biologics as Bitoxibacillin and Lepidocide: they can be used even at the time of flowering and just before harvesting.
Pear Copper (common leaf)
A small (0.3 cm) jumping reddish insect comes out of the shelters (bark, leaf litter) very early in spring. Of the eggs laid by the female (each produces up to 900 pieces), special larvae, nymphs growing to 1.5 mm, soon hatch. They feed in the buds and on the young foliage of the tree, emit a lot of sticky sweet liquid - shiny honey dew. This dew is populated by black sooty fungi. The foliage and shoots of the plant dry out, the fruits are underdeveloped and non-marketable, the winter hardiness of pears is reduced.
Lives in the south big sheet. Symptoms are similar, only the kidneys are damaged more, the buds do not develop, the leaf is bent. Damage is more commonly seen on the lower branches.
The northern boundary of the habitat of the pest is the forest-steppe zone. More early varieties of pears suffer (up to 90% of the harvest). White caterpillars of gray butterflies are introduced into the fruit (up to 5 pieces each) to eat the seeds, then leave the “feeding point” and pupate under the crown at a depth of 5 cm, the more snow there is, the better they will spend the winter in cold areas.
The remaining pests rage only in warm regions (Crimea, Stavropol, Krasnodar Territory and south).
Pear bug (lace maker)
Grayish bugs, 0.3 cm in size and their larvae are most active in dry years. They suck the juice from the leaves, causing their death. Trees are slowed down in growth and reduce yields.
Brown half-centimeter beetles hibernate in the kidneys, where their larvae feed in the spring. The death of the kidneys reaches 30%. The laying of eggs in the kidney occurs in the fall.
General agrotechnical methods of struggle against the complex of insect pests of a pear orchard:
1. Harvesting of leaf litter at the dacha (autumn), removal of flaky bark (in spring), interseason digging or loosening of near-stem circles of plants (these are all shelters of pests).
2. Spring spraying on a section of trees before the kidneys swell by Preparation 30 Plus.
3. The imposition of hunting belts on the shtaby.
4. Regular collection of windfalls.
5. Spraying (with acute need, usually in the southern regions) with toxic chemicals (Karbofos, Fufanon-Nova, Alatar, Inta-CM):
- in the green cone phase,
- at the time of budding,
- when the petals fall off,
- 3 weeks after flowering,
- in September.
The caterpillars of this nondescript gray butterfly are yellowish or pinkish, with a black head, thick, up to 6 cm long. They gnaw through the passages in the wood and under the bark. Affected young shoots of plants wither and turn black, damaged adult branches break off at the slightest breeze. In addition to the Caucasus and the southern regions of Eastern Europe, the pest is found in the Far East.
This disease is also called "Antonov fire." It affects the bark, skeletal branches, foliage and fruits. First, on the affected areas appear small wound in the form of spots, which eventually progress in size. The diameters of these wounds appear bright brown. If you notice red spots on the leaves or fruits, these are also undeniable signs of this infection. Black cancer contributes to the appearance of black rot on the fruits: they are reduced in size and gradually mummified.
In order for this infection not to hit all your fruit trees, it is necessary to use preventive measures: in the fall, when the leaves begin to fall off, they must be collected and must be burned. The areas of bark affected by black cancer should be removed with a sharp knife, capturing at least 2 cm of healthy wood when pruning. The resulting wounds are disinfected with a solution of copper sulphate or a special mixture of mullein and clay is prepared, which is covered with all the cuts.
This infection infects the cortex and has a second name - stem rot. Infected plants suffer from infection regardless of age. Both solar and frost burns, as well as drought and irregularities in agricultural practices, contribute to the appearance. In the process of the disease, the bark changes its usual color to dark red and dries out gradually. Old pears often suffer from this disease. Если заболевание только началось и грибок еще не повредил камбий, следует при помощи острого ножа удалить пораженные участки и обработать их раствором медного купороса или садовым варом. Но лучше будет не лечить, а предотвратить это заболевание.To do this, in the fall it is necessary to whitewash the stems, to prevent damage to the bark and promptly remove all dead branches.
The causative agent of this disease of a pear is a pathogenic microscopic fungus. It affects the foliage, which is covered with bright orange spots and may fall off prematurely. Also, the disease significantly weakens the plant, reducing its immunity. To combat this disease, you need to get rid of junipers growing in your garden, as they are carriers of the disease. Affected leaves and fruits must be disposed of. It is necessary to carry out timely spraying (in the spring - before the growing season and in the autumn - after the leaf fall) both biological and chemical (sulfur, bordeaux fluid).
This disease affects both young and old plants. The causes of this disease pear - improper care, as well as weather conditions such as dry air, the action of direct sunlight and sharp fluctuations in ambient temperature throughout the day, which contribute to the development of a non-parasitic form of this disease. Affected leaves acquire a milky, slightly pearly shade. Both several individual branches and the whole plant can be affected.
There is also a parasitic form of the infection, its causative agent is a tree-destroying fungus. With this form of infection, foliage does not change its shape. Only its color suffers: it acquires a metallic tint, and the leaves themselves become brittle and fall off earlier. In order to prevent the development of the milky luster, it is necessary to properly and regularly take care of the tree, to conduct timely agrotechnical measures. If you follow all the rules, then the symptoms of the disease of the pear will disappear and it will fully recover.
This insect is parasitic on the plant, sucking the entire cell sap from the leaves, which leads to the abnormal development of the shoots and the cessation of their growth. Green aphid is capable of producing sweetish secretions that contribute to the development of such a harmful parasite as a black fungus.
To combat aphids spend spraying the plants with the help of special preparations. The procedure should be carried out three times. The first spraying is carried out before the blooming of leaf buds. To do this, use the drug "Kinmiks". The second is before the bloom of the kidneys, using the drug "Agravertin". And the third - when young ovaries appear, the plant is treated with Iskra biological means.
They also use folk remedies for spraying: decoction of chamomile, dandelion and garlic. Very effective for dealing with green aphids a solution of ordinary laundry soap.
Butterflies lay their eggs on a pear. In time, caterpillars appear from them. They hit the flesh. Summer pear varieties are most often affected, since, unlike winter ones, their fruit tissue is very soft and easily damaged by caterpillars.
For prevention and control apply the drug "Agravertin" before and after flowering. On the 20th day after flowering, the drug Kinmiks is used. One month after flowering, the final treatment with Iskra is carried out.
Also, do not forget about the autumn harvesting of foliage with its subsequent burning.
These parasites cause considerable damage to the tree: they suck all the cell sap, produce substances that are a favorable environment for the soot fungus. Due to the lack of cellular juice, young buds, buds and foliage begin to shrink and fall down. Fruits are deformed, taste is lost, and yield indicators suffer. To combat this pest, it is necessary to carry out in early spring, before flowering, spraying with the drug "Karbofos." After flowering re-spraying is carried out, while using the drug "Iskra" or "Agravertine".
Folk remedies are actively used to control the larvae of these pests: they use decoctions of ordinary yarrow, tobacco dust, dandelion or pharmaceutical chamomile.
These parasites overwinter in dead bark, and can also be located under the scales of young buds. With the arrival of spring, the pear mite moves to the inner part of the leaves and sucks the juice out of them, as a result, swelling appears on the affected leaves. The activity of a pear mite can contribute to the disruption of the normal development of the tree: shoots are deformed, the foliage falls prematurely. To combat this pest, spraying with a solution of colloidal sulfur is effective.
This small mobile caterpillar. It affects only the foliage: due to the actions of the caterpillar they collapse into a tube and decrease in size. In order to prevent the occurrence of this pest in his garden, even before the bud breaks, trees are treated with Tsimbush.
In this article, you learned what diseases of pears and pests are most dangerous for this plant. We advise you to regularly carry out routine inspections of leaves, bark, and fruits on a fruit tree. If you find even minor changes, it is better to immediately carry out the necessary therapeutic measures. Remember that diseases develop very rapidly, and small pests can cause irreparable harm to the fruit tree for a short period of time. Do not forget also about preventive spraying. Indeed, thanks to them, the development of most diseases can be prevented.
Rust pathogen - pathogenic fungus Gymnosporangium sabinae. This leaf leaf disease is characterized by yellow, orange and rusty-brown bulging spots that most often appear in the second half of April - early May. Damaged leaves lose their ability to photosynthesis. With a strong infection, rust passes on to the fruits of the plant.