The future flowering of gladiolus depends on the daily care of them. All care is divided into several main stages: landing in the ground and care, winter storage, separation of children for breeding.
First you need to buy planting material.
This is best done in specialized stores. Here you can select suitable tubers.
It is worth paying attention to the size of germ germs. The magnificence of the future flower depends on them.
The onion thickness indicates the height of the inflorescence: if up to two centimeters, then 60–90 cm, with a thickness of more than two and a half centimeters - the flowers will be tall, more than a meter. The diameter of the tuber is responsible for the size of the flower buds.
Store purchased tubers must be in a dry place. The material left from autumn must be prepared for planting. Three weeks before planting, they clean the tubers from covering scales and spread them upwards. Choose a place warm and bright, with diffused sunlight. It is necessary to remove the areas affected by the scab and brush the slices with green.
Before planting, it is recommended to treat the tubers with a disinfectant, synthetic or folk, to choose from. If you dip the bulbs in a growth stimulator, the flowers will grow much faster and stronger. If babies are used, daughter bulbs, you need to reduce the concentration of the solutions used.
For winter storage they dig up the bulbs in autumn:
- Early and medium varieties - 30–40 days.
- Late varieties - 45–60 days.
Due to poor disease resistance, a dark-colored and blue flower is dug first. Flowers grown from last year’s babies are harvested last, making it possible for tubers to get stronger. Digging is carried out in September, it should be a warm day.
Whole the process is divided into several steps:
- Cut the stem, leave a stump of 1 cm.
- Remove the roots and old onion.
- Shorten the roots of juvenile bulbs, they remove the roots before planting.
- They wash the tubers from the ground and disinfect, use potassium permanganate.
- Lay out on sackcloth to dry, at an average temperature of 25 ° C for two weeks. Then, it is necessary to lower the temperature to 20 ° C and stand for one month.
- The average storage temperature until spring is 7 ° C, it can be: a dry cellar, a cold store or a cold window-sill.
Storage room should have good ventilation. Optimal - These are low plastic boxes.
It is necessary to store the bulbs, pre-sorted by grade and diameter of tubers.
During storage, it is necessary to check the presence of moisture on the bulbs, and if necessary, dry. You can turn them over or wipe them with a napkin.
Not bad proved a way of storing planting material in vegetable nets. To do this, in advance, each bulb is wound into a newspaper, and the grid is hung from the ceiling.
A small stump is left for a reason. The experience of gardeners suggests that thrips, a common pest, do not start in a small remnant of the stem.
It is necessary to disinfect not only the bulbs, but also the instrument with which they work. This is done with potassium permanganate diluted with alcohol and an aqueous solution of iodine.
Fertilizer and dressing
Priming fertilized twice a year: in spring and autumn. To do this, use:
- In the spring - ammonium nitrate or urea, 30 g each, ash 50 g, double superphosphate 20 g, simple 40 g
- In the autumn - potassium sulfate 40 g, superphosphate 100 g
During the spring disembarkation, gladioli must be fed, using Nitroammofosku or Kemira, on 30 g on meter, or a ready complex top dressing the Master.
Vegetation process also requires additional nutrition..
- After the appearance of the second sheet, add: urea 30 g, nitrogen 30 g, Phos. 30 g, potassium 30 g, calcium 10 g, magnesium 20 g.
- The appearance of the fourth sheet: urine 30 g, potassium sulfate 30 g, N2 -15 g, phos. 30 g, potassium 60 g, calcium 10 g, magnesium 20 g.
- After the appearance of the sixth: urea 15 g, sulfuric. potassium 30 g, N2 -15 g, phosphorus 60 g, potassium 60 g, calcium 10 g, magnesium 20 g
- After budding the amount of top dressing is significantly reduced: nitrophoska 30 g, phosphorus 60 g, potassium 60 g
- After removing the peduncle: superphosphate 15 g, potassium sulphate 30 g, potassium 60 g
The amount of mineral additives per 10 liters of water is given, and the interval between dressings must be more than ten days.
If you feed the gladioli after flowering, good daughter tubers will be formed. The stores sell a sufficient amount of fertilizer intended for this.
Planting and care
Choose a place on the sunny side, which is previously dug up, on the spade bayonet. It is undesirable to plant gladioli in lowlands and in places with low groundwater levels, they do not like dampness.
The plot of land where the east, south and west are open to sunlight is very well suited, and the north, on the contrary, is covered with a screen from the cold wind.
When the earth at a depth of ten centimeters warms to 10 ° C, there comes a favorable time for planting gladioli. The distance between the bulbs, when planting, is of great importance.
When landing in heavy soil, the depth must be adjusted: tubers are planted by 10 cm, and children by 2–2.5 cm. Before planting, the funnel must be soaked with potassium permanganate or Fitosporin. A layer of sand is poured into the hole, on top of the onion and soil.
The appearance of sprouts is accompanied by mulching of a 3-5 cm layer of humus. It is desirable to maintain a layer of humus during the development of the sprout to 10 cm. This will allow:
- retain moisture
- Do not splash the soil after watering,
- reduce weed growth,
- increase the number of nutrients
- rest florist from loosening the soil.
Frequency of watering: once a week, a bucket of water per meter. A non-mulch garden bed should be loosened after watering and at times weeds should be weeded.
Welcome to the transfer to the places where last season were grown: melons, beans, tomatoes and strawberries. If growing dahlias, taggetesy or zinnia. These plants suffer from diseases that cause other pathogens. If onions or garlic were growing, fine, this is a natural antiseptic.
It is advisable, for gladiolus, to plant separately from plants that like thrips, carrots and other root vegetables. Especially not on the places where they grew up in that year.
Landing depends on the climatic conditions of the growing region. For Siberia, this is May, due to unstable weather conditions for a whole month for disembarking. In the middle lane, the dates are more tight: two weeks at the end of April, in some areas the first week of May.
Details of the preparation and germination
Preparation of tubers for planting, begin with a check of the material. Sort diseased and damaged bulbs. In tubers, damage is removed and disinfected slices with green or crushed activated charcoal. If you buy bulbs, it is imperative to inspect and check each unit for putrid lesions and moldiness.
The bottom of the bulb deserves special attention, it has a small size in an unripe tuber.
Gladiolus seedling - germinated baby. To accelerate the emergence of the peduncle, apply the method of pre-germination of children at home. Remove bulbs from storage and place in a warm place. The direct rays of the sun will provoke an intensive growth of shoots, which is bad, therefore the place should be in the shade.
It should be noted that this is not done always and everywhere.
Reproduction of gladioli
As a rule, gladioli reproduce in simple and accessible ways:
- seed tubers are planted,
- divide maternal corms,
- when using seeds, so overwintering species propagate.
For reproduction, arrange a drainage system in the selected area. It is necessary to prevent the stagnation of moisture and to ensure the outflow of its excess.
Providing optimal care for the baby, after disembarking, she forms several new babies, becoming a full-fledged bulb. This quality of gladiolus provides progressive reproduction.
By keeping a small tubercle, unable to even give color in the first year, the florist can grow, in a few years, a flowerbed of gladioli.
Weather conditions play a major role. High humidity increases the chance of getting botricosis, it is rot that destroys the flower.
To combat this disease, use: copper sulfate 20 g, 20 g of green soap and one liter of water.
Pretreatment of the bulbs with a synthetic preparation or an extract of phytoncidal plants will allow to protect the flowers from fungal infection, bactericidal infection and from the trouble of thrips. And also helps the processing of bulbs with a simple tincture of garlic or potassium permanganate.
The area of open ground on which gladioli are going to be grown should be dry, not inclined to accumulate moisture, the most suitable soil is sandy loam and light loam.
Because of its origin, and this subtropics, cold wind does not tolerate. They prefer to grow behind a natural or artificial barrier that protects them from the north. They love high beds and do not tolerate ravines and slopes.
In more detail about the depth of landing with different types of soil:
- Light soil - the depth of the funnel is equal to the diameter of the bulb, multiplied by four.
- Heavy soil - multiply the diameter by three.
- The minimum and maximum depth is from 5 to 15 cm.
The distance between the bulbs.
- Large tubers - 15 cm.
- Medium size - 10 cm, kids - 5 cm.
- The distance between the rows is up to 35 cm.
Planted material is preferably sprinkled with mulch. As mulch, you can use straw, pine needles, rotten foliage - anything that retains moisture. Watering should be between the rows, not the sprouts themselves and no more than once a week. The exception is a dry summer, then you have to water every other day. In the absence of mulch, it is necessary, after each irrigation, to conduct aeration of the roots, loosening the earth between the rows.
Gladioli are also grown indoors, on balconies and window sills. In such conditions, grow plants that have small flowers and a short stem. Apply capacity 20-25 cm in diameter and height.
At the bottom - drainage, aeration and removal of moisture. Tuber preparation is carried out similarly to ordinary bulbs. Spread the tubers in a warm place, disinfect with potassium permanganate and leave to germinate in a wet burlap.
Planting in pots carried out in early April, if it is sunny, the south side. Otherwise, the landing is delayed for ten days. Please note: during the first month, it is necessary to start preparing the bulbs in order to plant the material in April.
Greenhouses and greenhouses
Greenhouses and greenhouses are used in the commercial cultivation of gladioli. Planted to a depth of 6 cm, 6 cm between tubers and 30 cm between the rows. Regularly watered, loosened and weeded.
For feeding apply chicken manure, mixing 1 kg of weight per bucket of water. If the greenhouse is heated, you can achieve the first flowering in April. The only thing that needs to be considered when growing gladioli in such conditions is the undemanding varieties to the light.
Growing in unheated greenhouses, begin when the daily temperature has exceeded 12 ° C. Otherwise, there is no rooting of the bulb, and there is no plant growth.
An important moment in the development of gladiolus is the visual formation of the third leaf. The moment coincides with the beginning of the development of flower buds. Future buds are very sensitive to the regime, the conditions of detention will directly affect the quality of the flowers.
Winter forcing requires the creation of conditions for the formation of a peduncle, despite being unusual for vegetation.
The initial treatment is simple: take large bulbs and peel the scales. A month of exposure at 25 ° C, humidity in the room 80%. Further, disinfecting treatment and disembarkation. Each copy is planted in a separate container, a diameter of 15 cm and a height of 10 cm.
Shelters cover peat mulch on the ground and water it abundantly. The initial growing period accompanies 13–15 ° C, increases to 16–18 ° C with the appearance of the fifth leaf. The final stage is the formation of inflorescence, temperature 18–20 ° C.
Urea, in an amount of 30 g / sq. m and potassium phosphate 20 g / sq. m pour at the time of growth of the third sheet. Additional fertilizing will be needed after cutting the inflorescences, potassium phosphate 50 g / sq. m
Two months later, the tubers are dug, cleaned, dried and planted in open ground. This procedure is necessary to restore the volume of the bulb.
The most difficult thing in forcing is creating artificial lighting to increase the daylight time to 16 hours. Lighting provides the opportunity to plant gladioli in December, a flower in early April. Planted in January, the bulbs will begin to bloom in the last decade of April. The February flower, respectively, is cut off in May.
For the cultivation of gladiolus requires weakly acidic soil, normal pH - 6.5–6.8. When the soil is acidified at the leaves, the tips wilt, the sepals are burnt, there is a delay in opening the buds.
Acidity is eliminated with lime, chalk and dolomite flour. The soil in the garden improve eggshell, gradually scattering on the surface.
If the soil has an increased pH, this indicates its alkalization. This condition inhibits the growth of gladioli, can cause the development of chlorosis.
To correct this situation, they add humus in the fall and dig up the soil on the bayonet. Do not recommend the use of fresh manure, it contributes to the growth of green mass and reduce the number of buds, besides storage of bulbs is deteriorating.
Spring feeding consists of: saltpeter 20 g per square. m, potassium sulfate 30 g per square. m, wood ash 50 g per meter. The beds once again need to perekapal, zavoronit and leave a small rise.
Simple gardeners tips
The most correct will be cut a flower when two to three lower buds bloom and leave on the bottom of 5-6 sheets. This allows the bulb to accumulate the necessary nutrients and strengthen in size.
If you do not leave a few sheets on the stem, the replacement bulb will be poorly developed. It must give a certain amount of substances on the aboveground part.
Do not choose the material for planting without the help of a specialist and do not buy seeds from the Internet from other climatic conditions.
Adult and young tubers are not planted in the same beds.
First you need to prepare the gladiolus bulbs for planting.
If this is all right, then in the beginning of May this magnificent plant is planted. Gladioli can be planted in early spring. The only condition for planting the plant is that the soil is heated to a minimum of 10 degrees.
It is necessary to pay attention to the size of the plant bulbs.
Usually it is 5-7 cm in diameter. But there are also giant bulbs, 10 centimeters in diameter. Such attention to the size of the bulb is due to the fact that the depth of planting depends directly on the size of the bulb.
It is planted in the soil at a depth of three diameters of the gladiolus bulb. Consequently, large bulbs are planted in a hole with a depth of 15 cm, medium ones - at a depth of 10 cm, and very small ones, or children, are planted at a depth of 1-2 cm. we plant large onions on 2 cm above the put.
For planting gladiolus bulbs there is one little trick. Dry moss is placed in the hole, on its bottom and along the edges. It is covered with ash.
Then the onion is planted. This method will prevent the plant bulb from drying out at the initial stage. The same ash will save the bulb from various sores and pests.
Particular attention in the development of plants gladiolus should be given fertilizer. At the initial stage, during growth, the plant needs nitrogen fertilizers.
But do not overfeed gladiolus. Otherwise, it will begin to grow rapidly, but in its bloom it will be very late. Feeding with nitrogen is carried out during the appearance of the first leaves.
After the formation of 5-6 sheets and during the tying of buds phosphate fertilizers are applied. Potassium fertilizers are used at the stage of formation of buds and flowers.
This fertilizer will protect the plant from diseases and increase its cold resistance. It is necessary to feed gladiolus twice a month. At the end of the summer, plants finish feeding.
Gladiolus is an unpretentious plant, but proper care will allow it to grow well, and gorgeous inflorescences will decorate your garden.
Beautiful garden gladiolus - growing and care
Gladiolus - garden plants that have been known since childhood, the flowering of which ends the summer, and meets autumn. Red, yellow, purple candles of this flower are traditionally decorated with flowerbeds of summer cottages. Care for gladiolus requires attention and effort, but it is more pleasant to enjoy their beautiful flowering.
Preparation of gladiolus bulbs
Prepare the bulbs in advance, 15-20 days before disembarkation.
Tubers should be clean, dry, peeled from scales. If signs of rot or other damage are suddenly found, they can be removed with a sharp knife and treated sections with an antiseptic. Wounds will have time to dry before planting and heal slightly.
Bulbs should be laid out in a bright place, but not under direct sunlight. From the light of the bulbs will begin to wake up and prepare for a new development. Этот способ подготовки клубней называется яровизацией, благодаря ему луковицы быстрее прорастут и получат дополнительную устойчивость к заболеваниям.
Выбор места посадки гладиолусов и подготовка почвы
Для посадки гладиолусов важно выбрать подходящее место в саду.
It should be protected from the wind, because high flower stalks can suffer from it, and are well lit by the sun. Gladioli tolerate penumbra well, but their flowering period will be shifted to a later period. If you plan to plant in several places of your site, this fact will help to distribute the order of flowering of gladioli and prolong it.
Cultivation of gladioli in pots
Growing gladiolus in the open field requires good soil preparation for planting. It is better to prepare a flower bed in advance, having dug up the soil in autumn, clearing it of weed roots and adding fertilizer. Gladioli prefer neutral or slightly acid soils, in which it is desirable to add, when digging black soil, sand and rotted compost.
Instead of compost, you can use peat by adding it at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 square meter. m ridge.
Terms and methods of planting gladioli
The favorable date for planting gladioli is from late April to mid-May.
You must make sure that the soil has warmed up to plus 10-15 degrees Celsius. Planting in too cold ground will slow the development of the bulb, and damp and dense soil can lead to rotting. Too late summer planting of gladioli will negatively affect the quality of flowering, as the plant does not have time to accumulate strength for a good peduncle.
The brightest flowers are more often planted without mixing with the rest. These include and gladioli, planting which is recommended for individual flower beds. There are two main methods of planting bulbs.
A simple way to plant gladiolus
Over the entire surface of the ridge, the holes are made at a distance of 15 cm from each other, the distance between the rows must be kept at least 30 cm. The depth of planting depends on the size of the bulb: 10 cm for large, 7 cm for medium and 3 cm for the smallest children. In dense, clay soils, the planting depth can be reduced by 1 cm.
Standard plan of planting gladioli, photo
Place the bulbs in the wells and sprinkle them with soil. You can pour a weak solution of chicken manure, which will accelerate the cultivation of gladioli in the future.
Planting bulbs in furrows
Over the entire length of the ridge, furrows are made 10-11 cm deep, keeping a distance of at least 30 cm between them. The bottom of the furrow is covered with river sand of 1-2 cm layer, after which the bulbs are placed 15-20 cm apart on the sandy cushion. and watered with diluted chicken droppings.
Planting gladioli in a sandy furrow
Top dressing during budding and flowering
For the formation of large bulbs, gladioli are fed with a solution of boric acid (2 grams per 10 liters of water), and for long-term flowering and disease prevention with potassium permanganate (5 grams per 10 liters of water)
In addition to the finished products, the whole summer period can be fertilized with infusion of mullein infusion (1 liter of infusion per 10 liters of water). You can apply organic nettle dressing, pour a bucket of nettle greens with water in a 1: 1 ratio, let stand in the sun for 3 days, then strain. When watering nettle observe the same proportions as with the extract of mullein.
When planting tall varieties, the problem of lodging of peduncles due to wind, heavy rains or a large number of large ovaries is often encountered. Often gardeners use wooden slats or wire stretched along the planting of gladioli as a support. Also in specialized stores sold a lot of decorative props, which are also used to care for indoor plants.
There is a simple way to solve this problem with the help of a plastic mesh chain-link with large cells. A piece of the grid is stretched at a height of 30-35 cm above the ridge of gladioli and is attached with rails to the fence. Growing up, the flowers pass through the stems and leaves through one of the grid cells, and its sides serve as a reliable support for the plant.
Support for gladioli from a plastic grid the Chain-link
Gladiolus - planting and care in Siberia
Because of the climatic conditions, the planting of gladioli in Siberia is made later than in the Moscow region - from May 1 to 15. An earlier planting is doomed to failure because of the unheated soil, and the later one threatens that the flowers will not have time to bloom before cooling.
Summer in Siberia is unstable, arid in the first half, and rainy in the second. Therefore, after planting the bulbs, you should carefully consider the irrigation regime: at least once a week.
Growing gladiolus in Siberia
During the budding period, which coincides with frequent rains, watering should be stopped. To prevent bulb rot due to over-wetting of the soil, it is useful to water the ridge with a solution of potassium permanganate: 1 gram of the drug per 10 liters of water.
The bulbs are dug 40 days after flowering (early-flowering varieties), or on the first frost days (other species). Before laying the entire planting material is treated with a weak solution of manganese.
The following varieties are well suited for Siberia: Super Star (lat. Super Star), Miss America (lat.
Miss America), Pink Prospector (lat. Pink Prospector), Sessie Willie (lat. Sassy Willie).
Cleaning and storage of gladiolus bulbs after flowering
Bulb harvesting occurs at the end of September - beginning of October, in dry weather, because wet soil sticks to the bulbs and it is difficult to choose children. About a month after the gladioli have faded, caring for planting material after digging is not difficult, but will take time.
Contaminated bulbs should be carefully washed with water and dried, then cut the stems (at a height of 1-2 cm) and the roots, separate the little children from the old bulb.
Gladiolus bulbs with children
For storage of bulbs suitable trays with low walls. Instead, gardeners often use cardboard shoe or candy boxes. The bulbs are sorted by variety and laid out in one layer.
Next, the trays for 10-15 days should be in a warm room at a temperature of 25 to 30 degrees Celsius, after which they are transferred for 1 month to a cooler room - up to plus 20 degrees. All this time, the bulbs need to be turned, inspected for pests and rot.
Storage of gladiolus bulbs
Bags made of loose natural fabric, such as burlap, are well suited for winter storage. The bulbs are laid out in bags, placed inside a label with the name of the variety, tied with string and placed in a dry basement with a temperature of minus 5 degrees Celsius, until spring.
Gladiolus, the cultivation and care of which is not so complicated as it is pleasant, will thank you with lush flowering in the last days of summer and the beginning of autumn. Picking flowers for your garden, observing style and design, is not difficult - more than 5,000 varieties of multi-colored are available for selection.
Acidanthera (Acidanthera) belongs to the genus of perennial plants belonging to the Iris family. The origin of the name is associated with the Greek translation of the two foundations of the word "sharp" and "flower", which characterizes the appearance of perianth.
In total, there are several dozen varieties of acidants, growing mostly in tropical areas and prefer a hot sunny climate.
Cultural representatives of this flower are considered to be a two-color acididant, Muriel, Muriel's skewer, beautifully flowered or fragrant gladiolus. The latter is most common. Breeders brought it a half century ago.
Today, wild species of atsidants are also associated with gladioli. In botanical sources and colloquially gladiolus Muriel is called an acidanter. This name is used by many gardeners.
Description of akidantera flower
Muriel acidide shoots can reach a height of more than a meter. The root system is presented in the form of round-shaped bulbs covered with solid brown skin.
Stems begin to branch closer to the crown. Leafy plates are painted in a pale green color, creamy shade buds grow with a diameter of 5-12 cm, forming spikelike inflorescences. During flowering, and it happens at the end of the summer, the acid-tantrum exudes a dizzying, sweetish scent that actively attracts bees.
The buds have 6 pointed petals, near the base they become darker in color. The disclosure of peduncles occurs gradually, starting from the lower tiers. In place of withered buds, oblong seed pods are formed.
When to plant atsidanteru
Atsidantera is a heat-loving flower, therefore, prefers lit areas in the garden. Landing is carried out in May or April, when the spring frosts have receded.
If the area of your residence is characterized by a long and cold spring, it is better to plant the tubers of the plant in March. A loose soil is poured into the tank, in which shallow holes are dug, where the onions are placed. Stoves are stored in a greenhouse or on a windowsill, and in the spring the bulbs can be transplanted to an open area.
Atsidantera different heat-loving and will develop poorly in the shade.
The flower is planted on an open lighted area in the garden in late spring when the soil warms up. It is better to perform these activities at the end of April or in May. If you live in an area where there is a long, cold spring, and you want the blooming of acidide to come on time, it is better to plant corms in March for distillation.
To do this, in a pot with a diameter of 12-15 cm, containing a loose permeable substrate, immerse 3-6 pieces of bulbs. After planting, the flowerpots are placed in a greenhouse or on a bright window-sill, and at the end of May they are transplanted to a flowerbed. The corms grown in this way give strong, long and abundantly flowering plants.
How to plant
In an area where a warm and humid climate prevails, it is allowed to plant bulbs atsidantery directly on the flowerbed. The substrate must be nutrient and have a weak acid environment.
In order for the flower to take root well, the plot is dug up and fed by solutions of organic fertilizers. Sand is mixed into the substrate to ensure the drainage effect. The tubers are previously kept in a solution of potassium permanganate and dried.
Then the prepared bulbs are planted in small groups in the soil. The distance between them must be maintained 1-20 cm, depending on the size of the planting material. At the end of planting carry out watering.
Even a beginning gardener can easily cope with growing a flower. The only thing that needs attention is irrigation mode, constant loosening and weeding.
To save time, you can mulch the flowerbed with sawdust, peat, humus or straw. This little trick will keep the roots moist and prevent the appearance of weeds. If you remove wilted buds of acididers in time, then you can enjoy the beauty of the plant during the flowering period for several months.
This perennial prefers moderate watering, which in no case should be forgotten during a long drought.
At the same time, overmoistening of the soil must be avoided. When buds begin to appear, watering is less frequent. However, the soil should be kept moist.
To avoid leaf burns, do not allow water to enter them. It is recommended to use water at room temperature. After watering the surface of the soil around the bushes must be loosened.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
Atsidanter feed mainly mineral fertilizers several times during the year. When planting, the soil is enriched with humus or compost; during growth and the growing season, fertilizers containing nitrogen are applied.
When the budding process begins, the plant is fed with potassium and phosphorus compounds. After completing the feeding, the beds with the acidizer are watered. Do not use fresh organic fertilizer.
In areas with frosty long winters, it is recommended to remove the tubers from the ground in late autumn.
After the flowering of the bushes, only flower stalks are cut. As soon as the first steady frosts come, the entire land part of the plant is also removed. After that, you can dig out the bulbs to save them for planting in the spring.
How to save an acidanter until spring
The corms, extracted from the soil, are dried at room temperature in a dry ventilated room and cleaned of husk. Then they are treated with a fungicidal solution, dried again and stored in cardboard boxes in a cool place until spring.
To ensure constant air exchange, small holes can be made in them. The following year, the tubers first land on the forcing. For the southern regions allowed to land immediately in open ground.
Reproduction of acidants
Atsidanter can be propagated with the help of seeds, tubers or children. How to propagate the flower with bulbs, was described in detail in the article a little earlier.
As for the children, they are separated from the scales and grown in shkolke. If you take care of them in a timely manner, you can easily wait for the blooming of such acidists. Strong corm retains germination properties for 5 years.
Growing flower atsidantery using seeds will not cause any problems. Sowing is carried out in the winter, while you can not stratify material. For planting choose a fertile soil consisting of peat, sand and earth.
All components take in the same ratio. Boxes are stored indoors, and crops are regularly watered. In order not to damage the fragile shoots, you can use a spray gun.
To preserve moisture, the surface of the drawers is covered with a film. As soon as condensate begins to accumulate under it, the crops are ventilated. After forming a pair of healthy leaves, young plants are seated separately in other pots filled with peat substrate.
After a short time, the seedlings are transferred to the open ground. By autumn, the bulbs are removed from the soil in order to plant them again in the spring in a flowerbed. The formation of peduncles occurs after three years.
Diseases and pests
The atsidanter is often affected by aphids, bulb mites, scab, and slugs. To prevent damage to the leaves, they are rubbed with ammonia or mustard powder.
These effective folk methods are safe for plants and for people. If the flowers are already wound up aphid or shchitovka, then you should quickly treat the bushes with chemical preparations. Acaricidal agents pose a threat to ticks.
You can get rid of slugs only manually. It is necessary to lay wooden planks or slate residues in the garden, clams will gather under them. In this way, slugs can be quickly destroyed.
For atsidantery dangerous is the defeat of the bushes with powdery mildew, rust, mosaic.
The latter disease is practically not treatable. As soon as a leaf starts to form a spot, it is better to dig up and burn the plant to prevent the infection from spreading. Fungicides treatment helps to get rid of other fungal diseases.
The solution is prepared on the basis of copper sulfate and Bordeaux mixture. To prevent infection, the plant must be regularly looked after. The overmoistening of the soil, the weak drainage system or the retardation of the growth of the bushes due to the impact of weeds affects the development of fungal diseases.
Types and varieties of atsidantery
One of the most popular cultivated varieties is considered to be a two-colored acididere. In addition to this species, there is a no less attractive hybrid variety of Tubergen atsidanthera, characterized by larger flowers. For growing in the garden are used several more types of gladioli:
Atsidanthera tropical is a tall, grassy perennial that has many-finned leaves and white double inflorescences consisting of tubular buds, painted in bright scarlet spots. This plant is quite thermophilic and is considered to be a variety derived from bicolor acididers, only characterized by higher upright shoots.
Atsidantera white - grows in tropical areas in the territory of African countries. The inflorescences of this variety exude a pleasant and fragrant aroma; there are few leaves on the plant stems.
Less common types of acidants are short-tubular, cape-leaved, grass-leaved, few-flowered and tubular.
How to grow acidum (video)
Its second name, the “sword”, was derived from the similarity of narrow long leaves with swords, and the stem itself, tall and straight, resembles a gladiator sword. Not for nothing, many bouquets for men, florists collect it from gladioli.
These flowers are so popular with flower growers that there are more than five thousand varieties in the world. Thus, the life span of most varieties is no more than 10 years. But new varieties are replacing old varieties. Each of them has its own charm and its secrets. Even for a beginner grower who loves gladiolus, planting and caring for them will be in order. Content: Africa is considered to be the birthplace of gladioli, it is possible that the plant came to Mediterranean countries from there, wild-growing types of gladioli were also found in the Asian region.
The first mention of the flower dates back to the third century BC. About the corms of a flower in ancient treatises were said to be therapeutic and magical, capable of curing from diseases and protecting from enemies. They were also used in food. Интерес к гладиолусу, как к декоративному растению, появился только в начале 19 века, он сразу получил признание как в Европейских странах, так и в Америке.Гладиолусы относятся в клубнелуковичным многолетним растениям семейства Ирисовые.Листья у них прямые, высокие, достаточно жесткие.Внизу листья смыкаются, обхватывая стебель с двух сторон.
Стебли высокие, до 1,5 метра, одиночные. Соцветия колосовидные, в длину до 0,9 — 1 м.Каждый цветок собран из шести долей, сросшихся основанием, по форме напоминает воронку. The fruit is a box, the seeds are rounded, brown in color. Each plant forms a round, slightly flattened onion, dressed in scales.
The color of the bulbs can be very different, from light yellow to dark burgundy, almost black. The color of flower petals differs in the same variety. Gladioli are suitable for cultivation both in open ground and in greenhouses, they are good both in flowerbeds and in cutting. Choosing a place on the site for the placement of gladioli, we must remember that they come from sunny Africa and need good lighting for development.
You can not plant these flowers in the shade of large plants on the north side. It is also necessary to provide protection from the wind. Gladioli are quite demanding of the soil. Heavy clay or peat soil is detrimental to these colors.
It is best suited for them sandy or loamy soils with a slightly acidic reaction that is close to neutral. Taking care of the preparation of the land for planting gladioli is best since autumn. Autumn digging of the bed for bayonet shovels is required. At the same time organic fertilizers are applied, at the rate of ten kilograms of humus per square meter. It does not hurt to add a small amount of wood ash. If this work failed to be carried out in the fall, they can be done in the spring, after the earth has thawed.
For planting gladiolus use: seed, club, and club, in the amateur floriculture planting seeds is practically not used. The most convenient way is to purchase either young corms, or use “babies.” They come in different sizes, to get flowers you need bigger ones, much smaller ones, you need to grow and bloom only next year. Well-formed tubers form a few replacement bulbs for the season, they are much smaller than the main one , it is optimal to use for planting replacement tubers. Large tubers have, in addition to the main, a few more lateral buds. With some experience, if necessary, to propagate a rare variety, such a corm can be divided.
However, there is a risk of ruining it with careless movements. When planting gladioli, it is necessary to focus on the temperature of the upper layer of the earth. When the thermometer shows at least + 8 degrees at a depth of 8–10 cm, the time has come to planting. In most regions, the soil warms up at this temperature in late April - early May. For planting, we prepare holes 2.5 to 3 times the size of the corm. The distance between the holes depends on the size of the planting material. The larger the corm, the greater the distance.
Approximately - from 10 to 20 cm. It is also possible to dig a continuous groove and spread out the bulbs at a specified distance. Before lowering the planting material into the hole, it is desirable to spill it well with water or phytosporin solution, and remove all cover scales and clean from the bulbs. knife cut off rotten places, if any. You can pour five to six garlic cloves with hot water, cool and place the tubers there for a couple of hours before embedding them in the ground. Drain the holes with loose earth and mulch with dry, crumbly peat.
This will prevent the ground from drying out, because it is advisable not to water until the emergence of gladiolus shoots. If several varieties are planted, then it is necessary to mark the boundaries of each, this will help not to confuse the corms when digging and storing them for storage. The emerges that appear after 12-18 days also need to be cared for. For all its unpretentiousness, the gladiolus still requires the attention of the grower.
Only a few simple agrotechnical techniques need to be carried out: loosening the soil; removing weeds; introducing fertilizing; watering. The first watering is required by the plants when the ground part of the shoots reaches 10 -12 cm. Immediately after watering, the ground is mulched. Mulching with loose peat or humus not only protects from drying out, but also does not prevent the ingress of air. Water for one plant needs at least a bucket so that moisture penetrates to a depth of at least 25 - 30 cm.
Regularity depends on the weather, but frequent and shallow watering damages gladioli. When watering, it is necessary to try, so that the water does not fall on the leaves, for this, a watering furrow is laid in advance along a number of flowers. After each watering, after the rain, as well as once every 10 days in dry weather, the ground should be loosened, not allowing its compaction. During the season, you need to feed at least five times gladioli: when the second leaf appears, feed it with nitrogen fertilizers for the first time the appearance of the fourth leaf, produce a second feeding third seed feeding after the fifth leaf appears the fourth time feeding phosphate when the buds appear in early September the last feeding takes place. Weeds are removed at least two - three times, and if necessary Weeding will have to be repeated up to 4 - 5 times per summer.
Weeding is a good prevention of many diseases of gladiolus, a guarantee of abundant and long-term flowering. Gladioli with early and medium flowering periods are suitable for beginner growers; there may not be enough time for later varieties to open buds. In the absence of experience, you should pay attention to the following varieties of resilient varieties: Golden antelopeHard of KitezhHearts of Russia Retarted Amber BalticYou can plant several varieties and not be afraid of over-pollination, this will not happen when planting gladioli with corms. The love for these flowers, the observance of simple rules, culminate in the appearance of beautiful inflorescences. A detailed video about planting gladioli and caring for them:
Gladiolus - sword flower
Gladiolus is a sword flower, he is the king of victory, a magnificent duelist. Many legends and beliefs are connected with these beautiful flowers. They attributed healing properties. As the legend goes, gladioli grew out of the swords of the Thracian warriors captured by the Romans. Gladiolus, or Spike(Gladíolus) - a genus of perennial bulbous bulbous plants of the Iris family with beautiful flowers. On the features of growing gladioli in the garden will tell this publication.
Gladiolus - sword flower
Botanical description of gladiolus
The homeland of gladiolus is tropical and subtropical regions of Africa and the Mediterranean, Central and Southern Europe, Central Asia, Western Siberia. About 200 species are known. Plants are perennial, bulbotube. Stems are vertical, unbranched, solitary, leafy, 50-150 cm tall. Leaves linear or ensiform 50-80 cm long.
Vaginas of gladiolus leaves are closed around the stem, giving it extra strength. The flowers are collected in one-sided, bilateral or spiral spike inflorescence up to 80 cm long, friable, medium dense or dense. Flowers sessile with simple funnel perianth of six unequal lobes, fused with bases, of various sizes and shapes.
The fruit of gladiolus is a three-leaved box. A lot of seeds, they are round or oval, brown. Corm rounded, renewed annually, dressed with membranous scales from white to black and cherry color.
How to prepare the ground for planting gladioli?
Preparation of soil for gladiolus will require some effort. Gladiolus grows well on any cultivated soil, but best of all - on light sandy loam, with a lot of humus. Be sure to add sand to clay soil.
In the area that you have chosen for gladiolus, add humus in the fall, lime and dig it to a depth of 25–30 cm. Fresh manure should not be used for at least two reasons: the bulbs are poorly stored in this case, more leaves and less flowers are formed .
In spring, gladiolus beds must be dug, leveled and fertilized with ammonium nitrate (15–20 g per sq. M), double superphosphate (10–15 g per sq. M) and potassium sulphate (25–30 g per sq. M). When planting, you can add wood ash - 40–60 g per linear meter.
Do not plant gladioli in one place for two seasons in a row - they will be sick. And besides, avoid areas where phloxes, asters and other flowers used to grow, and are susceptible to gladioli-like fungal diseases. Suitable precursors are cucumbers, onions, garlic and strawberries.
Do not plant gladioli in one place for two seasons in a row - they will be sick
To gladiolus pleased generous flowering, you must select the appropriate place and properly plant corm. It is known that gladiolus is light and sun-loving. Therefore, choosing a place for it, you need to take care that the garden bed is clearly oriented from east to west.
In central Russia, gladioli are planted in the first half of May, if the soil has already warmed up to 10 degrees Celsius. With sufficient humidity and relatively low temperature, the roots develop intensively and a powerful root system is formed, which further provides the plant with a normal diet.
Before planting gladiolus corms into the ground, they are cleaned of dry scales, unhealthy areas are cut out in partially diseased areas, and cuts are sprinkled with pounded charcoal. True, all this can be avoided if the purchase carefully inspect the tubers - they should not be rot and mildew. Pay attention to the bottom: if it is small, then the onion is still young.
In mature corm gladiolus, as a rule, has a diameter of 5 to 7 cm, but there are also 10-centimeter specimens, although it is extremely rare. Every year, their tubers are replaced with new ones - most often one or two, sometimes three or even four. And at their base are formed kidneys (children) with a diameter of from 2 to 10 mm, the number of which varies from 10 to 200 and depends on the biological characteristics of the variety and methods of cultivation.
The depth of planting is affected by both the size and age of the corms and the quality of the land. On light soils, they are placed at a depth of 10–12 cm, on loamy soils — 2-3 cm above. Small tubers of gladiolus are located 5–8 cm from the surface; children are not lower than 3-5 cm, and they are planted a week earlier than adult bulbs. After planting, the bed is sprinkled with peat or humus for 2–3 cm.
And if you plant deeper? First, gladiolus blooms later. Secondly, a larger corm will form, but there will be fewer babies. And the most unpleasant - in a cool summer, bulbs can hit fungal and bacterial diseases.
Secrets of growing gladiolus - 11 rules
Let's look at the important nuances of growing this flower, the so-called eleven immutable rules:
- Crop rotation rule - it is not recommended to grow gladiolus flowers in one place for more than two years. In the third year they need to be transferred to a new place of residence.
- When transplanting it is preferable to choose a soil with a different composition. If, for example, your flowers grew on clay soil, it would be better if you transplant them into sandy soil.
- Choose "proven" varieties of bulbs, namely those that are adapted to the growth in your area. This flower does not like the difference in climatic zones - if you purchase a rare variety from Holland, it will most likely be able to please you with flowering only once.
- During planting, first plant small bulbs, and then large ones. There is no need to place a number of adults and children's onions - large tubers will suppress "babies." Particularly large specimens are generally better to plant separately.
- Cultivation of gladiolus - here it is extremely important to properly deepen the tuber. Look at its diameter, if at the site of planting the soil is light, then the depth of “immersion” should be approximately four diameters. If the ground is heavy, then a depth of three diameters will be sufficient. If the planting is not deep enough, the plant will have to provide additional support, and if it is too deep, it may not bloom at all.
- Approximately five days before planting, it is recommended to clean the tubers from the coarse husk (for better germination), after planting, water them once every two days.
- Gladiolus - light-loving plants, if you choose late-flowering variety, then do not plant it in shady places. Shade is a suitable place only for early varieties, but even they may be late with flowering.
- To prevent the occurrence of fungal manifestations, if possible, land the sword on a ventilated place.
- If the flowers grow in sandy soil, it is recommended to apply top dressing by irrigating the ground part of the plant (leaves).
- With the onset of summer, gladioli should be watered once every 5-7 days, but at the same time moisture saturation should be abundant. If it is hot, then in order to avoid overheating of the soil, water the flowers moderately every day (after sunset), and at the same time do not forget to loosen the soil and destroy the weeds.
- Pay special attention to the collection of tubers, the subsequent storage of gladioli in the winter should be carried out correctly.
It is very important to choose a comfortable place for planting so that the flower can fully grow and bloom. Gladiolus does not like overmoistened soil, therefore in places with high groundwater flow it cannot be planted. This rule also applies to low-lying places, areas where water may stagnate.
When to dig up gladioli and how to store?
After the burger has completely bloomed (this happens by mid-late September), its upper part is cut off at the root, and the tuber is carefully removed from the ground. For convenience, the flower can be pre-watered. The bulb is cleared from the ground, well dried, the tubers of early varieties are dug first, the young and small bulbs are removed from the ground last.
To prevent the growth of bacteria during storage, the tubers can be etched in a hot solution of potassium permanganate (approximately +60 ° C), and Fitosporin and Maxima are also suitable for this purpose. After 20-25 minutes, the tubers are taken out of a hot bath, dried for about two weeks in a dry and cool place, and then wrapped in paper, cleaned in a cold environment.
How to store gladiolus in the winter at home? For these purposes, suitable cellar or refrigerator (branch for the storage of vegetables). In the winter, once a month, do not be lazy to get the bulbs, inspect them, air them. In the tank with tubers, you can put a few peeled garlic teeth - this will create additional protection against disease during storage. Dental teeth should be replaced periodically with fresh ones. With the onset of spring, the bulbs can be planted back into the soil, giving a new life to a new generation of flowers. Remember that the lifespan of tubers is 4 years. Do not take to store too large old bulbs - this is waste material that is no longer suitable for planting. Small young onions will not give lush flowering, it should also be considered.
When to get gladiolus from the fridge for germination? The best time to wake up the bulbs from winter sleep is 25-30 days before planting. Carefully inspect each tuber, they should not be rot, parasites or any damage. Excess husk needs to be removed, if there is slight damage - cut off, then it is necessary to pickle the planting material again in the manner described above (potassium permanganate, Maxima, Fitosporin, Karbofos). Places of slices can be covered with ordinary green. Dry and light, but not sunny place is perfect for sprouting bulbs, while they need to spread out on clean paper, bottom down. 48 hours before planting the bulbs, it is recommended to find the sunlit area and spread them out on a damp cloth (moisten it as it dries) - thus, you will stimulate the growth of root buds.
Bulbs, ready for planting, photo:
Diseases of gladioli, photo, treatment
To stop the development of the disease on the vine, do not be lazy to make regular inspections of both tubers and flowers growing in the area.
The most dangerous diseases of the swordfish are botrytis (gray rot), fusarium, rust, septoria, sclerotinia, scab.
Do not over-wetting the root system of plants, carefully inspect them, pay due attention to preventive measures. Preparations "Chorus", "Fundazol", "Kadris" give a good result in the processing of gladiolus before the onset of the flowering phase. Fundazole also recommends that the tubers be processed after extraction from the ground and before winter storage.
Harmful thrips, bulbous mites, cabbage scoops and slugs love to nest on the swordfish and feed on its juices.
Photo of gladioli affected by thrips:
Preparations “Confidorm Maxi”, insecticide “Aktara”, “Calypso”, anti-tick remedy “Agrovertin”, biological means “Aktofit”, “Balazo” give high indicators in pest control.
Like any other beautiful garden representative, this flower requires attention. But be sure to reward us with the beauty and lush color of summer paints gladiolus. Cultivation in the open field is associated with some conventions, but fully justifies the time and effort invested.
Like any man, gladiolus loves to be surrounded by care and attention. He responds to kindness and affection with rich colors and lush flowering. А поскольку путь к сердцу мужчины лежит через желудок, то, чтобы добиться расположения цветка, его нужно обязательно подкармливать: через каждые 10 дней, начиная со второй декады июня, или в соответствии с фазами развития.
Первый раз подкармливают гладиолусы при появлении 3–4 листьев, второй – 5–6, ну а третий – перед самым цветением. Лучше всего использовать жидкие удобрения. Но сухие минеральные тоже подходят – в определенных дозах: 10 г аммиачной селитры, 10–15 г калийной соли или 20–25 г древесной золы и 10 г суперфосфата на 1 кв. м. После их внесения почву осторожно рыхлят и хорошо поливают. В середине августа подкормку следует прекратить.
Позаботьтесь и о влажности почвы. Гладиолусы особенно чувствительны к ее недостатку, когда у них формируются соцветия и второй ярус корней. Water the plant in a timely manner, otherwise its root system will develop poorly, and the inflorescences may be deformed.
Gladioli in landscape design
What plants are most often planted in gardens? Those that require minimal care and are resistant to weather disasters. What designers prefer? Stably decorative crops that do not violate the structure of the flower garden either before, during or after flowering. Gladiolus does not meet any of these requirements.
Winter twist with cubic bullets of gladiolus gives way to anxiety: ascend - do not ascend, freeze - do not freeze. A significant part of the flower bed for a long time remains inexpressive. After the rain, the arrows deviating from the vertical must be tied to the pegs. And when they finally flourish, they are mercilessly cut, because the first of September has come.
A natural question arises: why are gladioli planted at all? Firstly, tradition, secondly, in March slush it is impossible to pass by beautiful packages of bulbs, and thirdly, if you do everything according to the rules, the result is stunning.
At the very beginning, it is necessary to clearly define which flowers are intended for cutting and which will serve as a flower garden decoration. Those that cut, we plant separately. In the garden or in the front part of the garden. Well, if you decide to include gladioli in the landscape composition, you should start by thinking through the assortment.
With all the variety, gladioli are conventionally divided into two large groups: large-flowered and small-flowered.
Large-flowered gladiolus - these are the very luxurious ones that we used to see in our gardens and bouquets. The best place for them is a big ceremonial mixborder.
Small flower gladioli - a relatively new group for us. They are lower and much more modest look. But this is what makes them versatile and convenient material. In addition to the traditional curtain in the flower garden, they are suitable for a local composition with stones and conifers, and for large landscape rockeries, and even for containers.
Low-growing varieties of gladioli can be planted so that the soil beneath them remains open (naturally, sprinkled with wood chips, a nutshell, gravel - anything). A higher grade, as a rule, in the flower garden are the second floor.
The problem with gladioli is twofold: firstly, late bloom, and secondly, the curtain falls apart from rain and wind. You have to go on tricks. For example, you can plant gladioli between dense spreading plants of medium height (small spireas, barberries, etc.) that can hold stems. Or plant around perennials that hide unsightly ropes and pegs.
And, of course, it never hurts to seal the plantings with summer pilots, that is, simply land the summer pilots between gladioli. If you pick them by color (in the tone of the middle of the future flower or just in the general range), they will greatly enhance the impression.
In all these cases, note that the ground is covered and the gladioli grow out of the dense mass of other plants. Uninteresting bottom remains behind the scenes, elastic inflorescences erect, and the flower garden is good all summer.
Gladiolus marsh (Gladiolus palustris). © Ettore Balocchi
Types of gladioli
Gladiolus marsh (Gladiolus palustris). In the marshy meadows of Central Europe, Northern Italy, the Balkan Peninsula, rarely in Belarus. Stem weak, thin, 30-60 cm tall. The flowers, including 5-8, 3 cm long, dark purple. The tube is curved, 0.5-0.7 cm long. Perianth segments oval, obtuse, contiguous, 3 lower lobes longer than the upper ones, with a nail equal to the length of the limb. Anthers are equal to staminate filaments. Bracts lanceolate, pointed, 3-4 cm long. Inflorescence unilateral. 2-3 leaves, they are linear, 18-20 cm long, 1 cm wide. Corm up to 2 cm wide, shell coarsely fibrous, upwardly mesh. It blooms in summer. Used in rock gardens, for coastal landings near water bodies. Corms are planted in the fall, for the winter they should be covered. Tested: Moscow, Stavropol.
Gladiolus byzantine (Gladiolus byzantinus). In the meadows, forest edges in the Mediterranean, Asia Minor and Western Asia (Syria, Turkey, Iran). It blooms in summer. Stem 45-60 cm tall, straight, thin. The flowers are quite large, in nature 3-4 cm, in culture up to 5-6 cm wide, purple to carmine-red (crimson) with a white line along the central vein. The tube is small (1-1.5 cm long), slightly bent. Perianth segments narrow, lower longer than upper ones and with clearly expressed nail of the same length as the limb. The anthers are almost equal to the threads. Bracts crescent, up to 3 cm long. The inflorescence is rare, one-sided, 15–20 cm long, with 5–10 flowers. The leaves are usually 3, they are sword-shaped, 30–35 cm long and 1–1.5 cm wide, with weakly pronounced veins. Corm rounded, 1.8-2 cm wide, shells are brown, membranous, in specimens from nature - fibrous, disintegrating into threads. Seeds are brown, winged.
Gladiolus Kochi (Gladiolus kotschyanus). On subalpine damp meadows to an altitude of 3000 m above sea level in Iran and Afghanistan, South Transcaucasia. Stem 35-65 cm, durable, thin. Flowers 4-8 in a crowded short, one-sided inflorescence. Perianth 2.5-3 cm long., Dark purple-purple, lobes ovate-spatulate with a narrow long fingernail. Tube to 1 cm long., Bent. Bracts 1.5 cm long., Lanceolate-oblong. The leaves, including 3, are linear, thin, 20–30 cm long, 0.6–0.8 cm wide. Box obovate. Seeds are round, wingless. Corm ovoid, 2--2.5 cm wide., Shell is thin, leathery, mesh above. It blooms in spring. It bears fruit. Recommended for rabbits and mixborders.
Gladiolus vulgaris(Gladiolus communis). On subalpine and forest meadows up to a height of 2100 m above sea level. m. in the Mediterranean, Southern Europe, Asia Minor, Iran, Crimea, the Caucasus. Stem 60-100 cm tall, upright. The flowers are light purple, on the lower lobes in the center a white stripe, narrow-crowded, 3-4 cm wide, strongly zygomorphic. Perianth tube small (up to 1 cm long), bent. The lobes are narrow, 2.5-3 cm long, 3 lower - with the nail. Bracts small, 1.5-2 cm long, lanceolate. Spike thick, one-sided, 15–20 cm long, from 4–12 flowers. Anthers are equal or slightly shorter than threads. 3-4 leaves, they are narrow-shaped, 20-30 cm long, 1.5-2 cm wide. Corm rounded, up to 2 cm wide, the shell of coarse parallel fibers, up mesh. Box obovate, 1-1.5 cm long.
Gladiolus tiled (Gladiolus imbricatus). On dry meadows and bushes in the Mediterranean, Eastern and Central Europe, from the Crimea and the Caucasus to the south of the Leningrad region, it comes into northwestern Kazakhstan (the Mugodzharsky Mountains). The stem is erect, 30-50 cm tall, in culture up to 80 cm. Flowers from 3 to 14 in one-sided dense but short inflorescence. The perianth is purple-red and dark purple, rather large, 3 cm long. and 3-4 cm pshriny. The shares are oval, obtuse, almost all of equal size, slightly overlapping each other. The tube is small, curved, up to 1 cm long. Bracts lanceolate, small, 2-2.5 cm long. 2-3 leaves, they are linear with slightly pronounced venation, 15-30 cm long. Corm rounded, up to 2 cm wide, thin shells, of parallel fibers, disintegrating at the base. Box elongated cylindrical. Seeds are wide-winged. It blooms in early summer.
Gladiolus Byzantine (Gladiolus byzantinus). © M Fletcher Gladiolus Kochi (Gladiolus kotschyanus). © Arthur Chapman Gladiolus ordinary (Gladiolus communis). © J Biochemist
Gladiolus disease control methods
The fight against gladiolus diseases is, first of all, prevention, prevention and prophylaxis. It is easier to prevent a disease than to fight it. The spread of disease contributes to the wrong farming practices and ignorance of the basics of plant protection.
Most gladiolus diseases are spread by fungal spores. In thickened landings and adverse weather conditions, diseases can affect all landings within a few days. Top-dressings with mineral fertilizers can influence the development of diseases both positively and negatively. Excessive salt concentration in the soil causes damage to the root hairs. Through dead tissue pathogens easily penetrate.
During flowering, it is dangerous to overfeed gladioli with nitrogen fertilizers, as this increases the intercellular spaces in the root tissues, which also facilitates the penetration of fungi and bacteria into the plant. In the fall, with an excess of nitrogen in the soil, plant growth continues for a long time, which reduces the quality of bulgarian tubercles. Potassium increases the resistance of plants not only to disease, but also to bad weather, the same is facilitated by copper, manganese and zinc.
It must be remembered that nitrogen reduces the absorption of copper, and phosphorus - copper, zinc and boron. Therefore, simultaneously with fertilizer nitrogen fertilizers, copper fertilizers should also be given. Due to the low need for phosphorus and its negative effect on the digestibility of many trace elements, one should not get involved in phosphate fertilizers. There are agrotechnical, chemical and physical methods of combating diseases.
Agrotechnical methods of fighting diseases
Preparing the soil for planting gladiolus is a major factor in prevention. In the autumn, the soil is dug up for 2 bayonet shovels with a reservoir turnover. This contributes to the improvement of the soil, as the spores of parasitic organisms get inside and die there.
Soil improvement is very conducive to crop rotation. For example, it is useful to grow marigolds, calendula, nasturtium, mustard, and parsley before gladioli. Getting new corms, you can bring to your site any disease. Therefore, it is necessary to provide quarantine and disinfecting measures.
Gladiolus corms before planting, it is necessary to carefully inspect and plant only healthy ones - destroy the rest. Preventive soaking of planting material in a 0.05% solution of copper sulphate or a strong solution of potassium permanganate for 30 minutes before planting helps remove pathogens from its surface.
Planting at the optimum time increases plant resistance to disease. With a delay in planting until the time when the temperature of the soil rises to 10 degrees, the development of the roots is delayed, and due to the nutrient reserves in the corm begins an enhanced growth of leaves. As a result, plants are oppressed and are more easily affected by disease.
Removal of weeds, loosening and watering are of great importance for prevention. Weeds not only deplete the soil, but also serve as reserve infection. Loosening contributes to the destruction of mycelium and improve air access to the roots. Lack of moisture weakens the root system, and gladioli are more affected by disease.
Timely dressings increase the protective properties of plants. The term of digging gladioli also affects the number of diseased plants for the next year. The later the cleaning is done, the more diseased planting material. Babies for planting should be taken only from strong healthy plants, in which case the variety will constantly improve.
Gladiolus is imbricate (Gladiolus imbricatus).
To disinfect the planting material of gladioli, soil and plant spraying apply toxic substances to pathogens and pests. Chemical treatment is also carried out for prophylaxis, suggesting that pathogens may appear under these conditions. Toxic drug will destroy the spores before they penetrate the plant tissue.
To disinfect the soil during the autumn digging, it is watered with 2% copper sulfate solution or 1-3% thiazone solution at a rate of 10 liters per 1 m. Before planting, the tubers are soaked for 15 hours in a warm solution of complete mineral fertilizers with 20 g microelements. for 10 liters, (but not more often than 1 time in 3 years), and then for disinfection for 30 minutes. in a dark cherry solution of potassium permanganate or in a solution of copper sulphate (5 g. per 10 l.) or better for 18 hours in a solution of thiourea (5 g. per 1 l.).
Even diseased corms of gladioli soaked in thiourea solution can be cured. Karbofos is used for prophylactic spraying against pests starting from the end of June with an interval of 1-2 weeks, only 2-3 times per season (20g per 10 liters of water). If there are peonies in the garden, they are treated with the same solution, as thrips is transferred from one crop to another.
Starting from mid-June, spraying with copper oxychloride solution (5-10 g per 10 l) is used for prophylactic and therapeutic spraying and plants are treated every 4-5 days at least 3 times in a row. To combat thrips, spraying infusion of garlic is also used (100-200 g per 10 l.).
Planting gladioli at the optimum time increases plant resistance to disease. © Raf Degeest
The physical method consists in the heat treatment of gladiolus corms immediately after digging. Dirty corms need to be washed, separated baby, cut off the roots and stems. Pour corms with hot water, temperature + 55 degrees. exactly on the thermometer. After 5 minutes, drain the water and pour hot water for another 10 minutes (55 degrees). Then drain the hot water and immediately fill it with cold water 10-12 degrees, replacing it 3-4 times or running water.
A sharp temperature drop helps to cure corms from fusarium, rot, scab, and has a detrimental effect on nematodes and thrips. Processed tubers should be poured on for 30 minutes with a strong solution of potassium permanganate (2 g. Per 1 l.). After that, dry corms for 2-3 days at elevated temperatures and ventilation, and then for 30 days at a temperature of 20-25 degrees.