When growing plants in your garden, some problems may arise: diseases and pests of grapes.This can occur in novice gardeners as well as in more experienced gardeners. It is necessary to determine the type of pest or disease, than to treat this disease, and what preventive measures should be used to avoid negative consequences.
Such moments torment absolutely every winegrower, since this useful crop very often affects various pests and diseases, which reduce the nutritional value and yield of grapes.
The reason for the lack of berries in the plant can often be insects. The vineyard very quickly loses its productivity due to the huge number of pests that are in whole flocks located on the bushes. Among all these insects, it is possible to distinguish the most dangerous representatives that pose the greatest threat to the ornamental orgrapes:
- grape mite,
- mealy worm,
- grape garlic,
These pests can affect not only the leaves of the vine, but also completely capture its bark, buds, and even young inflorescences. That is why illiterate care of this crop can lead to the loss of at least half of the crop per season. In the worst cases, insects completely destroy the entire plantation and it is not necessary to wait for at least a small amount of useful and tasty berries.
The vineyard can be greatly weakened by the action of some species of mites, which eat the green parts of the plant, thereby causing great harm to them. If we do not take any measures to combat the grape mite in a timely manner, the number of these parasites will grow at a tremendous speed, which after some time will lead to slow maturation of the vine, and a reduction in the amount of harvest will also suffer the quality of the fruits. Among other things, ticks are carriers of diseases. They have a detrimental effect on grape crops, among them: powdery mildew, mildew, and so on.
Pests prefer to wait out cold winters inside damaged grape buds and on various weeds. Insects begin their dirty work even earlier in the spring, but their main activity falls on the summer period. The mite infects the buds and buds of the plant, after which they turn red and then crumble.
It’s pretty hard to spot a small insect., most often this can be done by external signs, which appear on grape leaves. On the reverse side of the leaflet, you can see small tubercles, which will almost always be covered with spider webs. The more active the pest infects the plant, the weaker it becomes, as a result of which photosynthesis processes are disturbed, the leaves gradually shrink, the leaves dry out and fall to the ground.
The spread of grape mite can contribute to dry summer weather, as well as strong gusts of wind. In the fight against pests and diseases of the grapes, they are currently using various drugs that in a fairly short time help to completely get rid of the invasion of insects. All preventive actions should begin in the spring. Even before the bud blooms, the vine must be treated with a two percent DNOC solution. Then the plant should be treated with a solution of nitrophene.
Since the pest likes to settle on the back of the leaves, it is necessary to process the grapes in these places. most thoroughly.
Drugsthat are used for chemical processing of the bush and do not harm humans, as well as bumblebees and bees:
A positive result can be seen after two treatments, but it is important to observe the interval between procedures, which is 14 days.
Grape aphid - the most dangerous pest of this shrub. Due to the activity of the insect, not only the yield, but also the plant itself can suffer. The affected grape bush weakens greatly, the root system of the plant ceases to develop completely, after which the bush dies in a couple of seasons. In order to somehow help the ill culture, it will have to be uprooted and transplanted to a fresh place. In the event that only the leaves of the vine were affected, it would suffice to destroy the galls of the aphids, which contain the eggs of insects.
The main task of the gardener - prevent the spread of the pest. To do this, you can use chemicals:
The first treatment is recommended after all the buds are massively dismissed, and the second - after 10-12 young blossomed leaves appear on the shrub.
Shchitovka, mealy worm
These pests prefer to lead a sedentary lifestyle, love to eat the juice of grapes, clinging to the vine. This leads to the fact that the shoots will begin to shrink with time and the yield will decrease greatly. In addition, in those places where insects are located, over time, various fungal diseases develop, which can lead to the death of the grapes.
Shchitovki often settle on annual shoots. The insect spends winter under the bark, and with the arrival of warm days it is selected to the surface. Treatment from pests and diseases of grapes is carried out with the help of spraying, which occurs under great pressure. This feature of pest control helps the drug to penetrate very deeply into the layers of bark, so without much effort it will turn out to destroy even the wintering pests. Spraying the shrub is desirable to carry out in the spring before the first buds bloom.
Butterfly, despite its attractive appearance, is a very dangerous pest who likes to lay eggs on leaves of plants. The caterpillars hatching from these eggs, actively eating the leaves and green parts of the shoots, cause great harm to the kidneys, which die before they are dissolved. Such a caterpillar lives, as a rule, for about a month, however, the degree of development of the colony completely depends on weather conditions. If the air temperature will be several days below the mark of + 15 ° C, the butterfly larvae will die during this time.
Spray the vineyard should be in several stages, observing the interval from a week to 10 days. As a drug for the fight against insects, you can use any modern insecticide (Aktara, Vertimek, etc.).
Perhaps there is no such gardener who would not encounter an invasion of wasps in his vineyard. These winged insects can significantly reduce crop yields and reduce the quality of brushes with berries. The main task facing the gardener who grows grapes is to protect the shrub from wasps.
In the fight against pest best show themselves comprehensive measures. To do this, close to the vineyard, you must arrange special bait, which should be cleaned as the accumulation of insects in them. In addition, after the grapes cluster begins to ripen, they should be covered with non-woven material, however, it is important to make such a shelter spacious so that rot does not begin to develop under it.
Among the huge number of diseases that can affect the grape bush, you can select the most dangerous, they often lead to the death of the bush or a decrease in yield:
- gray rot
Downy Mildew - Mildew
Among all the existing diseases of the vine, mildew is considered the most common. This disease is capable of affecting all parts of the plant in a short time, and its spread is facilitated by the cold temperature of the air combined with the increased humidity of the environment. In addition, mildew can begin due to the strong destruction of the bush pests.
The characteristic oily bloom on the leaves of the plant, the reverse side of which is covered with white powdery spots, is a clear sign of the disease of the grapes mildew. As the disease progresses, the area of the lesion increases, and necrosis on the leaf tissues increases, which contributes to the fall of the green cover.
As a preventive measure against diseases and pests of grapes, potash-phosphorus supplements can be carried out, which enhance the immune system of the plant. In addition, it is recommended in the regions with high humidity and low summer temperatures to grow grape varieties that are highly resistant to mildew. If you notice the first signs of the disease, it is necessary to spray the affected areas. following drugs:
Processing must be carried out in three stages:
- We process the shrub with any of the above mentioned preparations even before bud break.
- Re-process the culture before flowering.
- The final stage is the processing while setting the grapes.
The bushes of grapes affected by oidium are noticeably lagging behind, a whitish bloom forms on their foliage, and the foliage itself acquires a slightly curly shape. Apical shoots are affected approximately in the middle of summer, after which all young ovaries fall off, and those inflorescences that have not yet had time to start, die off.
Experienced gardeners recommend stabbing the plant, tying young shoots, and periodic cleaning of weeds that grow under a vine bunch as a disease prevention. In addition, it will be useful to spray the culture with drugs:
Unfortunately, to cure the plant that struck the disease is almost impossible. In the prophylactic purposes can be staving, rationing of the crop and the removal of excess foliage. All these methods contribute to the fact that around the bushes will be increased airing area and greatly reduce the risk of disease. If you notice the first signs of defeat grape brushes gray mold, they must be cut without regret and thrown away from any garden crops, so that the infection does not spread throughout the site. After removing the affected parts and thoroughly inspecting the entire vineyard, we process the bushes with a solution of baking soda.
With this pathology of the plant, chlorophyll formation stops, as a result of which the process of photosynthesis stops. The leaves of the diseased plant become yellow or completely discolored. Only the veins remain green. All small leaves and new shoots stop growing. With the intensive development of the disease on the vine, fruit ovaries fall off, and all the top shoots dry out.
Berries do not have time to ripen to the beginning of autumn and the bush because of this may die. Chlorosis most actively spreads in areas with lime soil, however, the lime content in the soil has no direct value. Negative impact has carbon dioxide, which is formed over lime areas and falls together with sediments into the ground.
Carbonate chlorosis is considered the most common disease of this type. It appears with an alkaline reaction on the soil. Plants that are in such areas are iron deficient. A low level of acidity prevents sufficient dissolution of iron in the substrate, and iron ions, which still have time to form, immediately bind particles of potassium carbonate. Without a certain amount of free iron in the soil, chlorophyll will not be able to be synthesized. Chlorosis affects mainly those vineyards that grow on solid ground, where water and air do not penetrate the soil very well. Provocateur chlorosis is also a shortage of certain minerals.
The most complete treatment can only be obtained after examining a soil sample in the laboratory. Iron deficiency can be replenished by iron sulfate or salts that contain iron. The treatment is carried out at intervals of 6-7 days, it is necessary to systematically increase the conditions in which the vineyard grows: if there is stagnation of water under the bushes, it is necessary to drain. It is also recommended to plant cereals or legumes before planting grapes in areas with heavy ground.
This disease is known as "downy mildew". It causes great damage to the farm, because it affects all parts of the grapes. The causative agent of the disease is the mushroom Plasmopar Viticola - an obligate parasite that is activated in conditions of high humidity.
How to recognize mildew and treat the bush in a timely manner? The main symptom of the disease is an oily spot on the leaves. Foci of round shape are formed on the tops of young and aging leaves in the summer. Sizes of spots are arbitrary.
At increased humidity, the back side of the leaf is covered with a white mealy coating (dew effect). While progressing, mildew disease captures the healthy part of the leaf. Dead leaves fall.
How to treat mildew disease? Preparations for the processing of grapes are used such:
- Chloroxide copper.
- Bordeaux mixture.
For preventive purposes, spraying is carried out three times. The period of the first treatment is when the branches of the bush expand to 20 cm in length. The second time protection against mildew is created before the flowering of the bush, the third - as the grapes are enlarged to the size of peas.
Oidium - powdery mildew on grapes
Among the problems of growing grape bushes 2 place is occupied by oidium. It is provoked by the fungus Uncinula necator Burril. A characteristic feature of this grape disease is grayish-white dust, which is found on underdeveloped shoots with wavy leaves. If in June only the leaves are covered, then by the end of the summer the disease affects the tops of the branches. Formed inflorescences die off, the berries dry out.
Activities for the treatment of grapes from oidium disease are the following:
- Airing bushes.
- Pasony and garter belt.
- Pruning infected shoots.
For prevention, the vineyard is treated with fungicides (Tiovit, Strobe, Topaz, Horus).
Grape disease anthracnose
AT The causative agent of the disease is an infectious mycelium mushroom, which in one season forms up to 30 generations of spores. Grape bush anthracnose strikes completely with berries. The cause of the disease is increased spring humidity. At first, in adverse weather, grapes react with brown spots in a dark border on leaves that are prone to merging. Then the problem areas die off.
Indented patches of brown color are seen in the internodes. Vine cracks and dries. Inflorescences under the influence of the fungus also turn brown and dry out. Sick fruits are covered with brownish specks with dark contours.
The areas affected by anthracnose are recommended to be cut and burned. Next spring, when new branches reach 5–10 cm, they should be sprayed with Bordeaux liquid 3%. On the eve of flowering and 10 days after it, spraying is made repeatedly with a less concentrated preparation - 1%, or used for the treatment of Polykh, Arceride, Polycarbacin, Teldor.
Rot gray and white
Infectious disease usually affects the grapes in wet conditions, and ripe berries are involved in the development of rot. Characteristic features of gray and white rot are:
- Change the color of the grapes.
- Cracking fruit.
- The appearance of white / gray plaque.
There is no specific treatment for gray rot. Prevent the disease will help a few activities:
- Growing varieties with increased resistance to gray rot.
- Formation of bushes on high boles.
- Timely work on rarefaction of vegetation for good ventilation.
- Pruning affected clusters at the first sign of illness.
- Ensuring the bushes optimal load.
- Irrigation with a solution of baking soda (100 g per 10 liters of water).
- Treatment of greens with a solution of copper sulfate (10 g per 10 liters of tap bleach water).
Bacterial cancer is an incurable disease of grapes
It is impossible to save the grapes from bacterial cancer due to the lack of effective treatments. Prevention of bacterial cancer is reduced to a careful examination of the rhizome of the bush during planting. The roots should not be suspicious bumpy formations - the so-called tumors. When it is detected at the site of the diseased plant, it is removed immediately. The vacated section is allowed to walk for several years.
The danger of bacterial cancer is a long latency period. The disease develops gradually from the moment of penetration of cancer cells into the plant during the cultivation of the earth and spreads to all parts of the vine. Curved surfaces on the vine become noticeable in conditions of elevated temperatures and soil moisture. First, bacterial cancer worsens grape yield. Subsequently, the bush weakens and dies.
How to protect grapes from pests
Harm grapes cause not only disease. Insects, birds and weeds make a significant contribution to spoiling the vine. Если виноградник облюбовали такие вредители, как белянка, моль, гусеницы совки и разная чешуекрылая живность, защиту растению обеспечивают препаратом Проклэйм или Вертимек ТМ «Сингента».
Однократное применение средства Проклэйм гарантирует сохранность куста от 3-х поколений насекомых. Insecticide detrimental effect on adults and larvae of any lepidoptera and enhances the effect of other drugs used to inhibit lungwort and thrips. Proclay destroys the digestive system pests, causing them to die.
Bees, wasps and birds are dangerous for the ripe grapes. Especially the garden needs protection from wasps. In the summer, these insects benefit the vineyard, protecting it from other pests - they simply eat them. With the arrival of autumn, the neighborhood of os becomes an unfavorable factor causing damage to the vineyard.
Chemical products in the period of ripening of clusters are not suitable for the fight against insects, since toxic substances are absorbed by the pulp of the berries. Mechanical destruction of pests will be ineffective if there is a huge colony of winged grape lovers nearby. The best way to fight wasps is to arrange a smoke bomb or spray insecticides onto a nest with sleeping insects. In the morning, an empty nest needs to be destroyed.
Simple traps for luring wasps are made from plastic bottles. At the bottom of the dishes pour a little soap solution, and smear the walls with honey or jam. Also, bottles can be filled with unusable jam, diluted with water. Insects will stick in sticky masses, sink and die.
Special protective nets help to save ripening grapes from the encroachments of winged insects and birds. Adaptations put on bunches.
Safe ways to preserve grapes
Herbal decoctions have long been used for the recovery of grape bushes. Unlike chemicals, herbal remedies are used without reference to the ripening of berries. One of the available protective equipment is a decoction of onion peel. Prepare it by 20-minute boiling half a bucket of husk in water. Broth insist 24 hours, bring the resulting volume to a bucket and stir 1 tbsp. l honey The solution is filtered and sprayed on the grapes.
For the preparation of protective infusions using dried dry grass with the addition of lactic acid, decoction of celandine, St. John's wort, comfrey. Vineyard treatment with phytomedicines is often carried out, since they are easily washed off with dew and rain.
At first glance, the care of grapes may seem time consuming. However, it is the regular care of plants that allows you to collect the highest yields. Fungicides are inexpensive, do not cause difficulties in the application. Ignoring the processing of grapes, the owner runs the risk of ruining the bushes and being left without a delicious dessert.
Dangerous quarantine pest of grapes. Damages only grapes. There are two forms of phylloxera - leaf and root. Externally, the leaf phylloxera has a short proboscis. The adult female is a pear-shaped, greenish-brown, up to 1.2 mm long. Root phylloxera has a longer proboscis, oval-shaped, yellow-brown, up to 1 mm long.
Leaf form causes galls on the leaves. Hibernates in the egg stage on a trunk or perennial sleeves. In the spring, during the blooming of the kidneys, the larvae leave the eggs. They crawl onto the upper side of young leaves, pierce the leaf tissue with a proboscis and suck the juice. Under the action of saliva phylloxera leaf tissue grows, bulges down in the form of a pocket. On the upper side, the gall opens with a gap surrounded by hairs. In the galle the larva lives and eats. Having reached the maximum age, the larva turns into a female. There, in the gall, the female lays up to 500 eggs and dies. The larvae of the new generation crawl out of the gall, populating the other young leaves and each forming its own gall. Over the summer several generations of aphids develop.
Among the larvae of leaf-shaped phylloxera of each generation, individuals with an elongated proboscis appear. These larvae go to the soil and settle on the roots of grapes.
The root form of phylloxera develops respectively on the roots. In the place of feeding of the larvae, galls are formed - small on young roots, large - on large roots. The gall gradually decays, a part of the root system dies, the vine weakens and eventually dies. Young larvae overwinter mainly, rarely the root phylloxera eggs on the roots of grapes. In spring, when the soil warms up to + 13 ° C, the larvae resume feeding, grow, turn into adult females, and the latter also lay eggs and do not fertilize. On the roots of phylloxera develops in 4-5 generations.
In the second half of summer, larvae with wing buds appear among the individuals of the root form. They develop in winged individuals. Such aphids come to the surface, lay 1-3 eggs and die. Out of these eggs, females and males will eventually develop. After mating with males, females will lay on the bark each one egg. These eggs remain to hibernate.
Phylloxera is resettled with planting material. Larvae (vagrants) settle in the vineyard, which come out of the soil throughout the summer, crawl away and penetrate to the roots of neighboring bushes through cracks in the soil. Winged forms and larvae can be settled with the help of wind and water, with soil-cultivating tools, on people's shoes.
Control measures. Laying a vineyard with unaffected planting material is the main event. It was the garden amateur breeders, violating the ban on the import of planting material from areas infected with phylloxera, brought it in his time in the Rostov region.
Disinfection of unfamiliar planting material should be carried out by immersion of the cubs in hot water: first for 5 minutes at a temperature of + 40 ° C, then for 7 minutes at a temperature of + 52 ° C.
Conduct a systematic examination of the bushes for phylloxera infection, immediately destroy the plantings infected with phylloxera, with the grapes returning to this place no earlier than 7 years later. Phylloxera detection and measures taken should be reported to the plant quarantine inspection.
The butterfly in wingspan reaches 12-13 mm. The front wings are brownish, with a pattern of light transverse stripes, alternating with greenish-gray and yellowish spots. The adult caterpillar is greenish-yellow, with a reddish head, up to 12 mm long.
Pupae overwinter in a cocoon under peeling bark, in the cracks of stakes, in dry leaves. With the advent of inflorescences of grapes from pupae, butterflies fly out. Females lay their eggs on the buds. Caterpillars eat out buds, flowers, young ovaries, weaving them with cobwebs. Damaged flowers and buds dry out and fall off. After finishing their feeding, the caterpillars pupate in a white cocoon among damaged inflorescences, brushes of berries under bent leaves. Butterflies of the second generation fly in June. Females lay eggs one by one on unripe berries. Caterpillars eat the pulp of berries or gnaw holes on their surface. Damaged berries turn brown, some of them shrivel fall. Sometimes the whole bunch dries up. Third-generation moth caterpillars eat ripe berries. One caterpillar can damage up to 9 berries. The pupae of the third generation moths overwinter.
Control measures. A spraying of kusuov with karbofos is used during the period of isolation of buds in inflorescences against caterpillars of the first generation moth. Spraying with Sumi-Alpha or Kinmiks against second-generation caterpillars - 10-14 days after the start of the flight of butterflies. It is recommended to clean shtambov from dead bark in the fall and incineration cleaning.
Two year old moth
Damages inflorescences, young ovaries and ripening berries.
The wingspan of a butterfly is 14-18 mm. The front wings are yellowish, with a wide black transverse stripe.
Developed in two generations. Pupae overwinter in the cobwebby cocoon under the lagged bark of the trunk and perennial sleeves, in the crevices of the props. Butterflies of the wintering generation fly out in the period of isolation of inflorescences. Females lay eggs on inflorescences one by one. The caterpillars eat out the buds and flowers, entangle them with dense cobwebs. In the arachnoid nest caterpillars pupate. Second-generation butterflies lay eggs on berries. Caterpillars eat away the contents of the berries. One caterpillar damages up to 15 berries. Damaged berries are often affected by gray mold. Fattered caterpillars of the second generation moths go for wintering.
Control measures. The same, as against a vortex moth.
Causes galls on the leaves. Mite microscopically small, elongated, with two pairs of legs. During the growing season, the tick develops in 5-7 generations. Females overwinter under kidney scales. Ticks exit wintering places when the first leaves appear. Ticks settle on them and suck juice. Flat bulges (galls) form on the damaged leaves from above. From the bottom of the gall there is a hairy felt patina. In the autumn, the mites leave the Gauls and go to the wintering grounds.
Control measures. Spraying of the bushes in the period of swelling and blooming of the kidneys with neoron or apollo, during the period of isolation of the buds - with the same preparation of mi or karbofos.
Mildew (downy mildew) grape
The most dangerous disease of grapes: affects all green parts of the plant. On the leaves appear light yellow-green oily spots. On the underside of the leaf, in the wet weather, a white powdery mildew is created. Spores (conidia) infect other leaves and bushes. Later, the diseased tissue turns brown and dries out. The same plaque appears on the buds, flowers, young berries, nevyzrevshih shoots. Berries at early defeat shrivel, dry and fall off. When infecting more developed berries, the diseased tissue becomes brown, and the flesh is brown and watery. After some time, these berries dry up, remaining hanging. The fungus can dry out whole hands.
The fungus overwinters in the form of spores (oospores) in the affected tissue of fallen leaves. In spring, at a temperature on the soil surface of + 10 ° C and prolonged (more than three days) moistening, spores germinate, forming macro conidia. When falling on the wet surface of a leaf, macro conidia crack. Zoospores that come out of them penetrate the leaf tissue through the stomata and form a mycelium in the intercellular channels. From infection to the first signs of the disease, 4-12 days pass.
In wet weather, a powdery mildew of conidiospores is formed on the affected tissue, which produce secondary infection of plants. Favorable conditions for the development of the disease are moderate temperatures and the presence of droplets of rain, dew or fog. In dry weather, the formation of conidiospores and their infection of plants does not occur.
Control measures. Creating conditions for good ventilation and lighting of plants: avoid planting grapes in lowlands, leave wide rows between plantings, prevent thick planting, timely tie up the vines to supports, carry out debris, pickling, chasing, destroy weeds and plant residues.
Spraying of bushes with 1% Bordeaux liquid from three to seven times, depending on weather conditions. In dry years, three sprays are sufficient: first, shortly before flowering, second, shortly after flowering, and third, at the beginning of the softening of the berries. During the rainy years, favorable for the development of the fungus, the grapes are sprayed for the first time during the emergence of 4-5 leaves on the shoots, the second time - before flowering, the next - at intervals of 8-10 days.
Bordeaux mixture may be replaced by copper oxide, polychrome, or oxychal.
Oidium (powdery mildew)
The fungus infects all the green parts of the plant. On the leaves, shoots and inflorescences, the disease manifests itself in the form of a grayish-powdery spider web. Sick leaves dry up prematurely. Affected berries dry or crack, and rot in wet weather.
Mushroom mycelium overwinters in infected buds or on shoots. In the spring on the mycelium conidiospores are formed, which are easily carried by the wind and infect the green parts of the bush. The formation of conidiospores and their infection of plants continues throughout the entire growing season. Warm and wet weather is favorable for the development of the disease, dry and hot - unfavorable.
Control measures. Collection and destruction of dry clusters and fallen leaves in the fall. Cutting and destruction of the affected shoots. Thinning thickened landings. Timely green operations: debris, pasynkovaniya and chasing vines.
Spraying of bushes is carried out at the first signs of colloidal sulfur. This treatment can be combined with spraying against mildew by adding colloidal sulfur to the Bordeaux mixture. In addition, it is possible to dust plants with ground sulfur before flowering, after flowering, and, if necessary, another 1-3 times at intervals of 12 to 15 days.
Together, sulfur against oidium is successfully used topaz, azocene, and foundation.
The selection of resistant varieties is important.
In non-infectious chlorosis, the leaf plate of the grapes first changes its dark green color to light green. Then the leaves turn yellow and only the leaf veins and a small amount of tissue next to them remain green. Subsequently, the affected sheet dies off.
Not only leaves, but the entire plant as a whole, suffer from non-infectious chlorosis. The vine slows down its development, the point of growth of the entire shrub dies off, the ovaries fall off. In addition, there is a high risk that diseased shrubs may not survive the winter.
The following varieties are most susceptible to non-infectious chlorosis: Agat Donskoy, Italy, Magarach, Isabella, Pinot (black and blanc), Aligote. The least susceptible are Shasla (white and pink), Saint Laurent, Muscatel, Pinot Meunier.
With non-infectious chlorosis, the leaf turns yellow, but its veins remain green.
There can be several causes of non-infectious chlorosis.
- adverse climatic conditions. Non-infectious chlorosis often occurs due to cold rainy weather,
- inappropriate soil. Grapes can get sick if it grows in airtight clayey soil. Also important is the alkalinity of the soil. If the level is high enough (pH8 and above), then your grapes will be difficult to extract iron from the soil, necessary for the synthesis of green pigment - chlorophyll, and absorb it, so the leaves will begin to change color and turn yellow.
Treatment of non-infectious chlorosis
If you notice signs of non-infectious chlorosis on the grapes, then take the following actions:
- Check the alkalinity of the soil. If the rates are high, then the introduction of ammonium sulphate salts into the soil at a rate of 100–150 g per bush, as well as the use of an solution of ferrous sulfate will help you. To make it, dissolve 50 g of powder in 10 liters of water. Spray the bush for 5 days. Remember that this should be done in the spring before the bud breaks or in the autumn after the foliage has subsided. If you need an urgent treatment of the plant, the concentration of the solution should be weaker, otherwise you risk burning the leaves. In this case, dissolve 2–5 g of powder in 10 liters of water. Spray the plant for 5 days until the leaves regain their color. This procedure is desirable to do in the evening.
- In the spring, it is useful to spray the preparations containing iron in chelate (capable of conversion) form, such as Brexil Fe, iron chelate, etc.
- Also, as a foliar nutrition, preparations enriched with macronutrients such as phosphorus and potassium (for a solution of superphosphate, dilute 20 g of a bucket in 10 liters of water, for a solution of potassium sulfate - 5 g of powder per 10 liters of water), as well as zinc, boron containing trace elements. , manganese and magnesium (for example, a solution of Margana sulphate - 4 g per 10 l). They should be used simultaneously with chelate preparations.
- Improve soil quality. For this effective measure is a deep digging area. In this case, you remove from the soil excess moisture due to its evaporation. And if on your site heavy soil, then regularly spend its loosening and do not forget to bring compost.
In infectious chlorosis (otherwise this disease is called yellow mosaic), grape leaves are covered with yellow spots, including the veins. The infestation of grapes with this ailment entails such consequences as the pea (chopping) of the berries, the death of the leaves, and the decrease in frost resistance. In Russia, infectious chlorosis is more common in regions with warm climates and mild winters.
In infectious chlorosis, the veins in the leaves of the grapes also turn yellow.
The causes of this disease may be as follows:
- The presence of nematodes. Worms and their larvae are carriers of this disease. Nematodes settle on the stems, leaves and roots of a plant, causing the plant to become ill. Consider that a humid environment is most favorable for nematodes.
- Use infected scion.
Unfortunately, the grapes affected by the yellow mosaic cannot be treated. If you have noticed the symptoms of this disease on your grapes, then it is best to uproot and burn the bush, and treat the earth with a solution of iron sulphate (50 g per 10 l of water).
Curling of grape leaves can be caused by both infection and adverse conditions.
- Infection. When infected grape leaves curl and dry. Fruits become less sweet, decrease in size, and also change their color. All this inevitably leads to a decrease in the quality and quantity of the crop. Симптомы, как правило, проявляются в конце августа, а если кустарник орошается, то в начале июня. Листья начинают скручиваться вовнутрь. В первую очередь это происходит с листьями, расположенными у основания куста. Ближе к верхушке листья скручиваются наружу. Также меняется их цвет: у сортов белого винограда листья становятся жёлтыми, у сортов цветного — красными, прожилки же остаются зелёными. Infection usually occurs through a graft, so try to use healthy inoculum. Unfortunately, such a shrub can not be treated. You will need to immediately destroy it to avoid infection of other plants.
- Unfavourable conditions. These include insufficient moisture, hot dry weather and lack of nutrients (potassium, nitrogen, sulfur, manganese). Control measures. This problem can be solved by providing the grapes with regular irrigation, as well as adding potassium sulfate (about 50 g per shrub), ammonium nitrate (30 g per 10 l of water) or ammonium sulfate (40 g per 1 m 2) to the soil.
If the twisting of the leaves began from the top of the bush, then this is a sign of the lack of useful substances, twisting at the base indicates the presence of infection.
Curling of grape leaves can be caused by both diseases and adverse conditions.
Anthracnose is manifested in the form of small brown eruptions on the leaves and shoots, which then merge into a large spot. The stain dries out and breaks, so the grape leaves seem to be holed. This disease undermines the vital activity of the whole shrub because it loses its foliage and cannot produce the necessary substances with it.
If you are treating in spring, keep in mind that this can be done until the shoots reach a length of 10 cm.
How to treat anthracnose:
- Bordeaux liquid 3 is suitable for processing, after a week 1. It is possible to spray bushes only in the morning or in the evening.
- After using Bordeaux liquid twice, use Previkur, Ordan, or Fundazol every 10 days for spraying.
- In the autumn after pruning or spring before bud break, the shrub can be treated with DNOC solution (2.2%).
With anthracnose, the leaf is covered with flat brown spots.
Symptoms of black spot appear on different parts of the plant in May-June, by the end of flowering, in the form of small black spots or chlorotic (gray-yellow) spots with a black center. Spots are formed along the leaf veins, gradually increasing in size. The spots have a bright rim of light shade. The affected leaf becomes wavy to the touch, and then holes appear on it. Subsequently, the leaves fall off.
On shoots, especially annuals, the disease manifests itself as follows. First, at the nodes within the first 6-7 internodes, dark dots or strokes appear. Then the dots increase and merge into large spots, which, in turn, crawl and crack along the middle. The wood of the lower internodes becomes grayish-white. If the disease struck the trunk deep enough, then it can dry out. Also, with black spot frost resistance is reduced, and in winter the bush can freeze.
Black spot - one of the most dangerous diseases of grapes, leading to his death
As for the berries, the symptoms appear after ripening. Berries are first brown, then purple, and then fall. If you do not start treatment in time, then in 5-6 years the shrub will die.
At the onset of the disease, the symptoms of black spot can be confused with tick lesion of phyllocopthis. To distinguish them, examine the leaf against the light and through a magnifying glass: if the leaf veins converge in one place, and this spot has a yellow middle, then the grapes are struck with mites.
The disease is caused by a fungus that penetrates the plant tissue and spreads in it, causing cell death. Spores of the fungus are transferred by drops of water.
The most resistant to black spot varieties Kabirne-Sauvignon, Riesling, Relay, Taurida. The least stable are Italy, Aligote, Muscat White, Cardinal, Chardonnay.
The treatment of grapes for this disease is long lasting:
- When the first signs appear, remove the affected parts of the shrub and burn it.
- Treat the shrub with a solution of sulfur or sulfur-containing preparations (Ditan, Poliram). This should be done in the period between the swelling of the kidneys and the growth of shoots up to 10 cm.
- Shrub can also be treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid.
- In the autumn period after the fall of the foliage, process the grapes with DNOC.
Manifested in the form of rashes of olive color on the leaves, the rashes are subsequently covered with a velvety patina. The leaves shrink and die, the ovary crumbles, and the fruits, if they mature, become of different sizes, crack and become covered with the same spots. As a treatment, you can use the following tools:
- A solution of colloidal sulfur (100 g of powder per 10 liters of water). Spray the bush in the morning or in the evening when the sun is the least active, otherwise the leaves can get burned.
- Fundazol (10 g per 10 l of water) or Kuproskat in the same dosage.
Three treatments are usually enough, but if the disease is neglected, then their number may increase to five. Fertilizing grapes with ammonium nitrate (10 g of powder per 10 liters of water) or ammonium sulfate (10 g per 10 liters of water) is also useful.
When scab leaves are covered with bloom, which then darkens
Oidium, or powdery mildew, manifests itself in the form of a gray-white plaque that covers the leaves on both sides, as well as inflorescences and berry clusters. The inflorescences fall, and the berries shrink and burst so that they become visible bones. The plant is less resistant to frost and can die in the winter.
It is noted that a strong smell of rotten fish emanates from diseased plants.
The reason for appearance: oidium is a fungal disease, the fungus lives on the surface of a bush and its spores are easily carried by the wind, infecting plants. The incubation period of an olezny takes no more than two weeks.
The defeat of the grapes by the oidium significantly reduces the quality of the fruit and can lead to the destruction of the shrub
The most susceptible to powdery mildew is Chardonnay, Cabernet-Sauvignon, Rkatsiteli. Relatively resistant varieties Aligote, Merlot, Semillon.
- Mealy dew is successfully treated with sulfur (colloid can be used). To prepare the solution, dilute 100 g of the powder in 10 liters of water. Remember that spraying is necessary in the morning or in the evening when the sun is the least active, otherwise you risk burning the leaves. The temperature at the time of the procedure should be at least +20 o C. Repeat the treatment of the shrub every 10–20 days until recovery.
- Also, gardeners often use an infusion of humus to combat this disease. It is done this way: one third of a metropolitan barrel is filled with humus, temperatures of +25 o C are poured with water, covered with sacking and drawn for 6 days, stirring regularly. The resulting solution must be filtered, and then spray them with bushes in cloudy weather or in the evening. Re-treatment is carried out in a week.
- If you want to use a special preparation, treat your affected shrub with Fundazol, Topaz, Tiovit, and prepare it according to the instructions. As a rule, double processing with an interval of a week is sufficient. But remember that during the ripening of the berries you cannot use chemicals, so at this time spray the bushes with a solution of potassium permanganate to contain the disease.
Video: oidium in the vineyard
Mildew, or downy mildew, is one of the most common and dangerous fungal diseases of grapes. The main symptom is the formation of oily yellow spots, which then become brown, on the outside of the leaf and white deposits on the inside, but in dry weather it may not appear. Infected inflorescences turn yellow and curl, and then dry up. Berries are becoming smaller.
With mildew lesions, grape leaves are covered with a white coating from the inside
One of the most effective treatments for mildew is a mixture of Bordeaux mixture and lime mortar. The concentration of copper sulfate depends on the time of spraying: before disclosure of the kidneys, 3% composition is used, in the later period - 1%. The solution is prepared as follows: in 5 liters of hot water, dilute 100 (300) g of copper sulphate, dilute 75 g of quicklime and 10 liters of water in a separate container, and then mix both, strain and process the shrub, paying particular attention to the reverse side of the leaves. If it rains soon after the procedure, repeat the treatment.
Kuprozan, Antracol, Kuproksat will be suitable from mildew preparations. Keep in mind that with sufficient efficiency, they can also slow down the development of shrubs.
Black leg - a fungal disease. The grapes may suffer if you plant it in contaminated soil. Manifested by the fact that the escape from below blackens and looks soiled, it can soften. Young plantings are hardest hit. The disease passes from the stem to other parts of the plant, and the leaves of the grapes may begin to turn yellow and the stalk rot.
When a black leg appears on the stem, the stem looks like a soil stained
Treatment: the fungus multiplies well in a humid environment, so adjust the amount of watering, and also dry the soil (re-dig, burn and sprinkle with ashes), pour the plants with a solution with Energen 10 g per 10 l of water or Hom 4 g per 10 l of water.
Pest damage to grapes
Grapes suffer not only from infectious and fungal diseases, but also from a variety of parasites. In order to successfully fight them, it is necessary to know the symptoms of a shrub lesion by a particular pest.
Wasps are common grape pests, and it is possible that you will find berries bitten on your shrub. Typically, these insects do not eat up the end of the berry, and, spoiling one, go on to the next, so even a small amount of pests can spoil a significant part of the crop.
Os attracts a sweet smell coming from ripening grapes
Measures to combat wasps are as follows:
- Destruction wasp nest. This event is best carried out in low-light conditions (late in the evening, at night or early in the morning), when insects are the least active. Spray the nest with a poisonous substance (Dichlorvos, Raptor, Raid), after 20–30 minutes carefully put it in a closing container and burn it. Note that for this event you need to wear tight, completely covering the body with clothes and protect your face, for example, with a net.
- Use protective pouches. If there is no nest nearby, then grape brushes can be protected by putting special bags of fabric in a small cell on them. The advantage of this method is that you will save the grapes from birds as well. A minus is a big laboriousness of a measure, therefore this method is better to apply on small sites with a small amount of grapes.
- Making poison. Next to the bushes you can arrange flat dishes with diluted honey or jam mixed with Regent or Aktar (per 1 g of product 1 g of peparate).
There are several types of mites that can damage your grapes. Tick infestation causes slow growth and development of the shrub, destruction of young shoots, reduction in the quality and quantity (by 20–50%) of the crop.
The main signs of this pest include the presence of red, silvery and pale yellow spots on the outer side of the leaves, and the appearance of membranes between the leaf and the stem is also possible.
The presence of small yellow pea on the leaves of plants indicates the appearance of a spider mite
- If you find signs of spider mites on your bush, first tear off all the affected leaves and, if possible, remove the diseased bark, and then burn it.
- It is also necessary to process the shrub with special preparations. In the spring, when buds are dissolved, use DNOC (for 1–2 l 50–100 g of powder is taken, mixed thoroughly and diluted in 10 l of water), and at the end of this period - with a 0.02% acaricide preparation (Apollo, Masai). Spray every 14 days until the parasites are completely eliminated, alternating the preparations, because the tick can get used to them.
Felt grape mite
If you notice on the outside of the grape leaves swelling and bulges of red color, and on the inside - brown spots, this indicates that a felt mite has started on your shrub.
The main symptom of infection of grapes with a felt mite is the presence of red convex rashes.
- Remove affected leaves and shoots from the bush
- Treat the grapes with the following preparations, paying particular attention to the inside of the leaf if you use them in summer:
- Colloidal sulfur solution. It is used for the growth of shoots by 5 cm and at a temperature not lower than 20s. To prepare the solution, dilute 100 g of the powder in 10 liters of water. Note that this solution only affects adult insects, so spend another treatment with a special preparation (Apollo, Neoron, Fitover) in the fall after leaf fall.
- Special preparations (Apollo, Neoron, Fitover), prepared according to the instructions. But keep in mind that using them during fruit ripening is undesirable.
- DNOC. It is used in spring (before bud break) or in autumn (after leaf fall). Prepared in the usual way.
Rodents often use grape bushes as food in the winter period. In the greatest danger are plantings located near forests or fields where sunflower or grain crops were grown in summer.
You may find that your grapes are up to date with mice, after freeing the bush from winter shelter. If such a situation occurs, the first thing to do is to assess the scale of the damage.
The most frequently infected mice are relatively young shoots, rather than perennial stumps and sleeves.
Damaged individual fruit vines. Remove the shoots with fully gnawed bark and eaten eyes, but try to leave the buds at the very base of such a shoot. Later on, new shoots will grow from these buds, and you will be able to form new fruit vines on them.
Damaged parts of the fruit of the vine. Trim the most damaged areas, including those where there are no entire buds left. Keep in mind that even a short-pruned vine can be used to grow a crop, and to form a vine on newly grown shoots.
This can occur for several reasons.
- Features grade. When ripe, some varieties of grapes can crumble (Ukrainka, Rusbol). Therefore, carefully review the information regarding the variety that you are going to plant.
- The lack of trace elements in the soil. If the soil is poor in nutrients, then this problem can be eliminated with the help of ash - deposit it in the soil at the time of weeding or in spring when digging. In August, you will be helped by the use of ash solution of 2 kg per 10 liters, infused from 1 to 7 days. 1 time in 10 days before autumn leaf fall.
If you notice cracks in your grapes that go along the trunk, then you should not worry, because it is connected with the natural process of wood growth.
To avoid infection, do the following:
- Treat the wounds with a three- or five-percent solution of copper sulfate.
- If you live in a cold climate, for the winter, warm the shrubs with sacking.
This can happen with a lack of nitrogen. If you encounter this problem, feed the shrub with ammonium nitrate at the rate of 30 g per 10 l of water.
Grape leaves can dry with a lack of nitrogen
Drying or rotting of the vine
Such a situation may arise when the shrub is released from the winter shelter. In this case, take a square of roofing material (1 side - 50 cm), cut a hole in the center with a diameter of 10 cm. Dig up the shoots to the heel roots, cover them with roofing material and pour them with a solution with a growth stimulator.
Calendar protect grapes from damage
To protect the grapes from damage can be on the following calendar:
- The first treatment: carried out in the spring, until the shoots have reached 10 cm in length. Preparations: Tiovit Jet (100 g) + Abiga Peak (40 ml) + 10 l of water. This mixture will enrich the grapes with sulfur and copper, which are the most effective means in the fight against pests.
- The second treatment: carried out 3 weeks after the first. Thanks to them, you fully protect the grapes from anthracnose.
- The third treatment: carried out immediately before flowering. Mix preparations of Cabrio Top (30 g) and Aktar (4 g) in 10 liters of water. Duration - about two weeks.
- The fourth treatment: try not to delay, because the ovary is not protected and is an easy prey for pests and infections. It is necessary to process the grapes with a solution of Cabrio Top with the same dosage.
- Fifth processing: carried out in 10-12 days, the berries are the size of peas. Make this mixture: Ridomil Gold (30 g) + Topsin M (20 g) + Aktara (4 g) + 10 liters of water.
- Sixth treatment: carried out after 14 days. Necessary solution: Thanos (4 g) + Topaz (4 ml) + 10 l of water. These preparations do not leave marks on the berries.
Summing up, we can say that, although the treatment of grapes will require a lot of effort from you, with proper implementation of all therapeutic measures and timely preventive treatment you have every chance to save your shrub and ensure its healthy development.
Causes and prevention of diseases
For the occurrence of the disease in plants, three factors must converge:
- susceptible to the causative agent culture (or variety),
- the presence of the disease agent (causative agent) itself,
- благоприятная для развития заболевания внешняя среда.
Исходя из этого, рассмотрим общие рекомендации по профилактике болезней винограда на участке:
- При выборе саженца предпочтение отдают сортам, устойчивым к наиболее распространенным в регионе выращивания болезням.
- To grow a healthy plant, you must first create favorable conditions for it (temperature, moisture, light, nutrition, soil quality, etc.).
- To reduce the number of pathogens helps cleaning last year's foliage, loosening the soil, preventive spraying of grapes. All activities should be carried out dosed and in a timely manner, depending on the phase of plant development. The indiscriminate use of chemicals will not only not cure the grapes, but may also form an immunity to pests.
- Attentive gardener regulates the number of preventive sprays depending on the weather. For example, with high humidity increases the risk of fungal diseases. Conversely, in the hot dry summer the probability of their appearance is low, and therefore, additional processing is not necessary.
- In general, diseases and pests are more likely to infect a weakened plant. A sapling with a strong immunity, growing in favorable conditions and receiving enough nutrients, is often able to cope with the parasite on its own.
Phytopathology scholars divide the diseases of grapes and other plants, depending on the causes, into two groups: infectious and non-infectious. In a separate category can be distinguished lesions caused by pests - insects, mites, etc.
Infectious diseases are caused by various pathogens, such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, etc. Their common feature is the ability to pass from one plant to another. The main diseases of the vine belong to this group.
Non-communicable diseases are caused by adverse growing conditions. These include, for example, solar and frost burns, mechanical damage from hail or wind, chlorosis from a lack of batteries, etc.
Next, we consider in more detail the infectious diseases of grapes and the methods of their treatment, and also give a brief description of the most dangerous pests of culture.
How to determine the type of lesion
As a brief description of grape diseases, each of them has its own symptoms. At the same time, similar lesions can be caused by various pathogens. For the correct diagnosis, it is necessary to monitor the complex of symptoms in the dynamics of their manifestation.
For timely control of diseases and pests, it is necessary to constantly monitor plantings: examine the condition of the shoots and leaves. On the site gardener is always useful magnifying glass.
When conducting diagnostics, the following factors should be considered:
- susceptibility of the planted variety to a particular disease,
- the prevalence of the disease in the region
- weather conditions conducive to or not the development of the disease,
- plant development phase
- experience of past years of cultivation.
Any disease is easier to prevent than to fight it. The main method of treating lesions of grapes is prevention and proper care. Of great importance is the choice of landing site, ensuring good ventilation and lighting, pruning and molding, the mandatory removal of all plant residues, adequate nutrition and hydration. Thoughtless use of chemicals on a weakened plant can harm, not help.
It affects mainly berries, rarely leaves, young shoots, petioles. On the berries, usually before they begin to ripen, dents of brown are formed, gradually increasing in size. The surface of the berries becomes rough with a lot of dark bumps - fruit bodies of the fungus. Affected berries dry up, remaining on the brush. On the leaves - brown spots, with a dark border, large.
Mushroom overwinters on affected leaves and berries. In spring, it forms fruit bodies with spores. Sprouting spores and infecting them with plants is possible only if there are water droplets. High humidity contributes to the development of the disease.
Control measures. Cleaning and destruction of fallen leaves. Digging the soil in autumn or early spring. Spraying of bushes with 1% Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride, polychrome at the first signs of the disease. If necessary, spraying is repeated 1-2 times.
Cercosporosis (green mold)
The disease mainly affects the leaves, occasionally shoots and berries. Yellowish spots appear on the upper side of the leaves, and then brown spots, and velvety sporulation spots form on the bottom of the leaf.
Mushroom overwinters on fallen leaves. The maximum development of the disease is observed during the ripening and harvesting of berries.
Control measures. Collection and destruction of fallen leaves. Spraying with 1% Bordeaux liquid during leaf opening and, if necessary, before the berries begin to ripen.
The fungus infects the leaves, shoots and grapes. Leaves form small grayish spots with a dark brown border. The affected tissue dies off and falls out. On the berries, the spots are brownish, depressed, with a purple border. Affected berries stop growing and fall off. On the shoots, the spots are first brown, then dark. Bark and wood in places of destruction are destroyed, internodes are shortened.
Mushroom mycelium overwinters on affected shoots, on plant debris. In the spring on the affected tissue conidia are formed, infecting the green parts of plants. Rain in the spring favors the development of the disease. Anthracnose develops more intensively in low relief areas and in thickened plantations with poor airing.
Control measures. Cutting and burning of affected shoots. Thinning bushes in order to improve ventilation. Digging the soil with the incorporation of fallen leaves and other plant debris. Spraying the bushes during the formation of 5-6 leaves on the shoots with 1% Bordeaux mixture, copper oxychloride, polychrome or oxychrome. In rainy weather, spraying can be repeated in 10-12 days.
The causative agent of the disease is Koniotrium mushroom. It affects clusters, sometimes it appears on the leaves and shoots. Sick berries turn brown, sometimes become reddish-brown or bluish-brown, shrink and rot. After some time, they dry up, and on their surface there are numerous, knob-sized dark bumps (pycnidia). Spores form in pycnidia. On the shoots, the disease manifests itself in the form of black spots and stripes covered with pycnidia. With a strong development of the disease shoots dry out. The first signs of the disease appear in July, shortly before the ripening of the berries begins.
The fungus overwinters in the affected berries, leaves, shoots in the form of sclerotia (dense plexuses of the mycelium), remaining in them for several years. In favorable for the development of the fungus hot and humid weather, the disease can destroy up to half the crop. Berries with mechanical skin lesions are often infected (shots and insects, hail damage, cracks after rains and sunburns).
Control measures. The collection and destruction of diseased berries and clusters, cutting and destruction of diseased shoots. Timely carrying out green operations on the bushes of grapes.
Spraying the bushes with 3% Bordeaux liquid: the first is when the first signs of the disease appear (approximately mid-July), the next one or two - with an interval of 10-12 days.