Such a plant as a pear in the subject matter of planting is the only and unique in the Rosaceae family. First appeared in European countries. In order for the tree to receive the conditions for survival and to grow in favorable conditions, it is necessary: abundant number of light rays, fertile soil, black soil and enough moisture.
Pear plant representation
The plant itself is a huge tree with a length of about 31 m or it can be a huge shrub with a length of less than 31 m. Bark mostly wrinkled and uneven, the trunk can reach 75 cm in diameter. The tree of a plant differs from other representatives of its improved density and strength. The branches of the pear are completely covered with leaves. The leaves at the same time represent a pointed oval. Leaf color mostly dark green, and the leaves themselves are in most cases shiny.
In the spring huge flowers appear on the trees, mostly pink and white. They can grow either one by one or assembled into several pieces in an inflorescence. The legs on which these flowers are located, reach a length of almost 6 centimeters. The crown of the flower is the same color as the flower itself, namely pink or white. At the same time there are stamens, the number of which does not exceed 50 units, and the pistil itself includes 5 columns. Flowers grow until the first leaves appear on the pear.
Fruitthat germinate after some time, varied in taste, shape and smell. Typically, these criteria are directly related to what kind of fruit. Pear fruit itself has a round, oblong and slightly elongated shape. Seeds that are contained in the pear are covered with brown skin.
This tree blooms mainly in the spring. Whereinflowering period can reach 2 weeks. For the most part, this period starts from the last days of April and lasts until the middle or end of May. And at the end of summer and the beginning of autumn, and more precisely at the end of August and the beginning of autumn, ripe and tasty fruits appear. However, in the first years of the tree’s life, there are no fruits, because the tree begins to bear fruit only after 2–7 years of life. This kind of pear, as usual, lives for 49 years and has about 45 years of fruit with ripe fruits.
You also need to pay attention to the tree began to bear fruit, you need to plant next to at least two varieties of pears, which at the same time can pollinate each other. It can be a variety of varieties of pears, but varieties such as Granddaughter, Theme, Fields - one of the most famous. And secondly, these varieties of pears perfectly take root in winter weather. Also, these fruits are some of the most delicious, their fruits can be consumed fresh.
Any kind of fruit feels great in the territories of countries such as Asia or Europe. The tree requires good soil for nutrients and high quality black soil. Very often, wild trees can be found on higher ground. Air drainage is well developed in such areas.
Therefore, it is often necessary to plant and propagate pears in elevated areas, otherwise poor ventilation in low areas and stagnation of cold air leads to poor and sometimes stale fruit. Most pear species are well susceptible to severe frost or drought. However, in winter, branches and wood often freeze on a pear. Severe frost in the spring or a sharp temperature drop can adversely affect the buds of flowers - they can be damaged.
Description of the fetus
Fruits of any kind are very popular among consumers all over the world. After all, every fruit contains a huge amount of vitamins. In addition, the fruit has a very pleasant and sweet taste. Pear contains vitamins A, C, B1, as well as a huge amount of fiber, pectin, etc. The taste of any pear variety will be sweet, unlike apples. All this is due to the fact that pears contain the most minimal amount of sugar and acids.
Often, pears are used to make sweet juice, tasty wine or other desserts. Dry fruits are used for making various decoctions. At the same time, juices that are made from pears are mostly sweet, due to the fact that pears contain a huge amount of vitamins and microelements. Also, pears, mostly dry, often make compote. Such compote will help to quench thirst much better than compotes from other fruits or berries.
Pear fruit application
- Any pear variety is perfectly used both in industry and national economy. Seeds of such fruits are usually dried for use as a coffee substitute. Also, the tree itself has received a huge development in the national economy. Thanks to durable wood pear is in great demand among artists who use it as a stand for canvas. In addition, the tree is actively used due to the excellent strength in the production of furniture - sofas, chairs or beds. It is also used in the manufacture of musical instruments: guitar, violin.
- Due to the content of vitamin C and glycoside in the leaves, pear is of paramount importance in medicine, where it is used as a treatment for skin diseases.
- At a certain time when flowering occurs, a huge amount of nectar can be collected. Only one hectare of such a garden can bring any owner up to 40 kg of honey, which will be a very good harvest for any owner.
Flowering rateThe quality and quantity of fruits directly depend on how correctly the shape of the branches is formed. Branches need to be pruned often to give them the correct shape. After you have planted a tree, be it a small or already mature pear, you must constantly make sure that the crown of the tree is correctly formed.
In total there are several ways to form the desired shape of the branches of the tree:
- first and the most important way - this is cutting, which is carried out to reduce the length of the shoots and branches. Due to this, new shoots are created and appear, which will be more fruitful, as well as buds. Shoots are pruned mainly after one year of tree life. Thanks to cutting and reducing the number of branches, a huge amount of light is created for the crown, which leads to the formation of more buds,
- by bending down the branches, you can improve the growth of the tree. In order for a pear tree to bear fruit well, its branches bend a few degrees from the trunk.
At the moment when it is time to transplant a seedling, you must first pay attention to the skeleton of the crown of the tree.
Those varieties that are most often in demand in the national economy, have evolved from the most ordinary wild plants.
In ancient times The Greeks selected the most delicious and huge fruits, then to produce cultivation. And already in Russia, the fruits came from Byzantium. At first, trees were grown only near monasteries. Total species that were brought to Russia, there were about 16 pieces. However, some time later, Peter I ordered that more and more new types of this fruit would enter the country every year. The fact is that Peter I very much liked the fruits that were delivered at that time, and he became their big fan.
Also pear juice has gained immense popularity. during the reign of Peter I.
Today, there are about 6000 different types of pears. Any type and variety has a different size and taste of the fruit, as well as different length and strength of the tree.
Characteristics of common pear
The plant is a tall tree, growing up to 30 meters, or a large shrub. The bark of the tree is uneven, wrinkled, the trunk is even, reaching a diameter of 70 centimeters. Pear wood is distinguished by its density and strength. Branches are densely covered with leaves. The leaves, fixed on long petioles, have an oval, pointed shape. Leaves have a brilliant appearance, dark green color becomes matte below.
In the spring large flowers appear on the tree, white or pink. They can grow one by one, or gather in florets of several pieces. The legs on which they are located can be up to 5 centimeters long. The corolla is white or pink, the number of stamens does not exceed 50 pieces, the pistil consists of 5 columns. Flowers grow on a tree before the leaves appear.
The size, shape, taste of the fruit can be varied, it all depends on the type of plant. The pear has an oblong, slightly elongated, rounded shape. The seeds contained in the pear cover the brown skin. The tree begins to bloom in spring, the flowering period takes about 2 weeks. Often, this period begins at the end of April and lasts until mid-May. In late August, early September, you can collect ripe fruit. Reaching the age of 3 to 8 years, the tree begins to bear fruit. Common pear grows and bears fruit up to 50 years.
It is worth paying attention that pears begin to bear fruit, you need to plant a number of 2 varieties that mutually pollinate. "Fields", "Granddaughter", "Hanging", "Theme" - the most famous varieties that are resistant to winter conditions. In addition, the fruits of these varieties can be consumed fresh, they have excellent taste properties.
The tree grows well in Europe and Asia. Common pear can be found in the wild in the southern territory of Russia, the Caucasus, Ukraine and Belarus. Soils rich in nutrients and trace elements, black soil, are suitable for tree growth. The tree can often be found in elevated areas where good air drainage occurs.
Poor ventilation and stagnation of cold air in the lowlands, bad for the quality of the pear. The tree loves well-moistened soil, but stagnation and excess moisture adversely affects its growth and development. For the most part, the pear is resistant to drought and frost. In winter, branches and wood can freeze at very low temperatures. With a sharp change in temperature or frost in the spring, flower buds can be damaged.
Pear tree fruit
Fruits are popular because of their content of vitamins and minerals, as well as good and pleasant taste. Tannins, organic acids, pectin, fiber, vitamins A, B1, C, is not a complete list of substances contained in pears. The taste of pear fruit is sweeter than apples, this is due to the minimum amount of acids and sugar contained in the fruit.
Juice, desserts and wine are made from pears. Dry fruits are used for cooking decoctions. Pear juice includes a huge number of vitamins and trace elements. Fresh fruits are well absorbed, and have a positive effect on the work of the digestive system. Compote of dry pear helps to cope with thirst.
The fruits of pear are widespread in the food industry. Dried seeds are used as a coffee substitute. Fruit tree has become widespread in the branches of the economy. Pear wood is sought after by artists. It has high strength and good aesthetic qualities, it is perfectly processed and polished. Wood is used in the manufacture of furniture, musical instruments, children's goods, and stationery.
The high content of vitamin C, flavonoids, arbutin glycoside in leaves, increases the value of wood. In medicine, pear leaves are used to prevent and treat skin diseases.
During the flowering period, it is possible to collect a large volume of nectar from pear flowers. A hectare of garden will bring up to 30 kilograms of honey, which is very important for beekeeping. In addition, the tree is used for gardening gardens, courtyards, parks, squares, because of its decorative qualities.
Formation of the crown of pear
Plant growth, quantity and quality of fruits, depend on whether the shape of the branches is correctly formed. It should be systematically pruned. Immediately after planting pears, it is worth taking care of the formation of the crown. There are two ways to form the shape of the branches of a tree. The first method is pruning, reducing the length of the shoots and thinning the branches. With the help of a shortened shoot, new buds and shoots are formed. The shoots of 1 year of life are shortened by making an incision near the bud. Reducing the number of branches contributes to the entry of a large amount of light to the crown, because of this, the number of buds increases.
By bending the branches, the growth of the pear is improved. To improve the fruiting large branches deviate from the trunk by 40 degrees. Small branches should be perpendicularly located to the trunk, their ends should be slightly above the beginning of the main branches. For bending, use wire to not spoil the bark, apply electrical tape, winding it in places of attachment.
At the time of transplanting seedlings can form the skeleton of the crown. If the seedlings do not have branches, an incision should be made above the bud at 70 centimeters from the ground. For the formation of the first tier of branches used the remaining buds, which contribute to the development of lateral shoots.
If the size of pears has greatly decreased, and the shoots began to grow less than 15 centimeters per year, rejuvenating pruning is used for old trees. Obsolete branches are removed, while skeletal and semi-skeletal branches are trimmed. Shoots 1 year of life cut off, leaving two buds. This procedure leads to the formation of well-developed shoots. Some part of these shoots will replace the main branches, the other will be used for fruiting. Branches that make the crown very thick, cut. The tree requires good watering, nutrition, protection from pests, after making activities related to anti-aging pruning.
Varieties used in agriculture, have spread their wild plants. The ancient Greeks selected the sweetest and largest fruit of the pear, thus cultivation occurred. In Russia, the pear was brought from Byzantium. First, the fruit tree was grown on the territory of the gardens of the monasteries. In the Tsar's Garden of the Romanovs there were 16 kinds of trees. By decree of Peter 1, each year the country imported new varieties of pears, to increase the number of varieties of fruit trees. In our time there are about 5,000 species of fruit trees. Each type of common pear has a special taste, color, shape and size.
Description of the tree pear: fruit, crown and flowering
Common pear - a tall tree, reaching up to 25 m or a large shrub. The trunk is straight, up to 80 cm in diameter, with wrinkled bark. The wood is durable, hard. The krone is dense, plentifully branching.
The leaves are round or oval, shortly pointed, leathery, shiny, finely toothed, dark green above, dull below. Kept on long petioles. On a photo of leaves of a pear their features are well looked through.
The flowers are large, white or pink, solitary or collected in inflorescences of 6-12 pieces. Located on pedicels up to 5 cm in length. Formed from last year's fruit buds. They have white or pink corolla, 20-50 stamens, pistil with 5 columns. Appear before leafing.
Fruits are oblong, roundish, pear-shaped. The size, shape, color and taste can be different, depending on the variety. Inside the fruit contains seeds covered with brown skin. Flowering pear begins in late April, lasts until mid-May, lasts for 10-15 days. Fruits ripen in August-September. Pear begins to bear fruit at the age of 3-8 years.
The lifespan of a tree is 25-50 years.
When describing a pear tree, it should be noted that all varieties of this crop are self-productive, therefore, for normal fruiting, the proximity of two mutually-pollinating varieties is required. The most popular are winter hardy varieties "Sibiryachka", "Fields", "Granddaughter", "Hanging", "Theme". Their fruits have a good taste, suitable for fresh consumption.
Photos of the pear tree and some of its varieties can be seen in the gallery after this article.
Common pear tree is widespread in Eastern Europe and Western Asia. In the wild form is found in the middle and southern strip of Russia, in the Caucasus, Ukraine, Belarus.
For this plant are suitable black, gray forest and loamy soils, structural and fertile in composition. The tree often settles on hills and slopes with good air drainage.
The growth of common pear in the lowlands and closed trenches, where cold air stagnates, negatively affects its growth and fruiting.
Pear fruit trees are moisture-loving, but do not tolerate stagnant water in the soil and excessive waterlogging. Many varieties are drought-resistant and frost-resistant. However, in harsh winters, wood and skeletal branches can freeze slightly. Flower buds are damaged by rapid temperature changes and spring frosts.
The fruits are used in the food industry and in traditional medicine. Dried pear seeds are used as a coffee substitute.
Used plant and in the economy. Данная особь подходит в качестве подвоя при выращивании разных сортов груш.
Древесина ценится за свою прочность и красивый рисунок, хорошо поддается обработке и полировке. Goes to the manufacture of furniture, musical instruments, rulers, toys and other products. It is very popular with artists and sculptors.
Common pear leaves
Common pear leaves are rich in vitamin C, flavonoids, glycoside arbutin. They are a medical drug prescribed to fight fungal diseases and dermatitis.
The flowers of this plant secrete a lot of nectar. Up to 25 kg of honey and a large amount of pollen can be collected from one hectare of pear orchard.
The ordinary pear is a valuable ornamental tree, therefore it is planted in private plots, in parks, squares, along roads.
The photo of the pear below shows this:
A bit of history
Cultivars of this plant are descended from wild pear trees. They began to cultivate an individual in ancient Greece by selecting large and slug-bearing species. On the territory of Russia pear fruit trees were imported from Byzantium. Initially, the plant was bred in the monastery gardens. In the garden of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich Romanov, there were about 16 varieties of pears. Peter the Great tried to increase the variety of varieties in Russia, therefore, according to his decree, new saplings were imported from Western Europe every year. To date, there are more than 5,000 varieties of this culture, differing in taste, color, fruit ripening, shape and size.
History of origin
There is no reliable data on the history of the appearance of this amazing variety. It was first described in 1979, but the cultivation of a pear with an unusual, color-changing skin was traced back to ancient Saxony (modern Germany), which makes it possible to judge the origin of the variety. Also, a large amount of Trout harvest was collected at that time in Argentina, Australia, several US states.
Variety Trout is considered one of the most beautiful and fragrant, although very rarely featured in recipes. The most widespread pear in America, where today is the main delicacy and decoration of the dessert table. Its unusual name - Trout (sometimes Trout can be found) - comes from the color of the fruit, which changes as it ripens, and is comparable to the color of rainbow trout.
The main reason for the rare cultivation of pears in our gardens is its poor survival rate and vulnerability to many diseases. Trout is a very productive variety, but whimsical and sensitive to external factors. Even during flowering, trees can be affected by diseases such as black cancer, a bacterial burnt, and in wet summer conditions (fogs, rains) with scab and other fungal diseases. Also, this variety is very fond of aphids, which requires multiple treatments of the crown with special preparations.
Young seedlings take a long time to take root, so the place for the pear should be immediately chosen correctly in order to avoid subsequent transplantation. It is equally important that the soil is fertile, well drained, moderately moist, as drying or over-wetting of the soil adversely affects the growth of pear trees. If it is possible to create optimal conditions, the first harvest can be tried already in the second year after planting, and full fruition is expected for 3-4 years.
This pear variety withstands rather low temperatures, but it is better to cover the trees for the winter.
Trout blossoms before other pears. Its flowers are very delicate, white, with a slight pinkish tinge and sweet aroma that attracts many insects. For the harvest is very important, as the variety needs pollination. By the time of ripening Trout refers to autumn varieties. Fruits reach full maturity by mid or late October.
Characteristics of the tree and fruit
Trout pear tree reaches an average height (5–6 m). The crown is sprawling, formed from a set of thin, upward directed branches. The trunk and shoots are gray-brown, the bark is smooth, without bulges and roughness. The leaves are shiny, dark green, with a glossy surface and smooth edges.
The fruits are not very large (120–150 g), but they are beautiful, even, have the correct pear-shaped shape and a short, slightly inclined fruit stem. The skin is smooth and very thin, for which the variety is highly valued. In summer, it is green, as it ripens, it turns yellow and is covered with a carmine blush on one side. Fully ripened fruit has a golden-yellow skin, completely covered with red dots that look like freckles.
But a beautiful presentation is not the only advantage of a pear. Its white, fine-grained flesh is also distinguished by exceptional taste - in full maturity it is sweet, with a slight
sour and slightly sour cinnamon.
Harvesting and storage
Trout pear taken to shoot before it fully matured. If you rip the fruits still hard and leave them to ripen in a dry cool place at a temperature of + 5 ... 8 ° C, then the shelf life can be extended to 6 months. This method is used for commercial purposes. Fully ripened fruits taken from a tree at the end of October (the season of natural ripening of Trout) can be stored for no more than 1 month, and in room conditions for 2 weeks.
Video "Rules care pear"
From this long video you will learn how to properly care for your pear.
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Briefly about the history of pear
- Pear seeds were found in ancient Swiss and Italian settlements.
- Sources of ancient Chinese writing, dating from the second millennium BC, contain the first mention of the tasty fruit. So, pear already 3 thousand years.
- Figures with ripe pears are found in the frescoes that have survived after the fire of Pompeii.
- In ancient Rome and Persia, they knew pears well and knew how to plant them.
- Already in Homer's “Odyssey” there are lines about tasty fruits. And some written sources referred to the Peloponnese Peninsula as a pear land.
It is interesting that in the twelfth century there was a scientific opinion about the harm that raw pears cause to humans. Therefore, they are not recommended to eat without heat treatment. Italian doctors claimed: "Raw pears contribute to heaviness in the stomach, and boiled ones heal it."
Raw pears began to eat only in the sixteenth century. And the “queen of fruits” received its present tenderness and juiciness thanks to the efforts of breeders from Belgium and France.
According to Vavilov, domestication of pears began in the East Asian lands.
A medieval prisoner was betrayed to death, forcing him to eat a large number of raw gameboats.
Description and history of the appearance of pear varieties Lada
Let's start with a description of the variety. The shoots of a pear are rather long, of medium thickness, slightly curved, in a section - rounded, of a brown tint. Leaves are dark green in color, small in size. The length of the stem is 1.5–2.5 cm, and the stipules fall off in the early stages.
Cupped flowers. There are 5–7 of them in each inflorescence. The fruits are not particularly large, weighing 100-110 g, obovate. Their surface is smooth and shiny. The ripened pear has a yellow color with a pinkish tinge on the sides.. Subcutaneous points are practically invisible. The peduncle of Lada is short, there is no funnel. The flesh is whitish yellow in color, grainy, medium density and not particularly juicy. The taste of the fruit is sour-sweet without a pronounced flavor.
Variety Lada brought academicians Chizhov and Potapov. This pear was the result of crossing Olga and Forest Beauty varieties. In 1993, the Lada pear variety was entered into the State Register in the Central, Central Black Earth and Middle Volga regions. The most famous Lada acquired in the Moscow region.
Advantages and disadvantages
Lada has many advantages, which include:
- skoroplodnost - pear for 2-4 years from the time of budding brings a full harvest,
- winter hardiness - even young trees that were planted in the fall are able to winter without shelter,
- high resistance to most diseases - Lada resistant to scab and bacterial burn.
Of the minuses of this variety note:
- short period of fruit storage - only 55–65 days at 0 ° C,
- low transportability - pears do not have good resistance to transportation.
When planting seedlings of no small importance is the time of year. It is best to plant a pear in the spring. In the autumn, this should not be done, because of the likely weak formation of roots in the autumn-winter season.
Lada is not particularly demanding when choosing a soil, so it can grow almost anywhere. However, to increase the yield is better to use for planting soil with drainage or chernozem.
The selected area is pre-digged and fertilizers are applied: compost, potash salt and superphosphate.
Dimensions of the recess for the seedling should be larger than the size of the rhizome, so that the tree is freely located during planting. In most cases, the depth is 70 cm and the diameter is 100 cm.
When immersed, the plants in the pit control that the root collar necessarily looks 5–7 cm, and the roots gently straighten and sprinkle with the ground where the seedling is grown. At the last stage of planting, the soil near the pear is well compacted and watered, and a small amount of manure or humus is poured around the plant. At the end of all the actions, the tree trunk is carefully tied to the dug cola.
The pear is often watered only during periods of prolonged drought, because very frequent irrigation damages the root system and provokes all sorts of diseases of this variety. The plant may even die completely due to an overabundance of moisture. Watering is carried out abundantly, 2-3 buckets of water under one tree. Also, pear moisture is needed at the beginning of summer when fruits are poured.
In early spring, the tree is fed with nitrogenous fertilizers. This is done when the snow melts and dry weather sets.
Dried and damaged branches that appear after the winter time, cut off. The stem of a tree trunk is usually treated with red lead or lime.
In the autumn, mineral fertilizers are used. They are added in October. In winter, the pear also needs proper care. It is necessary to ensure that when warming sleet does not stick to the branches of the tree. The weight of the snow layer can easily break thin branches. Stamps do not cover, because the pear has a high frost resistance.
Pruning pears Lada carried out twice a year: in spring and autumn. Unnecessary twigs are cut, very long ones make shorter pruners with a sharp sheath, so as not to cause a lot of damage to the fruit plant. Then the cut sites are treated with garden putty.
Productivity in an adult Lada tree
Terms of ripening and harvesting
Lada is a skoropplodny grade of the early period of maturing. With proper care and regular pruning, fruits appear for 3-4 years after planting. The first pears are harvested in early August, and the main harvest comes in the second half of this month. An adult tree brings about 50 kg of fruit annually.
Pears are firmly attached to the stem and fall off only when fully ripe. Due to this, it is possible to harvest in mid-September, when the pear fruit will become amber-golden color and make a blush.
The storage conditions for pears are as follows: a darkened room, a positive temperature of 1–4 ° C, humidity - at least 85% and good ventilation. Fruits gently put in plastic boxes or wooden boxes. Spread the fruit in the selected container layers, which are separated with thin clean paper or dry straw. Do not create more than two layers.
Fruits of Lada pears are stored for 2–2.5 months. In addition, pears can be kept in the sand. When laying in wooden boxes, layers of fruit are sprinkled with sand. Thus, the fruits will be able to hold out until November.
Protection of an adult tree from diseases and pests
Lada has good resistance to scab and bacterial burn. But it is impossible to exclude the probability of infection with these diseases, as well as other diseases and insect pests.
Pest control begin before the period of sap flow. To do this, in one bucket of water 700 g of urea is dissolved and the stem and ground are treated around the pear.
Collected Lada pears, ready to eat and store
This event destroys all the pests that successfully endured the winter cold and frost on the plant.
But if you treat the pear with this solution later, then the swelling kidneys will burn.
To avoid diseases such as scab, bacterial burn, fruit rot, powdery mildew and rust should follow certain rules namely:
- Spray the tree three times in a period from the start of bud breakage to the ripening of all fruits, regardless of the presence of the disease.
- Remove dead foliage on time and remove weeds.
- Prevent excessive aridity or excessive moisture content in the soil.
The pests of this variety are: gall mite, pear sucker, aphid, moth and tstern beetle.
Basic measures for pest control:
- The most effective here are the planned processing of special solutions against parasites.
- The destruction of weeds is mandatory, as they are carriers of various pests.
- Regular and careful observation of the appearance of the trunk, branches and leaves on the pear.
Despite the fact that the variety was bred relatively recently, Lada has already become widespread in most Russian regions.
Such a popularity of this type of pear is promoted by its ability to take root in areas with low and changeable temperatures, unpretentiousness to care, and significant yield indicators. Since Lada belongs to the early ripening varieties, it is not necessary to wait long for the moment to enjoy the tasty and juicy fruits.
Pear in Russia
Another epic tales contain lines about pears. Domostroy specifies in detail how to care for these fruit trees. In the Caucasus, were born a variety of varieties, where they came from China. Pears arrived to Kievan Rus by ships from Byzantium.
In the nineteenth century, a large collection of pear trees was in the Nikitsky garden. From here different varieties moved to Europe.
However, the tree itself received the name from the word "kureshi". So the Kurds called the fruit queen. Apparently, in Russia, Oriental merchants initially sold sweet fruits. So they renamed Rusich kureshi into a pear.
In different languages there are names of pears:
- aha - abh.,
- Armoud - Azerbaijan.,
- Tandes - Armenian
- Mskhali - Georgian
- whether - whale.
- pear (wild), dulya (grafted large fruits), poddulya (smaller) - Russian,
- us - japanese
In Latin, the tree was called the pirus - the flame. The crown of a pear resembles flames. From here and fr. poirier - Peir, German. - Birne, Italian. - pen, sp. - pen.
There are varieties that cannot be eaten right away from the tree: tart, hard as stones and unsweetened. All because of the presence of "stone" fibers and "cement" substances. In a suitable place pears ripen and experience transformations. Fibers soften, tannins dissolve and oxidize, completely disappearing. Starch turns into sugar, the number of vitamins increases.
Even in ancient times wild pears grow in the forests, which were previously picked, taken home, and after ripening our ancestors ate. Such beds (in the process of staining) turned yellow, became soft and sweet. To feast on such a wild one, you could bake it on coals. Then astringency left and the fruit acquired an amazing taste and aroma.
Useful properties of pear
- В старину для поддержания здоровья врачеватели делали больным сок или отвар из груш. Они прекрасно утоляли жажду при лихорадке.
- The fruits themselves, juice and decoction of them were used to cure the symptoms of dysentery, gastrointestinal disorders, as a diuretic and anti-edema drug. Heart and kidney diseases also responded to treatment if patients took medicines with pears.
- Today, fruits are prescribed to eat with diets. Broths / jelly help to cope with diarrhea, as they have fixative properties.
- Pear helps with tuberculosis, anemia, bronchitis, diabetes, as an expectorant, antiseptic, anesthetic medication, removes heavy metal salts. The presence of vitamin C in it strengthens the human immune system.
- According to its chemical composition, pear is similar to cowberry and bearberry (contains arbutide glycoside). So it is used for inflammation of the kidneys and urinary tract. Pear compotes improve diuresis and have a beneficial effect on diseased kidneys.
- Staphylococcus, intestinal and dysenteric bacteria are afraid of the juice of wild pears and juice from its unripe fruits. The substances contained in them inhibit the growth of pathogenic microbes, therefore, they are effective in infections of the gastrointestinal tract.
- If you have problems with digestion, you cannot eat pears.
- Eaten on an empty stomach pears will irritate the gastrointestinal mucosa.
- Drinking water after drinking a pear or other liquid can lead to heartburn or diarrhea.
- Some time should pass between heavy meat food and pear dessert (min. 30 min).
- Harmful to these fruits and the elderly (after seventy).
- Those who are treated for stomach ulcers should forget about pears, so as not to cause harm to their health.
Be that as it may, the beneficial qualities of the royal fruit are indisputable and prevail over the harmful ones. Therefore, it is necessary and necessary to buy pears, put them in baking or make perfect desserts with them.
Pear eat, pear feast on. From a pear to make jam, compote, cake or even a cake. Juicy, tasty, sweet, it is unique and desirable. Cook with a pear and be happy.
Gardeners from many countries around the world are looking at the attractive, uniform pears with beautiful light yellow colors with interest. This is what a Chinese pear, which is popularly called Asian, Japanese, Taiwanese, water, sand and even crystal, looks like.
So where does such an attractive fruit originate, you ask? From the name of the breed it becomes clear that China is the birthplace of this fruit plant. The progenitor became Yamanashi variety, the fruits of which were considered unsuitable for human consumption. The firm pulp and excessive tartness of pears did not cause much sympathy among consumers. Thanks to the efforts of Chinese breeders, a new pear variety was bred, incorporating only the best qualities of Yamanashi.
Today, this culture is massively grown in China, Japan, Korea and Israel. Unfortunately, in Russia, the Chinese pear does not take root well, practically does not bear fruit, and often freezes. This problem was solved by local breeders who crossed a Chinese pear with European varieties of fruit crops. As a result of many years of breeding work, more than a hundred hybrids of Chinese pears, which are distinguished by yield, high taste qualities of fruits, excellent frost resistance and different ripening periods, were brought out.
Despite the large number of hybrids of Chinese pear, not all varieties of this unique plant can adapt to the difficult and sometimes very harsh climatic features of our region. The most common varieties grown in many regions of Russia include the following fruit species.
Pear early ripening, the harvest can be harvested in the first half of August. The fruits are fragrant and juicy, despite the relatively small weight (about 155 g). The peel has a beautiful bright green shade with small splashes of gray. This culture is highly appreciated for good winter hardiness and resistance to various fungal and bacterial infections characteristic of pear trees.
Self-pollinating fruit breed characterized by high frost resistance and having strong immunity to fungal diseases. The tree bears fruit early, the first harvest can already be harvested for about 2–3 years after planting the seedling at a permanent place of growth.
Another advantage is self-pollination. However, to increase the yield, it will be good to plant other hybrids of Chinese pear in the garden plot.
Fruits are of medium size, weight ranges from 190 to 300 g. The rind is painted in a beautiful brown-bronze tint. The flesh is firm, but very juicy. With proper storage, the crop will remain until the first decade of December.
Due to its many positive characteristics, the variety Olimpik is considered one of the most popular among gardeners in many countries of the world. Thus, this crop is distinguished by early maturity, early fruiting, good yield and high resistance to temperature extremes. The plant is not afraid of diseases such as scab and powdery mildew.
The average weight of a ripe fruit is 160 g. The peel is painted in a pleasant golden color with small patches of grayish tint.
Appearance and characteristics
The water pear, as this variety is often called, has a large number of advantages in comparison with other fruit varieties. The main advantages include:
- Hybrid varieties quickly adapt to different weather and climatic conditions of growth,
- early maturity
- early and stable fruiting,
- high resistance to bacterial and fungal infections (you only need to fear beetles-tsvetoedov).
Chinese pear attracts the attention of gardeners not only with the above characteristics, but also with amazing taste and attractive appearance of the fruit. The average weight of a ripe fruit can vary from 200 to 300 g.
Depending on the variety, the rind of the fruit is colored bronze, golden, light yellow, greenish yellow, pale greenish and other shades. Almost all varieties have blotches of gray or brownish, for this reason, this culture is often called sandy.
Ripe fruits are very sweet with a slight sourness, while the white color of the flesh is firm and slightly crunchy. Granulation and astringency are absent. Due to the unique taste characteristics, fruits are not only consumed raw, but also used to prepare various desserts, as well as salads, sauces and even side dishes.
Benefits and calories
What are the benefits of Chinese pear? As it turned out, this fruit crop can be called a unique source of vitamins, minerals, various micro and macro elements, as well as water and fiber. Due to the high content of vitamin C, fruits are indispensable for strengthening the immune system and resisting viral respiratory infections. Calcium, which is also present in large quantities, has a beneficial effect on the condition of teeth, nails and hair.
Constant eating of Chinese pear fruit improves the digestive system, helps to normalize the activity of the cardiovascular system, and also prevents the formation of malignant tumors.
At the same time, due to the low calorie content (about 140 kcal), pears are included in the diet menu for people who are overweight.