A castor is a plant that adorns the gardens of bold gardeners, as well as gardeners who love beauty, but who do not know the properties of castor. The castor is almost no maintenance, and diseases and pests bypass it - it is enough to plant the seedlings at the place of honor in the garden and watch the growth of the northern palm tree.
Castor bean has been popular since ancient times - the plant is mentioned in ancient Greek and Roman literature, and castor seeds were found in the tombs of the pharaohs. Even in the Bible do not forget to mention castor.
A castor is a really dangerous decoration for a garden. The fact is that all parts of the plant contain ricin, and the most toxic seeds are castor bean. Milkweeds are generally poisonous, but castor oil is just a champion among euphorbia in toxicity. There is no sensible antidote for ricin, and the signs of poisoning are similar to the common cold. When all organs begin to fail, doctors usually throw up their hands. Many artworks describe the process of poisoning with ricin, the ground castor seeds. Enough to watch the final seasons of the series "Breaking Bad" to make sure that with ricin jokes are bad. And the castor oil is your personal ricin in the garden.
Castor oil can be harmful to health, therefore precautions should be taken. Photo: Benary
By the way, castor oil is made from castor seeds.
If you have the courage and small children do not run around your garden, then it is worth growing up the casting oil while taking precautions: rubber gloves for all agrotechnical activities, working from the leeward side, washing hands and face thoroughly after caring for the castor oil.
Botanical Castor Bean Description
Botanists consider Eastern and Northern Africa to be the homeland of the castor bean - it is in Africa that castor beetle forms impassable thickets. In fact, for Africans, castor oil is the same weed as horticulture is for us.
In culture, castor oil began to grow from the end of the XVIII century - the British were impressed with the appearance of the plant and brought it to Britain to decorate the gardens. Of course, castor oil does not tolerate frost and prolonged cold, but the British began to grow castor oil as an annual plant.
In our country, castor oil is grown as an annual plant, because the plant does not tolerate frost. Photo: Seedman
Castor oil (lat Ricinus English Castor Oil Plant) is a monotypic genus of the family Euphorbiaceae (Euphorbiaceae). The only species - Castorplant (Ricinus communis) is an oil-bearing, medicinal and ornamental garden plant. Best of all castor oil is grown on fertile, loose, soil, in a sunny and humid place.
The castor bean variety “Cossack”, is most common in our country, due to its powerful structure and height up to 2 m. If you can get foreign grades, you should buy the Gibsonii and Impala varieties with large bronze leaves.
Castor bean flowers from August to autumn frosts.
Growing castor in the garden
Like other thermophilic ornamental plants, castor beans are grown in a seedling way - planting seeds in open ground threatens to damage young plants with return frosts. In the southern regions, you can plant seeds directly in open ground, 2-3 seeds per well.
Castor bean seeds look like beans. Photo: Stephen A. Harris / Department of Plant Sciences, University of Oxford
Castor seeds for seedlings are sown in separate cups or peat pots in March, observing precautions. When the threat of frost has passed, seedlings are planted in a permanent place in the garden.
Before planting, seeds should be soaked in water for a day. The depth of planting castor bean seeds is 3–4 cm. Castor beet seedlings appear in 14-21 days . When the seedlings appear, it is necessary to remove the oily peel from the cotyledon leaves so that the seedlings do not rot.
Seedlings castor bean can not be called - the height of sprouts immediately after germination reaches 5 cm. If there is a need castor bean thinned out, keeping a distance of 5 cm between adjacent plants.
Castor bean seedling grows quickly, so immediately after the appearance of these leaves, seedlings growing in a common container, dive into separate containers. Seedlings are planted in a permanent place after the end of spring frosts. Earthen clod on seedlings must be preserved in order to reduce the survival time of the plant.
Castor bean seedlings are planted in open ground when the threat of frost has passed. Photo: Higgledy Garden
Castor Oil Care simple: abundant watering, weeding and fertilizing with nitrogen mineral fertilizers. If the soil is rich in nutrients, then you can do without any additional feeding.
Designers are advised to plant the castor at a distance of 1-3 meters, so that the beauty of the castor does not turn into a uniform wall. The distance helps to fully reveal the beauty of the northern palm trees. The castor bean looks good against the background of low walls - on a sunny day, large castor leaves give an openwork shadow to nearby objects.
Castor Bean Varieties
Due to the prevalence of castor beetle transformed into several varieties, which differ in the structure and color of leaves and stem. When mutations castor is not lost its toxicity, so the cultivation of all types of castor requires accuracy.
Meet Castor Bean Types:
- Castor bean has a green stem, which reaches a height of 120 cm, large glossy leaves.
- Bourbon castor core, tree grows up to 3 meters high. The plant has a red trunk and large shiny leaves.
- Zanzibar castor core reaches a height of 2 m. The plant is famous for dark red leaves of gigantic sizes.
- Indian castor oil grows to a height of 120 cm: the leaves are dark green, the trunk is black.
- Gibson castor grow to 150 cm tall, the leaves and stem of the plant are dark red.
Castor oil (castor oil) is used in scientific medicine:
- Castor is prescribed for inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract, colitis and fever.
- Outside, castor oil is used to treat ulcers, burns, as well as in the removal of warts.
- In cosmetology, castor oil is used for whitening pigment spots and rapid growth of eyelashes.
- In gynecology, castor oil is used to stimulate labor.
- Infusion of herbs castor bean treats inflammatory diseases of the uterus, and for colds and bronchitis, they rub their breasts.
Castor Oil Leaves Infusion: 10 grams of crushed leaves should be poured into a glass of boiling water and infused for 15 minutes in a boiling water bath, then cool and strain the infusion. It is recommended to take the infusion 3 times a day and 1 tablespoon for endometritis.
Most of the plants from the family of milkweed are poisonous and the castor is one of them; therefore, one must first carefully think about those who have small children and domestic animals. The whole plant is poisonous, and the greatest concentration of poison is found in the seeds of the plant; therefore, they must be stored separately from other seeds and out of the reach of children. Toxic plant, once in the human body, causes the work of the liver, lungs and kidneys to stop.
Castor bean seeds are extremely poisonous.
ATTENTION: Only four seeds are capable of causing death in an adult, and a castor bean seed in a child!
REFERENCE: The collection of fresh seeds should be done, first wearing gloves on his hands.
At the first symptoms of poisoning as vomiting, loss of consciousness or abdominal pain, you should immediately seek medical help and before the arrival of the ambulance wash the stomach of the victim.
Castor Bean Seed Treatment
Treat those seeds that are obtained in an independent way.
Before sowing, those seeds that are obtained during self-harvesting or from other gardeners are mainly treated. The treatment is carried out as a prophylactic measure to prevent plant diseases. Purchased seeds from a specialized store do not require additional processing, because they have already passed it by industrial methods and are already ready for planting.
Castor Bean Seed Preparations
All contact work with the plant should be done, wearing gloves or after contact with the plant, wash hands with soap to avoid poisoning.
The seeds of a beautiful plant are large and have a hard shell that can interfere with germination. For full-fledged plant shoots, some preparation should be carried out in one of the ways before sowing to the ground.
Castor Oil Seed Soaking
- Soak the castor bean seeds in water preheated to thirty degrees. With its periodic substitution as it cools for a day.
- Wrap the seeds in a damp napkin and wrap in cling film and put in a warm place for one day.
- Fine sandpaper to slightly rub the seed on both sides, thus the seed coat will become thinner, which will positively affect its term germination.
- Shallow the seed with a needle on both sides.
Growing castor bean seedlings
For the convenience of growing seedlings and further transshipment to open ground, you will need plastic cups of 500 ml. filled with light ground.
Planting castor seedlings in open ground
- Submerge the seeds in the ground about one centimeter and cover the top of the cup with cling film. At a temperature of +25 shoots will appear about ten days at a lower temperature of about three weeks.
- Periodically shaking off the condensate from the film, and giving a duct to fresh air, seedlings will appear after a certain time.
- Before planting in open ground, fertilize the selected place with humus and compost, and pre-plant the plant with plenty of water and gently transfer it along with the earthy ball, without damaging the tender root system of the plant, into the prepared hole.
IMPORTANT: Sometimes the sticky, oily peel of the seed prevents the development of the leaves. It must be picked up with a sharp object and removed if this is not done the plant may die from rotting.
TIP: For sowing seeds, it is best to use peat pots for later planting in open ground. In this case, it is not necessary to carry out transshipment, and you can land it with the pot without harm to the roots.
Sometimes due to inadequate lighting, seedlings are drawn out and with castor oil can occur as well. Do not get upset, because when you plant in open ground it can be deepened and in the future the plant will get stronger, and the growth of the plant will normalize.
Care of castor in the open field
The plant itself is not capricious, but it responds very well to regular fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. Once a month is enough to accelerate growth, nitrogen fertilizer, before the formation of inflorescences. During the formation of a brush, the inflorescences are fed with fertilizer containing potassium and phosphorus.
Castor bean - unpretentious plant
With good watering, especially on hot days will allow the plant to grow tall with thick branches and large leaves. A castor, grown without additional irrigation, loses an exotic lush look and instead of an average height of three meters will grow in adverse conditions about one and a half meters. The plant is very rarely affected by pests and therefore does not make any special cares.
The average castor height is three meters.
The main care is weeding, watering especially during the flowering period of the plant and the periodic loosening of the soil. Watering is done every four days and for one adult plants need ten liters of water. A tall plant unprotected from a strong wind can be damaged, so as it grows it is worth using a support for the plant.
General recommendations for castor growth consist of:
- The location of the plant in a warm, sunny place.
- Protect covering material from long-term cold snaps.
Castor seed collection
With little time spent on care, the plant will delight with its unusual color from red-green to dark-red tones, depending on the particular species. Best of all, the plant looks in a single planting, and a sunny place will allow the seeds to ripen in boxes similar to hedgehogs and then next year there will be seeds of their own collection. If there is a doubt about the maturation of the seeds, then during the flowering only one inflorescence should be left and before the cold weather to pluck it completely.
Castor bean seeds in boxes
Thus, the seeds in the boxes on the branch of the whole inflorescence will ripen independently already in the premises for about a month, after which you can remove the seeds and store them separately until the next season. If the summer is rainy, the inflorescences often rot from moisture overload, and therefore it is impossible to prepare seeds, but due to its prevalence, they can be purchased at any specialized store.
Castor: planting and care in the open field
The castor is a perennial and evergreen, it belongs to the family Euphorbia. Initially, she grew up in Ethiopia, then appeared in different parts of the world. The plant became decorative, thanks to its branching and sturdiness of the stem, covered with unusually large leaves. Therefore, castor oil is widely used in landscape design. As a result, she fell in love with gardeners, despite the danger of her juice and seeds. But with proper care and attention, it can be a wonderful decoration of the garden or suburban area.
Castor bean is a fast-growing plant from 2 to 10 m in height. Under natural conditions, it grows over several years. When is it grown? in temperate climates, they are planted as annuals, reaching a maximum height of 3 m. The stems and shoots have a ribbed surface and are hollow inside. They are covered with green, pinkish or purple skin with a matte touch of gray.
The leaves grow in turn. Petioles from 20 to 60 cm long, the leaf plate has a width from 30 to 80 cm, dividing into parts. The shape of the segments resembles an oval, the edges are sharp and the lateral part is wavy. Well viewed in the center and sides of the veins of the leaf.
Flowering takes place in the summer. Castor flowers appear on the top of the leaf. In the inflorescences there are female and male buds with a white and cream shade. Inflorescences, due to the large number of stamens, have a fluffy and airy form. Female flowers are separated by three stigmas of red, crimson or yellow.
Boxes of seeds are formed after pollination and covered with spiny skin. In diameter, the fruit is up to 3 cm. It has 3 compartments with large seeds.resembling beans with specks.
Seedlings do to get a powerful plant. Castor beans are grown from seeds. During the season they can be collected in sufficient quantities. For seedlings, seeds should be soaked for a day, and for seeds covered with hard peel, it is slightly damaged with sandpaper or a file. In this case, they will be easier to respond to less moist soil.
Seeds are planted in April. It is better to use ordinary clay pots. Landing is made to a depth of 1.5 to 2.5 cm. The first shoots appear already on the fourth day. Growth is quite fast. On the shoots appear carved leaves. Seedlings are recommended to be stored at a temperature of + 15 ... + 18 degrees Celsius. In the process of growing seedlings add land until the pot is full.
Planting seedlings in open ground
This stage is made when warm nights come and there are no more frosts. The most suitable time is closer to June or early June.
A careful and reverent attitude should be shown to the seedlings, as it has rather tender shoots and very sensitive roots, damaging which plant can not tolerate the transplant. For this you need to pour plenty of water over the ground so that there are no falling earthy lumps.
Next is the preparation of holes for planting seedlings to a depth that allows the plant to enter the soil from the root to the first stalk.
A lump of soil with a seedling is carefully taken from the pot and carefully lowered into the hole. Such an attitude to the plant will increase his chances of taking root in the new conditions.
Also, carefully pour the seedling into the ground and tamp it down a little.
Castor oil: growing from seeds in open ground
When there is no desire to spend time on growing seedlings, then it is possible to plant castor seeds in open ground. There is only one condition - the temperature should not be below +12 0 С, otherwise all works will be in vain.
Before planting the seeds need to be processed the same method as for seedlings.
The depth of planting should not exceed 10 cm, but also should not be left near the surface. Enough 5-8 cm. In one hole you can plant three seeds.
Castor bean is almost unpretentious shrub. Nevertheless, at the initial stage it requires, as well as any living organism, care. Under natural conditions for itself, it does not require care at all, but not in its climate, it needs to pay attention to it, then this plant will be a great decoration of any plot and garden.
The castor is very moisture-loving, so you need to ensure regular watering, especially during flowering. But no less important is watering in other parts of her life: crown formation or fruit formation.
Садоводы рекомендуют при выращивании клещевины производить периодическую подкормку, так как клещевина постоянно отдаёт все силы на свой рост и образование семян.
Before the beginning of flowering, nitrogen fertilizers are introduced, and during flower formation, other potash-phosphate fertilizers are added.
In the early stages of growth the plant will need additional support.
Castor Bean Pests
With all resistance, castor beetles have their own natural pests and diseases. Insects like wireworms. They may also cause damage to shoots: a winter scoop, a sandy slower and a meadow moth. Therefore, it is better to plant seedlings, to make plant care easier.
Meadow bugs and caterpillars can cause harm during the formation of flowers. At first, they can be assembled simply by hand, but later on other methods will be needed:
- Make an infusion of bitter wormwood and spray the plant. Grind the grass and pour one to three with water, then insist for three days.
- Plant a variety of spices: dill, onion, coriander, garlic or parsley.
- For wireworm it is better to apply a solution of potassium permanganate. Pour into the wells when landing.
Description: castor bean varieties and varieties
“Heaven-tree”, “Turkish hemp” and even “castorca” - many names have been invented for ricin by the people (it is also the castor's oil). Africa is considered its homeland, so the culture itself is inevitably associated with exotic and palm trees. In the tropics and subtropics, castor oil is considered a perennial. In our conditions, it is planted in the open ground as an annual shrub, so in the fall, castor-beet roots are often uprooted.
Varieties of plants differ from each other in size and leaf color: they can be purple, red, maroon, bronze, green. Such a “palm tree” grows to an average of 1.5–3 m, sometimes up to 5 m, and in hot countries even up to 10 m.
Popular Castor Bean Varieties:
Tip Look at photos of different varieties of castor bean and choose the one that you like the most.
Planting a plant at the dacha
Planting castor oil in open ground in two ways: seed and seedling. For the plant you need to choose a sunny, not wind-blown place. The soil should be loose, flavored with humus. This will further facilitate the care of the castor.
In open ground, seeds are sown in spring (April-May). In one well with a depth of 10 cm put 2-3 pieces. Planting sprouts plan for the end of spring or early summer, when the threat of frost has passed. By this time, seedlings can have a "growth" up to 1 m.
Plant reproduction: features
Seeds - the only breeding option for exotic castor oil. In the prickly boxes, resembling the "hedgehogs" of chestnuts, they are contained in several pieces. Gather the fruits in the fall. They are dried to easily remove all seeds. Germination lasts up to 5 years. This is useful if you want to postpone the process of breeding ricin on your site.
Attention! If there are heavy rains in the summer, it affects the castor bean fruit, even with good care. They bloom worse than in dry and warm weather, and the seeds in the boxes sometimes rot. In such circumstances, it makes no sense to collect material for further reproduction of the "palm".
Castor seeds germinate poorly, so before planting they can be slightly rubbed with sandpaper (scarification), and then soaked in a growth stimulator. For reliability, it is better to use seedlings. The nuances of its cultivation:
- planting each seed in a separate container
- plentiful watering
- plenty of sunshine
- no need to fertilize.
Diseases and pests castor bean
The plant is considered quite resistant to insect attacks, but still some of them plague ricin. It:
- meadow moths,
- caterpillars winter scoops,
- meadow bugs.
Usually they harm young shoots, so before planting seedlings in the open ground, the wells are watered with potassium permanganate. To protect castor beans from insects, some summer residents practice growing onions, garlic, coriander, peppermint and other spices near it. In the fight against caterpillars, bitter wormwood will help: the grass is crushed, 1/3 fill the bucket with it and fill the tank with water. Insist a few days.
The castorplate can catch these diseases:
- various types of rot,
- powdery mildew
- late blight,
- fungal diseases, etc.
The breeding of the pathogens of these ills prevents Bordeaux mixture and other similar drugs. In order for the plant to hurt less, you should remember about prevention and the importance of proper care.
Landscape Design. Combination with other plants
Castor oil goes well with representatives of its own species. They do not have to be of the same grade. The optimal combination is due not only to aesthetics, but also to the same growing conditions, which greatly facilitates the care of such a site. If you want to create a pictorial composition on your plot, then select mallow, gerbera, day-lily, marigold or monard in a couple of exotic castor beans.
The combination of castor beans with blooming clematis, sweet peas, kobeya looks colorful. If they grow near the net, then ricin can also be planted there by passing its shoots through the cells.
An exotic bush is good as a hedge or a bright accent in single or group plantings. On the flowerbed, along the fence or paths - regardless of the place of residence, the castor beetle constantly collects admiring glances and looks like a real garden queen.
Castor bean planting and care in the open field, the cultivation of seedlings
In the first half of the nineteenth century, the castor from India was brought to Russia for the first time and eventually spread throughout the country. The castor is a thrush family, and its homeland is in tropical latitudes, where it grows by shrubs about ten meters. They loved her in Russia for her unpretentious temper and exotic look in the form of a palm tree.
Castor bean planting and care in the open field
Castor bean planting and care in the open field Growing from seeds When planted on seedlings
Castor bean (Ricinus communis) - is a long-term spreading shrub with a height of 2-10 m. "Ricinus" is translated from Latin as "tick", hence the name "castor". The plant is also called paradise-tree, castor oil, Turkish hemp.
The stem is bare, erect, branched, colored brown, red or bluish-green. Decorative value are the leaves. They are large, palmate-divided (composed of 5-7 lobes), attached on hollow long petioles. The shape of the segments are oval, have a pointed tip and wavy edges. The width of the sheet plate is 30-80 cm.
Castor in landscape design photo
The color of the leaves is green, the veins are pronounced brightly. Blossoming: the dense racemose inflorescences consisting of small whitish florets. After flowering, fruits appear in the form of spherical-oval boxes, covered with spikes.
The diameter of each ball is about 3 cm, they are located between the leaves in several pieces, giving appeal. Seeds of an oval shape have a motley mosaic color: against the background of the main color (gray, red-brown, etc.
) there are patterns of brown, black, pink, pale pink.
Oilseed plant, has medicinal properties, is grown as a garden culture. It belongs to the family Euphorbia and is the only representative of the genus with several forms and varieties.
The homeland castor is considered Africa (namely, Ethiopia), but in the environment can often be found in the subtropics, the tropics of India, Brazil, Argentina, Iran, China.
Castor bean seeds found in the tombs of the kings of Egypt - Egyptians culture has been grown for more than one millennium.
How poisonous castor oil is
Be careful, as all parts of the plant are poisonous (contain alkaloids). Motley seeds categorically can not be eaten. If a child eats about 6 seeds, and an adult - up to 20 pcs., Death is possible.
Signs of poisoning are headache, weakness, nausea, vomiting, stomach discomfort, and the skin may become yellowish. In this case, you should immediately consult a doctor.
All work with the plant spend in gloves, wash your hands thoroughly with soap and water, do not allow children, animals to contact.
How to collect the seeds of a paradise tree
To collect the seeds, it is necessary before the onset of cold weather (in early September) to pick fruits. To dry, place them on paper in a room with good ventilation. In December, you can extract the seeds from the fruit. Seeds germinate for about 4 years, but because of their poisonousness, they should be kept carefully: out of the reach of children and animals.
You can sow directly in open ground or grow seedlings.
When sowing castor oil seedlings
- It is necessary to sow the seeds of a paradise tree for seedlings in March.
- Prepare large buckets with a capacity of about 1 liter and two-thirds fill with loose nutrient soil.
- Plant seeds one by one, deepening by 2-3 cm.
- Pre-treated seeds (if you put the seeds on a damp cloth with growth stimulant solution) will sprout in 3-4 days.
- If the skin covering the cotyledon leaves does not separate on its own, it is necessary to remove it with tweezers so that the seeds do not rot.
How to grow castor oil seeds from seedlings
- Young plants will grow rapidly.
- With the advent of the first sheet, you must put them in a cool place (air temperature is about 15º C). After 1-2 weeks it will be possible to return the plants to a warm, well-lit room.
- Water moderately, draining excess water from the pan, and allowing the soil to dry slightly between waterings.
- Add soil to buckets as you grow.
- It may be necessary to transfer the seedlings of a paradise tree into a larger container. At the time of transplanting in open ground castor can reach a growth of more than 1 m.
- Replant with the onset of constant heat - in late May and early June, pre-hardened seedlings for two weeks.
- Pass over the castor in the prepared pits along with the earthy clod, sprinkle with garden soil, press down the ground a little, pour it.
Care for the castor in the garden
Zanzibar castor in landscape design photo
- In the care of castor oil is unpretentious: you only need a suitable place, regular watering, one-time feeding.
- Choose a sunny warm place for castor.
- The soil is necessary nutritious, friable, black soil is ideal.
- Water the castor oil in a timely manner: every 5 days, pour 10 liters of water under the bush.
- Young plants weed away from weeds, loosen the soil.
- Before flowering, make complex fertilizers for decorative foliage plants.
Kleshcheveina Kazachka photo
Domestic variety. Plant height is 2 m. The stem is colored red-brown. Young leaves have a red-violet tinge interspersed with white, but over time they turn dark green with reddish streaks. The color of the flowers is blood red, the seed pods also have a bright purple color.
Useful properties of castor bean photo
Surprisingly, poisonous seeds are used to make castor oil. The production technology neutralizes toxic substances.
Castor oil is used to treat inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract: colitis, enteritis, constipation.
Externally used for burns, ulcers, warts, wounds, for colds or bronchitis, rub the chest with oil. Can be used as eye drops for inflammation. They also treat gynecological diseases, hemorrhoids, and varicose veins.
Castor oil is widely used in cosmetology for the treatment of skin problems (pigmentation, uneven skin relief, wrinkles, copes well with calluses, corns, dandruff), is used to strengthen hair and eyelashes.
Categorically not recommended for children under 12 years. Other contraindications are individual intolerance, pregnancy, breastfeeding, exacerbation of chronic diseases.
The castor beetle (Ricinus communis) is a medicinal perennial garden and oil plant, related to the euphorbia family, and belongs to the monotypic genus (the genus consists of one species). Many varieties and garden forms of castor bean are quite popular among gardeners.
Homeland of such a plant, probably, is Africa, and if more precisely, then Ethiopia. However, today in the wild it can be found in tropical and subtropical areas around the world, for example: in Iran, Africa, Argentina, China, India and Brazil.
In North Africa, in Egypt, they have been cultivating castor for many hundreds of years, the fact is that the seeds of such a plant were found in the tombs of the kings of Egypt, built in the 4–3 century BC. "Castor" from Latin can be translated as "tick", which gives the name to the plant "castor".
The fact is that apparently its seeds are very similar to mites. Russian gardeners also call this plant castor oil, Turkish hemp and paradise tree.
The castorpot is an ornamental deciduous annual. This sprawling plant in height can reach 2-10 meters. Erect bare branched shoots can be painted in red, brown or greenish-blue color.
The alternate leaf plates with hollow long petioles look very impressive. Large palchatotera sheet plates in their composition include from 5 to 7 blades, while they are painted in green. Thanks to its large, spectacular foliage, the plant has become so popular among gardeners.
But soft flowers, collected in clusters in the form of a brush, have no decorative value. The fruits are boxes, on the surface of which spines are located, they have an oval-spherical shape, and make the bush even more beautiful, located between the leaves.
In these fruits are oval seeds with a variegated mosaic color: brown, pink, light pink against the background of the main color shade, which depends on the variety and can be brown-red, gray or otherwise. This plant is poisonous because it contains the pyridine alkaloid ricin.
Often cultivated undersized varieties of castor with foliage, having a bright color, for example, Zanzibar castor, Gibson variety or Cambodian castor.
Growing castor from seed
Castor oil can only be propagated by seeds, and before sowing they need scarification. According to statistics, out of 10 sown seeds, only 6 or 7 are viable.
To increase the percentage of germination, and scarification is performed, for this purpose, you just need to rub the sandpaper and then immerse it in a growth stimulator solution for 12 hours (Heteroauxin, Appin, etc.). Seeding can be done directly in open ground in the last days of April or in May.
However, it is preferable to grow castor through seedlings, with the seeds being sown in March or the first days of April. For planting it is recommended to use plastic buckets with a volume of 1 l, which should be filled ½ part with garden soil. Sow the seeds one by one, deepening only 20-30 mm.
In that case, if the seeds were scarified, the first seedlings will appear only after three or four days. If the sticky skin, located on the surface of the cotyledon leaves, is not separated by itself, it needs help by using tweezers to do this. Otherwise, rot may develop on the seed.
The appeared seedling grows very actively. At first, the shoot escapes, then the first leaf plate is formed, and it is at this time that the seedlings need to be rearranged to a cool, well-lit place, while keeping in mind that the temperature should not fall below 15 degrees.
As the flower grows, you need to gradually fill the soil in the tank and do it until it becomes full. In that case, if the growth of the plant is very fast, then it will have to be transferred to a larger pot.
By the time it comes time to replant the seedlings in open ground, it may have a height of about 100 centimeters.
What time to land
Castor oil is different in that it is completely inconsequential and undemanding to growing conditions.
If you want it to grow very quickly and have an incredibly spectacular appearance, then for planting you should choose a warm, well-lit place with loose moist soil rich in nutrients. Plants feel best on black soil.
It will be possible to plant seedlings in open ground only after the return frost has passed, and this time, as a rule, falls on the last days of May or the first - June.
How to land
Seedlings should be watered abundantly before embarking. Then the bushes, along with a lump of earth, gently roll over into prepared pits, which are covered with simple garden soil and compacted well. After that, the castor oil should be thoroughly watered.
Sowing castor beans directly into the ground is carried out in the first days of May, and it is necessary to make not very deep holes and put 2 or 3 seeds in them.
Attention! The seeds of this plant are high in toxic substances. So, the lethal dose for a child is 6 seeds, and for an adult person - 20 seeds. When working with castor oil, experts advise that you wear gloves.
Diseases and pests
This plant is highly resistant to harmful insects and diseases.
Если вы произвели посадку семян непосредственно в открытую почву, то тогда молоденькие растеньица могут повредить ложнопроволочники, проволочники, гусеницы лугового мотылька, озимой совки, а также на них может поселиться песчаный медляк. During flowering, young fruits can damage meadow bugs.
Get rid of the tracks does not make much effort. In the event that there are few caterpillars, they can be removed by hand, if there are enough of them, then an infusion of wormwood will come to the rescue.
In order to make it, you need to fill the bucket 1/3 of the crushed wormwood, and then pour so much water into it so that it becomes full. The infusion will be ready in three days, it needs to be drained and you can start processing the bushes.
In the event that you sow spicy greens next to these flowers (for example: dill, coriander, garlic, parsley, mint or onion), then the caterpillars will bypass them. It is very difficult to get rid of the wireworm and the false handler, so it is better to resort to preventive measures before the plant is infected. To do this, during the landing of plants, each well must be shed with a not very strong solution of manganese potassium.
Castor oil can become ill with pink, gray or black rot, cercophorosis, late blight, bacteriosis, phyllosis, mildew and other fungal diseases. Infected bushes are recommended to be treated with Bordeaux liquid or other similar means.
Castor in winter
As it became clear, the plant does not tolerate a cold climate at all and freezes in winter. Therefore, it is planted as an annual. But this is also enough to grow large and beautiful over the season, practically a tree 3-4 m tall, the cultivation of which will give additional advantages in landscape design.
Useful and harmful properties
The plant is quite poisonous (contains ricinin), but it is also very useful because of the content of essential oils. For this reason castor oil is grown even for industrial purposes. The composition of its oils include various useful acids, and also macro-and microelements. Seeds are used in the manufacture of castor oil, they are also used for constipation, colitis and other intestinal diseases. Castor oil has also been used for external problems: wounds, bruises, ulcers, warts and burns. There are examples of the treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins.
Useful properties of this shrub and cosmetology uses:
- scalp and hair care
- pigment bleaching,
- wrinkle smoothing,
- bumps in the skin
- corns and calluses.
There is a downside to this plant, it can be extremely dangerous. Its poisonous properties are so serious that they can be fatal. Only 6 seeds for a child and about 20 adults, enough to lead to such a sad result. Therefore, interacting with the plant you need to be extremely careful, be sure to wash your hands and in no case check for taste.
If the poisoning does happen, what will be indicated by headache, vomiting, stomach cramps, then an urgent need to call a doctor, because the condition will quickly worsen.
In the modern world, castor oil is considered a highly ornamental plant with many garden forms and varieties spread far beyond the limits of the natural zone - up to the UK. However, along with its extraordinary beauty, castor has an important negative quality - toxicity.
All parts of this plant are poisonous, especially seeds that contain ricin in an amount of 0.1% or more. The castor core is so poisonous that it is enough to eat 6 of its berries to cause very serious damage to the body.
Varieties and types
Castor bean (paradise tree) - perennial shrub with wide spreading bushes up to 2 meters high. Shoots may have green, red and brown with a blue patina color, large foliage - green.
Against this background, the flowers look rather inconspicuous and absolutely devoid of decorative value. The fruits in the oval-spherical boxes are covered with thorns, are up to 3 cm in diameter, there are 8-25 seeds per gram.
Red Castor Oil - These are varieties with red foliage, such as
- castor bean heart, is the most poisonous, and one of the most beautiful, with spikes far out of the seeds,
- common domestic variety Cossack's castor (with red-brown shiny shoots and red-purple foliage with white dots at the edges of the teeth),
- castor gibzon (up to 1.5 meters in height, with burgundy foliage).
Cast iron bean varieties with a wonderful bronze color of foliage, such as Gibson Castor with a characteristic metallic luster of leaves and castor bead impala bronze, which has spectacular and bright red flowers.
Several are separated from other varieties:
- Zanzibar - its red and purple foliage,
- Cambodian - almost black color of the trunk and leaves,
- oracle - the incredible ability of foliage to change shade, depending on age and lighting,
- borbone - very tall and powerful, with a tree-like rich red stem (up to 15 cm thick) and green glittering leaves.
Castor bean watering
The castor is not related to capricious plants, however, it should be regularly watered to ensure its strength in flowering.
The approximate amount of water that you need to supply one plant every 5 days is 10 liters.
Castor Oil Soil
Chernozem is the most preferred ground for castor. If the summer cottage contains other types of soil, it is recommended to fertilize them with humus and compost in large quantities before planting.
You should also make a preliminary preparation of the soil, making it loose and water-breathable.
Castor Bean Transplant
The best way to grow castor in our climate is a seedling, as discussed below. Before that you need to say a few words about the transplant, which castor bean endures very hard.
For sowing seeds, it is better to pick up individual containers in advance, having a volume of at least 250 cubic cm. It is recommended to close the seeds to a depth of 2 cm.
Thus, during further transshipment, in front of which it will be good to water the plant to thicken the earthen coma, as well as during the initial development of the root system, the possibility of its damage is practically excluded.
Gardeners-experts advise to apply additional fertilizers in the form of nitrogen fertilizers before flowering.
When the formation of floral brushes begins, fertilizers must be replaced with potash-phosphorus.
Winter castor oil
In our climatic conditions, castor cannot in any way live in winter, therefore at this time of year it freezes and grows up as an annual.
Despite this, some gardeners grow a whole palm tree up to 4 meters high during the season.
Planting castor oil for outdoor use and caring for seedlings
Castor beans are grown with large, bulging seeds with a painted surface. During the spring months after sowing, they will have time to germinate, grow strong and give the first real leaves. Planting seedlings castor for open ground and care for seedlings carried out in early spring.
To accelerate the emergence of sprouts, seeds with a dense shell are soaked for 24 hours in warm water. Then they are planted in separate cups or peat pots, buried by 1-2 cm.
Seedlings are quite large, for planting take large size tanks. In the future, when it is time to plant in open ground, this will help save the castor root system from damage.
The cups with seeds are covered with a film and placed closer to the window, where the temperature will be within 15–17 ° C. When 7 days have passed, the containers are brought to light. The first shoots can be seen no earlier than 18-20 days. Up to this point and after, until it is time to plant and care for castor beans in open ground, seedlings are provided with:
- watering, maintaining moderate substrate moisture,
- bright, but not direct sunlight, necessary for the formation of a healthy, not stretched crown,
- room temperature
- no drafts.
When to plant castor oil in open ground? The best time is May, when there will be no danger of a cold return, and the soil will warm up sufficiently. One week earlier they begin to harden crops, bringing them to fresh air.
Planting castor beans in open ground seeds
The seedling method is suitable for planting and caring for castor in the open field in Siberia and other areas where the spring can be long and the summer is not as long as we would like. In the southern regions to grow seedlings optional. It is enough to properly prepare the seeds and sow them immediately at the permanent place of residence of the plants.
Accelerate the germination of surface treatment of castor bean seed, especially the side grooves with sandpaper. Castor bean germination does not exceed 50%, processing and increasing the number of seeds will help grow the number of bushes needed.
Seeds are buried in the excavated and loosened soil, previously mixed:
For a rapidly growing, powerful castor, you need a lot of power and light. Its root system requires a loose, well-drained substrate, but the area frequented by the winds is not very suitable because of the danger of breakage of the shoots.
Sowing is carried out to a depth of 6–8 cm, in May, and planting castor beans in the ground in the Urals, in the North-West is carried out a little later, when the soil warms up, and the seedlings do not freeze. To get a bulky shrub, you can put not one seed, but 2–3 seeds per well. Shoots appear after three weeks. From the sprouts that appear above the soil, they carefully remove the hard, retarding growth of the leaves of the seed.
Care of castor after planting in open ground
The castorpot is one of the most indecent and demanding ornamental plants. The main task of the cottager, who decided to decorate his plot with such large vegetation, is to organize and conduct:
- regular watering
- complex feeding, designed to provide plants with nutrition and to compensate for what the castor bean has taken,
- loosening the soil under the bushes,
- weeding until the plants grow and can independently suppress weeds.
Before the appearance of buds, plants are fed with complex compounds with a predominance of nitrogen. It will help the castor to grow stalks and foliage. In the second half of the summer, a large annual can be sustained with any fertilizer with trace elements, potassium and phosphorus, and one should not forget about abundant watering.
Every five days, at least one bucket of water is poured under each castor bush. During dry periods, the soil is moistened 2-3 times more often.
In the middle band, the plant does not overwinter. First, the aerial part dies off, then it is time for the root system. When planting castor beans in open ground for the winter, all greens are pre-removed, the soil is cleaned of plant residues, dug up, making organic fertilizers. So that the soil does not become scanty, with the onset of spring in this place castor bean should not be planted.
Casting oil is carried out in gloves, preferably in cloudy weather, in the evening hours or early in the morning, before the sun appears, the plant is poisonous. Ricin contained in it is toxic when ingested through the mouth or respiratory system.
Zanzibar castor core
This fast-growing annual plant can reach a height of 200 centimeters. It has spectacular racemes and large leafy plates. In a single planting is similar to a rare tropical plant, in connection with this it is planted, as a rule, as a tapeworm. Painted leaf plates in purple-red color.
The height of the bush can reach up to three meters. Dense trunk has a red color. Large green leaf plates are glossy.
Russian breeders managed to bring a decorative variety, which has become very popular, and it is called Kazachka.
The bush is 200 centimeters in height, it has a glossy brownish-red trunk, and also dark green adult leafy plates with reddish veins.
Young leaves are painted in purple-red color and have white dots on the edges of the teeth. Red-bloody flowers have stigmas of a darker shade. Fruits can be purple, red or carmine.
The benefits and harm of castor oil
Although castor oil is poisonous and contains a large amount of ricin poison, it is very beneficial for humans because it extracts valuable essential oil. The castor beans are even grown on an industrial scale for the sake of this oil.
The composition of this oil contains unsaturated glyceride, oleic, stearic, linoleic acid and glycerin, and also micro- and macronutrients magnesium, iron, calcium and potassium.
Castor oil (castor oil) made on the basis of oil extracted from castor seeds, is used as a laxative in the treatment of enteritis, constipation, colitis and other intestinal diseases associated with inflammation.
It is also used externally for bruises, wounds, burns, ulcers, warts and colds. This oil is used in the treatment of varicose veins and hemorrhoids. And it is also used as a drop in inflammation of the eyes and in the treatment of gynecological diseases.
You can buy this oil in capsules or in small bottles of dark glass. When stored in the refrigerator, it can retain its beneficial properties for up to several years, while the oil should be in a bottle of dark colored glass that has a tightly ground stopper.
This plant is also used in the treatment of endometriosis. To do this, you need to take 10 grams of fresh leaves, cut them in small amounts and combine with 200 ml of freshly boiled water.
Boil the mixture should be from 15 to 20 minutes. on a small fire. Then the mixture will need to infuse for several hours, after which it should be drained.
Drink infusion of 1 large spoon thrice a knock for 14 days.
For the treatment of bronchitis or a cold, tepid castorca is used. It should be rubbed several times into the chest area of the patient, after which the person is well wrapped. Every day, castor oil should be rubbed into problem areas for warts, burns, wounds, hemorrhoids, or varicose veins. For ocular inflammations, it is necessary to drip 1 or 2 drops of castorca in bed for 3-5 days before going to bed.
Also, castor oil has found wide application in cosmetology. It is used to treat the skin surface of the head and hair, to remove age spots, to get rid of wrinkles and other irregularities of the epidermis. And with the help of this oil struggling with calluses and corns.
Several popular recipes
- Strengthen eyelashes. Dip the brush into the castor oil and spread it on the cilia, while not allowing the product to get into the eyes. After 30 minutes remove the unabsorbed oil from the eyelashes with a napkin. To get a visible result, it is necessary to carry out such procedures every day for a month.
- Problem skin.
Rasparte the skin surface of the face and spread a lukewarm castor on it. In 60–90 minutes wipe your face with a paper towel and rinse it with cool water. Hair loss. In a small container, combine freshly squeezed lemon juice, castor oil and alcohol, taken in a 1: 1: 1 ratio.
This composition before bed should be rubbed into the skin surface of the head. In the morning it should be washed off with plenty of tepid water. Dandruff. Castor oil and calendula tincture combine in a 1: 1 ratio. Then the mixture should be rubbed into the skin surface of the head. After 30 minutes need to wash your hair.
The products made from castor bean have contraindications. They should not be used by pregnant and breast feeding women, with exacerbation of chronic diseases (even chronic constipation), with intestinal and uterine bleeding, with individual intolerance, with intestinal obstruction of a mechanical nature.
Experts advise against the use of such products for the treatment of children under 12 years of age.
Castor bean seed growing
In order to grow castor oil by sowing seeds on open ground, at the end of spring in the prepared soil, wells up to 10 cm deep are formed and 2-3 seeds are placed in them, after which they are covered with earth.
After 3 weeks, sprouts will appear, and when this happens, you need to carefully remove the oily peel stuck to the cotyledon leaves in order to prevent the seedling from rotting. The optimum temperature for seed germination is 12-14.
Planting castor bean seedlings
The above-mentioned method of growing castor bean seedlings involves soaking the seeds before planting for a day, which will allow them to develop intensively even in conditions of a low level of soil moisture.
In April, the seeds are placed on germination in bulk peat pots with a nutrient substrate (the usual 20-centimeter diameter clay pots with soil are well suited).
Seedlings are planted in the ground as usual - after the passing of the spring cold. Any prolonged cold snap can nullify the entire ornamental effect of this plant.
Fertilizer and fertilizing culture
Good care is hard to imagine without fertilizer. The rules for using them are simple:
- Before flowering crops need to use nitrogen fertilizer.
- During the laying of floral brushes potash-phosphate fertilizers will not be superfluous.
Tip For feeding ricins, you can use bird droppings or horse manure.