Serbian spruce - Picea omorica (Pancic) Purkyne. Mountains of Western Europe (Yugoslavia). On rocky limestone slopes at a height of 950-1500 m above sea level. seas.
Serbian spruce 'Nana' Tree up to 45 m in height, with a narrow conical crown, preserving its shape and old age. The needles are shiny, dark green, with two bluish-white stripes below, very beautiful. Lives in nature to 300 years. Needles kept on shoots of 8-10 years. Hardy Relatively smoke and gas resistant.
It is unpretentious to soil and climatic conditions. Propagated by seeds. In a culture known since 1880. It is rather decorative, therefore it deserves wide introduction in green building. By decorativeness is inferior only spruce barbed. Shade-tolerant, demanding on air humidity, but tolerates dryness better than spruce. Prefers fresh loam. Wind and gas resistant. Propagated by seeds and grafting on spruce.
Deserves widespread use in single and group plantings, when creating green areas in parks and forest parks.
Serbian spruce 'Nana'
Life form: Conifer
Crown: Slender conical, dense.
Growth rate: Fast. Annual increase Ate Serbian 'Nana' is 35 cm in height and 15 cm in width.
Height is 6 m., Diameter of krone is 4 m.
Durability: 300 years
Fruits: Cones, elongated, brown from 3 to 6 cm.
Needles: Needle, pointed, blue.
Decorative effect: It has spectacular needles and crown.
Use: Single landing, decorative groups, alleys.
temperature: frost resistant
An annual gain of 12 cm. Not dusty. Winter hardiness is high. In landscaping Moscow is not found.
At age 20, height 1.5 m. Annual growth of 2-3 cm. The shoots are thin, flexible. The needles are 10-15 mm long, from the bottom is brilliant green, from above with 4-5 white lines (known as P. x mariorika).
Obtained as a result of the selection of the form "Nana" ("Nana"). In 10 years, height 15-20 cm, needles like the shape of "Nana", very short shoots. Crohn rounded.
"Nana", Low ("Nana")
Dwarf form up to 3 m. Crohn widely conical, very thick. The needles are loose, located on the shoot radially, on top of yellow-green, below - blue, 7-8 mm long, 1.5 mm wide. Propagated by cuttings and seeds. It is recommended for parterre, soliterny and group landings, for cultivation on rock gardens, in heather gardens.
Tree up to 10 m high, with a crown diameter of 1-1.5 m. It was bred in Germany in 1930. Crohn dense, with hanging branches, narrower than that of common spruce. The bark is reddish-gray, thin flakes. Acicular needles, dark green, from the bottom with two wide light stripes. Annual gain in height - 10 cm, width - 3 cm. Grows slowly. Light-requiring Hardy. The soil is undemanding, but does not tolerate stagnant moisture and soil compaction. Application: single and group landings.
Location: shade-tolerant, but develop better with sufficient light. Demanding on soil fertility and humidity. They sustain a relatively continental climate and slight waterlogging. Suffer from air pollution, which primarily affects the life expectancy of the needles. At a young age can be quite picky. They grow slowly, especially in the first years of life, do not like transplanting and do not tolerate trampling and compaction of the soil as well as nearby groundwater.
Soil: turfy, leaf soil, peat, sand, taken in the ratio 2: 2: 1: 1. Drainage: a layer of broken brick and sand 15-20 cm.
the distance between the plants is 2-3 m. The depth of planting is 50-70 cm. The root neck is at ground level. In the fertile soil spruce form deeper roots. As a rule, the roots are located close to the soil surface. Ate grow slowly, especially in the first years of life. When transplanting trees, avoid overdrying the roots. Most species and forms of spruce do not tolerate trampling and soil compaction, as well as nearby groundwater!
When using spruce for a hedge, strong pruning is allowed, after which the plants thicken greatly. Usually, only dry and diseased branches are removed. Regular plucking of the dominant ones and shortening the lateral shoots at the time of growth is recommended. Better than other conifers tolerate transplantation, the main root of spruce trees early stops its growth, and the lateral roots form a superficially lying root system, therefore, they are windfall on shallow soils. When planting, make 100-150 g of nitroammofoski, later it is not necessary to feed. They are demanding on soil moisture and do not tolerate dryness. Watering young plants in a hot dry summer is mandatory, it is carried out once a week for 10-12 liters per plant. Spruces require deep drained soils, therefore loosening is necessary for young plantings, but not deep, by 5–7 cm. It is advisable to mulch with a peat layer 5-6 cm, after perezimovki peat is not removed, but mixed with the ground. The central shoot of weeping forms of spruce must be tied to a support.
Preparing for the winter: shelter for the winter is necessary only for some decorative forms and only at a young age. To do this, it is enough to throw light nonwoven material on the tree that lets in air. But one thing that must be done is to shelter some plants from the spring sun, otherwise the trees will be “burnt” on the south side. After such burns, they ate poorly and for a long time are restored and sometimes die. To protect from the sun, it is necessary already somewhere in February to throw light nonwoven fabric in 2 layers on the plants or to put thick shields on the south side.
It is recommended mulching for the winter with peat or sawdust for the first two years after planting a layer of 6-8 cm. Adults ate completely frost-resistant and do not require protection.
Diseases and pests:
Sla spruce filth is a dangerous pest of Serbian spruce. This green sucking insect of only 1-2 mm in size with red eyes causes the appearance of yellowish spots on the old needles, later the needles fall off. Aphids can be detected by substituting a sheet of white paper and tapping a branch. When it appears, repeated spraying of trees with potash soap, infusion of onion scales, garlic or insecticidal herbs is recommended.
Red and yellow gall aphids suck spruce pine needles in the spring, as a result of which pine cones are similar to pineapple galls. Affected branches die off. When they appear spraying drug INTA-VIR.
Dirty-white to blackish caterpillars of the moth nun, up to 5 cm long, eat the needles of the fir completely. At the very first appearance spraying with bitoxibacillin or preparations of decis, karate.
The browning of the needles causes a fungus that primarily affects the lower branches of weakened trees, and yellow or brown areas appear on the needles. In this case, it is necessary to regularly apply fertilizers containing magnesium, such as potassium magnesia, thinning the crown for good ventilation. Chemicals are not used.
Spider mite and spruce leafworm. The spruce spider mite harms usually in a period of prolonged drought. Must be spraying colloidal sulfur, dandelion infusion or garlic. In the latter case, the needles are intertwined with cobwebs, caterpillars (larvae) eating leaves are visible inside. Affected shoots must be repeatedly treated with a solution of liquid soap or removed. In the case of Serbian spruce under the wrong growing conditions, the needles on the tops of the shoots turn yellow, then turn brown and fall off.
Reproduction: mainly seeds, garden forms - cuttings and less graft. Seeds germinate in the year of sowing, and a 2–3-month stratification accelerates germination and has a beneficial effect on the development of seedlings. Unstratified seeds before sowing are soaked for 24 hours in snowy or settled water.
The seeds of spruce ripen in late winter or early spring, when the snow did not have time. If they are not collected in advance, they fly off the tops of the trees. The wings on the side of the seed shine, gold in the sun. The wind drives them along the crust - so the spruce is settled in nature. In place of the seeds do not germinate immediately, sometimes they can lie for 9-10 years, while remaining viable.
The shoots of spruce are a whorling of cotyledons at the top of a thin, as a thread, stalk. The height of the annual seedling is not more than 4 cm. In the following years, the Christmas tree grows faster. However, a ten-year-old tree does not rise above one and a half meters. But with age, the growth rate increases and the spruce catches up with and even surpasses some trees and grows to the end of its life. Therefore, it is always sharp as a peak. It ends with a straight one-year runaway. Under the top of the tree, several buds are laid, from which next spring side shoots will grow, and from the apical bud - one vertical, again with a ring of lateral buds. So on the trunk every year there is a new whorl of branches. By whorls you can calculate the age of the tree, adding to the amount of another 3-4 years, remembering that the spruce seedling forms whorls only from the third or fourth year of life.
Spruce seeds ripen in female cones. Female cones are often red and appear in spring at the ends of the shoots. A cloud of yellow pollen flies out of the male yellowish cones. There is so much of it that it settles around, painting everything yellow.
Young Christmas trees feel great under the canopy of other trees, such as birch or aspen. Trees protect tender needles and young shoots from spring frosts and bright summer sun. But here the tree will grow up and force out all other breeds.
Large trees are best planted in winter with bloomed earth. This is available only to professionals. Decorative forms of fir trees can be propagated by cuttings and grafting.
As we already know, the Serbian fir tree looks solid, it is slim and presentable. Well stands out among other plants, and is suitable for any place.
Spruce trees grow up to twenty meters, and the crown grows to four meters. Serbian spruce, different height among others. Of course, in a small square, it will look huge. But while it is small, it will be a great decoration for your country house.
Spruce lives for three hundred years. And every year it grows by 20-45 centimeters. The volume of the cones to six centimeters. The most amazing thing is that at a young age, the bumps are purple in color, but over time they become ordinary.
Spruce resistant to low temperatures. When it is extremely cold outside, the spruce will feel great. Dwarf fir has a good reputation. It is good to grow, not on large areas. With such pines, erect the whole composition. Create such beauty, maybe not even an experienced summer resident.
Growing Serbian spruce
Often gardeners want to grow such a spruce in their own area. For this you need to know the rules and features of the landing.
- First of all, it should be noted that the Serbian spruce is not whimsical to the ground. Even if the soil is not very fertile, it does not prevent it from growing. Unlike other plants that need to be fertilized so that they are well grown.
- Ate well in the shade. But do not forget that in order for her to grow the sun's rays, they are also necessary. Create a comfortable environment for her, a bit of shade and sun.
- Regarding the humidity of the air, and in this, it shows a good side. She feels fine with a lot of moisture, and also does not dry out due to severe dryness. Experts say that the Serbian spruce, which is resistant to drought than the other pines.
- Also pay attention to the soil. It must first be processed. The hole in which you will plant the tree, you need to arrange accordingly with drainage.
Preparing for the winter
To prepare the plant for winter is very important. Since at this time of the year, the spruce can get hurt, in order to grow a good spruce, it is necessary to create the necessary conditions for it.
In the cool period, the trunk of the spruce is treated with peat. And the needles to cover something. For example, craft paper, or other material.
Serbian spruce: planting and care
Serbian spruce is not demanding on the soil, its planting is possible on virtually any soil. The exceptions are saline, swampy soils and areas where groundwater comes close to the ground. Trees reach better development on fresh, fertile loams. At any age, spruce suffers from compaction of the soil, so she recommended shallow loosening.
Young plants feel better in the shade, under the canopy of hardwood. Openwork crown scatters the sun's rays, protects spruce from burns, drying out winds, late frosts. But strong trees need good lighting. Although Serbian spruce is quite shade tolerant, planting in sunny areas contributes to a higher decorative effect.
The best time to plant spruce is spring. The easiest to take root is trees grown in containers. Saplings with open roots can not be overdry. Immediately after digging, they are placed in sackcloth along with soil and watered. Landing should take place as early as possible.
The landing pit is prepared such that the entire root system is freely accommodated in it, while the root collar remains at ground level. When planting groups of plants placed at a distance of 2-3 m.
On dry soils with no precipitation, young trees are watered. Pistol circles are mulched with organic materials.
Care in the year of planting is primarily watering. At least one bucket of water at least twice a month is poured into the near-stem circle of a small tree. The volume of water and the frequency of watering depend on the weather and the size of the tree. Fertilizers for conifers are applied in the year of planting. Subsequently, every year peat is laid out under the tree as a 5 cm mulch, which replaces mineral dressings. The root neck at the same time must remain at the same level. Plants in containers are fed more often, using mineral and organic fertilizers. In order for the needles to look fresh and clean in the summer, the spruce can be watered from the watering can on the crown, this increases its decorative effect.
If trees are grown in free form and do not require special pruning, only dry branches are removed in late spring - early summer after the end of active sap flow. A hedge of Serbian spruce is sheared in winter.
Adults ate enough winter-hardy. Young plants, especially ornamental forms, need shelter for the winter. Separate varieties must also be protected from the spring sunlight. To do this, in the middle of February, a covering material is placed on the crown or shading shields are used, placing them on the south side of the plants.
Experts are more persistently advising to plan the planting of Serbian spruce for the winter, considering that the survival rate of such trees is superior to other methods of planting. Especially winter landing recommended krupnomer. The pit is prepared well in advance, until the ground is frozen. At low sub-zero temperatures, the tree is transplanted. Roots are placed in a hole with a lump of earth, covered with good, non-frozen soil according to all the rules of planting, and mulched with peat, and then warmed with snow. In early spring, water is well watered around the trunk. Since the Serbian spruce was often used as new year tree in a pot, its winter planting will help to preserve the plant for many years.
Reproduction of Serbian spruce
Spruce propagated most often by seeds. Decorative forms are usually grafted or grafted on spruce spruce seedlings.
To preserve seed germination for 10-15 years, they are stored in an airtight container at a temperature of 0 - + 5 ° C. Without compliance with these conditions, seeds lose their germination throughout the year.
Before sowing seeds stratify - for 2-3 months, kept in wet sand at a temperature of + 3 ... + 5 ° C. This operation allows you to get more friendly and healthy shoots.
The cutting is carried out in the spring. Summer cuttings root badly.
Some varieties of Serbian spruce
Serbian spruce "Aurea"(Aurea) - the adult tree reaches 20 m in height. The crown is correct, conical. Differs in decorative color of needles - it remains yellow for a long time. Inserts of a golden color along the edge of the needles are added to the usual coloring of the needles. In winter, the needles acquire a green-blue color. Young Christmas trees are bright yellow. The plant is winter-hardy, light-loving. Like all ate prefers rich moist soil. May winter without shelter at -28.9 -31.7 ° C.
This species of spruce has a trunk with a yellowish-brown bark, rising in height to 25–35 m and reaching 1 m in diameter. The lateral skeletal branches are short, starting low from the ground, arched upwardly. Young shoots hanging thickly pubescent. The crown is narrow pyramidal or kolonovidnaya, with a clearly pointed tip.
The needles are hard, keeled, 10–18 mm long, about 2 mm wide, with stomatal tubules. The surface is covered with a dense waxy coating. The upper part of the needles is dark green, the lower part is gray-silver. On the branches of the needles lasts 7-8 years.
This species blooms in May. Cones oblong, 5–7 cm in size, ripen in October. At a young age, they are greenish-purple in color, with densely pressed, rounded scales. By the fall they become dark brown with an ink shade. The wild type is self-seeding. The maturity of the trees reach 15 years. Life cycle in natural habitat lasts up to 250–300 years.
Сербская ель обладает высокими адаптивными свойствами, растет на суглинистых, песчаных, подзолистых, каменистых почвах. Дерево отличается морозостойкостью, выдерживает холода до -35 °С, резкие перепады температур.The plant is wind-resistant, shade-loving, suitable for cultivation in temperate climates.
On the basis of the wild Serbian spruce, several varieties have been created that retain the main species properties: high cold resistance, decorative qualities. Cultivated plants are compact, no more than 5–7 m high.
- Nana (Nana). Dwarf cone-shaped tree up to 3 m tall. Short shoots form a dense decorative crown. The needles are 8–15 mm long, the upper side is saturated green, the bottom is silver. The annual growth is 7–10 cm. It tolerates strong shading, withstands temperatures down to -34–40 ° С.
- Pendula Bruns. Compact variety with original crown shape. The trunk of an adult tree, 2–5 m high, is arcuately curved in the middle. Shoots thick, short, tightly pressed. Young branches hanging. The underside of the needles with two white stripes, giving the needles a silvery shade. The plant is resistant to cold, withstands prolonged frosts down to -30 ° C and below.
- Karel (Karel). Dwarf shrub form. Adult plant no more than 80 cm in height. The crown is wide, very thick, spherical. Growth - 5-10 cm per year. The variety tolerates temperatures up to -25–30 ° C, but is not wind resistant.
- Pimoko. Decorative dwarfish grade with two-color needles. The top of the needles is dark green, the bottom is grayish blue. The height of adult specimens is 0.7–0.9 m. The crowns are thick, wide, conical or hemispherical. Variety tolerates shading, resistant to frost.
- Wobhan (Wodan). Garden dwarf variety. The height of the trunk is 1–1.5 m. The crown is about 50 cm wide, of irregular, blurred shape. Skeletal branches are short, densely branched. Needles 2-2.5 cm in length, with silver-blue stripes, lighter on young shoots. The variety, unlike most other varieties, prefers well-lit areas.
Serbian spruce is unpretentious, resistant to adverse weather conditions, exposure to smoke, chemical impurities in the air. Suitable for planting on city streets, squares, parks, avenues, green neighborhoods. Beautiful decorative forms of this coniferous tree look great as hedges, in the design of paths, alpine hills, Japanese, heather, stony gardens, lawns.
Dwarf tree forms can be grown as container crops for decorating terraces, open balconies, home winter gardens.
Serbian Nana spruce: wintering
The Serbian spruce tolerates winter well, but after very hard frosts and in the absence of snow cover there may be dead branches. Also in early spring, when the sun shines brightly, the needles can get burned. To avoid this, in February a tree is pruneed with spruce branches or agrofibre. After the soil thaws, cover is removed. This is best done on a windless cloudy day.
- Watering. The tree loves moderate humidity and is afraid of stagnant water, so avoid excessive watering.
- In the year of planting Serbian spruce water oftenin the following years - 1-2 times a week, increasing the intensity in dry periods. To prevent the rapid evaporation of moisture, basal circle mulch pine bark or wood chips with a thickness of 7 cm.
- Top dressing. In April and May nitroammophos mineral fertilizers are applied at the rate of 40 grams per 1 m 2. Special mineral fertilizers for coniferous trees will also fit. In October, potash and phosphorus complexes are introduced.
- Fungicide treatment. It is carried out in case the tree becomes infected with Fusarium or Schutte's disease. For spraying use drugs "Ordan" and "Topsin." Re-treatment of the crown is carried out in a week. To suppress the development of fungi, in April spend spraying 1% Bordeaux liquid. When infected with fir gall midge or hermes, spruce is treated with insecticides such as "Confidor" or "Aktara". The treatment is carried out twice with an interval of one week.
- Pruning. Serbian spruce forms the correct crown independently. For greater attractiveness in early spring before the movement of juice you can prune branches. For this, skeletal branches are trimmed to 10 cm. If the procedure is repeated annually, a dense and uniform crown will be obtained. It is highly undesirable to cut off more than 1/3 of last year's growth, as this will weaken the plant. After pruning, the tree is fed and treated with a fungicide - this will allow new shoots to develop normally and protect them from the fungus.
The tree is widely used for decorating public areas and parks in the United States and Western Europe. The credit of this is in the wonderful properties of this dwarf tree:
- suitable for arranging small gardens and rock gardens,
- used for landscaping plots and composing compositions of short plants,
- combines with deciduous and coniferous treesFor example, pine and larch,
- landed both singly and in groups to create a hedge.
So, dwarf Serbian spruce - this is a great solution for decorating the local area or creating a rock garden. The tree is unpretentious and does not require special care. Since this is a stunted variety ate, it will not take up much space on your site. The tree is suitable for areas with harsh winters, but then you need to take care of its additional protection.
The advantages of coniferous wood
This species of conifer was discovered and described by the botanist Joseph Pancic. That is why Serbia is called the Serbian spruce "omorika" and "panchichevoy omorika".
One of its main remarkable qualities that attract gardeners is the ability to grow incredibly quickly, in that it has no equal in the world of coniferous trees. The tallest varieties 30 years after planting reach 15 meters and even more, each year adding up to half a meter. It belongs to plants - long-livers: in the wild nature, its lifespan is 300 years.
It looks elegant beauty: the trunk can reach a meter diameter, but it does not lose slimness, the horizontal branches create a thick scenic crown, which remains so at any age.
Light red or purple-violet cones appear on the twelfth year and make the look of the omoriki even more decorative. It is equally good in the neighborhood of pines and other spruces, in a single landing and as a hedge.
In addition to decorativeness, this tree has, which in the language of specialists is listed not only as a omorica, but also as a Serbian spruce tree, picea omorika, and other remarkable qualities. They attract to him all the new fans:
- Frost resistance. The tree grows not only in the northern regions of Russia, but also in Norway, Sweden, Denmark and in North America. This means that it calmly withstands temperatures down to -42 °. At the same time withstand high temperatures and humid air.
- Not afraid of wind and shade. This property has been eaten, it may be said, genetic, since many generations of culture grew on mountain slopes, where they rarely basked in the sun, tormented by strong winds.
- Unpretentiousness and undemanding in care. And these qualities are explained by the mountain origin of Serbian spruce. The description indicates that she loves loam, but can adapt to both sandy, and podzolic, and acidified soil. The only condition - should be the natural airing of the roots, the absence of water stagnation.
- Not amenable to harmful atmospheric influences. The defender against exhaust gases, industrial emissions and acid rain is a thick layer of wax on spruce needles.
- Diversity. The description of many forms and varieties shows that this is an indispensable culture in landscape design.
Spruce variety Karel
This miniature tree, also called Karelian fir, grows no more than 80 cm. The meter crown has the shape of a ball. The needles are very beautiful - short, dark green, it literally shines under the sunlight. Gardeners lovingly call this dwarf herringbone "hedgehog." And indeed, it resembles a forest animal curled up.
Every year Karel adds about 5 cm in height. Her small size and resistance to a changeable climate are greatly valued by gardeners and designers. She is a welcome guest not only in city parks and squares, but also in small summer cottages. It looks especially picturesque on rocky hills. With a shortage of free space, the Christmas tree (the botanical name Picea omorika Karel) can be grown in a container by placing it on a sunny or slightly shaded area.
Another representative of slowly growing conifers is Serbian Nana spruce. Description of its features includes a three-meter growth of an adult plant, an unusual white-green color, openwork spherical shape. The main advantage - the ability to endure frost, which explains the special interest of gardeners and landscape designers from the northern regions.
Mostly such trees are planted in large groups, which greatly decorates the landscape, makes it real and comfortable. At the moment, it is one of the best types of hvoyniki for the decoration of parks and other sites. In addition, nana does not impose special conditions on the soil.
In the decorative relation there is no equal to the universal plant of spruce nana: the descriptions in the reference books indicate that it harmoniously combines in the garden with any deciduous, coniferous and flower cultures. It looks interesting in stony gardens, rabatkah, in containers, as well as a hedge along the paths. Often spruce nana is used as a Christmas tree.
Pendula - tree-serpent
The fabulous coniferous tree Pendula Bruns attains three-meter height by the age of ten. This is a record for the Serbian spruce. At the same time, the crown is surprisingly narrow - up to 60 cm. This type of German breeding is known among gardeners for the fact that each plant is unique and does not exist in nature. The bicolor needles strike the imagination: the upper part of the needles is blue, and the lower part is silver.
The branches of the pendula bruns can be slightly twisted, closely adjacent to the trunk and hanging down, "weeping." Because of the unusually curved arcuate trunk, this ephedra is sometimes called the "tree-snake".
Pendula Bruns is a spectacular plant for garden design. It loves a lot of light, is not afraid of frost, grows on poor but not compacted soils.
This type of ephedra is equally good for both single and group landings. Very good option for framing the garden arch. Spruce with a weeping crown is ideal for grafting on a bole, to get a tree with a long trunk and a fluffy spherical crown.
Selection of seedlings
To coincide with the purchase of seedlings should be in the spring, that is, at the time of planting. It is best to purchase not from individuals, but in specialized nurseries, where they will offer a healthy plant of the desired variety.
In addition, in nursery conditions, trees are grown in open ground, which will allow them to more easily survive the adaptation period in new conditions. In nurseries you can buy two types of seedlings:
- with open root system, grown in open field,
- with closed roots - in film packaging or in a container.
If this is the first option, the plant will have to be planted as soon as possible so that the roots do not have time to dry out. And before landing in the ground they need to moisten
By the beginning of planting, a suitable site should be selected in a sunny or semi-shaded place. You may have to do drainage, given that the tree is sensitive to stagnant water.
The planting process is simple if you carry out all the operations required by the instructions. Start with the hole:
- Dig a hole 60 cm deep, top diameter 60 cm, bottom 40 cm. Tip: if the tree moves out of the container, it should be placed in the hole to the same depth.
- If water accumulates at the bottom, a layer of drainage from rubble and sand is necessary.
- The earth, taken out of the fossa, mixed with humus and peat in a ratio of 2: 2: 1.
- Soil mixture is poured into the hole in such a layer so that it can be completely buried in the roots with the ground.
- Pour into the hole five liters of water.
- Carefully lower the seedling's root system into the ground, level the trunk, cover the lower part of the plant with soil and slightly compact it.
Important! If not one tree is planted, but a whole grove, a distance of 2–3 meters should be left between the seedlings. In the process of planting can be added to the soil 100 - 150 g nitrophoska, and then do not make additional dressing.
In order not to evaporate moisture and maintain the temperature of the soil, it is advisable to sprinkle the root collar of spruce with peat.
Caring for a planted tree
If in the first weeks after planting the spruce trees do not pass the rains, the plant will need watering. The condition of the soil can be checked by squeezing an earthen ball in one hand: if it crumbles, the tree lacks moisture, if the mass is viscous, it does not need watering yet.
On hot days, water the young spruce should be weekly, it takes at least ten liters at the root. But it is necessary to do this in several techniques, in small portions, so that the roots on the surface can be fed with moisture.
The ephedra requires deep drained soil, so young plantings need to be loosened, but only to a depth of 5-7 cm.
A warm “shower” is useful for seedlings, which washes away dust from the needles and moisturizes it.
On the eve of winter, it is advisable to protect decorative plantings with a light cloth that allows air to pass through. And even more necessary is the care at the very beginning of spring, when the bright sun can cause serious burns.
Note. In the first few years of life in a new place, fir spruce is pretty finicky, it reacts especially painfully to soil compaction.
Feeding the conifer
This issue is ambiguous, not only summer residents, but also scientists. On the one hand, if you refuse to use fertilizers, spruce in the early years slows down growth. On the other hand, gardeners associate various mutations and, above all, the transformation of the side branches into stem ones, which leads to the growth of the tree to the sides, and not upwards.
Experts recommend a "middle ground": fertilizers should not be ignored, but use them very carefully, not overfeeding the plant. Only in this case, omorika will get a truly decorative look.
Shaping and trimming
Pruning fir trees is sometimes a necessary measure. In some cases, it is dictated by the requirements of landscape design, in others - by security measures, for example, the neighborhood with a power line.
As for the omorik, strong pruning is desirable only in the case when a hedge is built from this conifer. After such an operation, the crowns of trees become thicker and form a green wall.
But most often sanitary pruning is performed with the removal of diseased and dry branches. And only at the end of the summer to create a beautiful crown recommend making decorative trimming. This procedure is undesirable in the autumn and winter seasons, as bare wood can be destroyed by cold.
Cutting is a fairly popular and reliable method of breeding ornamental conifer. Usually it is produced in April, but with the use of growth regulators, this procedure can be moved to autumn.
The second method is vegetative: grafting on ordinary spruce.
It is possible to propagate Serbian spruce and seeds, although this is the most time consuming method.
Disease Control and Prevention
Fungicidal preparations will help to cope with illnesses of conifers. As soon as the first signs of disease are noticed, it is necessary to treat the ground around the tree circle and shed the root system with it. If the treatment is necessary in the spring, in the initial stage of the growing season, it is necessary to spray the crown with drugs containing copper.
Sick plants are subject to immediate destruction, as viruses and fungus spread very quickly, infect healthy plantings. Before the rain, it is advisable to powder the hondi with ashes; such a procedure will benefit them.
And a few more tips on the necessary preventive measures:
- for planting should use only healthy seedlings,
- neighborhoods of coniferous crops with carriers of diseases should not be allowed: potatoes, tomatoes, berry bushes,
- to improve the immunity of plants, it is desirable to use micronutrients and special immunostimulants,
- When planting, the spruce should not be too deep, because its roots are close to the surface and need access of water and oxygen,
- it is impossible to allow moisture deficiency - at the same time the conifer dries out, quickly loses its attractiveness and becomes vulnerable to diseases.
These simple rules will help grow beautiful Serbian fir trees that can resist diseases and pests.