Amur wild grapes grow in our country, almost 10 years. A powerful pergola wrapped around a specially built for it, wild grapes give originality to the landscape design of the site, and provides amazing landscaping. Almost completely unpretentious to our harsh winter conditions (minus 45 without wind, or minus 30 with wind), it still requires little protection, but only from the direct cold wind.
Experience in grafting wild grape cuttings and their winter survival
We made this grape at the dacha quite banal. In order not to risk planting in the ground, cuttings will take root or not, they took 10 cuttings of grapes from a neighbor in the spring, put them in water and after 25 days each cutting had developed a powerful root system. Planted in the middle of summer. Everyone has taken root.
Only here in the first snowy winter the saplings of Amur grapes survived, and in the second, without snow, the three extreme shoots, which are located on an absolutely blown area that looks out from behind the house, were killed. Looks out - this is loudly said, because the wild grapes themselves are located at a distance of about five meters from the house. The remaining seven plants live and do not blow.
That is, given that grapes grow in the forest without wind, a little bit of protection is enough for it to flourish. And some "experts" are not right, writing about the compulsory shelter of the vines of wild fellows in central Russia and to the north. It is like taking the same five-meter actinidia creeper from a support and covering it. Grows wild grapes, like yeast. During the season you only have time to cut off the growth that is overwhelming the middle of the pergola, and from the sides trying to fall to the ground. It is a powerful green wall.
On the other side of the garden pergola for about eight years, the Far Eastern lemongrass was located, but the powdery mildew turned out to be stronger than any chemicals. Now, in its place, it is comfortably located and sparkles with asterisks of clematis flowers, at the base of which triangle oleaginus nestles.
Soil for planting Amur grapes
The soil is suitable for any grapes. At the beginning of the development of the suburban area, we had almost solid clay diluted with peat. But, as a kind word and a cat is nice, any plant has a nice piece of land only for joy, with which we have tried. The root system is very powerful, it grows to 3 meters, it is calm to drought.
We water only occasionally, approximately, at most once a week (we look, naturally, at the weather), but powerfully.
Powdery mildew control
Spray Amur grapes in early spring with 1% Bordeaux liquid. During the growing season there is a fierce struggle with powdery mildew with a solution of Baikal EM-1, and Topaz, two times, like planting gooseberries with currants. But we have this trouble from too much humidity in the summer and an empty abandoned area on one side, where there is plenty of any contagion.
Amur wild grapes are the best!
From my rich experience I can say that the more “wild” the fruits are, the better, tastier, and more fragrant the liquors are. This, also, concerns liqueurs made from felt cherries and cherry plums that grow with us. But a particular mansion is a liqueur from wild grapes, with a powerful aroma and amazing taste. Girls scream!
How to land
The culture is resistant to various weather conditions. However, the best landing site is sunny on the south side. Under such conditions, the plant will grow well, and the berries ripen more quickly.
Important to remember: Amur grapes have a negative attitude to drafts, cold winds. Therefore, a place on a small hill, where cold wind masses will not linger, will be the best choice. You should also know that this variety is growing rapidly.
Therefore, before planting plants, it is necessary to make special supports at the site of planting, on which the vine can rise.
When is it best to land? Planting time Amur grapes associated with the method of its reproduction:
- Seeds. In this case, plant better in the fall.
- By bends. In this case, it is best to plant in the spring. Over the summer period, retraction will be able to germinate and take root.
- Graft cutting. It is carried out in the spring or autumn period. In the first case, the stock should be covered in order to preserve moisture.
As for the soil. Amur grapes can grow well and bear fruit on any soil, but black soil, where groundwater does not exceed 2.5 meters, would be the best option. Between plants should be left 1 free meter. Shrubs are not recommended to be planted near fruit trees for the reason that the vines will be able to braid them. This will lead to lower yields.
Seeds of Amur grapes must be planted after collecting bunches. Planting depth of 2 - 3 cm. Sprouts are planted in late spring. For them it is necessary to prepare pits of 0.6x0.6x0.6 m. At the bottom should be poured a layer of rubble in 10 cm. This will be a drainage. From above poured a layer of fertilizer and fertile soil. In order not to burn the rhizomes of the plant, it is recommended to pour another layer of simple soil on top.
Just a day before planting, the sprout is placed in water. After that, it is planted in a prefab hole and covered with earth. It should reach the level of the root collar. After that, each plant must be watered with 2 - 3 buckets of water and mulch the soil next to it.
If reproduction is carried out by grafting cuttings, you must first prepare the cutting and stock. Cuttings harvested in the autumn period. They are placed in the sand and stored in it until spring. In the first days of spring, the cuttings are cut, waxed. One side must be put in a special solution that enhances the formation of roots. The stock itself is chopped. Into the split is inserted stalk. This place is tied with dense matter.
Amur grapes need regular watering. But this applies only to young plants, while the roots are in development. Mature bush drought is not terrible. Nevertheless, spring water is desirable. After watering the land around the plant must be mulched to moisture preserved. When watering is important to observe moderation. 7 days before flowering, watering must stop completely.
Caring for Amur grapes does not require shelter of grapes for the winter, as even the severe frosts can transfer the plant. Young seedlings are not yet so resistant, so they should be covered.
Important: the bushes of this grape grow quickly enough, so they must be regularly cut. Otherwise, the grapes will turn into an ornamental plant that will not yield. Pruning should be done for 2 years after planting. Then the bushes form, weak shoots break off, unnecessary branches and leaves are removed. Breaking is done at the bottom of the bush.
No need for fertilizer grapes Amur. You can confine yourself to annual fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. It is held once a year. In order to protect the bushes from possible pests, diseases, it is necessary to periodically spray with special means.
Amur grape variety does not need special and special care. Therefore, to grow these grapes is easy. Gardeners who have grown this variety in their plots will be able to enjoy abundant yields of delicious berries. The whole family will be provided with useful fruits from which you can make a variety of drinks.
The history of the selection of white grapes "Amur"
The main task of breeders is not the development of one outstanding characteristics of the berries, and the combination of the maximum number of characteristics. Among them:
- disease resistance
- low temperature tolerance
- attractive view
- taste qualities.
White grapes "Amur" has a wild past and proudly combines these characteristics. But the story of his appearance is quite difficult. ME AND. Potapenko (famous breeder) took as a basis for wild Amur varieties. And as a result of many years of work, many new species were presented to berry connoisseurs. We managed to expand the viticulture zone, because the new specimens got accustomed perfectly in a fairly cold climate.
Alexander Ivanovich Potapenko with the help of intraspecific selection brought Amursky white grapes with fruits of a yellowish shade.
Thanks to all qualities, growing grapes in the northern regions has become more accessible.
This grape variety has an average ripening period. It is suitable for food and for making wine. This variety can be a real salvation for those who only know winegrowing. Shoots are not afraid of transplantation, well mastered in a new place. It tolerates the effects of low temperatures, does not need to be covered for the winter.
It has excellent taste, natural sugar content can be up to 25%. Liana has the form of a powerful stem with leaves and loose clusters. The plant quickly braids nearby buildings and fences, is able to rise to a height of 30 meters. The diameter of the trunk reaches up to 20 centimeters in diameter.
It has a good rate of growth. During the year, the growth of the plant can give in growth to 2.5 meters. Not only tolerates pruning, but also needs it.
- High yield.
- Vine ripens in parallel with the harvest.
- Good ductility.
- High frost resistance.
- Even with a high load (good harvest) vines do not reduce their growth.
- Striking ability to recover. The fruits ripen even on young shoots.
- Excellent taste. Great for making juices and wine.
Grape vines are often used as decoration. It looks especially beautiful in the fall when the leaves acquire a variety of colors and shades. Bright large triangular-oval leaves look great against the background of ripe fruit.
Amur White pleases its fans with fruits at the end of August - beginning of September. The plant is moisture-loving, normally requires up to 700 mm of rain. If the climate is more arid, the vineyards need watering.
It looks different from its counterparts. Distinctive features:
- Large fruits of a yellow shade, their shape can be from oval to nipple, weight from 2.5 to 4 g.
- The cluster has a conical shape, the weight of which reaches 1 kg.
- It has a sweet taste.
The Amur White is bred from the seeds The Amur Breakthrough. It combines all the best from European table varieties and the Amur wild.
It looks like a bunch of white Amur grapes
Amur grapes, planting and care of which requires certain conditions, is considered unpretentious. The plant loves loose and sour soil. Alkaline peat is excellent as a fertilizer.
- Due to its good frost resistance, it is used to develop new varieties.
- It tolerates the first frost well: the fruits become sweeter from them.
- Excellent against pests and diseases.
- Good yield.
- Thanks to a dense skin perfectly transported.
- Shrubs overall dimensions.
- Used for landscaping the site.
Winegrowers should remember that Amur White needs frequent pruning.
Scientists had the task to improve the frost resistance of grapes, as well as to protect it from common diseases. They coped with the task. Bushes do not need shelter for the winter. Young seedlings are more vulnerable and need warming. Especially those who landed in the fall.
Amur white grapes are resistant to various plant diseases, but spraying with special products is necessary. He practically does not suffer from mildew and oidium, but it is better to be safe.
It is possible to propagate grapes by cuttings, saplings and seeds. It is recommended to plant cuttings at the end of September. Although the variety is unpretentious, it is better to plant it on sunny, non-windy areas. It is not necessary to plant near trees, the vine can completely braid them, while losing in yield. Cuttings are placed no closer than a meter from each other.
Amur white is often propagated by seed. Seeds are planted in the fall to a depth of about 1.5 cm, and after 30 days you can see shoots. Planting seedlings is practically no different from planting ordinary grapes.
Although the plant is moisture-loving, only young shoots need watering. Mature vineyards do not suffer from drought, although their watering will not be superfluous. The soil around the bush mulch to retain moisture longer.
Amur grapes are fertilized once a year. Constantly should be removed stunted shoots. With proper care, this variety will serve not only one year not only as a dessert, but also as a decoration of the site.
Amur grapes and its healing properties have long been appreciated not only by ordinary consumers, but also by physicians. It is recommended to use in diseases of the liver and gallbladder. Also recommended are fruits for hemorrhoids, tuberculosis, bronchial asthma, gastritis (not in the acute stage) and nephritis.
Juices, compotes are made from fruits, raisins, jam and jam are made from it. Amur grape products have a diuretic, diaphoretic and laxative effect.
Review Cultivation and Application Review
Regarding the question of whether the Amur grapes are good, the reviews of winegrowers sometimes contradict each other. Some do not stop praising this variety. Others are in no hurry to draw conclusions. The more north a consumer lives, the more he likes this variety. The grapes react poorly to warm winters, and residents of the southern regions could not appreciate it.
Many who have not yet had time to check the variety on their own plot are skeptical of frost resistance up to 40 degrees. One of the biggest drawbacks is considered to be rapid height growth. Under all conditions, Amur white grapes give very good results.
- Berries of this variety have bluish tinttheir diameter is about a centimeter. Frost improves taste. At each stage of ripening berries have a different taste: first, sour, then a little sweet with sour, then only sweet.
- Clusters look like a cone or cylinder.
- The flesh that envelops the dense skin is light.
- The leaves are quite large, reach fifteen centimeters, have a dark green shade. Their shape can be different: both lobed or whole, and heart-shaped.
- This variety tolerates a variety of diseases or weather changes.
What is the use of Amur grapes?
Besides the fact that the grapes of this variety are used in the preparation of various dishes or wines, it is used as decoration in landscape design. With the help of "lianas" you can easily turn your home into a beautiful green garden. They are perfect as a decoration for arches or various hedges. They can be used to disguise some unsightly buildings. Amur vines manifest all their beauty in the autumn period. It was at this time that the leaves acquire interesting shades: from red to pink. Fans of decorating their summer cottages should definitely like this grape variety.
To use ripe grapes is very useful fresh, as it has a huge amount of useful properties. For example, doctors recommended to use these berries for various diseases: nephritis, gastritis (only with low acidity), anemia, tuberculosis, diseases of the gallbladder, liver. And for those who want to lose some weight, it is recommended to use grapes daily (about two kilograms per day) for one and a half months.
From this variety you can cook a lot of things. For example, jam, juice, compote, wine, jam or raisins. Fresh grape juice is able to have a laxative, diuretic action. Thanks to the juice, you can slightly reduce the pressure.
Advantages and disadvantages
Based on the reviews, it is easy to notice the following advantages:
- Growth of shrubs up to two and a half meters annually.
- The ability to use grapes for different purposes: as for the manufacture of various dishes, and to decorate various areas.
- The berries have a dense skin that helps to transport without damaging the crop.
- It tolerates frosts perfectly (up to minus forty degrees).
- Crop easily tolerates various diseases.
- Berries ripen very quickly, before the cold snap.
- Easily take root in any climate.
But, unfortunately, it was not without flaws. Main disadvantage is that the bushes themselves grow very strongly, and because of this, in the first place, it is difficult to harvest. In order to prevent this situation, the bushes of grapes must be periodically pruned. If you take good care of the plant, avoiding thickening and other things, you can soon get a great harvest.
How to grow and care for grapes?
The care and planting of Amur grape varieties depends on the characteristics of the soil. Agronomists know several ways of planting.
So, planting grapes in the sandy soil, it is necessary to deepen the shoots in the trench, or more precisely, then:
First, dig a hole, the depth of which should reach thirty centimeters, and the width - fifty. Secondly, pit walls are strengthened boards, cobblestones or slate. And, thirdly, the grapes are planted in trenches.
If you come across a hybrid variety of Amur grapes, then it may be less resistant to frost. В этом случае в зимний период лозу необходимо немного наклонить и присыпать песком.
Лучший грунт для посадки амурского винограда - это суглинка или глина. Саженцы необходимо покупать двухлётние. They are planted in small pits, the diameter and depth of which can reach sixty centimeters. For the diversion of water, it is necessary to arrange a drainage (with this, claydite or brick scrap is often used). Next, you need to sprinkle everything with a mixture of humus, earth, peat and sand (river).
To reduce acidity in the pits poured ash (three shovels) and fertilizer (two tablespoons). After removing the seedlings from the temporary container, they are watered, then planted in the hole. Having planted a bush, it is necessary to water it again and make a small hill near the root neck. In order to protect the young from the wind, which can significantly spoil the leaves, you need to install a peg and tie a bush to it.
In order to prevent the inflorescence of the inflorescences and the slowing down of the ripening of the clusters, it is necessary to water the bush correctly, otherwise the previously listed problems can be achieved due to excessive humidity. Watering should be done at the root. Grapes must stop watering a few days before flowering (preferably a week).
No need to trim the leaves of the vine during the first year after planting. After this time bushes pruned, removing frail shoots and excess branches with leaves. Break off must start from the bottom.
So, I will tell everything from the very beginning.
A year ago, I planted several seedlings (two) of this very grape in my country house. Went carefully: watered, timely cut. But for some reason, saplings grew somehow barely, stunted. In the winter I covered them. Arriving in the spring to the country, I found that all the seedlings froze. Nothing left. Then I didn’t care, I threw the case. Subsequently, on the place where I planted two seedlings, several times passed the lawn mower. In my opinion, about four times.
As I said, I quit doing this business and did not come to the country for about a month. After a month, I finally decided to go and check what was happening there in the garden (or rather, I wanted to cut a rather overgrown area). But I was in for a surprise. I came, it means, and I see that in the place where the saplings once grew, a strong vine grows with full force, on which there are a lot of leaves! Happiness knew no bounds! Tied to a peg to grow evenly. I will continue to grow. Vibrant plant!
Near this house in Moscow this Amur grape has been growing for ten years already! Fruits annually, harvest quite a lot. The berries have medium-sized and sweet taste with a little sourness.
I can say almost no care for Amur grapes. He is so unpretentious and does not require special care that just WOW!
It hangs on the fence all year round, presenting us with its tasty harvest closer to autumn. Inside all this beauty (density) a lot of grapes. I don’t even know how much of the crop is out of season because it’s just huge!
Wild vine has the Latin name Vitis amurensis. Grapes are divided into three types depending on the range: Chinese, northern, southern. The northern type is widespread at the latitude of the Khabarovsk Territory, the southern type is found in the Far East, the Chinese have chosen the southern provinces of China.
Amur grapes prefer forest lawns, edges, slopes of low and medium height of mountains, river valleys and banks of reservoirs. The plant spreads on the soil or winds along the trunks of trees. Vitis amurensis is the most enduring and frost-resistant. Liana can withstand temperatures up to -45 degrees Celsius and soil freezing to minus 16 degrees.
Vitis amurensis has large vines with bark of brown color. Leaves are green, dull, covered with wrinkles. The berries of the vines are dark purple, practical black, with a tart sour-sweet taste. Ussuri grape has male and female inflorescences. Sometimes on one liana there are flowers of both sexes. "Female" vines bring berries without seeds. Flowering plant in May. Grapes fully ripen by the end of September.
The leading role in the cultivation of Amur grapes belonged to an outstanding biologist and breeder A. I. Potapenko. The first among specialists Alexander Ivanovich began work on the creation of noble varieties based on wild species. The idea, supported by students and followers, led to the formation of hardy frost-resistant hybrid varieties.
Ussuri grapes became the ancestor of a large group of northern varieties. The most famous are:
- Marinovsky. Bunches of vines ripen early September. The berries are dark blue with a thin skin, small, oval-shaped. The taste of the fruit is expressed slightly, the aroma is weak.
- Amethyst. Creepers are bisexual. The harvest ripens in the last weeks of August. Dark blue grapes are juicy, have a pronounced sweet taste, round. On each shoot four large clusters. The vine begins to bear fruit after planting the following year. Resistant to fungal infections. Berries varieties do not attract wasps.
- Triumph. Crop harvested in late August. The berries are large, dark pink with a sweet taste and aroma, reminiscent of pineapple. Vine fertility increases with age.
- Agat Donskoy. It is valuable for winemaking. Juices and wines of high quality are made from juicy berries with a rich taste of berries. Liana bisexual. Variety resistant to common diseases.
- Neretin. Used by winemakers. Wine made from varieties of berries, has a memorable chocolate flavor.
- New Russian. The early ripe grade, a crop is removed in the end of July. The berries are oval, red in color with juicy, fleshy pulp and delicate flavor.
The peak of the achievements of breeders of northern grape varieties is considered to be the breakthrough variety.
Variety "Breakthrough" has the author's name - "One" and "Potapenko-7." Distinctive features of the hybrid are unpretentious, endurance, rapid growth, decorative qualities. The foliage of the vines in the autumn period becomes crimson, therefore the plant is readily used by designers when creating landscape compositions.
Characteristics of Amur grape:
- Appearance. The variety is a strong deciduous vine with large clusters of berries. Grapevine shoots hover on the walls of buildings, held with antennae. For hybrid characterized by rapid growth. The length of the vine is increased by 2.5 meters per year.
- Bark and leaves. The bark of mature shoots of the vines is dark and smooth, but peels off on the old branches. Green with reddish tint young shoots in the autumn period become red-brown. The leaves are light green, large, oval-shaped, with teeth on the edge. In autumn, the foliage changes color to purple, which allows the plant to be used for decoration of arbors and terraces.
- Bloom. Variety "Breakthrough" has a racemose inflorescence. The flowers are small, pale yellow. Blooming grapes begins in early May. Inflorescences spread a delicate, pleasant smell and produce nectar in large quantities.
- Fruit. Berries are known for excellent sweet taste. The sugar content in the pulp is 23%, which is considered to be a high indicator for southern varieties. The shape of the grapes is round, the color is dark pink or thick purple. The peel of the fruit is dense, translucent under the rays of sunlight. The diameter of the berries - 2 centimeters, weight - about 4 g. The grapes have a mass of from four hundred grams to one kilogram, depending on the method of cultivation. One vine brings 10 kg of fruit. Grapes are good fresh, and jam, wine, compotes, jams are of excellent quality. Seeds are used to make butter and coffee substitute.
The variety "Breakthrough" has an amazing cold resistance. Mature plants comfortably winter under snow at a temperature of -40 degrees Celsius without a covering material. Young vines are less hardy, they are covered with spruce leaves or use a special non-woven insulation.
If in the case of a frosty winter 30% of the vine dies, the plants will recover and will bear fruit in full force.
Features of growing
Amur "Breakthrough" is easy to grow. For planting and care, you must follow simple rules. Vines multiply by seeds, cuttings and layering.
Seed propagation is rarely used by gardeners, despite 60% germination and viability maintained by the seed for five years. The fact is that with the seed method there is a high risk of loss of varietal qualities and fruiting begins 5-6 years after planting.
In late April, the seeds are soaked for several days and planted in pots. Seedlings grow well in the home. The emerged shoots are grown for one and a half or two months. At the end of June, the developed plants are transplanted into the open ground.
Most gardeners prefer to purchase seedlings in specialized nurseries, rather than germinating seeds. Landing is made in the pits of half a meter depth. At the bottom pour:
- the first layer is gravel drainage,
- the second layer - the soil mixed with fertilizers,
- the third layer is nutritious soil.
Reproduction by layering - the easiest and most popular way. In July, green shoots bend down to the ground and well sprinkled with soil.
Cutting is considered a reliable breeding option. The time of cutting cuttings (chubukov) comes after the leaf fall or in early December. Chubuki placed in plastic bags with wet coarse sand. Then stored until spring in a cool place at a temperature of from +1 to +5 degrees Celsius. Cuttings rooted in February and March, planted in special containers. Treatment with root-forming stimulants is not needed.
At the end of May, when warm weather sets in, cuttings are planted in open soil. Green cuttings are taken from the middle and lower parts of the shoots in June. Then placed in containers with a mixture of humus and sand and cover. When the cuttings take root, they are transplanted into open ground, usually at the end of July. Finishes planting abundant watering.
The Amur “Breakthrough”, according to the recommendations of the creator A. I. Potapenko, brings abundant yields in acidic, moist soil. You can acidify the soil by adding peat or turf soil to the soil. In general, the variety is undemanding to the composition of the soil.
For vines timely watering is important. Wet water is used for moistening, especially during the formation and ripening of fruits. In dry summers, the Amur “Breakthrough” grapes are plentifully watered twice a week.
It is necessary to fertilize the vines once a year with special minerals with sufficiently fertile soil. If the soil is not enough nutrients, the number of dressings increase in accordance with the needs.
Grapes have a high resistance to fungal, bacterial lesions and the effects of pests. Despite this, prevention in the form of spraying with special preparations is obligatory.
Amur grapes are famous for their healing properties.. The plant contains one hundred and fifty biologically active substances.
- B vitamins,
- pectins and fiber,
- essential oil,
- folic and organic acids,
From the northern grapes make tincture, which contains medicinal substances and helps to cope with diseases of the heart and blood vessels, diabetes, tumors, low immunity, liver disease, atherosclerosis, hypertension. Raw materials for making tinctures are petioles, leaves, berries. Juice does not apply, berries squeeze and use only cake.
To prepare the tincture you need:
- One hundred grams of raw materials pour 0.5 liters of vodka and close tightly.
- Infuse for seven days in a cool, dark place.
Tincture is recommended to take in the morning on a teaspoon, adding to tea.
- Raw materials in the amount of 100 g pour 500 ml of water and bring to a boil.
- In another hot broth add 100 ml of vodka and cool.
- The broth is ready immediately after cooling.
The decoction is used as a prophylactic agent to enhance memory, improve skin and hair, improve muscle tone and mood.
Amur grape hybrids are grown not only in the northern regions, but also in the central part of Russia. With proper care, the vines delight in abundant crops and attractive appearance.
Description of Amur grape and its characteristics
The species grows on the territory of the Far East, is common in Manchuria, Amur, Primorye, China, Korea. It is divided into northern, southern, and Chinese ecotypes. This is the most stable variety of grapes, is frost resistant, can withstand a decrease in air temperature to -45 ° C, and the surface layer of soil - to -15 ° C. The culture is suitable for cultivation in the conditions of the city, greening of industrial enterprises.
Some representatives of this species:
- Amur Breakthrough
- Golden Potapenko,
- New early Russian,
- Amur Triumph.
Detailed description depends on the variety. Basically it is a vine with a thickness of 5-10 cm, a length of 15-18 m, sometimes 20-25 m. Antennae twine around neighboring trees and supports, which allows the plant to spread widely around the perimeter.
The bark on old branches flakes off, leaves longitudinal plates, dark color. The young shoots are green or have a reddish tint; by the fall they turn to a reddish-brown color.
Leaflets change shape depending on the variety. Size is 9-25 cm, edges are sharp or rounded with serrate teeth, the bottom surface is covered with short bristles. In the fall, the green color changes to red, orange, yellow, and brown. Flowers are small, appear at the end of May. Racemes inflorescences, small. Culture is dichotomous, which must be considered when growing.
Berries up to 1.2 cm in diameter, covered with thick skin, black or purple, sometimes blue, juicy flesh. Taste depends on the sugar content of a particular variety and conditions of fruit ripening, the taste is sour. The average weight of a bunch of this variety is 20-70 g, and for grapes the Amur breakthrough reaches 250 g.
Features of planting and cultivating the Amur grape variety
The culture is used for landscaping the plot, for food, depending on the variety, is used fresh or used for making wine and juice. Before planting, you need to choose the right place to reduce the impact of adverse factors on the bush. The size of the plant should be taken into account - one grape is able to braid a tall tree or a gazebo, grows 2.5 m in a year. For this reason, it is advisable not to plant it near fruit crops.
Lighting should be good, because not all varieties have powdery mildew resistance, shading and dampness provoke the development of fungal infections.
For the Amur variety, a drained soil with an acidic environment is required; it does not tolerate the presence of lime. Favorably affects the application of high peat.
Grape care includes:
- protection from diseases and pests
- Some varieties require shelter for the winter.
The main methods of breeding - seeds, cuttings, layering. The Amur grape is a same-sex plant, occasionally there are bisexual representatives. In order for the berries to have a shift, it is necessary to arrange 1 masculine next to 2-3 lianas of the female type.
If only fruiting specimens are planted, there will be no seed material, the yield will decrease, the berries will become smaller, but in terms of their properties they are closer to the raisins. Before sowing, the seeds should be stratified for 4 months by cold. Seeding depth when planting 1.5 cm.
Grapes varieties Amur breakthrough well propagated by green cuttings. The survival rate is high, but such seedlings are poorly tolerated for wintering in the open ground. With pre-treatment of cut shoots of growth stimulant rooting occurs 2 times better. By layering, the Amur variety often breeds independently, which explains the rapid spread of culture throughout the site.
The procedure is carried out until mid-October, so that before severe frost the saplings have time to adapt to the changed conditions. Planting pits need to dig in advance, to be placed at a distance of at least 1 m from each other. It is important that the wastewater flows no closer than 2.5-3 m to the surface of the earth.
The parameters of the fossa depend on the size of the root system of the seedling. As a fertilizer to the garden soil add superphosphate, potassium sulfate, compost, humus. Heavy structure change making sand.
If the soil is clay, it is necessary to pour a drainage layer on the bottom, otherwise the water will linger, the roots of the grapes will rot.
Liana can grow up to 25 m, therefore, to facilitate maintenance and create comfortable conditions for harvesting, the top should be pinned periodically. Variety Amur Potapenko and some others for the winter require shelter. For this reason, they are recommended to be grown on a high trunk with 2 strong sleeves. Pruning is carried out briefly, on 3-4 developed eyes, the rest of the shoots are removed.
If in a given region the temperature does not fall below -35 ° C, the grapes are cultivated for the purpose of designing the landscape, the procedure is not necessary. In the autumn only broken branches are removed, the crown is thinned out. In the spring, frozen shoots are cut. If pests or signs of infection are heavily infested, the affected vines should be pruned regardless of the season. The formation of the harvest is required for some varieties to increase the mass and improve the taste of the formed brushes.
The first 2 years young saplings need to be watered regularly so that the earth does not dry out much. A week before flowering, stop moistening the soil so that the flowers do not crumble, the ripening of the crop does not slow down. Дождевание проводить не рекомендуется, поскольку данная операция провоцирует развитие грибковых инфекций.
Виноград сорта Амурский прорыв влаголюбив, поэтому в засуху требуется поливать независимо от возраста лозы. It is important to periodically loosen and weed the ground to provide air to the root system, to avoid the development of fungi.
When growing crops in order to harvest berries for winemaking or other needs, Amur grapes must be cared for. During planting, a sufficient amount of fertilizer is applied, then feeding is done 1 time per year in spring.
The procedure is always recommended to combine with irrigation, the composition of the mixture can be any complex universal, it is permissible to use organic matter.
Amur grape varieties have an average resistance to diseases, sometimes populated by harmful insects. It is recommended to carry out preventive spraying against pests in the spring. Having noticed them on the vine, it is important to take timely measures, remove and burn heavily damaged shoots, spray the above-ground part and the soil with a suitable insecticide. In this case, it is possible to use compositions according to national recipes and biological products that have less negative impact on the fruits.
Preparing for the winter
Most varieties of the Amur variety of grapes survive the winter well and do not require additional shelter. Young seedlings are less frost-resistant, so it is desirable to warm them.
After harvesting the representatives of the trunk circle unsuitable for the conditions of a harsh winter, the trunk circle should be covered with a thick layer of mulch; the vine can be removed from the support and covered in a trench. With snowy winters, freezing is rare. Decorative forms of culture usually do not insulate; if necessary, pruning of affected shoots is performed in the spring.
Secrets of growing the Amur breakthrough
Unlike other varieties, this grape easily makes an additional load, evenly nourishes all the tied tassels, so the formation of the crop is not required. Ripening in late August - early September, the berries are not afraid of the first frosts, on the contrary, they become sweeter. The Amur breakthrough is divorced by cutting, while reproduction by the seed method is the threat of loss of varietal characteristics.
When choosing a place, it is advisable to choose one that is protected from the cold wind, especially when grown in Siberia. In the shade the yield is lower, the fruit taste is sour.
For planting should dig a hole or a trench, at the bottom it is desirable to equip the drainage layer. Tapestry is installed immediately. To do this, metal or wooden stakes, 1.5-2 m long, are driven in along the bushes at a distance of 3-4 m from each other, and wire is tensioned on them.
In the groove to dig in an iron tube with a diameter of up to 12 cm so that 10-15 cm remains on the surface. When caring for a plant, water is poured into it, which immediately approaches the equine system of the plant. Around the vines soil mulch, loosening is performed regularly.
Young seedlings for the winter should be covered, removed from the trellis is optional. Pruning need only sanitary. The Amur breakthrough responds well to fertilizing with solutions of organic fertilizers, abundant watering (about 3 buckets of settled water per bush). Sprinkling of the crown and stripping of the roots should be avoided.
Amur grape varieties are grown in order to decorate the backyard plot and produce a crop. The variety is the most frost-resistant, adult vines withstand a strong lowering of temperature without warming for the winter. Care is watering, loosening, dressing and pruning.
How can one propagate and where is it better to plant Amur grapes than this species is valuable?
Amur grapes (Vitis amurensis) is a powerful deciduous vine with edible fruits in loose clusters, originally from the Far East, China and Korea.
This type of grape is very unpretentious and frost-resistant (can withstand frost up to –40 degrees), in nature it climbs on a support up to a height of 30 m, the trunk diameter is 10-20 cm. tolerates pruning and transplanting.
Ornamental dark green leaves of Amur grapes are large (up to 30 cm), have several lobes or almost whole. In autumn, they acquire a bright color of red and purple tones. In the autumn dress and with an abundance of dark fruit, the vine is especially beautiful, it is used for vertical gardening on supports.
Amur grapes bloom in early May. Its yellowish flowers in racemes are small, inconspicuous, with a delicate aroma and plenty of nectar.
The berries are round, black with a bluish bloom and thick skin, with a diameter of up to 1.5 cm, juicy, with a taste from sour to sweet.
Fruits of Amur grapes ripen in mid-September and are used for fresh consumption and processing, but do not have wide industrial significance. From the seeds get the oil and coffee substitute.
Amur grapes are best planted in a bright place in fertile and well-drained moist soil.
Amur grapes can be propagated by seed, cuttings or layering. The interbreeding of Amur grapes with the cultural allowed to create valuable winter-hardy varieties with high quality fruits.
Seeds are sown in the fall (immediately after picking the berries), and for spring sowing, their stratification is required for 2-4 months. Seedlings of Amur grape bloom at the age of about 5 years. Vegetative reproduction of grapes can significantly accelerate its fruiting.
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Amur grapes (Vitis amurensis) - perhaps one of the most hardy and cold-resistant grape species. Under natural conditions, it grows in the forests of the Russian Far East, in China and Korea. In nature, Amur grapes reach impressive sizes, climbing trees to a twenty-meter height, deftly clinging to the protrusions of the bark of bark and twigs with their antennae. These are beautiful plants with thick, winding trunks, up to 15 cm in diameter. Numerous vines with purple, almost black clusters of berries hang from the branches of tangled trees, sometimes almost to the ground.
In culture, Amur grapes have more modest dimensions, usually limited by the height of the support used. Amur grape berries are rounded with a diameter of 1.5 cm, purple or black with a bluish coating, juicy, with a thick skin, collected in conical or cylindrical clusters. On different instances of plants, berries can vary greatly in taste, there are plants with sour berries, and with a rather sweet, pleasant taste.
Berries of Amur grapes ripen in mid-September. Due to its endurance and unpretentiousness, Amur grapes are often grown in amateur gardens of central Russia, where they abundantly and annually.
The plant is so frost-resistant that its above-ground part without any damage tolerates temperatures down to -40 ° C. The root system of Amur grapes can withstand temperatures down to -16 ° C, which is comparable to the most frost-resistant apple rootstocks. Due to such properties, grapes easily survive cold winters with little snow, which often occur in our area.
Landing pits are prepared in advance. Mineral fertilizers are poured at the bottom: 250-300 g of superphosphate and 100 g of potassium sulphate. To fill the volume of the pit using the upper soil fertile layer, with the addition of well-rotted compost or humus.
Amursky grapes from the first year of planting is characterized by strong growth, so it immediately needs support. Despite the simplicity, a beautiful plant can be obtained only with good care. Decorative of fast-growing species primarily depends on the formation. For Amur grapes fit almost any type of crowns. Very nice plants look on a high trunk or formed in several tiers. But even if the task of maintaining a strict form is not set, it is necessary to regularly conduct sanitary pruning, to remove weak and randomly growing shoots that excessively thicken the crown. No less important is the issue of fertilizing.
If the planting pit was prepared correctly, then in the first two or three years only spring dressings with nitrogen fertilizers will be needed. In the summer they are fed with complex fertilizers, and in the fall with potash-phosphorus fertilizers.
Among the forms and varieties obtained with the participation of Amur grape there are bisexual. For example, Amur Potapenko 1 and "Aleshkovsky". In this case, one plant is enough.
Grape variety Amur breakthrough: description and cultivation features
Grapes are known and loved in different parts of the world. It grows both in gardens and on plantations. The popularity of the plant is explained by the fact that its berries are suitable for making wonderful drinks, confectionery, from which they get raisins. The leaves of grape plants possess useful properties are eaten. One of the best representatives of this culture is the Amur Breakthrough grape.
The history of the variety
In the wild forests in the Far East and the northern regions of China, a variety of grapes called Ussuria, and more often Amur, grows. It has strong branches, matte wrinkled foliage, which acquires a red-burgundy color in the fall.
Grape bushes grow near the streams, rivers. The size of its seedless fruit is about 2 cm. They are painted in dark purple, more like black. Grapes have a varied flavor range. There are plants with flowering feminine or masculine species. They bloom in late May. Fruits appear on the grape bush, having a female type of flowers. Grapes ripen by the end of the last decade of September.
Numerous experiments, consisting in the crossing of local varieties resistant to frost, led to the fact that a new type of grape was obtained, which is frost-resistant, resistant to diseases. From the wild grape bushes of the Amur region by the breeder of the world name A.I. Potapenko was genetically produced a variety called the Amur breakthrough. He gave rise to varieties of frost-resistant grape crops.
Grape Amur breakthrough occurs under the names of Potapenko-7 and Odin.
Wild Amur grapes - the progenitor of the Amur breakthrough
Description of the grape variety Amur Breakthrough
This is a vigorous plant. Grape bush develops quickly. The shoots that appeared in the 1st year are green at first, they darken in the autumn period and become red. Shoots formed a lot. In one season the bush can grow by 2.5 m. The vine, relying on the tapestries, the walls of buildings, for several years stretched to 35 m. The trunk diameter can reach 20 cm. The bark is thin, brown in color. Every year there is more and more detachment.
The leaves are round or elongated in shape, cloves at the edges, reach 250 mm in length. On the back of the leaf plates - a short light down.
In the fall, the foliage of grapes Amursky breakthrough is painted in red shades, which looks very elegant
The Amur breakthrough berries are round, dark pink, dark blue or purple. An average bunch of grapes weighs about 300–400 g. Cultivation conditions have a direct effect on its mass. Each berry weighs about 4 g. Its size is about 15 mm.
The berries are larger than those of wild grapes, but the increase in size weakened the dark pigmentation, making them paler.
The skin of the fruit is dense. The taste of juicy sweet pulp is pleasant. Fruits are well transported, not damaged by wasps. The Amursky grape variety is similar in properties to the representatives of Far Eastern varieties: Ametistovo, Triumph, Neretinsky.
Potapenko was able to improve the taste of local wild grape berries and make the resulting variety useful for both table consumption and for use as a valuable raw material in the production of quality wines, juices, compotes, and jam. From berry pits receive essential oils, coffee substitutes.
The Amur breakthrough is released by an elevated sugar level - 23%. This value is significant for a number of southern varieties.
Amur breakthrough grape berries - with dense skin, juicy flesh, pleasant taste
When planting, you need to choose a well-lit plot of land, for example, its southern, south-western side - grapes like sunlight. Plant vines preferable to the border of garden possessions. Plants located along one line will take up less space; they will be better lit from all sides by the sun.
Good grapes require a lot of light for good ripening.
During the period of fruit ripening the vine does not tolerate the wind, especially cold. Therefore, from the northern edge of the site, plants are trying to close the wall or trees.
For the cultivation of the Amur breakthrough any soil will be suitable, but it is preferable to choose loose acidic soils that are wetted with good drainage. You should not plant grapes in the area where the groundwater passes close to prevent the roots from washing out, which is harmful for the crop.
Worse grapes grow on limestone lands prone to rapid drying. When the soil is alkaline, turf soil and peat are added to it. If there are buildings nearby, the water from the roofs should not fall on the plant.
On flat land near the ridges should go through the grooves to drain water. On fertile soils, the roots of the plant first develop well, but when the soil becomes wetted, they begin to suffocate. Excess moisture can be removed using deep pits on the ground with normal natural drainage, possibly creating artificial drainage conditions.
Preparation and planting seedlings
Annual (two-year-old) seedlings with a well-developed root system with more than 3 internodes act as planting material. The main roots of the planting material at the bottom of the cutting are cut before planting, leaving 15 cm, remove all diseased, frozen roots.
With an underdeveloped main root system, the roots of the nodes are left. In this case, instead of a vertical landing is inclined.
For planting use 1-2 year old saplings
Together with the roots they shorten the stalk, leaving 3 ниж 4 lower mature buds on it. Cut off roots are immersed in a mixture of clay with manure (mash). After that, they take root better. If there is no such mixture, the roots are immersed in a container with water and leave the plant in this state before planting.
Before planting grape seedlings, they dig a pit or a common trench of 0.8–1.9 m width and depth not less than the length of root processes under each of them. At the bottom of the soil can be loosened to the depth of the spade bayonet, to lay the bottom drainage: sand, gravel, broken bricks. Then at the bottom of the pit from the extracted soil, compost (10 kg), superphosphate (300 g), potassium salt (calcium chloride) or fertile forest soil (100 g), an elevation-hillock is constructed.
For the convenience of planting grapes can not dig up individual wells, and a single trench
On top of the elevation set seedling, spreading the roots around the entire circumference. Pour 10 liters of water into the recess. Then it is covered with fertilized soil to the very top. The bud, located at the bottom of the seedling, should be flush with the ground. Once again, the planted plant is watered so that the soil will settle. On top of the seedling spud fertile soil to a height of 4? 5 cm, put hay, straw. The role of mulch:
The land under the grapes is regularly loosened. At this time, mulch shift, and at the end of the work back. Near the plants set the trellis for support. In its simplest form, it is just a stick to which the vine is tied.
It is necessary to provide for a trellis construction that will last for a long time and will not need to be changed.
- Prepare pegs from long thick branches of acacia or other material. The height of one is about 1.5 m.
- Outside, they are treated with resin to prevent rot. The part of the pegs protruding above the ground can be painted or varnished.
- Pegs drive into the ground, leaving a gap between them 4 m.
- To make the structure more stable, additional props are placed on the first and last pegs.
- Tension wire or rope between all the pegs in 2 rows. The location of the first row is 0.3 ± 0.4 m from the surface of the earth. The second row of tension in the 0.3 m from the first.
For grapes, you must install the trellis
How to care for grapes Amur breakthrough after planting
In dry weather, the grapes are watered. In order to accelerate the growth and development of the bush at the same time with irrigation produce fertilizing slurry diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 5. Instead of manure, you can use complex fertilizer containing phosphorus, nitrogen, potassium (70 g of fertilizer per bucket of water).
It is possible to simplify the procedure of watering a plant by installing a pipe 100 mm in diameter inside the pit when the process is placed in it. Its tip should rise above the top of the ground. Planted sprout is watered through the hole. Water will flow directly to the root system.
For irrigation of grapes even during planting seedlings in the hole, you can install a pipe
The aging of the vine is stimulated by breaking off the formed stepchildren. With the onset of September, pinch the main processes. У привитых ветвей обрезают корни, возникшие на привое в точке спайки подвоя (основного побега) и привоя (отростка, прививаемого к основному растению).
Формирование виноградных кустов
Если виноградным кустам вовремя не придавать необходимую форму, то в процессе их развития у растения появляется много дополнительных ненужных побегов, которые растут хаотично. Они причиняют вред будущему урожаю, потребляя питание. По годам формирование происходит следующим образом:
Subsequently, pruning of grapes is carried out similarly: up to 15 buds are left on one of the sprouts grown for replacement, intended for fruiting, up to 3 buds on the other sprout grown for replacement next year.
The bushes are pruned twice: in the autumn before digging the plant, in the spring - after its digging. For fruiting, young annual shoots should be left in such an amount that they have from 60 to 100 pieces of buds with buds of inflorescences.
In the spring, the bushes are freed from shelter, pruned shoots for replacement (for 2? 3 buds), the vines are tied to a trellis. The sleeves with fruit-bearing branches are tied up in a horizontal position to the two lower rows of the wire, and the shoots that will grow in the summer are tied vertically. During the summer period, all excess shoots and part of the shoots from the shoulders and sleeves are removed from the grape bush.
With the onset of September, in order for the vines to mature better, they carry out minting, which consists in removing the upper part from 3 to 5 internodes (leaf anchorages) from the shoots. If you make minting too early, when the bush develops, many stepchildren will be formed.
What does annual grape care include? Amur Breakthrough
Some features of grape care:
Shelter for the winter
Grape Amur breakthrough refers to frost-resistant varieties. It is not covered at -20 ° C. The exception is young saplings, which should be closed in the first year after planting.
At lower temperatures, grapes harbor. It is removed from the trellis in the winter to cover them with snow. Severe frost can destroy up to a third of the branches of a crop, but the remaining branches are enough to recover and have a good harvest. For this reason, grapes are sometimes grown without pruning.
Amur breakthrough is resistant to frost, but in the northern regions and it requires shelter for the winter
We have in the village of Amur breakthrough in 4 winegrowers. Conclusion we made such that he loves sour soil (in his homeland such), the humidity of the climate and heat, but not the heat. We have forest-steppe, dry, chalky soil, carbonates.
I still have one sapling Odin, if you count the year rooting, then he is the third year. Waiting for the signal harvest. Last year, the bush did not really grow until July - it only gave 2 vines of 70 cm each, and it matured after freezing. In the autumn I was too lazy to shelter, I just pressed it to the ground, but we had all the wintry buds. In the spring I had to round off all the lower and half of the upper ones. On May 25, the increase is already up to a meter and more than half of the shoots with brushes - it's time to normalize. While I see a promising variety for gardening the fence - the most powerful early growth, the high winter-hardiness stated and an elegant leaf.
Amur Breakthrough (One) - Amurets. I have seven years under Peter. One grows, matures even in the open ground on Smolensk ridges. He sheltered the first two years for the winter, then stopped; there were no cases of freezing. There are no treatments at all, only in the Bordeaux fluid in the spring. Mildew if it gets, then after harvest. The wine turns out beautiful. I myself am a former Khabarovsk citizen, summer in St. Petersburg is far from being the same as in Khabarovsk, however, some grapes ripen perfectly. Mainly inside the greenhouse, but in the open field, Odin, Boyarinov's Star, New Russian, Valiant mature. But it is necessary to land on Smolensk ridges, the heat is still much less here than in Khabarovsk. But the disease is less.
Grapes varieties Amur breakthrough should attract the attention of gardeners. It is good for growing in different climatic conditions, being an unpretentious and frost-resistant culture. In addition, the variety has a stable yield, memorable taste, large berries and original foliage that adorns the garden.
Amur Grape (Ussuri)
Amur or Ussuri grapes (Vitisamurensis) are the most frost-resistant and most unpretentious type of grapes. Under natural conditions, it grows in the Far East, as well as in China and Korea. Lianas covered with thick green foliage are found in thickets and forest edges, in river valleys, on the mountain slopes. Wild grapes braid high tree trunks, rising to the sunlight, or spread along the ground. Heavy clusters of dark berries adorn this plant.
Amur grapes began to be cultivated in the 50s of the 19th century. Due to its exceptional endurance, this type of grape grows well in regions with cold winters and does not require complex care.
Distinctive features of Amur grapes
Amur grapes have a powerful liana, which can rise on a support by 10 m or even more. Dark green leaves are usually of large size - their length is up to 15 cm.
Young leaves are painted in light shades of green and in summer they can create a beautiful contrast with rich dark greens. The shape of grape leaves is whole, 3-5 lobed or heart-shaped. The first leaves appear when average temperatures approach + 10 ° C.
Flowering occurs in the first weeks of June. Amur grapes - dioecious plant. You can plant only female plants on the plot: in this case, the berries will be small, but sweet and kishmishnymi (seeds will be absent). To get a good harvest of large berries, one male and several female grapes should be planted next to the pollination.
The Amur variety gives a stable and rich harvest in central Russia. Fruits, as a rule, ripen in September, acquiring a purple or almost black color with a bluish wax bloom. Their diameter is about 1-1.2 cm.
The taste of berries varies from sour to pleasant sour-sweet and even sweet, and improves after frost. Most often, the fruit of the Amur grapes make excellent wine, compotes, fruit drinks, jam and jams. Fresh young leaves are suitable for preparing delicious salads, first courses and dolmas.
Russian breeders brought wonderful varieties of Amur grapes, characterized by resistance to weather factors, diseases and pests, excellent taste and yield.
Among them it is worth highlighting the “Amur Breakthrough”, “Amethyst”, “Aleshkovsky”, “Amursky Potapenko”.
Amur grapes are successfully used in landscape design. This is a wonderful plant for vertical gardening of residential buildings, fences, arbors, arches, pergolas and other small architectural forms.
Resistance to frost and air pollution allows you to grow it in relatively unfavorable urban conditions and ennoble the territories of industrial enterprises.
Particularly attractive is Amur grapes in autumn. Its beautiful leaves are painted in various shades of color: red, orange, pink, scarlet. Dark clusters of berries look very advantageous against the elegant background of variegated foliage. These decorative qualities are of particular value for decorating the site.
Planting and care
First of all, it is necessary to determine the place of planting, taking into account the peculiarities of the soil. Amur grape loves sour and loose soil and does not tolerate excess lime. A beneficial effect on the plant will fertilize the land with highly acidic peat.
The grapes are planted in areas open to sunlight or slightly shaded. Be sure to take care of a reliable and strong support for this fast-growing type of grape. You should not choose a place close to other fruit and berry crops for planting, in order to avoid them being muffled by grapes.
The optimal size of the pits for planting is 50x50x60 cm. Before planting, fertilizers are applied to the pits. Fill the pits with a fertile layer of soil with the addition of organic fertilizers.
Amur grapes require regular good irrigation and periodic fertilizing with fertilizer. Formulation is of great importance for the care of the plant. First of all, you should remove stunted shoots. The plant can be grown on a high trunk with shoulders and sleeves extending from it or forming a crown in several tiers.
With good care, Amur grapes will serve for many years as a wonderful decoration of your plot and will delight with a rich harvest of tasty and healthy berries.
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Grape Amur breakthrough: description of the variety, cultivation features and reviews
Amur grapes are naturally found in the Far East (in forests) and in the northern provinces of China. It has powerful vines, covered with brown bark, wrinkled, matt green leaves that take on a beautiful red and brown color in autumn.
Wild Amur grapes settle near rivers and streams. The berries are about two centimeters in diameter, deep purple, almost black in color with different flavors. In the wild, the plant has female and male types of flowers. Creepers with bisexual buds grow quite rarely. Female flowering grapes bear fruit with pitted berries. Flowering begins in the second half of May. Grapes fully mature at the end of September.
These grapes can be divided into three ecotypes:
In the cultivation of this plant, the breeder A. I. Potapenko played a special role. One of the first he decided to cultivate noble varieties from wild creepers. And I must say that his idea, picked up by the followers, made it possible to create numerous Amur varieties and forms of grapes, distinguished by frost resistance and endurance.
Grape Amur Breakthrough: variety description, reviews
This variety has two more copyright names - One and Potapenko-7. According to experienced growers, the variety is distinguished by unpretentiousness, endurance and ease of care.
He was brought out by A.I. Potapenko on the basis of Amur natural forms. Grape Amur breakthrough is characterized by a powerful growth force and unusual foliage, which in the fall acquires an elegant purple color. Due to these decorative properties, a variety, according to winegrowers, can be successfully used in landscape design.
Outwardly, the Amur breakthrough grape resembles a very powerful deciduous vine, covered with rather loose clusters. With the help of the antennae the grapes are climbing up the nearby buildings. This variety has a high rate of formation of shoots. In a year the growth of the plant can be up to 2.5 meters.
The bark covering the vine is dark. On old shoots she peels off. On young branches, it is green or reddish. In the autumn it becomes red-brown.
The Amur breakthrough grape, the description of which today can be found in almost all reference books on horticulture and viticulture, forms rather large leaves of light green color. They have a rounded or elongated shape, along the edges with small sharp teeth.
The inner side of the sheet plate is covered with soft down. In autumn, the foliage becomes purple-red, thanks to this variety is often used to decorate fences, arbors. Leaf fall begins in early October.
Grapes Amur breakthrough begins to bloom in early May, small racemes with a yellowish tint. They are inconspicuous, but have a pleasant delicate aroma and emit a large amount of nectar.
The Amur breakthrough grape variety is famous for its excellent taste, although many believe that the northern varieties must necessarily be sour and small, suitable only for cooking compotes.
The berries are round in shape with a dark purple or deep pink dense skin that literally glows in the sun, about one and a half centimeters in diameter and weighs up to four grams. The fruits of this grape are characterized by a high sugar content (23%). This figure is considered high even for many southern table varieties.
The weight of the clusters depends largely on the cultivation conditions. The average bunch weight is 400 grams, but some growers manage to grow kilogram clusters. From one bush removed from 10 kg of berries and more. The fruits have a pleasant exquisite taste and can be used for consumption, both in fresh form, and for use in the preparation of wine, jam, compotes and jams. Coffee substitute is made from seeds and aromatic oil is obtained.
Without exaggeration, we can say that the Amur Breakthrough grape is a champion in winter hardiness. Amazingly, adult bushes are able to winter without shelter and endure frosts down to - 40 ° C. However, young vines better shelter from severe frosts. Grape whips are best taken for the winter from the trellis to be covered with snow.
Very low temperatures can destroy a third of the vine, but the plant is instantly restored and bears fruit very well. It is these qualities that made the Amur Breakthrough grapes so popular. Buy in Moscow seedlings is not difficult. In the Moscow region, more and more, you can see this grape.
We hope that you have learned a lot of interesting things about Amur grapes (planting, care). The healing properties of this plant also can not be ignored. Amur grape is a unique plant, one of the survivors of the ice age. He adapted to the most severe conditions. This grape produces more than one hundred and fifty active substances.
The berries contain many B vitamins and pectins, fiber and essential oil, hemicellulose and protein, folic and organic acids, sucrose and antioxidants. A unique substance has been found in the leaves and skins - resveratrol. It is called the "elixir of youth" for its special ability to slow down the aging process. This is a very powerful antioxidant that has proven its effectiveness in the course of scientific experiments.
A medical tincture is made from Amur grapes, which helps to fight many diseases:
For the preparation of such tinctures are used petioles, berries or leaves of the plant. If you use berries, they need to be squeezed out and only dry cake is left - juice in this case is not needed. It is necessary to pour 500 ml of vodka and insist in a cool and always dark place for a week. The tincture is consumed in the morning, adding a teaspoon to one hundred grams of tea.
From the leaves and petioles first make a decoction. One hundred grams of raw material is poured 500 ml of water and brought to a boil. В горячий отвар необходимо добавить 100 мл водки и состав остудить. Средство готово к употреблению сразу, как только оно остынет. Доза такая же, как и в первом рецепте. Здоровым людям эта настойка подойдет в качестве профилактического средства. Она улучшит память, придаст сил, улучшит состояние волос и кожи.
Grapes Amur breakthrough: reviews gardeners
This variety can be grown not only in the northern regions, but also in the middle lane. Although some winegrowers from the Moscow region note that it takes root quite difficult, but then powerful bushes delight rich harvests of wholesome and very tasty berries.
Inconsistent reviews received this variety about disease resistance. In most reference books, the variety is called complexly resistant, but at the same time, winegrowers in the middle lane note that the plant is often affected by mildew. Many people believe that the Amur breakthrough best manifests its qualities in Primorye, where the weather conditions are somewhat smoothed: there are no spring frosts characteristic of the middle belt.
Gardeners include the indisputable advantages of the variety:
- heavy fruiting,
- genetically high plasticity,
- high frost resistance
- the ability of the vine to withstand high loads,
- early growing season
- excellent taste characteristics of berries,
- valuable medicinal properties inherited from parental varieties.