At the word “magnolia”, the imagination paints a picture of a southern seaside city, where trees grow with large leathery leaves and with beautiful, large, wax-like, white flowers that emit a delightful scent.
Magnolia, numbered among the oldest plants, is of Eastern origin. In China, the magnolia flower is considered the personification of purity and chastity, it is enveloped in many legends. The plant was brought to Europe in the 17th century, and the name was given in honor of the French botanist Pierre Magnol.
Magnolia genus, belonging to the family of Magnolia, includes about 80 species of plants, which are deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs. They vary in height, shape, size and color of flowers.
Magnolia is valued not only for the extraordinary decoration, beauty of flowers and fragrance, which is widely used in perfumery, but also for healing properties. Essential oils contained in the flowers and leaves of the plant can alleviate the condition during hypertension, rheumatism, diseases of the digestive system.
Magnolia is from 5 to 20 m high. The roots of the plant are located close to the soil surface. The crown can be in the shape of a pyramid or a sphere.
Leaves dense, glossy, elliptical. Flowers solitary, bisexual, large, from 6 to 35 cm in diameter. The color of oblong, waxy petals of magnolia depends on its variety - white, cream, pink, red, lilac and lilac.
Petals are located imbricate, in one or in several layers. Flowers emit a strong and very pleasant lemon-vanilla scent. Flowering occurs in April or June, it depends on the variety.
A fruit is formed from a flower - a cone-shaped cone leaflet consisting of small single or double seedlings. Magnolia seeds are triangular in shape; they are black in color and hang on seed threads when leaflets are opened.
The following types of magnolia are recommended for growing in temperate climates with cold winters:
- Magnolia Kobus. Deciduous, frost-resistant tree with extended crown, not afraid of gas pollution. Leaves dumps in October. Flowering can be expected for a long time, only 9-12 years of life of the plant. The flowers are small, white, very fragrant.
- Magnolia stellate. Maybe a tree and a bush, the height is about 4-6 m. The crown in the form of a sphere or an oval. It blooms in March-April with pink fragrant flowers with elongated petals, which are arranged in several layers.
- Magnolia Lebner. It is a hybrid of Magnolia stellate and Cobus. The tree is 8-9 m tall with a rounded crown and pink-white flowers with a sweetish scent. It blooms in April.
- Magnolia Sulanzha. The most sought after view. The tree is 8-10 m high, in April beautiful lilac-pink flowers with the finest scent are revealed.
- Magnolia Ash The most cold-resistant view. Flowering begins at 2-4 year of life in May. The tree height is 5-7 m. Fragrant large flowers have a snow-white color.
Less cold-resistant varieties include:
- Magnolia naked. Favorite type of magnolia in China. Tree tall, up to 15 m. It has large, cream-shaped cupped flowers.
- Magnolia lilia color. This is a shrub magnolia that blooms in May and June. The flowers are dark crimson on the outside and pinkish-white on the inside.
- Magnolia is obovate. This tree grows to a height of 30 m, it has huge leaves with a length of 1 m and large white flowers.
- Magnolia of Kyuvenskaya It is a hybrid of Magnolia Kobus and Magnolia wolf. All parts of that tree have anise smell. Flowers are large, creamy white, fragrant.
Site selection and preparation for planting
Magnolia prefers sunny areas, especially when grown in the northern regions. In the southern climate, you can choose a place slightly shaded.
Blown drafts and northerly winds place is not suitable for landing. You should not plant a magnolia under fruit trees - ripe fruit falling from them can break off the flowers of the branches and magnolia flowers.
The soil should not be salted and limestone, suitable fertile, well permeable to water and air of the soil. Acidity preferably weak or zero. Too wet soils are also not suitable for magnolia.
If the soil on the site is too zazveskovannaya, then you can dig it with the addition of peat to acidify it. The ideal soil composition is 1 part sod land, 2 parts peat, ½ part sand.
Seedlings should be selected with a height of about 1 m with covered roots and 1-2 open flowers.
Experienced gardeners advise planting magnolias in open ground in autumn, in the second decade of October. A plant that is at rest in this period can tolerate the winter well. Since it is not advisable to replant the magnolia, it is necessary to choose a permanent place for it correctly. If several trees are planted, the distance between the seedlings should be 4-5 m. Planting is carried out according to the following scheme:
- The pit is prepared in advance, the size is 3-5 times larger than the earthen clod of the seedling.
- Drainage material is deposited in the bottom of the pit with a layer of 15 cm.
- Then pour a layer of sand with a thickness of 10 cm.
- A layer of manure 15 cm thick is laid on the sand.
- A layer of sand 15 cm thick is poured over the layer of manure.
- A suitable soil mixture is laid on a layer of sand, and a sapling is placed in the middle.
- Next, the soil is filled up, it is necessary to ensure that the root neck is flush with the ground.
- The soil is carefully tamped and watered well. The ground around the trunk circle is mulched with bark of pine needles to retain moisture for a longer time.
Magnolia can be called an unpretentious plant, but for a beautiful and abundant flowering, it needs some care.
Often it is necessary to water young plants, especially in the heat. Watering is done once a week by 2-3 buckets of water per plant. In case of drought, the intensity of irrigation should be enhanced. Water for irrigation should be settled at room temperature.
Fertilizers must be applied carefully, taking into account agrotechnical rules, otherwise the magnolia can be overfed. In the first couple of years, fertilizing is not required. From the third year in the initial phase of the growing season, special mineral mixtures are introduced, observing the indicated dosage.
If the leaves begin to dry out early in the last decade of July, you must stop feeding and increase watering.
Magnolia branches are not cut to shape the crown. They produce only sanitary pruning in early spring, removing frozen and damaged branches during the winter. After flowering, scorched flowers are removed. The cut must be smeared with a garden pitch.
Magnolia propagated by seeds, cuttings, layering and vaccinations. Seed method is very time consuming and long, with it does not preserve the species characteristics. Gardeners usually use breeding with cuttings and layering.
Shrubs of magnolias propagate by layering. To do this, in the spring, lower the lower branch to the ground, fix it in this position and fall asleep with soil.
After 1-2 years in the place of contact with the soil roots are formed. The rooted part is separated and transplanted to the chosen place in the usual way.
Tree magnolias are most easily propagated by cuttings, which are prepared at the end of June, during the period of active growth. Cut cuttings so that the lower part was stiffened, and the top - with green shoots. Cuttings are planted in the usual way in the greenhouse.
After 7-8 weeks, they take root, another 1 year they grow in greenhouse conditions, and only then transplanted into the open ground at the chosen place.
Diseases and pests
Rodents - moles and mice can cause the greatest harm to magnolias. They gnaw the root of the tree. If this happens, it is necessary to urgently process the damaged areas of the trunk with a 1% solution of basezol.
Of insects, the greatest danger is the spider mite. He settles on the back of the sheet and pulls out the juice from it. The leaf begins to turn pale and dry. Upon detection of these signs, it is necessary to make treatment with a solution of tobacco tincture.
When infected with fungal infections, such as powdery mildew, black fungus, scab, and gray mold, it is necessary to immediately spray with a suitable fungicide.
Preparing for the winter
Even frost-resistant varieties of magnolia should be wrapped for the winter. We must wait for the soil to freeze slightly, and wrap the lower part of the tree trunk with sacking, and close the circle circle with needles. In the spring the shelter is taken apart.
Summary of Magnolia Growing Rules
Magnolia is grown not only in the south, there are also winter-hardy varieties suitable for planting in areas with a temperate middle belt.
Magnolia is not capricious in the care. Moderate watering, timely feeding, sanitary pruning and mulching will help her look great and bloom luxuriantly.
Magnolia should be protected from rodents that damage the trunk, as well as sprayed with fungicides in case of detection of fungal diseases.
Tree magnolia is propagated by cuttings, and shrubby magnolia is layered.
In the northern regions of magnolia should be covered for the winter.
Description and characteristics
About the plant is known from ancient times. About him a lot of beliefs and legends. He is considered the ancestor of flowering trees and bushes.
The low magnolia shtamb is valued not only for its magnificent appearance, but also for its beneficial essential oils, which are contained in the leaves, flowers, and fruits. They are used in perfumery and traditional medicine. Magnolia oil helps in the fight against hypertension, with problems with the joints, restore the work of the digestive system.
There is a large selection of magnolia varieties. More than 80 species of plants are grown, which differ in size, the appearance of flowers (the color can be purple, pink, white, cream, yellow), climatic requirements.
Choosing a landing site
First you need to choose a suitable variety for the region in which magnolia cultivation is planned. Depending on the natural area in which the magnolia tree grows, the appropriate variety is selected. The tree does not tolerate frosty winters. The right choice of variety will enable gardeners to grow an ornamental plant in the garden.
Choosing a site for Magnolia
The varieties of Lebner (magnolia tree with white flowers) and Kobus are claimed to be frost-resistant, suitable for regions with cold winters. Magnolia Ash, Sulange and Wilson are also adapted to frost, but less stable than Kobus and Lebner. Magnolia species will allow you to choose a suitable variety for the region. Tulip lyriodendron (magnolia tulip tree) is a plant of the magnolia family, resistant to frost. Tulip tree can be grown in central Russia.
Magnolia and Liriodendron are very similar. There are several features that distinguish tulip trees from magnolia:
- Flower shape. The Liriodendron resembles a tulip,
- Leaf size and shape.
- The location for planting magnolia should be protected from the wind. The plant may stop developing with constant drafts,
- A flowering tree grows well in the light, so the site is recommended to choose a sufficiently lit, but without direct sunlight. In the open area, Magnolia varieties feel comfortable: Star-shaped, Kobus, Lebner.
On a note. Variety Kobus is resistant to the negative effects of emissions of enterprises, exhaust gas, which makes it possible to plant a plant near highways and industrial zones.
To protect the magnolia from the wind, it is planted next to higher trees. Neighborhood with fruit crops is undesirable - there is a risk of damaging flowering branches with falling fruits.
Optimum landing time
Ornamental tree can be planted in open ground in spring, summer or autumn periods. The most favorable time for planting is autumn.
In spring, the plant begins to grow actively, all the energy is spent not on rooting, but on the development of the crown and flowers. For spring-summer, the growth of young shoots is obtained, which do not have time to prepare for winter and die from frost. They begin to plant a young plant in April, when the air warms up to 15-18 degrees, but with a sharp frost the tree may die.
Planting a tree in the fall
In autumn, the tree is planted at rest. It easily survives the winter. In the open ground magnolia is placed in the middle of October. The root system during planting should be closed, so the plant adapts faster to the new place. According to statistics, young seedlings that were planted in the autumn, almost all survive. Growing a magnolia flower at home does not require much strength from the gardener.
Magnolia requires some care. If you know the features of planting and rules of care, then growing a tree with extraordinary beauty with flowers will not give the gardener any trouble.
Favorable soil for magnolia is considered to be moderately wet, drained, fertile, with a low level of acidity. The plant will not grow in saline or calcareous soil.
The composition of the soil for planting:
- Peat mixture,
- Turf ground (hardwood can be used)
The successful growth of a flowering tree depends on the soil.
Saplings for planting is better to buy in trusted stores. A plant with a closed root system quickly takes root in a new place with a spring or autumn planting. Sapling should be from 1 m tall with several blossoming flowers. So you can accurately determine that this variety is suitable for the local climate.
Having chosen strong seedlings for planting, a plot illuminated and protected from the wind with suitable fertile soil, you can start planting magnolia.
Planting Magnolias in open ground
Magnolia flower cultivation, step by step instruction:
- Preparation of pits for seedlings. The volume of the pit should be 2 times the volume of the roots.
- Stir the rotted compost with the nutrient layer of the upper soil left over after digging the hole. If the earth is dense, then add some sand to it,
- Lay a drainage layer 20 cm thick at the bottom of the pit. As a drainage, broken bricks or crushed ceramic tiles can be used,
- Pour sand over the drainage layer, about 15-20 cm. Above the sand, prepared nutrient mixture from the fertile soil layer and compost is poured,
- In the middle of the fossa place the seedling with a lump of earth. To make the plant easier to remove from the container, it is poured with slightly warm water,
- The root neck of the seedling should be 5 cm above the ground. It does not need to bury,
- The empty space of the pit is filled with soil mixture. The hole in the circle tamped hands
- Plenty of water each well
- After the water is well absorbed into the ground, the well is sprinkled with peat mulch, sawdust from coniferous trees. This will protect the young sapling from drying out,
- The distance between the seedlings to do 4-5 m. It will look good group of trees planted around the perimeter of the site.
Tulip variety begins to bloom in April, when the leaves have not yet blossomed on the tree. After flowering, the fruit is formed in the form of a cone-shaped leaflet.
On a note. Magnolia saplings important to plant on a permanent place. The tree does not tolerate subsequent transplants from place to place.
Watering and feeding
Properly plant a sapling - the key to successful cultivation of an ornamental tree. For rooting and development of a young plant, it needs care. Rules for the care of magnolia are almost the same as for fruit crops.
Young trees require regular abundant watering. In dry climates, it is recommended to water an adult plant.
You can water it once a week. Each bush will need 10-15 liters of water. Dry summer can adversely affect the richness of foliage and magnolia flowers, so the number of waterings in the hot months can be increased as needed. After watering, lay a layer of mulch. Last year's leaf, coniferous wood is used.
Loosen the ground for better breathability preferably every 3-4 weeks. Do loosening carefully, going up to a maximum of 20 cm, as the tree has surface roots. Weed grass is desirable to clean hands.
Special fertilizers for Magnolia
Recommendations for feeding Magnolia:
- It is possible to begin top dressing in 2 years after planting a sapling. When planted in a hole, a sufficient amount of fertilizer is added, it is enough for the development of the plant,
- In the spring, a mixture is used as top dressing: urea (15 g), mullein (1 kg), ammonium nitrate (25 g),
- In autumn you can feed with a nitroammofos solution (20 g for 2 buckets of water),
- In special stores there are fertilizers “For Magnolia”, “Kemira-Universal”.
Subject to the recommendations when planting and caring for magnolia shrubs, you can grow a beautiful plant. To grow a healthy tree, he will need timely feeding.
If the foliage of a tree begins to fall off and dry ahead of time, then this is a sign of a possible overdose of fertilizers. In this situation will help abundant watering.
On a note. Sometimes with the wrong planting scheme and care, the magnolia does not bloom, which is recommended in a similar situation: transplant the plant to a new place, change the watering, the number of fertilizing, check for pests.
Diseases and pests: control and prevention
The plant rarely gets sick and is attacked by pests.
Rodents can damage a root neck of a plant. Another pest is the mole. He is able to undermine the roots, which leads to drying and death of the tree. Damaged areas of the trunk are treated with a 1% solution of basezol.
If the plant receives an insufficient amount of moisture, spider mites may appear. This is a dangerous magnolia pest. They suck out nutrients from the magnolia, vegetable juice and cause great damage to the plant. To get rid of pests, the shrub is treated with acaricidal agents, for example, Aktar.
Magnolia - a very beautiful home flower, as if with hundreds of tulips on the branches, will become a luxurious ornamental plant in the garden. Magnolia is considered unpretentious, grow it easily. She practically does not get sick and is not attacked by pests. With proper care, the tree for many years will delight gardeners with its delicate and fragrant flowers.
Different types of magnolia grow in the form of a bush or tree. Some have brown bark, others are ashen with a gray tint. Externally, it is scaly, smooth or striated. The tree can reach a height of up to 20 meters, although there are also undersized representatives having a height of 5 meters. On the branches grow elliptical leaves. Nearby are large buds and flowers, reaching 35 cm in diameter. The colors of the inflorescence are white, red, lilac or purple.
Fruits are cone-shaped, consisting of a large number of leaflets. When they open, black seeds hang on the threads.
Siebold represents one of 200 varieties of magnolia. Usually grows shrubs, but is also found in the form of deciduous trees. The leaves reach a length of 15 cm, and the diameter of the cups of flowers - 10 cm flowering period occurs in the month of June. The variety is very cold resistant, can withstand negative temperatures up to 36 degrees.
However, if the plant is only two years old, it cannot be left for the winter without shelter. Even with a height of 1.5 meters, the tops of the shoots can be damaged in the spring. While a three-year culture, even with a growth of 1 meter, tolerates a harsh winter.
Susan also belongs to one of the magnolia varieties. and can grow as a shrub or tree in height from 2.5, to 6 meters. In youth, the crown of the tree has a pyramidal shape, however, in the process of growth, it changes and becomes rounded and thick. Plant lifetime is 50 years. Casting the same size as the Siebold. Flowers grow vertically upwards. Externally, they have a grooved shape. Along the perimeter there are 6 petals 12 cm long. Flowering begins in late April and lasts until June.
How to plant a magnolia
Before planting magnolia, you need to check the seedlings of the root system, which should not be damaged. The landing site is selected taking into account:
- The site must be protected from winds through.
- Magnolia can not grow in calcareous soil. If at the site the soil is exactly like this, then it is necessary to add peat into it.
- The soil during planting should not be sandy and should not be overwetted.
The best place to plant a magnolia is a sunny, but at times shaded area, with fertile black soil.
The best landing is October. At this time, the growth of seedlings stops, because they begin a period of hibernation. In mid-autumn, the frosts had not yet begun, but the heat was also subsiding.
Planting plants in the spring is possible, but risky. Spring frosts can cause irreparable harm to a young seedling. It is better to plant a magnolia in the fall, without risk and the survival rate will be high.
Landing is carried out in the following order:
- Dig a hole that exceeds the root system of the seedling 3 times.
- The soil is checked, if it is dense, then sand is applied to it.
- The young plant is put in a pole and filled with in advance prepared soil.
- It is important not to deepen the neck of the root, but to plant it above the ground level by 2 cm.
- The soil around the seedling is trampled and watered.
- As soon as the soil absorbs water, the last stage of planting is the mulching of black soil with peat and sand.
Growing Magnolia Seed
Planting seeds is best done in autumn, after harvesting, as they are very poorly stored. Seeds are pre-processed. Their surface is very hard. In order to better germinate, the side walls are eaten by a file or sandpaper. You can just pierce the needle.
Given that the surface of the seeds is oily, they should be washed in soapy water and rinsed in a clean. Planting seeds is carried out in boxes, deepening them in the ground for 3 cm. The soil should contain a universal substrate. Then, until spring, the seed tanks are lowered into the basement. In March, they are removed and placed on the windowsill. So that the soil does not dry, occasionally watered. During the year, seedlings will grow by 50 cm and only after that they are planted in open ground.
Growing cuttings and branches
At the end of June, cuttings are cutso that there are 3 leaves on top. From the bottom, they are processed with a solution that stimulates root growth. Then they land in a mixture of sand and peat. Capacity cover and put in a warm place. The temperature in a confined space should be maintained 19-22 degrees. After 8 weeks, the roots begin to appear. Landing in open ground is carried out only in a year.
Growing magnolia can be carried out by layering. The branches located near the earth, in the spring, are added in drops, and in these places they take root. After a couple of years, they are separated from the parent bush, and the young plant begins to exist.
If you bought a magnolia in a container or a pot, it can be transplanted from mid-March to late September. The method of planting a plant from a pot (container) is most preferable, since it is planted with a small amount of soil to which it is accustomed. In this case, the adaptation of the plant is much faster.
The content of the article
- Magnolia tree: features of planting and care
- How to grow Maclura
- What does a magnolia look like in 2018
- How to grow almonds
Magnolia is one of the most prominent representatives of the Magnolia family, which includes more than 70 species. The plant is truly luxurious. The tree has a spherical or pyramidal shape, and it reaches an average height of 5-8 m. Gorgeous and large flowers with a delicate aroma, depending on the variety, can be painted in white, pink, purple, red and lilac.
How to care for magnolia
Charming magnolia is very demanding on soil moisture, especially a lot of water is needed in the seedling in the first three years after planting in a permanent place. Water the tree often and plentifully, preventing the substrate from drying out. Gardeners are advised to retain moisture by mulching. Manipulation is carried out after watering. Wet soil in the near-wheel circle is covered with dried-up mowed grass and bark of conifers. This agrotechnical device also allows keeping magnolia roots warm and serves as a source of nutrients for an exotic plant.
There are winter-hardy magnolia varieties that can tolerate frosts down to -25 degrees (this is a star magnolia and cobus), but despite this, the southerner is best sheltered for the winter. To do this, the trunk is wrapped with a sacking in 2 layers, and the trunk circle is covered with lapnik branches.
Magnolia pruning is carried out in the spring before bud break. It is necessary to remove frozen, dried and intersecting branches inside the crown. Places of cuts must be covered with garden pitch.
Since the roots of the magnolia tree are superficial, loosening of the soil should be carried out to a depth of about 20 centimeters. In addition, this process should be as accurate as possible, without using a spade or rake. Weeds are preferably removed manually. And three years later, after planting a tree in an open ground, it is desirable to mulch the stalk territory. Coniferous bark, peat, manure and sawdust are suitable as mulch. This coating will protect the tree from moisture loss, warm the soil and act as a source of nutrients.
Flowering magnolia tree is quite hard to tolerate pruning. Therefore, this procedure is carried out only in the first years and in order to improve the decorative properties. To get involved in the process of crown formation is not worth it, as this may adversely affect flowering. For an adult tree, only sanitary pruning is recommended with removal of dry, damaged and diseased branches. Such processing is carried out no more than once a year. It is permissible to thin out too dense crowns, but at the same time it is important to immediately handle the cutting areas with garden pitch to avoid the loss of nutrients.
Saving the tree in winter
An adult tulip magnolia tree withstands temperatures down to -30 ° C. Therefore, in the additional care in the winter it does not need. However, young trees (in the first three years of life) are rather weak. To protect them from frost, you should cover the lower part of the trunk or the whole tree with a special agrofibre, burlap or spruce fir branches. Every year the frost resistance of the tree increases, and therefore mulching the wood near the trunk with sawdust, bark or peat is enough.
Under natural conditions, the magnolia tree is propagated by seeds carried by birds. It is possible to try to sow a tree from seeds and at itself on a site. Gather the seeds in the fall, after full ripening. Seeds are planted immediately or deposited until spring. In the second case, they are stored in a bag placed in a refrigerator.
Before planting, they are poured with water for three days and cleaned of the oil envelope. This is done by wiping through a sieve. The next stage of preparation is washing the seeds with a soap solution and rinsing with clean water. Sowing is made to a depth of about three centimeters, after which the box with the plantings is removed until March. In early spring, it is put on a well-lit window sill for germination. The first year of plant life is cultivated at home. Only next spring seedlings are planted in open ground.
Cutting and reproduction by layering
The use of vegetative propagation methods of magnolia tree contributes to faster flowering than during seed reproduction. These methods have a good effect on the state of the tree, especially in the early years of growth.
Magnolia is multiplied by layering in the late spring or early summer. To do this, on the branch make a circular cut of the bark, without touching the wood. Its width should be about 3 centimeters. The cut is processed by a growth stimulator (for example, “Heteroauxin”), covered with moss and wrapped in a film. The branch is attached to the neighboring branches to protect against damage caused by strong winds. After two or three months, roots are formed on the cut, ready for transplantation.
The cutting is carried out at the end of July. Cut cuttings from the branches of a young tree, while leaving at least two leaves. The lower part of the cut is processed by a growth stimulator, after which the cuttings are planted in the sand. It is better to germinate the cutting in greenhouse conditions, at a temperature of at least + 22 ° C and moderate humidity. After 1.5-2 months after planting rooting occurs. In winter, the cuttings are transferred to a warm room, and transplanted into the open ground next spring.
Before planting the plant, you need to study the microclimate of the garden or the site where you are going to plant a magnolia. Lighting plays an enormous role in the successful cultivation of magnolias. As you know, these plants are quite thermophilic, but young plants do not tolerate the scorching sun at noon: the result of "overheating" can be light yellow leaves.
Planting a magnolia tree in the suburbs
If you plant a magnolia in a less sunny place, the level of green pigment increases. That is why the plant should be planted in the shade of another tree. In the image above, a magnolia tree was planted in the shade of pines in the floor, a successful solution, the pines will not only give shade to the floor, but also slightly acidify the soil with their fallen needles.
As for air pollution, the Kobus (lat. Kobus) and magnolia Sulanja (lat. Soulangiana) do an excellent job with a large percentage of emissions from enterprises and car exhaust gases.
General landing rules
Magnolia should be planted in light and slightly moist soil.
The soil should include turfy land, peat and compost in the proportion of 2: 1: 1, respectively.
In order not to spoil the root system, dig a hole three times the size of the roots. Do not compact the ground from above, so as not to harm the roots.
The soil under the seedling must be covered with coniferous bark - this technique will help maintain the water balance in the soil.
To the roots are not dried when planting, be sure to buy seedlings in special containers.
Care and preparation for winter
Magnolia is a very rare plant in central Russia and many will tell you that it is impossible to grow it, and if it did, it will cause a lot of trouble. - Do not believe it!
If you picked the right places for planting and planted it in the “right” soil, the first flowers will appear on it very quickly.
Magnolia should not be transplanted from one place to another.
not deep, it is not recommended to cultivate the soil at the trunk of the tree, shrub any garden tools, inventory - can damage the surface root system.
if the summer is very dry, do not forget about watering the bushes. Watering should be 1 every 2-3 days (volume of about 2 buckets of soft water with low lime in the composition). Do not overdo it - if a swamp has formed around the tree, you should stop watering until the soil is completely dry.
during the leaf growth period, magnolia is fertilized with a mineral complex, but not earlier than two years after landingThis will allow the leaves to grow much faster and deal with weather conditions.
The composition of the fertilizer to 10 liters of water: 15 grams of urea (carbamide) + 20 g of ammonium nitrate +1 kg of mullein. Fertilizer consumption for a medium-sized single tree is 30 liters.
You can use ready-made fertilizers, such as Agrecool or "Kemira - Universal" (apply according to the instructions).
The last dressing is done at the beginning of the second half of summer (July 15), because very soon the plant goes into calm mode and begins to prepare for winter.
the plant does not need cutting of excess branches. Dried branches should be removed at the end of flowering.
If the plant has branches that intersect inside the crown, it is best to remove them immediately in order to improve the decorative effect and speed up the growth of the neighboring branches.
Garden tools, accessories for planting magnolias
- shovel Fiskars series Solid,
- Gardena gloves for working with the soil,
- pruner Samurai KS,
- garden watering OBI.
- Soil "Garden Land"
Magnolia is a beautiful tree that will fill the garden with a wonderful vanilla aroma during the flowering period, it begins in April. Most of the trees at this time are not yet covered with leaves, and the magnolia is fragrant with paints.
In nature, you can admire its beauty in the Crimea, this plant is for a warm climate. But, contrary to the general opinion, magnolia can be successfully grown in the conditions of central Russia. For this you need to know how to properly care for the plant. And it is quite easy!
Photo and description of magnolia varieties for cultivation in central Russia
In nature, magnolia is divided into several varieties:
The second group of plants is not able to tolerate frosts, so its cultivation is possible only in greenhouses at a special temperature.
In the conditions of Russia, deciduous magnolias are grown, which react to temperature changes less painfully, only flowering periods are shifted. From this group of plants we can distinguish winter-hardy and conditionally winter-hardy varieties. In the latter, only part of the flower buds freezes in severe frosts.
Winter-hardy varieties include:
1. magnolia cobus.
These are trees up to 10 meters high. They have a very interesting crown, which in the first years of cultivation has a pyramidal shape and changes to spherical in the process of growth. The plant is considered one of the hardy and winter-hardy varieties. The tree blooms with white luxurious flowers in April-May. In the summer, the color of the leaves is dark green, by autumn it changes to yellow-brown. Leaf fall in this species occurs closer to the middle of autumn. It is rarely grown from seed, since the first flowering occurs only after 30 years.
2. Magnolia is stellate.
It is a shrub up to 5 meters high with an oval crown. Flowering is remembered very persistent aroma that envelops the entire garden. The first flowers bloom in March. After flowering, the shrub dissolves dark green leaves, which by the autumn acquire a bronze shade.
3. Magnolia Lebner.
This is a hybrid of the above varieties, which took over the best qualities of the parent plants:
Magnolia Lebner - a tree with a spherical crown, which reaches a height of 10 meters. White flowers with a light pink haze, bloom from April. The leaves are dark, by the fall - bronze.
The less winter-hardy varieties are the most common varieties on the market:
1. Magnolia Sulanzha.
This species is a tree up to 5-8 meters tall. Цветет в апреле, очень ароматными розовыми цветами, которые внешне напоминают тюльпаны. Листья, как и у всех сортов, зеленые, но у осени приобретают горчичный оттенок.
2. Магнолия Эша.
Это не только выносливое, но и очень красивое листопадное дерево. Flowering occurs in the second year after the planting in the garden. Refers to late blooming species. As a rule, blooms in late May, huge cream flowers. The leaves of the plant are similar to tropical, reaching a length of up to 70 cm. This type of magnolia almost does not suffer from return frost, which makes it most attractive to gardeners.
Magnolia Cultivation: All About Planting (Photos)
Successful cultivation of magnolia begins with the selection of seedlings. It is better to give preference to plants with a closed root system.
When planting magnolia you need to take into account its features:
• The plant does not tolerate drafts and cold winds. Consequently, the site must be selected protected
• grows poorly in areas with lime soil. You can correct the situation by adding sour peat to the ground,
• does not tolerate heavy and waterlogged soil. Pick up a place without stagnation of groundwater.
The best place for planting magnolia - the southern side of the site, well lit, but without direct sunlight. The soil is prepared fertile and very loose.
Landing pit preparation
A proper Magnolia planting pit should be three times the size of its root system. The soil is pre-mixed with compost and sand. Magnolia saplings are planted so that the root neck is above ground level. After planting, the plant is abundantly watered and must mulch the soil around it. To do this, apply peat, lapnik, sand.
Experienced gardeners prefer autumn planting when the tree has already stopped growing. It is carried out in the middle or the end of October, until it is very cold, but there is no sweltering heat.
Good results show planting magnolia in spring. But there is a risk that return frost will destroy a young plant. Spring planting is carried out in April. If the weather is favorable, and frost is not expected, then you can try this method, but at your own risk.
Important! 100% survival rate of seedlings occurs only with proper autumn planting!
How to properly care for magnolia
From the right care depends not only the beauty of the tree, but also its frost resistance.
The plant does not tolerate drought, especially in the early years of cultivation. It is necessary to water magnolia plentifully, but not too often. In extreme heat, the root system should not dry out. Mulching will help to preserve soil moisture. It not only warms the roots in winter, but also nourishes the plant, improves the soil structure.
Nutrition and feeding magnolia
Magnolia loves a variety of feeding. Fertilizers can be made from early spring to autumn. Applying nitrogen supplements, you need to exercise maximum caution, because its excess leads to a decrease in winter hardiness of the plant. Nitrogen fertilization is completed by mid-July.
Important! In the first two years of growing magnolia is not fertilized. Make feed start with the third season.
For fertilizing magnolia seedlings use ready-made fertilizers or cooked on their own. From the store can be considered mineral fertilizer "Kemira Universal" or specialized fertilizer for magnolias, for example, from AGRECOL "For magnolia".
You can prepare the nutrient solution yourself. To do this, use 25-30 grams of ammonium nitrate, 15-20 grams of urea, 1 kg of mullein. All components are mixed and diluted in 10 liters of water. The fertilizer is watered at the rate of 40 liters per plant.
Tip! If the plant is overfed, then you can notice it at the end of July. Old leaves begin to dry out ahead of time. The situation can be corrected by abundant watering.
Magnolia Wintering: Shelter
In conditions of central Russia, even winter-hardy magnolia varieties are better covered for the period of cold weather. Spring return frost will ruin flower buds on annual growths and flowering can not wait.
For shelter apply burlap. She wrapped a tree trunk in two layers, I try to avoid branch injuries. Pristvolny circle should also be covered for the winter, but it should be done on frozen ground. Use a thick layer of mulch. If you cover a tree earlier, then mice will inevitably settle in it.
One of the most beautiful trees is a beautiful magnolia belonging to the family of magnoliaceae. Anyone who has seen its unusual flowering at least once will never be able to forget this moment. Particularly impressive are the emerging luxurious inflorescences on bare branches, without a single leaf.
Magnolia tree is a miracle
flowers look like a butterfly
First of all, because blooms incredibly beautiful bright big flowers like exotic butterflies. At that moment, when many plants have not yet had time to release the leaves, the beauty already pleases those around her with flowering.
The first flowers she begins to produce in April, and they fill the gardens and parks with their vanilla aroma.
Grow prefers in the southern regions, where the warm climate prevails. Magnolia flower, which is endowed with the most vivid colors, does not allow to look off all the tourists.
Some people who dream to see how it blooms go on vacation not in the warm summer, but in the middle of spring, when it is still rather cool and the sun is just starting to warm up all around.
Legends and Myths
On the territory of Europe was brought from the mysterious China.
According to one of the Chinese legends, the beautiful flowers blooming on the tree are young beauties who once lived in the same village. When she was destroyed by enemies, and only one girl managed to escape death. It was she who asked mother earth for dead girls to live on.
In the morning, when the invaders saw a tree that suddenly appeared, they decided to get rid of it. Cutting down, they split it into the smallest chips and scattered around the neighborhood, only here on those places where the splinters fell young shoots that were called magnolias.
If you want to see this amazing flower, it can be done not only in the southern regions and warm countries, because the growing magnolia in Belarus also produces beautiful flowers.
To do this, you just need to visit the Minsk Botanical Garden, where a couple of years ago the first garden of these beautiful trees was laid.
What you should know about magnolia
In the presented family there are about 70 species of plants. The shape of the crown can be both spherical and wide pyramidal. Depending on the height, the height of the tree also changes. Some of the representatives can grow up to 20 meters, but mostly their height varies from 5 to 8 meters.
- On the shoots can be seen pronounced scars that remain from the foliage, as well as traces of the stipules, expressed narrow ring-shaped scars.
- Solid, leathery leaves obovate or elliptical on the back side slightly pubescent. Painted in emerald green with feathery veins.
- The circumference of flowers varies from 6 to 35 cm. There are white, gently cream, pinkish, red-scarlet, purple or maroon-purple flowers, consisting of 8-12 petals, which are adjusted on each other.
- Depending on the variety, magnolia produces the first buds early in the spring or in the early days of summer. Not only the flowers are pleased with their sweet aroma, but also the buds allow you to enjoy a light, delicate scent.
- After flowering ends, you can see the unusual cone-shaped fruits that adorn the branches from late August until winter.
At least once, seeing this, you probably want to have a charming woman in your garden. She looks great in a single landing, and next to the evergreen coniferous bushes.
How is flowering
After planting, if conditions for growth and development are favorable, most trees begin to bloom only after about 8-10 years.
A variety of colors and flavors will allow you to opt for the most suitable variety for you. Some of the representatives release the buds only after the leaves appear on them, others first of all release and dissolve their gorgeous buds, and only then leaves open on the branches.
But no matter which of the varieties you choose, by planting this beauty in your garden, you will become the owner of a unique plant.
After the flowering is over, each petal begins to fall off the petals, which slowly descend to the ground. “Magnolia rain” is exactly what the gardeners call this process.
But even this beauty has its drawbacks. Sleep near it is not necessary! The fact is that the aroma emanating from the flowers often turns out to be very strong and if you inhale it for a long time, then a headache will probably appear.
There are many species, of which, by crossing one with another, an even greater number of varieties of unusual species and colors have appeared. Consider the basic "basic" and popular among fans of exotic horticultural hybrid varieties.
- Star magnolia
Proper fit and care for the Magnolia stellata flower. After this variety begins to bloom all the surrounding area is filled with an unforgettable aroma. In March, the first flowers begin to bloom, after which leaves appear saturated with emerald green. Closer to the fall they become brownish - bronze. Stellat stands out beyond the decorative characteristics due to the unusual coloring of autumn foliage.
This the species is considered the most cold-resistant, because he is able to withstand frosts, reaching up to 36 degrees. The height of this shrub reaches only 4 meters, and its branches are covered with elongated leaves, among which one can see snow-white flowers. Flowering begins after the leaves appear on the branches. Siebold's Magnolia is grown all over Russia, and in special large tubs, which can always be brought if needed, they are even cultivated in the Urals and in Siberia.
- Magnolia Kobus
Proper planting and care brings stunning results for the decorative variety. Flowering begins in the middle of spring, releasing fragrant white unforgettable flowers. Magnolia evergreen with the onset of summer colors its leaves in a rich green color, and as soon as autumn comes, it becomes yellow brown.
- Liliavet Magnolia liliiflora
This variety originates in China and is bred throughout Europe.
It is considered a two-color grade. The outer side of the petals is red crimson, while the inner is snow-white or white-pink.
A flashing bloom begins in early spring and continues for several wonderful weeks, filled with airy scent distributed by inflorescences.
- Black Magnolia Nigra
Refers to the lilia color view. The flowers on the outside are painted in a ruby color of stone, while the inner part is white-lilac. Because of this combination of colors she seems almost black. You can see these unusual beautiful flowers in the 30th days of April or in the early May days.
- Magnolia Susan landing and care
Hybrid of star and liliavet varieties. Susan is the most sought-after view by lovers of the exotic.
Large 15 cm lily-shaped inflorescences at the base are richly pink-crimson, and at the tips are lighter, as if luminous.
During the long and lush flowering, which begins in late May, less often in June, you can enjoy a pleasant unobtrusive aroma.
- Tulip Magnolia Sulanzha
Planting and care is similar. The shape of the flowers of this variety can be either a goblet or a tulip. The tulip variety begins to bloom before the first leaves appear on it. After the fragrant blooming is completed and the last petal will fall from the plant, decorative dark green obovate leaves continue to decorate it.
Magnolia ashei. The leaves, the length of which is 70 cm, and the width 30 are colored green. Their lower part is silvery gray and slightly pubescent. First leaves appear on the tree, and only then in the last days of the spring month of May, or somewhere in the beginning of June, gradual flowering begins. Creamy white flowers from which comes light citrus jasmine scenthave a circumference of about 20-30 cm.
- Hybrid variety jenny
Magnolia soulangeana Genie. The result of the crossing of Nigra lilytsvetnoy and tulip Sulanzhi. Beautiful planting and care in the open field, for which you will not take a lot of energy, produces unforgettable red-ruby petals. Tulip flowers begin to open at the end of April and in the first days of May, before the leaves appear. This the species is one of the frost-resistant (among the dark magnolias) and is able to withstand up to 30 degrees of frost. After the first wave of flowering, which lasts about a few weeks is over, you can enjoy the second stage, which will begin at the end of summer.
A very rare instance for wide access. Finding this variety in stores will not be easy. Height reaches 10 meters, pyramidal shape. The bark is smooth silver. Fragrant flowers about 8 cm in circumference.
A hybrid of the varietal varieties and Cobus. Decorated with 10 cm white bell-shaped flowers, from which emanates a delicate fragrance.
Flowering begins in May before the leaves appear on the tree. A rapidly growing variety that can cope with minor frosts.
it seems that not only from flowers, but also from foliage and branches, a thin, slightly perceptible anise flavor.
It is a rather large tree adorned with pointed twenty-centimeter leaves. The petals are yellow-green and bloom only after foliage has appeared on the branches. Crohn pyramidal shape, which gradually turns into a spherical. The height of this variety can reach up to 24 meters.
Magnolia planting and care in the open field
As previously mentioned, the tree prefers to grow in cities and countries where a warm and humid climate prevails.
Having decided to decorate your garden with this sample, make sure that it will develop comfortably in your area.
- For landing a sunny place is suitable, where there are no northern and eastern winds and drafts.
- Also it is necessary to take into account that the bush should not be located near large trees, as a continuous shadow is harmful to it.
- Slight shading is allowed if planted in the southern region.
Some of the species that include lebner, cobus, stellate magnolia and some other species will feel good in open areas.
But this cannot be said about capricious decorative varieties, such as Siebold, Sulanja, or, for example, the Chinese magnolia, because they need places where the constant and bright sun rays do not fall.
What should be the soil
Gardeners wondering how to plant a magnolia should first find out in which soil it prefers to grow. It will behave well in a weakly acidic soil endowed with organic fertilizer.
To prepare the mixture you will need:
- 2 pieces of sod land
- 1 share of peat
- 1 share compost
The soil in which the tree will be planted must be drained, not forgetting to loosen it. In the event that the area where the bush is planting, contains too dense ground, be sure to add sand to it.
In addition, if it is possible to add rotted horse manure to the ground will also not be superfluous.
What you should pay attention to when landing
When a magnolia is planted in the Moscow region, planting and care should be borne in mind that it is not too complicated, but still requires some attention.
- The first thing you should pay attention to is the root system of the seedling, since the hole where the bush will be planted must be 3 times more than the roots.
- Also consider the fragility of the roots, which can easily be damaged if you tamp the ground hard after planting.
- Do not forget to cover the tree trunk with the bark of coniferous trees, which will preserve moisture in the soil.
- When buying seedlings, it is necessary to give preference to meter specimens, on the stems of which there are 1-2 buds.
- The root system should be closed, which will allow it not to dry out. Those roots that are stored in a container can be planted at any time of the year except for winter.
When seedlings are planted
Planting magnolia autumn is the most favorable time. The middle and the end of October are most suitable for this procedure, because at this time the seedlings are at rest. If you are engaged in planting in the fall, then almost all the seedlings will take root. If you decide to plant in the spring, then it should be done in April. But do not forget to take into account that even minor frosts will harm the future tree.
Watering is an equally important process that should be given its attention.
Young trees that are no more than 3 years more than others need to be watered thoroughly. Watering them is often plentiful.
In the event that the weather is dry, then do not allow the soil to dry, you can prevent it using the method of mulch.
What will help keep moisture in the ground. In addition, thanks to mulching, you can protect the root system from frost in a fierce winter.
What to fertilize and feed
Tip! After planting the first few years, the magnolia should not be fertilized, but after three years, start feeding. It is necessary to apply fertilizer from the first days of spring to the autumn.
fertilizer for growing tree
Для этого можно купить минеральные удобрения и использовать их согласно инструкции.
Вы также можете собственноручно приготовить подкормки, используя 20г амиачной селитры, 15 г мочевины и 1 кг коровяка. Все это необходимо развести в 10 л воды.
Remember that one bush takes about 40 liters of water. It is necessary to fertilize once a month, using the prepared top dressing instead of the usual liquid for watering.
Sometimes it happens that the magnolia shrub begins to dry out before the appointed time, but behind this lies the real threat. The fact is that in the land there may be a sufficient amount of fertilizer and additional fertilizing led to their excess. To avoid death, be sure to stop fertilizing and water it a little more.
Magnolia care and growing: transplanting
Magnolia prefers to grow all its life in the place where it was originally planted, but only sometimes there are situations when it is necessary to transplant it urgently. To do this, you need to find a site that suits her by all criteria.
- Before embarking on a bush, be sure to carefully pour the soil around it.
- Also it is necessary to take into account that the earthen coma that remains on the root system depends on how well the planting specimen will take root in a new place.
- Move the plant should be with oilcloth or plywood.
- It is necessary to replant, observing all rules, as well as at landing.
- The first thing that needs to be done is to dig a hole, lay drainage, sand, not to forget about fertile land, and only then it is necessary to install a tree and cover the hole with earth.
- Soil a little tamp, but do not use force, so as not to damage the root system.
Magnolia tree or shrub, if you decide to plant something, it is worth remembering that cutting the branches to form the crown is unnecessary. Also remember that pruning is not done in the spring, because at this time of the year juice will begin to stand out from the slices, which can lead to the death of the tree.
After waiting for the magnolia to fade, perform sanitary pruning. Frosted branches, faded flowers, dry shoots are removed from the shrub. Those stems that are frozen should be removed to a healthy site. Do not forget to process cuts, using for this garden var.
How does wintering
Magnolia cultivation in central Russia is carried out almost as well as in other regions. Be sure to cover the bush, even if it is frost-resistant. Spring frosts kill buds, so in the future flowering will not come at all.
Burlap is best suited for shelter. It is necessary to wrap in several layers, without damaging the branches. Pristvolny circle is also wrapped with mulch, only this is done a little later, when the ground is slightly frozen. In the event that you hurry to do it a little earlier, then there is a risk that there will be mice in it.
Now that you know how to cover a magnolia for the winter, you can be sure that it will not be afraid of any frosts if you follow the rules for wintering.
Parasites and diseases
For many years, it was thought that these representatives of the Magnolia family would not be disturbed by pests and diseases, but there were still problems that could be encountered in growing a bush.
- If yellow specks appeared on the leaves, and their veins remained green, this means that the plant attacked chlorosis. This is an indicator that the soil contains a lot of lime, in which the roots can not grow, which leads to their death. Adding sour peat or coniferous soil to the soil will fix the situation. Special ready-made products will also help settle the acidity.
- An excess of nutrients is also harmful, as this will lead to a slowdown in the development and growth of the shrub. You can learn about such a problem by drying the edges of the leaves in the last days of July. To fix the situation you need to stop feeding and start watering the bush a little more.
If we talk about parasites, then the harm is caused by rosy thrips, mealy worm and peach aphid. With the onset of drought, a spider or transparent tick can attack a tree. They suck the juice out of it, and this is detrimental to the shrub, because the foliage begins to crumble before the prescribed time. In addition, this may lead to the fact that next year the tulip tree will not please you with its flowering. The solution Aktellika or other similar means will help save the situation.
With the onset of cold weather, rodents that feed on the roots and root neck can attack. Learn about this problem is not easy, because for this you need to remove the top layer of soil. In order to get rid of pests, use 1% solution of Fundazole.
In order to avoid problems in the future, you need to cover the near-stem circle only after the soil freezes.
Layers as a breeding method
For this purpose, you will need young shrubs that are no more than 2 years old, as they grow faster than older trees.
Choose your escape, which is located very low. Without separating it from the plant, place it in a pre-prepared well and cover it with earth. In order for it to catch on, it is necessary to pinch the layers.
A year later, they should appear on the roots, which are a sign of readiness of the layers, which means it can be separated from the main shoot and deposited in a container where it will grow until the period is planted in open ground.
Why magnolia does not bloom long after planting
The formation of buds, which bloom begins next year, takes place in late summer and early autumn. This means that if the buds are frozen, the flowering will not start.
You can become an owner of a flowering plant only a few years after planting. The first flowering comes from what sort you chose. It is worth choosing saplings that have been propagated by vaccination. They begin to bloom 2-4 years after planting. In that case, if the bush has grown and the flowering has not begun, it means that you have acquired a tree grown from seeds. This copy will delight you with its flowers after 10 years.
Rusty prefers to protected from the winds of sunny areas. It is also necessary to make timely fertilizers that will help the buds to be tied. Abundant watering is equally important for active growth and development. Dry autumn can cause inadequate moisture in the kidneys.
Use in landscape design
Magnolia is an unusual and beautiful tree, the flowering of which begins quite early and unexpectedly even for its owners. With its beauty, it adorns the parks, alleys and other public recreation areas. But only its flowering begins very early, so only owners of beautiful shrubs can enjoy fragrant exotic flowers.
You will feel great in group plantings next to other plants that need similar care and growing conditions. There are varieties that develop well in slightly shaded areas. This is the reason that astilba, a green fern, a dekorativolistvennaya host, and some evergreen conifers that cover the ground can be quietly located next to the bushes. The magnolia tree in Sochi on the Crimean peninsula feels good even in frequent estates without special care, as the ground is almost always wet and will not dry out.