Hip culture has long been known, but its importance in our time is invaluable. Rose hips are an unsurpassed natural multivitamin concentrate with high biological activity. Their biochemical composition varies greatly depending on the species, and within the species, depending on environmental conditions. Rosehips contain all the necessary macro-and microelements for humans. The most valuable part of them - the flesh - has a sum of sugars of 8.1-11.6, pectinous substances 1.8-2.8, tannins and coloring substances 0.12-4.7, nitrogen compounds 1.2-4.8 percent , the acidity is 0.7-2.6 percent. Fresh fruits contain (mg%) of vitamin C up to 4000, bioflavonoids up to 3500, carotene up to 8, thiamine up to 0.25, riboflavin up to 3, and many other compounds. Seeds contain oil used in medicine.
The use of wild rose is very wide. A decoction of fruits increases the body's resistance to colds and infectious diseases, cures scurvy, tones, strengthens the walls of blood vessels, has a choleretic effect, reduces the development of oterosclerosis. Fruit pulp has a laxative effect, seeds act as a choleretic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent. A decoction of the roots dissolves stones in kidney stones, it is also used in gastrointestinal diseases, as a choleretic and antiseptic. Infusion of leaves is used in gastrointestinal diseases, it has antimicrobial and analgesic properties.
In order to prevent many diseases systematically use the broth of the hips.
In our country, there are more than 100 species of wild rose. It is best to plant winter-hardy, vitamin, large-fruited, fruitful, resistant to pests and diseases types in the garden: cinnamon, wrinkled, apple, Webb and others.
Rosehip bushes are compact or spreading with a height of 1 to 3 m, life expectancy of 20-30 years. The shoots are mostly covered with spikes. Leaves are pinnate with 5–9 leaflets. The flowers are fragrant, solitary or in umbellate paniculate inflorescences, bisexual. Petals are red, pink, white, yellow. Flowering time - the beginning of summer, repair forms bloom until frost.
The species with juicy orange or red color with a high content of water- and fat-soluble vitamins are of the greatest economic importance. Ripen from July to September. The bulk of the roots is located at a depth of 15-40 cm, vertical roots reach a depth of 2.5 m. Rosehip is light-requiring, demanding of soil fertility and moisture, responsive to fertilizer. Fruits in the age of three. Harvest from 1 bush up to 3.5 kg.
Dogrose is propagated by sowing seeds, root suckers, bush dividing, layering and green cuttings.
The main types of wild rose, such as wrinkled and cinnamon, well retain their valuable characteristics and seed reproduction. For sowing, seeds are harvested from brown unripe fruits, without overdrying them, covered with moist sand and stored in a cold place. Sowing is best done in the fall (III decade of September), when it often rains and the soil does not dry out. Seeds are sown in the grooves at the rate of 150-200 pieces per 1 running meter, or 3-5 g. Seeding depth - 1.5-2 cm.
If sowing is done with dried seeds or harvested from overripe fruits, then they need to be stratified to obtain good shoots.
Root suckers breed dogrose in the fall after completion or in early spring before the beginning of the growing season. Older offspring are located closer to the parent plant. From among them, choose a more developed material for planting a height of at least 50-70 cm. From each mother plant should be separated from 3 to 5 siblings. To do this, dig out the rhizome, free from soil, cut off from it the underground part of a length of 8-18 cm. The height of the aerial part is shortened to 50 cm.
Reproduction of green cuttings begin in June, in the phase of intensive growth of shoots. For cutting cuttings used semi woody branches. The length of the cuttings should be 10-12 cm with 2-3 internodes. The upper cut is done above the kidney or 1 cm above, and the lower - under the kidney, 3-5 mm below its base. The lower leaf blade is removed, large leaf blades are cut in half. Cut the cuttings in a shaded place, from time to time sprinkling them with water. The beams are placed in a vessel with water, and then in stimulating solutions. When treating the cuttings with growth substances, they are immersed in the working solution by 1-1.5 cm. The temperature of the solution is 20-22 ° C. Heteroauxin in a concentration of 0.001%, penicillin, paraminobenzoic acid (PABA) - 0.005%, succinic acid - 0.01% at an exposure of 9-12 hours are used as growth substances. After treatment, the cuttings are rinsed with clean water and planted in a greenhouse on specially arranged ridges. They are arranged as follows: a wooden frame is installed, the bottom is covered with plastic wrap and a drainage layer of rubble 15-20 cm is poured on it, then a layer of coarse-grained river sand is coated with a layer of 20 cm and watered abundantly, the surface is leveled and the landing areas are marked. The layout of the cuttings is 3x7 cm, the depth of planting is 1.5-2 cm. After the completion of work, water is plentiful. The temperature of the air and the substrate should be in the range of 20-25 ° С, the humidity of the air is 90-100%, the substrate - 50-70%. Care is to remove fallen leaves, weeds, watering, airing greenhouses. In winter, the cuttings are left in place of rooting, but with the onset of frost, the ridges are mulched with a layer of sawdust or peat. In the spring, plants can be transplanted for growing according to a pattern of 20x70 cm. When planting, the root neck should be buried up to 5 cm, and the plant must be watered.
Most varieties and species of wild rose are self-infertile, that is, they require cross-pollination. Therefore, at the site you need to plant at least two different varieties. Planting is made at a distance of 1-1.5 m in the pits, putting in them a sufficient amount of organic and mineral fertilizers. Thus, for three years you will provide plants with nutrition. In the future, 2-3 additional fertilizing with nitrogen fertilizers (15-20 g for the active substance) should be done annually: in early spring, in June-July (in the phase of enhanced growth of shoots), and on fruit-bearing plantations - in September, after harvesting the fruits. After each application of fertilizers, the soil must be watered, loosened and mulched.
For faster seedlings to enter full fruiting, it is necessary to shorten the above-ground part shortly before planting or immediately after it, leaving 2-3 strong branches for a length of 8-10 cm each. In the second year, mostly underdeveloped branches are removed. A year later, all the weak single and biennial shoots are cut, leaving up to five well-developed annual shoots in the bush. Further, before the entry of the bushes in the period of full fruiting, they carry out moderate pruning. Long, more than 2 m annual shoots are shortened to 1/5 of their length, approximately 40 cm, to well-formed buds. It has been established that the greatest yield is given by 3-year branches. Therefore, in the future pruning of the crown is the regular removal of unproductive branches, immature annuals and broken shoots.
Fruits are harvested at the time when they have orange-red or red color, usually in the month of August, and remontant varieties - as they mature before the onset of frost. Harvest from 1 bush from 1 to 4 kg, depending on the variety and size of the fruit. Harvested fruits are stored for no more than two days, a layer of 5 cm. Drying them at home is difficult, as many fruits are rather large, covered with dense skin, contain a lot of sugar and thermally unstable vitamin group. In addition, the upper layer, dried as a result of drying, forms a crust that prevents the inner layer of the fruit from drying. At the same time a significant amount of vitamins is lost. Therefore, at home, it is better to cut the large fruits of wild rose into 2 halves and dry in the shade in the open air at a low temperature. Properly dried fruits should have a color ranging from orange-red to brownish-red, sour-sweet, odorless and wrinkled surface with a moisture content not exceeding 14%. The walls of the dried fruit are hard, the outer surface is shiny or matt and wrinkled.
Under the conditions of the Republic of Belarus, the large-fruited varieties Yubileyny, Large-fruited VNIVI, Rosa Rugoza and small-fruited varieties Rossiysky-1, Rossiysky-2, Vitamin VNIVI, hybrid F-1-6-3 have proven themselves well.
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Botanical description of wild rose
Spines in most cases are upright shrubs, less often lianas, sometimes low tree forms or almost herbaceous plants whose shoots are covered with numerous spikes. Leaves are predominantly pinnate, with paired stipules, falling, less often evergreen. Rosehip flowers have the most different colors: from pure white to bright red and even black. They are large or small, often not terry, less often with a more or less pronounced terry, in inflorescences (corymbose or corymboid-panicle), single, sometimes two or several.
Cinnamon rosehip belongs to the Rosaceae family. Shrub up to 1.5-2 m in height with thin twig-shaped branches, covered with reddish-brown bark, spikes somewhat curved, flattened at base, solid, sessile 2 at the base of the leaves, on their flowering shoots there are still numerous spines and bristles. Leaves are pinnate, 4–9 cm long, with 5–7 leaflets, green above, grayish pubescent below, with well-marked veins. The leaflets are thin, oblong-elliptic or oblong-ovate, serrated, shortly pubescent petioles, smooth or with sparsely-spaced spines and short-stalk glands often hidden in the pubescence, stipules that are encompassing, 3/4 intergrown with pubescent, pubescent, 3/4 adherent, 3/4 fused in the pubescence of the ampullae, 3/4 intergrown with pubescence of the short stem-like glandules, stipules that are 3/4 overlaid, 3/4 intertwined with pubescence of the short stalk glands, the stipules are 3/4 overlaid, 3/4 intergrown with pubescence, the stipules are 16.34 enveloped in 3/4 hairs, and there are four, four, four-fused sticks attached to the pubescence of the short-stalk glands, the stipules are 3/4 of the ampoule, 3/4 intergrown with pubescence, the stipules are 16.34, the stipules are 3/4 intergrown with pubescence; . Flowers pink, 3-5 cm in diameter, with lanceolate bracts, fragrant, solitary or 2-3, smooth pedicels, 5-17 mm long, petals at the top with a notch, sepals in number 5, solid, converging upwards with fruits. The fruit is 11-15 mm in diameter, spherical or oval, juicy, smooth, orange-red, formed from an overgrown jugar receptacle, at the bottom of which numerous fruit nuts develop. It blooms in June-July, the fruits ripen in August, remain on the branches until winter.
Dogrose begins to bear fruit in 3-4 years. Active fruiting from 2 to 6 years. Fruits are formed mainly on the growth of the previous year. The dogrose is pollinated by insects. At the site it is desirable to have at least 2-3 plants of different species or varieties.
Cinnamon dogrose is most common in the middle zone, it is the richest in vitamin C. Rosehip grows well on moderately moist soils with a strong fertile layer that is permeable to water and air. Dog rose grows poorly on overmoistened soils. Propagated by seeds, division of the bushes, layering, rhizomatous offspring, green and lignified cuttings, grafting.
It is best to propagate dogrose rhizomes. At one place dog rose grows up to 25 years.
Rosehip is widely used for hedges.
Wild rose is widespread in forests, among light forests, on mountain slopes, in river valleys, in fields, near roads, in separate bushes or dense thickets, in forest ravines and on forest edges, in coastal stripes. Rose hips are more often cultivated wrinkled and cinnamon in the European part of the country in gardens and parks. Vysokovitaminnye varieties are derived. Cultivation is easy. Convenient for growing use even waste or inaccessible for tillage.
Wild rose is widespread in the northern hemisphere, mainly with a temperate climate, as well as in subtropical regions, in the mountains to the alpine belt, on slopes and stony placers. Dogrose is common in Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, the European part of Russia, Western Siberia, Central Asia.
Useful properties of wild rose
Rosehip - A valuable vitamin-bearing plant, an invaluable source of ascorbic acid. It is important to note that rosehip ascorbic acid has advantages over synthetic vitamin C. Prolonged use of large doses of synthetic ascorbic acid can lead to inhibition of the insulin-forming function of the pancreas. A link has been established between vitamin deficiency and atherosclerosis.
Vitamin C possesses restorative properties. It is directly involved in redox processes, in the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, fats, in the activation of enzymes, promotes tissue regeneration, regulates blood clotting, vascular permeability, participates in the synthesis of collagen, steroid hormones, increases resistance and protective reactions of the body to infections, other adverse environmental factors, stimulates the hematopoietic apparatus, enhances the phagocytic ability of leukocytes. Ascorbic acid increases mental, physical performance and activates the main metabolism.
The human body is not capable of synthesizing ascorbic acid. The daily need for an adult is 50 mg, and with a large physical load - 75-100 mg. The need for ascorbic acid is increased in pregnant and lactating women (up to 100 mg).
Rosehip branches contain vitamin P. Polysaccharides, carotenoids, vitamin C, phenolcarboxylic acids and their derivatives (gallic, gentisic, coffee, protocatechinic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-coumaric, lilac, vanillic systroma, syphilicaceae, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-coumaric, lilac, vanillic systroic, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-coumaric, lilac, vanillic systroic syrup, p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic, p-coumaric, lilac, vanillic systroic syrup, found are found. ), tannins, flavonoids.
Leaves and roots rose hips contain significant amounts of tannins. Broth branches as a binder is prescribed for diarrhea and dyspepsia, with intestinal colic, rheumatism, radiculitis. Young branches of wild rose are used in food - in salads, fried in butter.
Fruit contain vitamins C (up to 4000 mg%), P, K, rutin, carotenoids (alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, lycopene, phytofluin, polyclyslicopins A, B, B2, C, K, P, carotene, cryptoxanthin, rubixanthin, taroksantin), catechins, flavonoids (quercetin, isoquercitrin, tililrozid, leukopeonidin, cyanidin), essential oil, sugars. The pulp of the fruit also contains potassium, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus, magnesium.
In seeds wild rose has a fatty oil. Seed oil contains 200 mg% of vitamin E, 10 mg% carotene, linoleic, linolenic and solid acids. Rosehip seed oil is now widely used as a popular and effective remedy.
Preparation of raw materials
Raw materials are harvested from the end of August and before the onset of frosts, preferably in the morning or towards evening, as fruits picked up in the sun lose valuable properties. The crop must be recycled immediately. It is recommended to collect the fruits before full maturity, when they are still solid, but reach an orange or red color. It is necessary to dry the fruit in a dry place, avoiding direct sunlight. The finished product is a dried fruit of orange-red color, with a shiny wrinkled surface. The wall of dried fruits is thin and fragile, inside them are light yellow nuts and numerous bristly hairs.
Rose Hip Treatment
In folk medicine of Belarus decoction of rosehips drink in diseases of the liver, kidneys, heart, bladder, hypertension, hyperacid gastritis, headache.
Rose hips in the form of infusion, extract, syrup, powder It is recommended to be prescribed for therapeutic and prophylactic purposes for anemia, acute and chronic infections, diphtheria, whooping cough, pneumonia, scarlet fever, acute and chronic intestinal diseases, hemorrhagic diathesis, hemophilia, bleeding (nasal, pulmonary, uterine, hemorrhoidal, with radiation sickness, overdose anticoagulants, hyperthyroidism and adrenal insufficiency, traumatic shock, patients undergoing surgery, with stones in the liver and kidneys, duodenal ulcer, reduced secretion order, nonhealing wounds, bone fractures, intoxication by industrial poison, also to enhance the overall resistance of the organism in various diseases.
Large doses of ascorbic acid are also taken in malignant tumors, on the assumption that the triggering mechanism of malignant growth is increased activity of hyaluronidase, and ascorbic acid blocks it. In recent years, rosehip preparations are recommended to be used as an anti-sclerotic with increasing cholesterol in the blood, hypertension. An infusion of peel or whole rosehips is recommended for kidney stones as a means of promoting the resorption of stones.
Fruit официнальны, входят в состав поливитаминных препаратов и сборов, в состав противоастматической микстуры Траскова, Холосаса, Кароталина. Витаминизированный сироп дает положительный результат при гипертонической болезни. Rose hip oil improves the nutrition of the oral mucous membranes, accelerates the healing of thermal burns, radiation lesions of the skin, is used to treat and prevent atherosclerosis, peptic ulcer, trophic ulcers, gynecological diseases, to treat ulcerative ulcerative colitis (enema), dermatosis, externally - for trophic ulcers tibia, bedsores, nipple cracks, abrasions.
As an additional source of iron, rose hips are used for iron deficiency and other anemias, as well as for chronic and acute infections, nephritis, patients in the preoperative period and after surgery, for injuries, chronic and acute pneumonia, colds, vascular diseases of the brain, eye diseases, accompanied by minor hemorrhages.
In Tibetan medicine, wild rose is used in atherosclerosis, pulmonary tuberculosis, neurasthenia.
Rosehip infusion used as a choleretic agent for cholecystitis in aqueous infusions, in the form of collections of medicinal cocktails with oxygen, syrups, preserves, compotes, jam, or ready-made pharmaceutical preparations. Rosehip syrup contains a large amount of magnesium. It is prescribed to patients with thrombosis, hypertension, disorders of salt metabolism.
In folk medicine rose hips in the form of infusion used in hypovitaminosis, as a choleretic, tonic and adaptogenic, in infectious diseases, bone fractures, wounds, anemia, uterine bleeding, burns, frostbite, to enhance potency, improve sleep, in the absence of appetite, treatment of chronic anacid and achital gastritis, non-growth, sleep depressions, in the absence of appetite, treatment of chronic anacid and achital gastritis, non-growth, sleep depressions, in the absence of appetite, treatment of chronic anacid and achital gastritis, non-growth, sleep disorders liver, kidney, bladder, pulmonary tuberculosis, to accelerate the excretion of radionuclides from the body.
Dried ripe rosehips in medicine used as vitamin raw materials. Apply inside in the form of infusion, syrup, candy, dragee, etc., mainly for the prevention and treatment of vitamin deficiency. Rosehip preparations (in particular, oil) are used as a multivitamin, fortifying and increasing body resistance by means of hypo-and avitaminosis, atherosclerosis, various infectious diseases, burns, frostbite, wounds, hemophilia, bleeding.
Dogrose preparations have a choleretic effect and are indicated for cholecystitis, cholangitis, especially associated with a reduction in bile secretion.
The positive effect of wild rose preparations on the secretion of gastric juice has been established. They increase the acidity and increase the digestive power of pepsin, because wild rose is recommended for hypoacidic and anacidic gastritis.
Rose hips are part of the multivitamin charges, in I. Traskov's anti-asthmatic medicine, of which they prepare a choleretic drug "Holosas", used in the treatment of diseases of the liver and biliary tract.
Infusion of leaves used as an antibacterial and analgesic drink with colic, gastralgia, malaria, as a diuretic, as well as diarrhea. To do this, take the roots of wild rose cinnamon - 50 g, dried rosehip leaves 20 g. The mixture is poured 400 ml of boiling water, boiled for 15 minutes, infused for 2 hours, filtered. Take 1/4 cup 3-4 times a day before meals with intestinal colic, stomach pain, diarrhea. The course of treatment up to a week.
Broth root hips as an astringent and antiseptic, they are used for diarrhea, dyspepsia, as well as for cystitis, hypertension, intermittent fever, heart disease, urolithiasis, kidney stones and bladder, externally (in the form of baths) - for rheumatism and paralysis, decoction of branches - with blood diarrhea, as a valuable stone-dissolving agent for stones in the kidneys and bladder.
Fruit decoction. Fruits can be dried, and in the winter to brew and drink 1-2 cups a day, as a vitamin drink. For the decoction you need: rosehip cinnamon - 30 g, boiled water 400 ml. Dry crushed rosehips are poured with boiling water, boiled for 10 minutes, insisted for 6-8 hours in a thermos, filtered. Take 1-2 cups a day after meals.
Cinnamon Rose Hip Infusion: 1 tbsp. 400 ml of boiling water is poured over a spoonful of crushed roots, boiled for 15 minutes, infused for 2 hours, filtered. Take 1/2 cup 3-4 times daily before meals with diarrhea and dyspepsia, cystitis, arterial hypertension, intermittent fever, heart disease, urolithiasis, kidney stones, baths for rheumatism and radiculitis.
Infusion of rosehips: 1 tbsp. a spoonful of unprepared rosehips is crushed to a size of 0.5 mm, 400 ml of boiling water is poured, tightly closed with a lid and infused on a water bath for 15 minutes, then infused for 24 hours, filtered. Take 1 / 4-1 / 2 cup 2 times a day with a general loss of strength, anemia, pulmonary tuberculosis, colds, liver disease, disorders of the chair, urolithiasis.
Rosehip oil knowingly has the title of “queen of natural oils”. The properties of this oil are extremely diverse. It eliminates irritation, improves skin elasticity, normalizes the work of sebaceous and sweat glands, promotes the regeneration and rejuvenation of the skin, gives it a fresh and beautiful color. Rosehip oil - A wonderful mild antidepressant that eliminates indecision and gives confidence. Rosehip oil - an excellent cosmetic. Rosehip oil capsules are used for scurvy, anemia, general loss of strength, ulcers of the gastrointestinal tract, diseases of the liver, stomach, kidneys, gall bladders.
Rosehip oil is used externally for trophic ulcers, some diseases of the skin and mucous membranes. It is used for cracks and nipple abrasions in nursing women, dermatoses, trophic ulcers of the legs, bedsores, ulcerative colitis.
Rose hip capsules are used for scurvy, anemia, general loss of strength, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, diseases of the liver, stomach, kidneys, gall bladder. In Tibetan medicine, rose hip oil is used in pulmonary tuberculosis, neurasthenia, and atherosclerosis.
Flowers that conquer hearts
The flower is a popular variety of one of the most ancient groups of roses called park roses, with large-sized bushes, simple and sometimes double flowers, which can be painted in different tones. Culture is characterized by excellent cold resistance, unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention and the ability to form a beautiful shape without cutting measures. The plant is relatively resistant to all sorts of pests and diseases, so it rarely gets sick or loses an attractive appearance. It is a colorful decorative creation, which in a special way attracts attention during the period of flowering and fruit ripening. For cutting and making bouquets dog rose does not apply.
Currently, about 50 varieties of wild rose grow in the territory of the Russian Federation. In the world there are more than 400 units. A significant part is represented in the northern hemisphere, although many germinate in North Africa, and even to the Arctic Circle. The main advantage of the flower is its excellent frost resistance, which allows it to tolerate harsh winters in the subarctic belt. The shrub shows high demands on the soil composition, therefore it is almost impossible to meet it on barren, dry soils.
He also needs plenty of light. and regular dressings, and both in organic and mineral. The flowering period begins in May-July, when the bush is completely covered with excellent flowers, painted in a variety of shades, including:
When flowering culture looks especially elegant. Fruiting begins at the age of two or three years.
Variety of wild rose is presented in the form of a thorny shrub, up to two meters high, which is characterized by unpretentiousness to the conditions of detention, winter hardiness and the ability to do without moisture for a long time. Cultivated Rose Hip grown for decorative purposes. Very often, on its basis, beautiful hedges are created that decorate homestead plots or city parks. In addition, many flower growers and connoisseurs of traditional medicine make a good medicinal, vitamin, food and honey solution from rose hips.
The dog rose flower belongs to medium-sized shrubs that have thin twig-shaped branches and shoots with a shiny brown-red bark and small paired, sharp, hooked-curved thorns. Peduncles do not have thorns. On young shoots are formed complex, pinnate leaves, consisting of 5−7 tiny leaves, growing up to 1,5−5 centimeters in length.
Especially valuable are all varieties and varieties of wild rose, though among them edible crops deserve great respect, because their fruits have an incredibly rich in vitamins and trace elements composition. Among these plants, cinnamon rosehip, or as it is also called "may". This record holder contains 900−1250 mg of vitamin C per 100 grams of fresh fruit. Also in its composition is malic and citric acid, a complex of vitamins B1, B2, K, carotene, tannins and a lot of other macro-and microelements. The fruits of cinnamon rose hips are rich in vanillin and essential oils.
When the wild rose blooms
Asking the question: “When the wild rose begins to bloom” - do not wait for a definite answer. Wild rose, germinating in different regions, shows a different behavior. In any case, during the flowering period, wild rose turns into a dressed bride with delicate virgin petals, which first cover the entire shrub, and then are carried by the wind throughout the territory. Flowering begins at the end spring, from May to June. Flowers bloom in the morning - up to 6 hours and then close after sunset, which is necessary to protect the pollen from the effects of dew.
Every beginning gardener should know when the wild rose begins to bloom, because during the flowering period the culture turns into an amazing decorative ornament and a real storehouse of valuable substances.
The main properties and advantages of the plant
Today, many varieties of wild rose are cultivated, which can have many benefits. Among them:
- high yield
- rich in valuable vitamins and trace elements composition,
- short ripening,
- stable immunity, allowing not to respond to any pathogens,
Rosehips have a high growth rate, so they are considered a real boon for landscape designers who want to create a reliable hedge. Arcuate shoots are attached to the fence, during which a distance of 3.5 meters between the plants is left. Decorative shrub appealThey give aromatic petals with bright pink color, as well as red-orange fruits that look simply amazing.
Buy planting material for growing rose hips at home can be in specialized institutions. However, in this case you will not have guaranteesthat he will give good results. If you want to grow a culture yourself, you need to pay attention to such methods of reproduction:
Most often, wild rose grow seed. Such a seed has a very strong shell that complicates the stratification procedure. Because of this feature, the germination percentage is very small.
However, experienced gardeners adhere to one secret: for sowing, it is necessary to choose good seeds from under-ripe fruits when they are colored brown. Then they need to be freed from the pulp and moved into a container with wet sand in the refrigerator. Freshly harvested planting material is sown in pre-treated soil, compacting it. In springtime, there are friendly shoots. The best period when you can plant a wild rose flower is in early spring, before bud break. Also practiced autumn planting culturebut it does have some nuances.
Immediately before planting, the roots and young shoots need to be shortened. When transplanting to a permanent place they are planted 4−6 centimeters deeper. In this case, the shoots are cut off, leaving only 2−3 strongly developed buds.
When planting seedlings, you need to observe the close proximity of several plants with the same flowering period, which will allow you to get a more productive crop of fruits.
Useful properties of wild rose flower
As mentioned above, the wild rose flower has many beneficial properties and benefits. Many of them are still little studied, and many are generally unknown. In any case, the plant is really - a real find for lovers of traditional medicine.
To keep the hips in the best possible way, they need to start collecting as they ripen, when they remain firm, but they already acquire characteristic tones in color. Drying of the collected berries is carried out in a natural way, without the use of additional heating. It is enough to spread the fruit in a thin layer on some burlap and move it to a shaded place with good ventilation. It is important to protect them from direct sunlight, otherwise storage will be in vain. If the fruits are properly dried, they will have a characteristic brownish-red color and a wrinkled texture. The taste of dried rosehip is sour-sweet, odorless. When drying by thermal, most of the valuable properties disappear, so put the fruit in the oven can not.
It is known that in the composition of the fruits of the flower wild rose contains a wide variety of nutrients, including:
- pectin and tannins,
- acids (citric, malic, etc.),
By the way, in terms of the composition of ascorbic acid and vitamin P, the dog rose has almost no competitors. For comparison, the berries of black currant contains ten times less vitamin C than in the wild rose.
Many believe that the most useful broths based on wild rose are obtained from its roots. However, this is a profound mistake. Absolutely all parts of the culture are incredibly useful, so there is no point in destroying the culture by digging up the root.
The most common and, perhaps, useful way to make rose hips is the following:
We take one cup of whole, unbroken fruits, wash them and put them in a liter thermos, filling with boiling water. You need to let it stand for about 6−8 hours. As the use of infusion, the fruits in a thermos regularly pour boiling water, second, third, and sometimes the fourth time. If the thermos is missing, the fruit still cannot be boiled. Try to bring them to a boil, and then wrap the container.
Benefits to the human body
Regular use of infusions and decoctions based on the rosehip flower helps to strengthen the immune system, raise the tone and overall health. Such folk remedies are excellent in combating catarrhal and infectious diseases. Properly prepared infusion has a tonic, firming, choleretic and vitaminizing effect on the body. In addition, it reduces the development of atherosclerosis, and is also used in gastrointestinal diseases, acting as a highly effective antimicrobial and analgesic substance. Also for rosehip infusions characteristic anti-inflammatory and diuretic properties.
Currently, mankind does not know the best combination of vitamins and valuable substances than in the dog rose. Nature really gave us a priceless gift that has no competitors. For the preparation of a multivitamin preparation from the hips create drinks, mashed potatoes, infusions, decoctions, tablets, extracts, candy and even pills. Rosehip essential oils are not inferior in the use of sea buckthorn. They have found their application in official medicine and in cosmetology, since on their basis different creams, tonics, lotions and other cosmetics are created.
Regular consumption of wild rose fruits in food contributes to the effective prevention of common diseases of infectious or viral origin. From the incredibly valuable petals, you can create jam, vinegar, rose water and other useful things. Rosehip roots are used to prepare decoctions or alcohol tinctures. Fruit syrup has an excellent choleretic effect, and especially if the culture is exposed to liver diseases and gastrointestinal disorders. Infusions and decoctions are considered a very valuable tool for the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, problems with the bladder and kidneys.
To harvest need to start on time. The concentration of useful substances in their composition depends on the degree of maturity. Unripe fruits have a small amount of ascorbic acid, but the level of vitamins is small and in overripe specimens. Therefore, you need to choose ripe berries with the right color, shape and structure.
Now you know how much a wild rose can give to a person.
The legend of the wild rose
There is a legend that tells where the wild rose itself came from and how its healing properties were discovered. Once a young Cossack and a young man fell in love with each other, but the old chieftain also had his eye on the beauty. Он решил разлучить влюбленных и отправил молодого парня на военную службу. На прощание тот подарил своей возлюбленной кинжал. Старый атаман хотел заставить казачку выйти за него замуж, но она сбежала и убила себя подаренным оружием. На месте, где пролилась ее алая кровь и вырос куст, который укрылся красивыми цветками с обворожительным ароматом.When the chieftain wanted to pick an amazing flower, the bush was covered with prickly thorns and the Cossack did not try, he did not succeed, he only wounded his hands. In autumn, bright fruits replaced the flowers, but no one even tried to try them, one day the old grandmother of the village had a rest from the road under the bush and heard him say to her in a girlish voice, so that she would not be afraid, but make tea from berries. I obeyed the old woman and having drunk tea, I felt 10 years younger. Good fame quickly spread and rose hips became known and used for medicinal purposes.
Dangerous properties of wild rose
Do not recommend wild rose to those people who have impaired blood flow (hypertensive patients can not take alcohol solutions, and hypotensive - water).
With prolonged use of rosehip infusions, liver failure may develop.
People who suffer from constipation and congestive processes in the gallbladder are also not advised to take this remedy.
Accurate to the use of wild rose should be attributed to the cores, as well as prone to thrombosis.
Contraindications are skin diseases.
When wild rose blooms, it can be compared to a bride: delicate virgin petals of roses first decorate the whole bush, and then they are easily carried by the wind. Briar flowers in late spring, from May to June. During the flowering period, it falls about 20 days, but each flower lives no more than two days. Flowers bloom in the morning - up to 6 hours, and close at night, protecting pollen from dew.
When the wild rose is in bloom it is worth knowing that its flowers are not only a decorative ornament, but also a very valuable product. Petals can be consumed in candied form, dried or dried.
Dried petals can be used for the preparation of aromatic mixtures, for decorating cakes, making delicacies - jam, sherbet. And nothing can compare with the essential oil of a rose (a few grams of it comes out of a whole kilogram of petals).
Apply rosehip petals
- Cosmetic bath with rosehip petals perfectly relieves irritation of the skin, smoothes it and makes it supple. To prepare it, you need to pour the petals with a liter of water and bring to a boil, boil a little, cool, strain and add rose water to the bath.
- A steam bath with rosehip petals is able to smooth out wrinkles, remove bags from the genus with eyes and clean the skin from acne. To prepare the bath, you need to fill a handful of shredded flowers with boiling water and keep your face over the steam.
- Aromatization room. Why spend money on chemistry, if you can prepare a natural flavor for the room? It takes several handfuls of dry fragrant petals to fall asleep with sea salt, drop a couple of drops of alcohol, put in a dark cool place for 2 weeks. After that, sprinkle in small containers and arrange around the room, periodically stir.
Rosehip looks wildly accustomed, but it will take a great place in any garden, in any yard.
- Section:Plants with the letter W
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Rosaceae family - Rosaceae.
Over 60 species of wild rose are found. Species of the dog rose (rose) are divided into 8 groups (sections).
Cinnamon dogrose is the richest in vitamin C, cinnamoneae. Species of dog rose section canine - caninae contain vitamin C significantly less.
Cinnamon rosehip (cinnamon rose, lat.Rosa cinnamonea) Is a shrub with reddish-brown shiny branches, spines bent downwards and arranged in pairs at the base of the stem of leaves. Leaf-bearing shoots also have thin straight spines. Leaves complex, pinnate, with ovate – lanceolate acute stipules, at 3 /4 fused with petiole, Leaflets are five – seven pairs, they are oblong – oval, serrated, grayish below. Cinnamon rosehip flowers solitary, pink or dark red, with many stamens and pistils. False fruits are berry-like, spherical, less often elliptical, orange-red, soft, sweet-sour taste. For dogrose cinnamon is characterized by one-piece, upwards sepals that remain with the fruit. Plant height 100–150 cm.
Dog rose (dog rose lat.Rosa canina) - is a shrub with branches covered with strong tenacious crescent spines, flattened at the extended base. The leaves are complex, pinnate, with five to seven ovoid, bare, acutely serrated leaves. Rosehip doggy pink or white. False fruits are spherical and oblong, large, red, with characteristic pinnacular, bent down, falling sepals when the fruit ripens. After falling off the sepal pharynx of the receptacle is closed pentagonal platform. Plant height 120 - 240 cm.
Both species of dogrose easily differ from each other in the nature of the sepals.
Rosehip Spiny (rose spiny lat.Rosa acicularis lindl) Is a shrub with grayish-brown branches, covered with thin straight deflected setae. The leaves are complex, nonpaired, with large, biconteous leaves far apart. False fruits ovoid-longish, red, drooping, with the remaining cup. Plant height 50-200 cm.
Rosehip Dahurian (rose Dahuri lat. Rosa davurica pall) - is a shrub with black-purple branches, curved, sticking out spikes, sitting on two at the base of the branches, and in young branches - at the base of the petioles. The leaves are complex, pinnate, with oblong leaves, seated below with small yellow glands. False fruits spherical-ovate, with long lanceolate – sepals. Plant height 100–150 cm.
Flowering time: May - August.
Spread: Cinnamon dog rose is found in the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part of Russia, in Western Siberia and Kazakhstan, canine rose hips - in the middle and southern regions of the European part of Russia, mainly in the chernozem belt, and in the Caucasus, Pinus spines - in coniferous forests of Siberia, the Far East and in the northern regions of the European part of Russia, Daurian rosehip - in the forests of Transbaikalia, in the Amur basin and in the south of Primorsky Krai.
Place of growth: Cinnamon and dog rose grows along river floodplains, meadows, among shrubs, across forest glades, edges and ravines, Spiny rosehips - mainly in coniferous forests, Dahur rosehips - in deciduous, less often coniferous forests, in open areas.
Applicable part: fruits, seeds, flowers, leaves and roots.
Collection time: fruits and seeds are harvested in August - September, flowers and leaves - during flowering, roots - in autumn and early spring.
Chemical composition: rose hips contain sugar (about 18%), pectic substances (3.7%), tannins (up to 4.5%), citric (about 2%), malic and other organic acids, vitamin C (on average 2–3 %, or 2000– 3000 mg%), carotene (12–18 mg%), vitamins B2 (about 0.03 mg%), K (up to 40 biological units), P (citrine), flavonol glucosides kaempferol and quercetin, pigments lycopene and rubiksanthin.
Collection and preparation: fruits are harvested before the onset of frost. Dry in a dryer at a temperature of 80–90 ° C, folding it in a thin layer and stirring occasionally. Dried fruit should retain the natural color, smell and taste. Sometimes the fruit is peeled and the seeds and skin are dried separately. Shelf life - 2 years.
Contraindications:the most cautious should be people with circulatory disorders. With thrombosis, endocarditis and thrombophlebitis, the use of decoction is contraindicated without consulting a doctor.
Since rosehips contain large amounts of ascorbic acid, additional problems may occur with gastritis, ulcers and people with high acidity.
And naturally dogrose decoction is contraindicated for those rare people who have vitamin C hypervitaminosis.
Rosehip - an old medicinal plant, its medicinal properties were known in Russia, as early as the 17th century. Then the hips were highly valued and were given out for treatment by special permission only to notable people.
Rosehip is a multivitamin plant, its fruits by the quantitative content and variety of vitamins are significantly superior to other plants. Water infusion of the fruit increases the body's resistance to infectious diseases, reduces the development of atherosclerosis and has a tonic, tonic effect. Infusion of the fruit increases the secretion of bile, stimulates the function of the sex glands, weakens and stops bleeding, reduces the permeability and fragility of the blood capillaries. The infusion of the fruit also enhances the regenerative processes of soft and bone tissues and accelerates the healing of wounds, burns and frostbite. The pulp of the fruit has a slight laxative effect.
Seeds of hips, located inside the fruit, have choleretic, diuretic and anti-inflammatory effects. Broth roots has astringent, choleretic and antiseptic properties. Aqueous infusion of leaves has antimicrobial and analgesic effects and is used in gastrointestinal diseases.
Water infusion of rose hips taken with anemia, and especially with a general loss of strength of the body and weakness after debilitating diseases. The infusion of the fruit is also used for ulcers of the stomach and intestines, catarrh of the stomach with low acidity, in diseases of the liver, kidneys and bladder.
In folk medicine of Siberia, a decoction of rose hips is used for colds, and a decoction of flower petals with honey - for erysipelas.
In folk medicine of Karachay-Cherkessia, wild rose is also accepted for colds, and especially for coughing.
A decoction of the roots of wild rose drink with malaria and as a good crushing and dissolving stones remedy for kidney stones.
In German folk medicine, the infusion of the fruit and the decoction of the crushed seeds of wild rose are consumed inside with stones of the kidneys and bladder, and the infusion of fruits only with beriberi.
In Tibetan medicine, wild rose is used in pulmonary tuberculosis, atherosclerosis, and neurasthenia.
Outwardly, a decoction of the roots is used for baths with paralysis and “weakness” of the legs. A decoction of dry fruits used for baths with rheumatism.
In scientific medicine, the infusion of rose hips is widely used in beriberi and as a tonic and enhancing body resistance tool for various infectious diseases, injuries, burns, frostbite. Rosehip infusion is also used for arterosclerosis, hemophilia and uterine bleeding.
Rose hips are part of multivitamin fees. The fruit produces a drug holosas, used as a choleretic agent for liver diseases - cholecystitis and hepatitis.
The fruits are used in the confectionery industry. Rose rose petals and rose water are produced from the rosemary and liqueurs. From the hips you can get a beautiful orange paint.
1) Pour 1 tablespoon of rosehips with 2 cups of boiling water, boil for 10 minutes in a closed vessel, leave for 1 day, squeeze, strain, add sugar. Take 1 /2 2–3 times a day before meals.
2) 2 tablespoons of the roots of wild rose boil for 15 minutes in 2 cups of water, leave for 2 hours, drain. Take 1 /2 cup 4 times a day before meals.
3) 1 teaspoon of rosehip powder to boil 1 /2 hours in 1 cup of water in a sealed container, insist 2 hours, strain. Take 1 /4 3–4 times daily before meals.
4) 1 tablespoon of rosehip leaves to insist 2-3 hours at 1 /2 cups of boiling water in a sealed container, drain. Take 2 tablespoons 3-4 times daily before meals.
Multiple, deciduous (less often evergreen) shrub. It refers to the morphological order of Rosaceae, represented by about 400 species. For Russia, 50-100 are typical, the rest are dispersed throughout the northern hemisphere down to the tropical belt. Cultivars, including rosehips false and purely decorative, number tens of thousands.
Appearance is determined by environmental conditions. Typical dimensions are 2-3 m in height, but there are specimens in 25 cm or 10 m, creeping or climbing. Rounded leaves may be smooth or pubescent. On the branches there are thorns - short and soft or long, sharp. Often there are growths-nuts strange structure, they are called galls.
Unpretentious. Wild plants are found both in the damp heat of the jungle and on waterless rocks. They are not afraid of frost, drought, although they were not found in deserts. Suitable for cultivation in the garden, with reproduction from seedlings, annual shoots. The life span is several dozen, less often hundreds of years.
They give small round, oval or pitcher-shaped fruits that look like mini-fruits of rich red, orange, black or brown shades (in the middle lane it occurs by August-September). Single-seeded, germinate not immediately after falling into the soil, but only after 2-3 years. The botanical formula of wild rose flowers describing the structure - 5 sepals, 5 petals, many pistils and stamens. They bloom in May-June, at dawn, and close at night.
Berries in nature serve as food for field and forest birds, a number of animals: foxes, mice, hares. Shoots and branches are eaten only by goats, sheep, and camels who can chew the thorns. The chemical composition of the raw material is heterogeneous, depends on the region, but almost everywhere it is traditionally considered to be an excellent source of vitamins.
The representative of the genus Rosa, familiar to Russians (the Latin name is known from ancient times, given supposedly because of the color of the flowers) is scientifically called the canine rose, or Sosnovskaya. The auxiliary purpose is decorative, the main is food, medicinal. Fruits, inflorescences, petals of shrubs, which are included in this group, as well as rose hips of shchetkonosny, felt, apple, stupid bean have long been allowed to prepare surrogates for tea, jams, compotes, kissels, even marmalade and sweets.
Vitamin, cultivated plants of botany from different countries include blackthorn, wrinkled, may, acicular, loose, some other varieties.
Ointments, tea drinks, tinctures based on raw blackthorn are intended for internal and external use. The craftsmen masterfully heal at home, abrasions, cracked skin and nipples in nursing women. Traditional pharmacological agents help to get rid of chronic and acute problems with the urogenital, circulatory, digestive systems: strengthen the walls of blood vessels, inhibit pulmonary, uterine bleeding, stimulate the production of hormones, bile. Also thanks to them you can win:
- cold, arthritis, flu, any throat diseases,
- ulcers, frostbite, dermatitis,
- burns, eczema, obesity,
- a number of eye diseases, hepatitis, cholecystitis,
- atherosclerosis, cholangitis, diathesis.
According to studies, symptoms in children, adult men and women are easily removed. Complications can safely avoid or mitigate the course. Recovery is faster, even if the person just drinks herbal tea with berries and honey.
Vitamin companies on different continents have long been processed dogrose huge amounts. In Russia and the USSR, on the territory of Lithuania, Bashkiria, the Chelyabinsk Region, and the Moscow Region, plantations were created with perennial clumps, where they grew the most rich in healthy substances, large-fruited shrubs. Canning factories produced rose jam. Confectionery, perfumery, wine, pharmaceutical - oil, for which 1 kg of spent 3 thousand kg of fresh petals collected in the morning, is spent entirely by hand. Seed oil goes to the production of drying oil.
Berries are mainly used because of the highest number of antioxidants, microelements and other active ingredients in the cells. The finished form - pills, tablets, extracts, often sold whole dried fruit. Fresh (seasonal, autumn product), caloric 162/100 g, because of the appropriate characteristics like homeopaths. Typical indications for treatment:
- anemia, exhaustion, diarrhea,
- carbohydrate metabolism disorders
- inflammation of the kidneys, liver, intestines,
- typhus, tuberculosis, scarlet fever (make napara, tinctures).
Popular drugs - "Galaskorbin", "Holosas", anti-asthma mixtures. A prophylactic agent according to the pharmacopoeia is considered a syrup.
Shops and pharmacies offer carotolin-based nourishing creams (oil extract) that help improve the complexion, smooth out wrinkles, reduce excessive sensitivity, and normalize water metabolism. It is independently recommended to prepare infusions and decoctions for washing, which are suitable for all skin types, including acne and teenage. They are well cleaned, refreshing, toning, effectively relieve inflammation, peeling, wounds, and also protect against UV radiation. The strongest anti-aging effect comes from oil obtained after cold pressing of raw materials.
Fragrant wax, the juice from the petals goes to the production of overvalued soap, lipstick, perfume. It is included in 98% perfumery for women and 46% for men, it is also added to honey with milk, baths are made, ensuring smoothness and tenderness of the skin. Care for hands, greasing them with a mixture of rose water, ammonia and glycerin.
Большинство распространенных представителей рода Роза (дословное название с латыни) дают плоды, которые можно есть свежими, сушеными или после термической обработки. Лепестки шиповника иглистого употребляют сырыми, коричного – пускают на варенье, морщинистого – на кисель, наливки. Суррогаты чая дают настои цветков, реже – листьев множества видов. Заменителем кофе служат обработанные схожим образом орешки терновника собачьего. Молоденькие побеги и листья выступают как ингредиенты для некоторых закусок, салатов. Thanks to the raw blackthorn, the wines become spicy, it is suitable for making soft drinks.
Billet Rose Hip
Held exclusively in ecologically clean areas. It is necessary to select an area located far from the roads and highways, as well as from accumulations of man-made debris.
Beforehand it is necessary to make sure that wild-growing red-and-black fruit plants belong to the vitamin, useful species of a large family.
For Russia it begins approximately from the end of August, lasts strictly until the first frosts, which occasionally occur in early autumn. Mature, but spoiled by cold, fruits should then be subjected to heat treatment (to prepare compotes, juices, syrups), for the preparation of other prophylactic drugs they are not suitable. In determining the timing you need to focus on the characteristics of the territory and the variety of wild rose. Each berry should be plucked with the sepal, trying not to damage, otherwise it will quickly rot, become moldy and ruin the rest.
Leaves, bark and other above- and underground parts of plants without special need for lovers of today is not recommended. When the blackthorn blooms, it is better not to touch it, so as not to harm because of a lack of knowledge.
It is carried out after primary processing - separation of sick, cracked, crushed fruits. Small ones should be left whole, large ones should be cut in half. Washing is not required. The simplest method of drying is in the oven, which must be heated to 400 ° C. Then put inside a baking tray with one layer of decomposed raw materials, wait 60 minutes, raise the temperature to 600 ° C, leave for 10 hours.
Another option is to set the value to 1000 ° С, process the berries for 10 minutes. Then hold a little more until readiness at 700 ° C. Periodically stir or just open the door of the device.
If a cool shaded attic is available, it is recommended to use it: place the tray so that the berries are blown from all sides by a draft. Then complete the treatment with aerogrill. Over-dried fruits crumble, normal when pressed, spring, on the skin there are no traces.
You need to pick up a dark, warm, not too wet place. Raw materials are put in glass bottles, wooden boxes, paper or cardboard boxes. Tin cans are suitable, but you must hold the hips in advance for 3-5 days in a breathable container at room temperature. Short shelf life - 12-24 months. Spoiled raw materials or overdose of products based on it cause allergies, poisoning of varying degrees.
Method of preparation and use
Rosehip as a medicinal plant is used in different ways, there are many recipes for healing tools. The most popular is a decoction. It is necessary to take 2 tablespoons of well-washed, chopped raw materials, pour 400 ml of hot water in a glass container, place for 15 minutes in a water bath. Then cool, how should strain, using cheesecloth. The second option - 5 tbsp. l take 1-1.5 liters of boiling water, keep on fire for about 5 minutes, move to a thermos, insist 3-4 hours.
Classic infusion do this: for 1 tablespoon of berries take 0.5 liters of hot water, wait for the night (10-12 hours). Carefully filter, drink for 2 days, 2 times a day for half an hour before meals. Portion - about half a cup. Use a thermos or a saucepan wrapped with a thick terry towel.
Instructions for use vary based on the patient's habits and specific conditions. So, if in the above scheme, double the volume of boiling water, insisting the solution for 15 minutes, you get tea. It is preferable to use this brewing recipe: the liquid retains the maximum amount of bioactive substances. You can still boil a handful of fruit for 10 minutes over low heat in 1 liter of water. The taste will change to sourish, it will become richer, but vitamin C will be almost completely destroyed. It is allowed to dry dried nuts crushed into powder with 1 cup of water (per 10 g), then immediately ingest.
Freshly picked berries can be put on the syrup: wash, clean from seeds, sepals, villi. Grind, add boiling water (1: 2), cook for 10-15 minutes, leave for 10-12 hours. Filter, add sugar (1: 1.5), heat slowly until it dissolves, then pour it into the jars. Drink immediately or as time passes, keeping the finished product in the dark and cool.
Another version: blanch the pulp for 2-3 minutes, disperse in scalded containers, pour sugar syrup (1: 2), put citric acid (4 g per 1 l), hold in a water bath. Roll up, leave to cool, turning upside down.