Mikhanovich Gymnocalycium (Gymnocalycium mihanovichii) is a plant of the Cactus Gymnocalycium genus of the family (Cactaceae), whose natural habitat is the valleys of the rivers of Argentina and Paraguay.
This cactus has a wide ribbed spherical red-brown stem, up to 6 cm in diameter and about 5 cm in height. The ribs are large, narrow, wavy, with a triangular cross-section, “equipped” with centimeter light radially growing spikes. Funnel-shaped, multi-petal, yellowish-green or light pink flowers, about 5 cm in diameter.
In the indoor floriculture, chlorophyll-free mutations of Mikhanovich hymnocalycium, with red, yellow, pink, and orange coloration of the stem, have become widely popular. Unable to live independently, they can only grow grafted onto another cactus, which is usually chosen as a slow-growing species with a thin ribbed stem. The result is a rather original plant-flower: a spiny brightly colored flattened ball on a thin green leg. Unfortunately, these mutations are rather short-lived.
Care for hymnocalycium at home
The Gymnokalicium of Mikhanovich can be recommended even to beginner flower growers, since it is one of the most unpretentious plants.
Lighting. Cactus prefers bright diffused light. The best location in the room for him will be the windows of the eastern and western exposure. On the south window will require protection from midday sunlight. Otherwise, on juicy balls, the stems will remain ugly burns, having the appearance of dry brown spots.
Temperature. Gymnocalycium is rather indifferent to the temperature of the content, provided that it is constant. It feels fine at 15 and at 30 ° C, but does not tolerate sudden changes in temperature and drafts. Therefore, when airing the room in which the hymnocalicium grows, in the cold season it should be protected from the air flow from the street.
In winter, it is desirable to lower the temperature and contain the plant at 10 - 15 ° C. This time for him is a period of rest, in which the cactus stops growing and "hibernates."
Water Mikhanovich's hymnocalycium should be moderately allowed to dry enough for the soil. Like all cacti, this species is not afraid of drought, but it treats a constant bay very negatively and can quickly rot.
Watering is done with soft, well-settled water at room temperature. If necessary, if the tap water is too hard, it is filtered or slightly acidified with vinegar or citric acid.
In winter, when the day is getting shorter, watering should be further reduced, since the rest period for the plant and it consumes less moisture.
Air humidity. Cactus does not need to increase the humidity of the air and calmly tolerates dryness in the room even when the central heating radiators are operating.
The soil. The cultivation of Mikhanovich's hymnocalyucium requires a slightly acidic, loose, moisture- and permeable substrate. You can buy specialized ready-made soil in the store, or you can prepare the soil mixture yourself, taking for this turf, humus, sheet, peat land and coarse sand or perlite in equal proportions.
Before planting, it is necessary to create a good drainage layer at the bottom of the pot, and the pot itself should be chosen small in size, commensurate with the root system, since the cactus will bloom better in small tanks.
Top dressing. From mid-spring to mid-autumn, the hymnocalycium is fed twice a month with specialized fertilizer for cacti. In the cold season feeding is stopped, giving the plant the opportunity to rest.
Transfer. Young specimens are transplanted annually, in spring, into pots of larger diameter. Adult plants can be transplanted once every 4 years, in the same container filled with fresh soil. At the same time, it is necessary to carefully shake the old, exhausted and snapped earth from the roots.
Breeding. The easiest way to obtain a new hymnocalycium is to cut off the lateral otdekok-babe, which in the set are formed on the mother plant. After a little drying of the cut, the baby is rooted in a separate pot, just putting it on the surface of the wet earth.
You can multiply the cactus and seeds. For their successful germination, you must follow the instructions specified on the bag or in the special literature.
Diseases and pests. As a rule, the plant is not affected by pests.
From diseases, due to excessive watering, root rot can develop, which in advanced cases can lead to death. At the first signs of the disease, the cactus should be removed from the ground, washed from the old soil, cut off the affected roots, dried out a little and put into a healthy substrate for new rooting.
What conditions need to create a cactus, so that it grows well and developed?
Gymnokalatsium Mikhanovich loves a bright light, so depending on the time of year, certain nuances should be considered. In the autumn and winter months, it is necessary to provide additional illumination to the plant, and in spring and especially in summer to shade the flower to avoid the formation of burns in the cactus.
To ensure comfortable conditions for the maintenance of hymnocalycium, one should adhere to the temperature of the room within twenty to twenty-four degrees. During the onset of the autumn-winter period, the temperature regime should be reduced to fifteen to eighteen degrees, a temperature decrease below five degrees is unacceptable.
To this indicator, cacti are undemanding. At home, they perfectly tolerate dry air, do not need spraying.
You can not water a home cactus hard water from the tap, which is not settled. To remove chlorine, you should take water and let it stand in an open container for twenty-four hours. Only after that the water will be suitable for irrigation and absolutely harmless to hymn-calicium. If the water is hard, then it should be filtered.
For irrigation, you should use water at room temperature; in no case should you irrigate cactus with cold water.
In summer, it is necessary to provide abundant watering to the flower, but the soil should dry completely in the pot between waterings. At the end of the summer period, watering should be gradually reduced, and from mid-autumn irrigation should be sharply reduced. In winter, the plant practically does not need watering, it all depends on the temperature in the room and air humidity, but with the onset of spring you need to switch to more frequent watering.
Soil for the plant will suit any, as long as it is loose and well drained. A great option is a ready-made universal mixture for cacti and succulents. You can also make the soil yourself by mixing humus, sand, peat, charcoal and expanded clay or chips from bricks. It should be noted that the Mikhanovich hymnocalycium does not tolerate acidic soil, it must be slightly acidic or neutral.
Fertilizing plant need only mineral fertilizers, from the organic flower will die. In stores you can easily find special fertilizers for succulents and cacti, at home it is better to use only them.
Fertilize a flower once a month from early spring to autumn. But in the autumn-winter period, the cactus does not need feeding. If the cactus has recently been transplanted, then it should not be fertilized at all; in the fresh soil, the plant will have all the necessary nutrients.
In winter, the plant must provide a condition of complete rest. At this time, the hymnocalycium should not be rotated and moved to another location. At this time, the cactus is gaining strength for the active period and flowering.
Gymnocalycium usually blooms at two or three years of age, flowering begins in the spring and ends in late autumn. The flowers of the plant are located at the top in the form of closed cups, which have no spines. Flowers have the form of a bell with a diameter of two to seven centimeters, their color can be very diverse - yellow, red, pink, white, purple or cream.
Mikhanovich's hymnocalicium reproduces at home in a vegetative and seed way.
Vegetative breeding method
It is quite simple and effective, subject to compliance with some simple rules. Most plants form lateral shoots during growth without additional stimulation, they are also called “kids”, which later easily take root in the soil.
To do this, cut the process with a sharp knife and dry for twenty-four hours in a dry place. Then prepare a container with sandy-peat ground or a mixture of sand, and place the process there. The ground for the “babes” should be wet. So that the cutting does not fall, it can be made a support (for example, from ordinary matches). The plant takes root quickly enough, especially if reproduction occurs in the spring. Additional lighting should be provided in autumn and winter.
It is not uncommon for a flower to grow basal shoots that already have roots. But most often they are strongly intertwined with the main plant. It is better to plant such a shoot when transplanting, extremely carefully separating the roots from the plant and the ground. In this case, the “baby” is immediately placed in the ground intended for adult succulents.
Propagate cacti seeds difficult. This type requires a lot of effort, but as practice shows, seedlings are stronger and more tenacious.
For sowing a flat container with a fine-grained substrate consisting of sand and peat should be prepared. Before sowing, the mixture must be calcined in the oven for two to three hours, after the soil has to cool and only then it is necessary to start sowing.
Hymnocalicium Seeds neatly spread on the surface of the processed mail and lightly sprinkled on top. Substrate must be wet. It is important to ensure that the earth com never dries out completely. The optimum temperature for good germination of seeds is about twenty degrees. If all conditions are met, the seedlings will appear within ten days.
It is possible to germinate and sow cacti seeds at any time of the year. Young cacti at home should be grown in a warm and bright room. It is possible to replant a plant in a separate pot in a year.
How to inculcate Mikhanovich
The vaccination of the flower is needed only for chlorophyll-free hymnocalycium., as they are not capable of photosynthesis and can grow and develop only in a vaccinated form.
It is possible to inoculate a plant in other cases: if in a short period of time it is necessary to grow a rare cactus species or the plant rots and needs to be saved.
Unlike cacti with green or brown stems, which provide themselves with chlorophyll, Mikhanovich's hymnocalycium has colored stems and cannot grow on the ground on its own. therefore it should be planted on any green cactus.
Vaccination at home should be carried out by the general rules. To begin with, choose a healthy strong plant, then all the tools needed for the work should be disinfected. On a cactus with a well-developed root system (otherwise called a stock), a horizontal incision should be made with a sharp blade, the same manipulation should be carried out on the graft. After which the plants are immediately tightly connected and secured with a bandage with a load. After about seven days, the tissue will begin to grow together and the latch can be removed.
How to replant cactus at home
Due to the slow growth of the cactus, the hymnocalicium does not need frequent transplantation. This is best done every two to three years. Young hymnocalicium must be replanted every year in the spring.
The size of the pot for transplantation should be chosen a little larger than the old one. Transplant the plant as follows:
- the root system should be carefully cleaned of dead parts,
- wash the roots with warm water
- dry the plant for two days
- prepare the soil for transplanting - for this they mix leafy ground, sand, turf ground, charcoal and peat. In no case should the content of lime be in the soil,
- dried plant is placed in the ground and watered with acidified water.
Problems that arise when growing cactus hymnocalicium
This kind of cacti is not picky.It is resistant to pests and can adapt to various conditions. But still when growing there are certain problems that can lead to stunting or even death of a flower. This is due to the following reasons:
- wrong care
- watering hard water
- the presence of alkali in the soil
- damage to the stem during breeding "kids"
The main enemies of cacti: their destruction and subsequent care of the plant
Red flat mite
It rarely affects adult plants, since their skin is too thick. But young plants are very susceptible to this pest.
The tick is very small and difficult to see, but traces of it are visible to the naked eye - these are dry rusty spots on the plant.
In this case, the flower should be washed with hot water and treated with alcohol. In extreme cases, you can apply acaricidal drugs.
This is another pest that parasitizes on all types of cacti. It lives on the roots and stems of the flower. If detected, the plant should be rinsed with hot water for fifteen minutes, and then the flower is watered with insecticides.
The main condition for the occurrence is excessive watering or too fertile soil. In this case, the affected roots are removed, washed and treated with a fungicide.
Provided that the care of the cactus is correct, the flower can become not only a worthy decoration of any interior, but also provide its owners with a good state of health and mood.
When the hymnocalicium blooms
The name of the plant is formed by the combination of two Greek words, meaning in translation γυμν naked and καλ beautiful. The fact is that there are no thorns on the pedicel, it is covered with smooth scales.
The hymnocalicium bloom begins at the age of three years. Buds appear at the top of the shoot in a small group. Petals can be snow-white, muted pastel colors or bright. The appearance of flowering should be expected in spring and autumn.
Gymnocalycium light-requiring. He always needs a bright light, especially in winter, because at this time flower buds are laid. Put on the east or south window. In the summer, do not keep in the sun so that, although covered with prickles, but the delicate skin does not get burned. For shading it is enough to shield the glass with a sheet of paper. Since autumn, the intensity of natural illumination falls, so turn on fluorescent lamps or phytolamps at a distance of 50 cm from the plants.
Watering and humidity
Gymnocalycium should be watered regularly, and do not allow the overmoistening of the soil, let's dry the substrate between waterings. In spring and summer, perform the procedure as the topsoil dries. By the beginning of autumn, watering is reduced additionally - the earthen room should dry by half. In winter, make water 1-2 times a month in small portions.
Cacti are undemanding to the humidity in the room. In order to remove the accumulated dust from the plant, in the summer plentifully spray it from a fine sprayer and let it dry in shading.
Feed only during the period of active growth. In the spring and summer with water for irrigation make feeding every 15 days. In any flower shop you can find special mixtures of fertilizers for cacti. You can also feed complex mineral fertilizers with a low proportion of nitrogen.
How to transplant hymnocalicium
It is important to have time to transplant the plant in early spring before the beginning of activization of growth. The need for transplantation occurs as the substrate is filled with the root system - every 2-3 years.
Planted in small plastic pots with large drainage holes. To ensure the outflow of water will help expanded clay, tracing paper, pieces of foam, clay shards, laid on the bottom.
- The soil requires medium fertility, necessarily loose and light, neutral or weakly acidic reaction.
- Most often they take in a flower shop a universal substrate for succulents or cacti.
- For self-preparation of the mixture you will need turf ground, leaf humus, peat and coarse sand in an equal ratio, add a little brick chips and charcoal, mix all the ingredients thoroughly.
What to do next? At the bottom of the tank lay the drainage layer to ¼ of the total volume, pour earth a little. We take out the cactus together with the earthy lump from the previous pot (to facilitate the process, pre-water the plant), shake off a part of the ground and transfer the plant to a new pot. Add the soil mixture, pour a little and, if desired, place a layer of decorative stone on top. The stone will delay the evaporation of moisture, and watered after it will have less. Plus, the root system will feel much better, there will not be an abrupt change in humidity, and the earthen room will not be compressed due to rare watering.
Growing hymnocalycium seed
The fruit of hymnocalicium with seeds photo
The advantage of seed propagation is the possibility of obtaining higher quality and healthy planting material. Buy seeds at a flower shop. Высевать можно в любое время года, если есть возможность обеспечить тепло и яркое освещение.
- You will need small boxes or containers for seedlings with sand-peat mixture.
- Level the soil, spread the seeds over the surface and spray out of a fine sprayer.
- Light is needed diffused, and the temperature of the air is 20 ° C, it is advisable to use the lower heating, watering by spraying or through a drip pan.
Gymnocalycium from seed photo shoots
- Dilute thick shoots with tweezers.
- Grown up seedlings are planted in separate plastic pots of small size and provide care as for adult plants. When transplanting, use a fork or other auxiliary tool to pry a seedling with roots and a clod of earth, so as not to damage the fragile root system. After transplanting, allow the plants to adapt for a couple of days, only then water it so as not to provoke rot.
How to multiply hymnocalycium kids
Gymnocalycium Friedrich with children photo
Only some types of hymnocalycium form lateral processes, and Mihanovich's hymnocalicium, which is most often grown at home, belongs to them. Vegetative reproduction in this case is easier and faster.
- Turn the "baby" to separate from the mother plant.
- It happens that the lateral process has already developed its own roots - then you need to carefully dig, trying to minimally harm the root system of the main plant.
- Seat right away in separate pots with a wet substrate for an adult cactus, but do not water for a couple of days while the plants adapt and sustain damage.
- Cover with a can or plastic bag is not required.
After a few days you can resume watering, but do not do it often, so as not to provoke rot. Soon the roots will appear, and the transplanted children will begin to grow. Provide care for them as adult plants.
If you plant a Frederick's chlorophyll-free cactus baby in the usual way, it will lose its color as it begins to produce its own chlorophyll. Colored Japanese cacti are propagated only by grafting.
How to vaccinate
Phosphorus-free hymnocalyciums need to be grafted, since with another method of reproduction they will grow in normal color. You can also resort to this method to save a rotted seedling or grow a rare plant species.
Everything happens according to the general rule:
- choose healthy plants for grafting, a cereus known to everyone is perfect as a stock,
- take a scalpel or sharp disinfected knife and make cuts on the graft and stock,
- immediately connect, not letting dry, try to dock conductive beams,
- secure with a rubber band and hold in this position for about 7 days.
Diseases and pests
Root rot - a nuisance, in most cases leading to the death of a cactus. Heavy substrate, over-wetting of the soil (especially at low air temperature) leads to the development of fungi. It is urgent to remove the plant from the soil, cut off the affected parts, process the roots with a fungicide and transplant the cactus into a disinfected container with a fresh substrate.
Pests and methods of dealing with them:
Red spider mite
These are small rounded bugs of a dark red color, invisible to the naked eye. The skin of an adult hymnocalycium is strong, pests often damage young plants or lateral processes. They feed on the sap of the plant, as a result dry spots of rusty hue appear, it is possible to detect the excretions of a tick in the form of webbing. Rinse the cactus under a stream of hot water (not boiling water, but a temperature tolerable to the hands) or moisten a cotton pad with ethyl alcohol and wipe the cactus ribs. An extreme method of struggle is spraying the solution of acaricide. This is how whole collections of cacti are treated, if you have 1-2 of them, washing and alcohol treatment is enough.
This pest is easily identified due to white bloom, similar to cotton wool. To remove uninvited guests it is necessary to bathe the plant with warm water. With the defeat of the pest of the root system, the hymnocalycium stops growing and does not bloom. In this case, an emergency transplant will be required, as in the case of rotting, only use insecticide to destroy the larvae.
Gymnokalitsium Mikhanovich Gymnocalycium mihanovichii features of care
Gymnokalikium Mikhanovich variety Rubra Gymnocalycium mihanovichii ‘Hibotan’ (Ruby Ball) photo
The stem of this plant is slightly flattened, with a diameter of about 5 cm. The ribs consist of 8-10 pieces, they have a pointed wavy edge, triangular in cross section. The stem is green, the edges of the ribs are dark brown. Shrimp flowers can also be pure white, pinkish, yellow.
Gymnokalikium Mikhanovich type of Friedrich Gymnocalycium mihanovichii Red Head, Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var friedrichii f rubra photo
Interestingly Mikhanovich Gymnocalycium is a kind of Friedrich Gymnocalycium mihanovichii var friedrichii f rubra, having a red stem color, even yellow, purple, orange and similar subspecies with bright colors are derived. This species is grafted onto a contrasting green stalk of a cactus, and the plants are simply fantastic.
Gymnocalycium mikhanovich chlorophyll-free photo
The idea of such an interesting implementation of vaccination belongs to the Japanese, who are actively selling fantastic cacti in online stores. Does the hymnocalicium require Japanese care at home according to some special rules? No, in general, the requirements of agricultural engineering are the same, the only thing that needs to be monitored is that the vaccine is not damaged and rejection does not go. To do this, simply protect the cactus from mechanical damage.
If the stock of Mikhanovich's anthracallicium has turned yellow, what should be done, depends on the reasons: perhaps you overdo it with watering, and the roots of the plant began to rot. An urgent transplant will be required: free the plant from the pot, gently wash the soil from the roots, inspect them and cut off the rotted, treat with phytosporin solution, let the moisture dry, then transplant into a fresh substrate and disinfected pot. After transplantation, do not water a couple of days to get the roots set. Resume watering very carefully: lightly spray the soil with a solution of phytosporin. When you see that the yellowing process has stopped, care for the plant in the usual way.
If the grafted hymnocalycium killed the lower part, cut the upper part with a sharp knife and graft onto another stock as described above.
Gymnocalycium naked Gymnocalycium denudatum
Gymnocalycium naked Gymnocalycium denudatum photo
The stem is dark green, with a diameter of 8-10 cm, the skin is shiny. The ribs are rounded, almost not divided into tubercles, only 5-8 of them. The spines of a light brown shade are tightly pressed against the surface of the stem, located curvaceously, which resembles spiders. Most often, the flowers are white, can get a pinkish tint.
Gymnocalycium humpbacked or bumpy Gymnocalycium gibbosum
Spherical stem over the years takes the shape of a cylinder. The height of an adult plant is 0.5 m, the diameter is about 20 cm. The skin is dull, green-blue, in the variety nigrum it is dark green, almost black. Ribs in the amount of 15 pieces divided by transverse segments. Cream color flowers.
Gymnocalycium Quel Gymnocalycium quehlianum
The shape of the stem is oblate-spherical, the adult plant reaches a diameter of 10 cm. The ribs are rounded, tightly arranged, it seems that the plant consists of individual balls. Ivory spines with reddish base. Against this background, contrasting white or pearly pink flowers with the throat of wine tint.
Gymnocalycium tiny Gymnocalycium parvulum
Gymnocalycium tiny Gymnocalycium parvulum v. amoenum photo
Spherical stem is divided into 13 lobular ribs. The skin is greenish-brown. The bundles of radial spines resemble light spiders. White flowers.
Gymnocalycium small-color Gymnocalycium leptanthum
Stem in the form of a wide (about 7 cm in diameter) slightly flattened ball. Ribs 8 pieces, they consist of separate rounded segments. The skin is dark green, against which light brown spines stand out. Tubular flowers consist of white petals with a red base.
Gymnocalycium Salio Gymnocalycium saglione
Gymnocalycium Salio Gymnocalycium saglione photo
Spherical stem is divided into rounded ribs, the number of which is from 13 to 32 pieces. The skin is dark green, matte. Over the entire surface are curved dark brown spines. Flowers are white or slightly pinkish.
Gymnokalitsium Mikhanovich, lat. Gymnocalycium mihanovichi is the international scientific name for this cactus. Gymnocalycium literally means "bare tube", "golochashechnik." The flower was named in honor of the Argentine shipowner N. Mikhanovich in the early 20th century. A philanthropist organized and maintained a scientific expedition to Paraguay.
The Gymnokalikium of Mikhanovich belongs to the family of succulents of the group Cactus of the genus Gymnocalycium. The variety bred, obtained as a result of breeding and natural mutation of natural varieties. The stems of the flower are flat, have a dark red, brown color, with a pink or reddish tinge.
There are varieties with a green trunk with a grayish-blue shade. The height of the stem of an adult plant is up to 5 cm. The shape of the flower is round, spherical. In diameter, the cactus is small, up to 8 - 10 cm. The edges of the stem are narrow, well-defined, have a triangular cross-section.
The height of the ribs reaches 6 - 7 cm. The edging is dark, slightly wavy, pointed. Across the side edges are pointed protrusions. Spines are grayish brown, slightly curved towards the stalk.
Fleshy fruits are formed by cross-pollination, ripen within 2 weeks. Seeds are small, brown shade.
The homeland of this cactus is considered to be South America, Bolivia, Uruguay, South Brazil, Northeastern Argentina, the variety is widely distributed in Paraguay. Natural habitat - tops of mountains, valleys of rivers. Grow most often in groups, forming a decorative composition.
A distinctive feature of the variety is a “bare tube”; floral tubes do not have bristles or hairs, unlike other cacti, are covered with smooth small scales.
These cactus varieties do not have chlorophyll. Therefore, for proper growth and nutrition, they are grafted onto other slow-growing cacti.
The main condition is that the air temperature should be constant. It tolerates dry air. The temperature frames are wide - 15 - 30 ° C.
Like most other indoor plants, does not tolerate sudden changes in temperature and drafts. But the stale air is also harmful to the flower, it is necessary to air the room.
The variety requires moderate watering. Between irrigation, the substrate should dry well to prevent the process of rotting.
The frequency of irrigation depends on the conditions of detention, namely, the temperature and level of humidity in the room, the amount of direct sunlight. Water for irrigation is recommended to use only clean, soft, room temperature.
Water from the tap is required to pass through the filter, add 2 -3 citric acid crystals or a few drops of vinegar to soften and neutralize salts.
The variety loves bright but diffused light. It is advisable to place the pots on the eastern and western windows. In spring and summer windows should be shaded with a light curtain. Young flowers require gradual adaptation to the sun, it is better to arrange the pots distantly from the direct sun.
The soil should be light, loose, slightly acidic. Drainage layer is required. The soil should pass water well, the substrate must have sufficient breathability.
You can buy ready-made mixture for cacti and succulents. The composition of the soil mixture:
- Sodland - 1 hour
- Leafy ground - 2 hours
- Humus - 1 hour
- Peat - 1 hour
- Perlite - 1 hour
- Sand -2 hours
- Drainage of expanded clay and foam pieces.
Gymnokalitsium Mikhanovich needs vaccination. This will require pruning.
- The top layer of the maternal healthy cactus is cut off.
- The grafted portion of the variety is cut with a sharp blade.
- Sections are tightly joined, combining and preserving the structure of the stem.
- Seating parts are fixed with a rubber band or a harness.
- After 10 - 14 days the gum is removed.
Instruments for pruning must be disinfected.
Fertilize the flower should only be during active growth. Special feeds are suitable for succulents or cacti. Fertilizers are applied through watering, 2 - 3 times a month.
For planting need a round shallow pot. The diameter of the pot is selected according to the size of the root system. Be sure to make drainage holes in the bottom of the pot.
Transplant is better to do in the spring. Young flowers are transplanted every year. Adult flowers require transplantation after 3-4 years, as the root grows. For drainage, pieces of charcoal and brick chips are used.
- Processed new pot with boiling water for disinfection.
- The substrate is sterilized.
- The flower is removed from the pot.
- Cut dry and rotten roots.
- Places sliced sprinkled with crushed coal.
- The rhizome is completely freed from the old substrate.
- At the bottom of the pot poured a layer of drainage.
- Fresh substrate is poured into the container in half the container.
- The root is neatly placed, filled with the remaining substrate.
- The soil is slightly compacted.
How does it feel in the open field?
In the spring you can prikopat pots in the garden in a slightly shaded area. This variety does not belong to winter-hardy varieties, therefore autumn humidity of temperate climate is destructive for a flower. In spring and summer, in southern climatic conditions, pots are placed on elevated places, stony hills, near the walls of houses on the sunny side. Mulch the soil with peat to preserve heat and moisture.
Quite a laborious process, requiring special conditions of detention. But such sowing gives stronger and healthier seedlings.
Most varieties of this variety breed by growing seedlings. Sowing can be done at any time of the year.
Seeds are soaked in a weak solution of manganese for 10 -12 hours. Soaked seeds germinate faster in the soil.
- Fine-grained substrate is disinfected by calcination in the oven or by steaming in a water bath.
- Sowing is located in small shallow containers.
- The substrate is well moistened.
- Seeds are located without burial.
- Capacities are covered with a transparent film or glass.
- It is necessary to air the greenhouse daily.
- Regular moistening of sowing through spraying.
- The first picking in 2 - 3 months when spikes appear in seedlings.
- When transplanting seedlings earthen com is saved.
- The grown seedlings are transplanted into separate pots after 5-6 months.
Side lay (kids)
The lateral layers have no roots, they are easily separated. Dividing procedure:
- The process is turned clockwise with tweezers or fingers.
- Separated parts are dried in the shade for 2 days.
- Shoots deepened into a wet ready substrate.
- Rooting takes place quickly, within 2 weeks.
- Young flowers are transplanted into small pots.
Features care after planting
An important condition is that seedlings and saplings require a moist substrate. Care should be taken to ensure that the soil does not dry out during the first 2 to 3 months.
Then watering is reduced, the plant is transferred to the normal mode. The air temperature for germinating seeds and seedling content is 20 - 22 ° C.
For better germination, a temperature difference of 3 - 4 ° C is needed. Lighting should be sufficient.
In winter, the desired illumination for seedlings. The light is bright, diffused. Conditions of the first wintering after landing:
- Good lighting.
- Air temperature - 13 - 14 ° С.
- Watering every 10 - 12 days at the edges of the tank.
Water when watering should not fall on the root neck.
Gymnokalatsium Mikhanovich blooms with large flowers with a diameter of 8 cm. From May to October, funnel-shaped, tubular flowers form at the tops of the main stem. There are varieties with pink, lilac, yellow, white, red colors, depending on the sub-grade. Petals are elongated, silky.
What if it does not bloom?
In a deep pot, flowering does not occur. The pot for ripening buds should be the size of the root.
For good flowering requires winter rest flower with a reduced temperature of up to 12 ° C. The lighting is necessarily bright, and watering is rare.
- From an oversupply of bright light on the stems dry brown spots appear - burns. You should rearrange the pots or shade the windows.
- Root rot, rotting of the root collar arises from frequent watering, dampness of air. An urgent transplant, replacement of the substrate and the pot, and sanitary treatment of the flower are needed.
- From the scale insect, spider red mite, mealybug, prophylactic treatment of the substrate with any insecticide is required. In case of minor lesions, wash the stem with hot water; wipe with a solution of ethyl alcohol.
5 similar plants
- Gymnocalycium tuberous (humpback) has a similar rounded stem.
- Gymnocalycium tiny small size, ribbed stem, covered with prickles. Upper flowers.
- Multicolor hymnocalycium has a spherical shape of the main stem. The flowers are pink.
- Friedrich's hymnocalyucium has a rounded stem of a brown shade. There are transverse stripes.
- Salmo's Gymnocalycium is similar to Mikhanovich's Gymnocalycium with a spherical single stem. The spines are also curved.
Gymnokalitsium Mikhanovich is considered the most unpretentious and hardy cactus. Observing all the rules of care, timely planting a flower, you can in a short time to wait for a good growth of an exotic flower.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Description
- 3. Care
- 3.1. Growing up
- 3.2. Watering
- 3.3. Удобрение
- 3.4. Transfer
- 3.5. Bloom
- 4. Размножение
- 5. Pests and Diseases
- 5.1. Болезни и их лечение
- 5.2.Pests and control of them
- 6. Types and varieties
Cactus hymnocalycium - description
Cactus hymnocalicium - a plant with a flattened spherical stem of brownish-green, brown, gray or grayish-green color with a diameter of 4 to 15 cm and a height of almost half the diameter. On the stem there are from 10 to 32 vertical ribs covered with areoles with tufts of thorns from 13 to 38 mm long: in the center of each areola there are from 3 to 5 long straight needles surrounded by shorter radial thorns. Bell-shaped flowers of hymnocalycium with a diameter of 2 to 7 cm with several rows of lanceolate petals and devoid of spines and pubescent closed cups form on the top of the stem from May to November. The color of the flowers may be red, crimson, yellow or cream. The red, purple or green fruit of hymnocalycium up to 4 cm long is ovoid and covered with scales.
Breeders produced chlorophyll-free cultivars of hymnocalycium with a red and yellow stem. They are grown by planting on a green cactus. For the first time a hybrid of hymnocalycium with a red stem was grown by Japanese Eiji Watanabe.
Growing hymnocalycium at home.
The indoor plant hymnocalycium will require minimal attention and little effort from you. Caring for hymnocalycium at home is to create an environment as close as possible to the one in which the cactus grows in its natural habitat. How to care for cactus hymnocalicium grown in room culture? This plant needs bright light throughout the year, but in the summer in the afternoon it must be shaded from direct sunlight.
In spring and summer, the hymnocalycium flower normally tolerates the usual temperature for the house, but in winter, when the plant enters the dormant period, it needs other conditions: not so bright, but still sufficient light and temperature not above 12-15 ºC. The minimum temperature at which the hymnocalycium can live is 8 ºC, however, it is impossible to keep the plant in such conditions for a long time.
Watering the cactus is only during the growing season, and even at this time watering should be very moderate, even scanty. By the autumn, watering of the hymnocalycium is reduced, and in winter the plants are moistened with an earthy lump only after it has completely dried: usually in an adult plant, in winter from 1 to 3 irrigations are sufficient. To moisten the soil, use soft (separated or passed through a filter) and slightly acidified with lemon juice tap water at room temperature. It is imperative to defend or purify the water: the lime it contains has a negative effect on the health of the plant.
Hymnocalicium is indifferent to air humidity, however, the plant treats spraying on a hot evening and shower procedures that wash off dust after winter dormancy.
Transplantation of anthrax.
There is no need to frequently change the soil or pot for the hymnocalyucium: it is transplanted only when the roots have mastered the whole earthy clod and begin to hang out of the drain holes. Each subsequent pot should be only 2 cm larger than the previous one. Adult hymnocalyciums are transplanted if necessary in early spring once every 2-3 years: the plant is removed from the pot, its roots are freed from the old substrate and dead sections, washed in hot water and dried for two days. Then the cactus is transplanted into a pot with a drainage layer and fill the space with a fresh substrate for succulent plants. This can be purchased soil or independently composed mixture of sand, peat, expanded clay and charcoal. The hymnocalicium grows well in a substrate, in which three parts of leafy earth and sand, two parts of peat and turfy ground and one part of crushed charcoal are mixed. Keep in mind that the soil must be neutral or slightly alkaline, because the hymnocalicium does not tolerate acidic soils. After transplantation, the plant is not watered for a week.
Diseases of Gymnocalycium and their treatment.
From improper care, namely, due to excessive moisture or planting in too fertile ground, these cacti can get rotten roots, which usually does not affect the stem of the plant, but the root system can completely destroy. Symptoms of the disease are slow growth and the failure of hymnocalicium bloom. If symptoms appear, dig out the cactus, cut off the affected root areas to a healthy tissue, wash the roots in hot water and treat with a solution of fungicide, ash or coal powder. Then dry the cactus and lay it on the surface of the substrate for bruising, like children during vegetative propagation. To root rot does not affect the stem of hymnocalycium, the surface of the substrate is covered with a layer of expanded clay.
Pests of hymnocalicium and control of them.
Sometimes hymnocalycium infects the main enemy of cacti - the spider mite, which, like most cacti and succulents, prefers to live in conditions of low air humidity. Young hymnocalyciums usually suffer from ticks: dry rust-colored spots appear on their stems. If you have a few cacti, wash them under hot water and wipe it with a cotton swab with a solution of ethyl alcohol. But if you have a decent collection of succulents, then you will have to resort to treating plants with acaricides - Aktellik, Fitoverm, Aktar, or another drug of similar effect.
Parasitic on the roots and stems of cacti and mealybugs. While they are hiding in the roots of hymnocalicium, their presence can be guessed only by slow growth and the unwillingness of the plant to bloom. If there are no other reasons for behaving like a cactus, examine its roots and if you find worms there, hold them for 15 minutes in such hot water so that your hands can barely withstand it. If the worms settled only in the roots, then this bath will be enough, but if you find them on the stem, then you need to wash the whole plant with hot water. Hot tubs can be replaced with insecticidal treatment of hymnocalycium.
Gymnocalycium naked (Gymnocalycium denudatum)
- a plant with a strongly flattened dark green stem with a diameter of up to 10 cm, on which there are from 5 to 8 non-sharp ribs with practically no tubercles. This cactus does not form central spines, and it has 5 radials in its areolae located all over the stem and 8 spines each in the areolae located in the lower part of the plant. The length of the winding, collected in spider bunches and tightly pressed to the stem brownish-gray spines of hymnocalycium naked reach more than 1 cm. Large flowers of this plant are usually white, but sometimes there are plants with a light pink color of flowers.
Gymnocalycium anisitsi (Gymnocalycium anisitsii)
in culture is widespread quite widely. Its elongated and branching with age at the base of the stems can reach a height of 10 and a diameter of 8 cm. Usually the plant has 11 ribs, divided into sharp tubercles. The radial spines, which can be 5-7 pieces in each areola, are thin, curved, from 1 to 6 cm long. The flowers are white, up to 4 cm in diameter.
It is a succulent with a wide, sometimes slightly elongated, greyish-green or red-brown stem about 5-6 cm and spherical elongated ribbed stem.
Narrow triangular ribs adorn the wavy edge with a slight thickening and long, about 1 cm curved gray spikes.
During the flowering period, a funnel rather large flower appears at the top of the plant: its size with a trunk diameter of 6 cm is about 7-8 cm
The most common pure white and pink flowers. Their shape can also be different: from the tubular to the fully opening inflorescence.
On the photo "Mikhanovich Gymnocalycium":
Friedrich's cactus is a type of Mikhanovich Gymnocalycium plant. In 1940 Japanese breeders have noticed that as a result of the mutation, some of the colors of Friedrich's Gymnocalycium have a bright color that is unusual for this species.
By repeated crossing of mutant plants, they became completely chlorophyll-free: more often saturated red specimens are found, but there are also yellow, dark and light maroon, and even orange varieties of it.
A variety of Japanese "Friedrich" is equipped with a red steely stem with a diameter up to 10 cm sharp triangular edges with dark edging and curved grayish-brown spines. It blooms lilac-pink color. Due to the absence of chlorophyll, it grows only on the stock: it is grafted on slow-growing types of succulents.
On photo “Frederick Gymnocalycium”:
He received such a strange name (sometimes this type of spherical succulent with creamy white flowers is lumpy) because of its unusual appearance. With its age, its central thorn overgrows with shorter radial, resembling hillocks.
It grows up to 50 cm and may have a diameter up to 15-20 cm. His ribs (on their plant from 12 to 19) separated by transverse grooves and have the form of individual segments.
Yellow spines, which often have a reddish base, are located on the fleshy papillae and are slightly curved. During the flowering period there are several large flowers with a diameter of 6.5 cm on a wide tube.
On the photo "Gymnocalycium Humpback":
This is a small plant with a slightly flat stalk size. 7 cm, low ribs and flowers on high tubes.
His petals are white: only their bases are slightly reddish.
This is the smallest type of Gymnocalycium: its size does not exceed 3 cm Spherical stem is colored brown-green with a touch of ashy and small ribs. The central spines are completely absent, the radial ones are slightly curved and are pressed against the stem.
By spring, quite large white flowers bloom on it.
The photo "Gymnocalycium Tiny":
"Andre" is absolutely atypical for its kind of color: its flowers form bushes with a lot of heads of bright yellow, almost canary color.
Its stalk is dark green and is equipped with spines pressed against it. The plant requires shading and very moderate watering.
Feels best when planted in groups in flat containers.
On photo “Gymnocalycium Andre”:
“Baldianum” can be recognized by a dark green stalk with a slightly bluish tinge, flat ribs with transverse furrows and almost white areoles, in which curved brown spines are fixed.
Flowers appear quite early: at the beginning of summer unusual purple flowers rarely found in nature appear on the Baldianum.
On the photo "Gymnocalycium Baldianum":
This succulent, named after the Argentine entomologist, gives a lot of shoots. "Bruch" is not too big: its height is about 6and the diameter is about 5 cm Light pink flowers in the center have a darker stripe.
"Areola" with curved white spines are very often. Depending on the number of radial spines, several forms of this species are distinguished.
In the photo "Bruch's Gymnocalycium":
It has a glossy green stem, flat ribs with small transverse grooves (they can be from 5 to 8). Areolae are equipped with a small number of spider-like hairs, spines: light brown, and in older plants gray.
The flowers on the tall tube are white or pinkish, have narrowed and slightly curving petals. The stalk has lengthened over the years and forms lateral shoots.
The photo "Gymnocalycium Nude":
Stem non-standard for "Gymnocalycium" form: flattened, 6-9 cm tallit forms a bush. Its diameter is slightly larger: 8-11 cm. Number of ribs: 10-15.
Large areoles are equipped with 7-10 yellowish slightly bulged spines. Flowers 4 cm in size are fixed on short tubes.
On the photo "Multicolor Gymnocalycium":
This large (up to 30 cm in diameter) succulent with bell-shaped flowers on short tubes is very often grown in greenhouses.
Even its spines are a peculiar ornament: up to 2.5 cm, curved, they form a smart outlet.
The photo "Gymnocalycium Salion":
This type of “Gymnocalycium” is equipped with a flat stem: its height does not reach 5 cm with diameter 15 cm
It is equipped with 9-18 low ribs and on 5-7 thin straight spines growing from each areola. White or slightly cream flowers have a thin tube.
In the photo "Schmöder Gymnocalycium":
"Gymnocalycium" subspecies "Bёsa", like all "Shredders", has a spherical single stem. However, its spines are thinner, and its ribs with sharp humps are less lumpy.
On photo “Gymnocalycium Bёsa”:
Its main difference is the bright red stem with low ribs, so even outside the flowering period it looks unusually elegant.
Divorcing "Rubra" is very easy, as it is overgrown with a large number of children. The largest specimens are size about 6 cm
Blooms less often than other species.
On the photo Rubr’s Gymnocalycium:
The main feature of Anizitsi is the bright green saturated color of the stem up to 8 cm in size and thin spines of different lengths.
Large white corolla flowers have a funnel shape.
On the photo "Gymnocalycium Anizitsi":
Cactus "Gymnocalycium Mix" - a mixture of miniature species that are excellently side by side in the same container. Designation D5 corresponds to the diameter of the tank - 5 cm
How to care for the Gymnocalycium Mix cactus? This question is of concern to many gardeners.
Caring for Gymnocalycium Mix 5.5 d does not present any particular difficulties. The plant does not need spraying. It is necessary to water in the spring. Propagated by cactus cuttings.
In most species, cuttings easily root in the spring or summer.
The cuttings are dried for several days (large cuttings will require 1-2 weeks) before planting on the peat-based substrate.
Reproduction by seeds is possible at 17-25 ° C.
On the photo “Gymnocalycium Mix”:
Cactus "Gymnocalycium": care at home
The first flowers on the "Gymnocalycium" appear in 2-3 years old age With proper care, they bloom in spring in April and continue to bloom until the end of September.
“Gymnocalyciums”, unlike other succulents, do not need too bright sunlight, so they can be placed not only on the window sill, but also in partial shade.
Some subspecies grow excellently even in strongly shaded places, and in the sun, on the contrary, they burn.
Any kind of cacti, including the Gymnocalycium, requires intense lighting, so the best place for it is: a sunny window sill.
If plants are grown in a greenhouse greenhouse, in the hottest months of them, and especially young plants, it is necessary to shade so as to prevent them from overheating above 38 ° C.
This type of succulents does not require spraying and feels comfortable both at low and at high humidity.
However, they are very demanding of fresh air, so in the heat of the house should open the windows and slightly ventilate the room in which there are hymnocalliciums.
Water “Gymnocalyciums” with too hard water should not be: this can lead to a stunted growth and even death of the roots.
In winter, during rest, watering should be minimal.
In the spring it is increased gradually, as needed.
By the end of the summer, watering is again gradually reduced and by the autumn is completely limited.
In winter, when the plant is completely dry, it only slightly moisturizes.
"Gymnocalycium" unpretentious and able to grow on any earthen substrate. However, in order to avoid water stagnation, the ground must be loose. It may contain turf, peat or admixture of sand, expanded clay, charcoal and other loosening ingredients.
They should not be too overfed: any complex fertilizer should be applied carefully.
Young “Gymnocalyciums” require annual compulsory transplantation. Adult specimens take 2–3 years.
The roots are thoroughly cleaned from the old earth, which is already depleted. Dead and damaged roots are removed.
Roots and stems can be washed in hot water, then dried thoroughly for 2-3 days and transplanted into a shallow pot.
These indoor flowers are designed for windows of the southern exposure, because cactus is a light-loving plant. But it is recommended to shade it from midday sunlight, otherwise burns are not excluded. They are dry brownish spots that quickly pass, if you remove the flower in partial shade. Nevertheless, the Mikhanovich cactus Gimnokalitsium needs good coverage all year round, and especially during the flowering period. With a lack of light, the plant loses its shape, its tissues become softer, and the risk of the appearance of various diseases increases.
This is no less important factor for the cultivation of cactus. It is closely related to the degree of illumination - the more light, the higher the temperature is needed to ensure high-quality photosynthesis. Although the cactus Gymnocalycium is a heat-loving plant, it can also feel great at 15 and 30 ° C. The main condition is that the temperature be constant, since the plant suffers rather painfully its jumps. In winter, when there is a phase of rest, it is desirable to provide cooler conditions of detention.
On hot days, it is necessary to air the room where the cactus grows. Air circulation will protect it from overheating. It is very important not to allow drafts, avoiding the flow of cold air from the street in winter days.
Гимнокалициум Михановича не боится засухи и гораздо тяжелее переносит избыток влаги — от него корни загнивают, и постепенно это приводит к гибели всего растения. Полив требуется умеренный, чтобы почва успевала просохнуть. Летом его производят по необходимости, в зависимости от состояния земляного кома, зимой достаточно одного раза в месяц. It matters not only how often to water the cactus, but also what kind of water. It should be at room temperature, settled. With a high rate of water hardness, a little vinegar or citric acid is added to it. To air humidity Gymnocalycium is undemanding. It is enough to spray a plant only to remove accumulated dust from it.
For cacti there are special fertilizers. During the growing season, they are used about 1-2 times a month. In winter, feeding is stopped, because at this time the plant needs rest. Recommended dosage indicated on the package, they must adhere. It is permissible to reduce the concentration, but in any case not to allow an excess of fertilizers. This can lead to various plant diseases. See how the cactus blooms, you can only following the rules for fertilizer. Mineral and organic dressing must be alternated. They must have low acidity, as well as the soil itself.
Mineral fertilizer is best absorbed in a liquid form, so it is first dissolved in warm water (rain or boiled). Top dressing is carried out in the afternoon or in the evening. The next day, the plant is recommended to spray with water.