Apricots are trees that grow best in a sunny place. They not afraid of drought, gas pollution and smoke. It is quite simple to plant an apricot sapling and grow it. The main thing is to decide on landing place and time. If the seedling show minimal care, it will bring a good harvest. Experts recommend planting apricot in a place protected from cold winds on the sunny side. And also recommended planting apricot on a small slope.
For planting apricot are not suitable areas that have moist soilin which the occurrence of groundwater.
It is not recommended to plant seedlings in the shade of large buildings. The best option for planting apricot seedlings is to plant them in groups. More fruit is produced by cross-pollination. If there is a small area, and it is impossible to plant several apricot seedlings on it, then it is recommended to plant two or three sprigs of an apricot tree of another variety on one tree.
How and when to plant apricot
The best results are obtained when planting apricot seedlings in the spring, when sap flow was not yet started. The ideal apricot planting is considered to be spring rainy seasonwhen the buds have not yet blossomed. In this case survival rate will be 100%. If it is decided to plant an apricot with leaves, then it is necessary to prepare for the fact that the seedling will die or will be sick for a long time.
- It is not recommended to plant seedlings in the autumn, because they do not take root well and freeze in cold climates.
- When planting apricots in the fall there are many drawbacks. It is recommended to plant an apricot seedling in September.
- Thus, he will have two months to settle down in a new place. All unnecessary branches must be shortened by one third, and the leaves cut in half.
- This must be done to reduce the evaporation of moisture and the safety of the seedling.
Experts recommend planting apricots in the fall only as a last resort. In cold climates, landing in the fall is not recommended. If the winter is harsh, then the above-ground part of the tree will freeze.
Where it is recommended to plant apricots
It is not recommended to plant an apricot on level ground, the tree will take root on a small slope better. If there is no such place on the site, then the seedling should be planted on a mound with a diameter of 2 m and a height of at least 55 cm. To the landing, clay soil is recommended, in which sand and small stones are added.
If the seedling is planted in acidic soil, then need to add 500 grams of lime. Specialists recommend planting apricot seedlings in sandy light soil. It is a good air exchange. The soil is recommended neutral or slightly alkaline. Apricot is well planted in clay soil. The place should be a place where there is no accumulation of water after rain or melting snow, as the tree does not tolerate excess moisture.
How to prepare the landing pit
The pit should be 85 X 85 X 85 cm. It is necessary to make a drainage from broken bricks, large pebbles or stones. A sufficient amount of fertilizer should be put on the drainage. For fertilizer, you need to take the following components: 40 or 50 kg of humus, 700 g of simple superphosphate, 300 or 400 g of potassium sulfate and 3 kg of ash.
- It is impossible to deepen the root neck.
- After planting apricot need to be watered.
- After planting, the tree should be cut at a height of 40 or 50 cm from the ground.
- Thus, the development of lateral buds will be stimulated.
- After pruning spring shoots will grow with a vengeance. In spring and summer, the young tree of apricot grows to 70 cm.
- And also during this period there is a large increase in the accessory branches. In July, they need to pinch to form the branches of the subsequent order.
For 2 seasons, the formation of a lush crown of a seedling with a huge number of flower buds. The life of the seedling over 100 years. During this period it actively bears fruit. You need to take good care of it in order to harvest a large crop. In the first five years, apricot will give great gains up to 70 cm in 1 season. In the third or fourth year of life, skeletal branches will appear on the seedling, and short processes in the form of spurs will grow on them. It is on these branches that the main harvest is concentrated.
Basic rules for the selection of apricot seedlings
The least pronounced sensitivity to temporary flooding of the root system is apricots, which were grafted on cherries, plums or alcha. Successful vaccination is considered to plum. How a seedling will tolerate winter and how resistant it will be to diseases depends on the variety and origin of the plant.
- Apricot, which was grafted on peach and almonds, does not tolerate heavy clay soil.
- Saplings, grafted on peach and almonds, have minimal frost resistance.
- They are more susceptible to diseases that are bacterial in nature.
- If a small area, then it is convenient to plant seedlings of apricots, which were grafted on the sloe.
- These trees are stunted or dwarf. Low-growing seedlings will well endure the cold winter.
- They quickly adapt to growing conditions. At sites dwarf trees do not take up much space.
With small trees, you can easily harvest. The minus of bonsai can be attributed to a huge number of root shoots. But this the flaw becomes imperceptiblewhen root neck rewarming occurs - stunted trees are resistant to this disease. Homemade apricot can be grown from the bones of the local tree. Such a tree is obtained adapted to climatic conditions. Grown from the stone, it will be less sore and will acquire the varietal properties of the mother plant.
How to grow apricot from the stone
Stone must be planted in May in well-fertilized soil. The distance between the bones should be at least 10 cm. But the landing can be simplified: the apricot's stone must be buried in the ground and watered abundantly all summer. The tree from an apricot stone grows very quickly.
For 1 season, the tree becomes an increase of more than 1 m in height. When the tree is one year old, it must be transplanted to a permanent place and used as a stock. Gardener for seedlings from the stone should create perfect conditions for development and growth. The tree begins to bear fruit after 3 years of life. After 5 years it gives a generous harvest for 70 or 90 years.
- Annual growths can be 10 cm.
- The crown of the apricot tree can withstand a decrease in temperature to minus 33.
- If in February there are frosts below 19 degrees for 4 or 5 days, generative buds can be damaged by the tree.
- In early March, the temperature is plus 5 degrees Celsius, at this time apricots leave a state of rest.
- If at this time there is a decrease in temperature by at least one day, then it will have serious consequences: if the temperature drops to minus 8, flower buds will die.
- If the temperature drops below minus 6 degrees, the flowers in the pink bud phase will be destroyed.
If the flowers have time to bloom during this period, then they fall off when frozen at minus 2 degrees Celsius. The ovary can die at a temperature of minus 1 degree Celsius. To tree grew well and did not die, it is necessary to choose the right type of apricot and planting place.
Apricot seedling selection rules
If you plan to plant a tree in a cold climate, it is better to purchase varieties of late or medium ripening. The ideal option would be to purchase seedlings in garden stores or nurseries in the region in which it is planned to plant the seedling. This ensures that the apricot tree is better acclimatized. Crop loss will be minimized. When choosing a seedling, you need to pay attention to the color of the bark.
If it is dark brown or red, then the variety is winter-hardy. If the bark is green or light green, it means that the apricot variety is southern. Unvaccinated apricot seedlings have spines. When buying a seedling need to pay attention to the buds. In the cultivated species of apricots in the first years of life, double or triple buds appear. And on non-varietal seedlings buds are single.
- The grafted sapling of the apricot tree is well developed, has a wide trunk and long growth.
- When buying, you should see the place of vaccination. It is of great importance, as are the branches on the seedling.
- The best option is an annual plant with a single branching. He must have a clear conductor.
- No need to buy trees with branches that are located at a sharp angle. In the future, under the weight of the crop, the branches will break, a wound will appear on the trunk. This will infect the tree.
Apricots are very painful plants. After planting seedlings in the ground, apricot should be well cared for. It needs to be watered, fed and trimmed regularly. Pristvolny circle must be kept clean, the ground around the seedling must be constantly loosened and mulched. Mulching is done with peat, sawdust, straw or grass. It is recommended to use horse manure as mulch.
After 4 years of tree life, it does not need to be mulched. If you continue to fertilize the seedling, it will no longer search for water deep in the soil, thus, the root system will develop on the surface. This is undesirable because the roots will freeze in winter. Experts under the seedling recommend sowing herbs with an underdeveloped root system. The perfect option will be lawn grass. Periodically, it will need to mow. Thus, the quality of the soil will improve.
How to water apricot
In the first year after planting apricot care is regular watering. The formation of the roots of a young sapling will occur only in wet soil. If the spring was dry, the tree should be watered before flowering and a month after it. It needs to be watered regularly two weeks before the harvest. Thus, the fruits will be large, juicy and fragrant.
When planting seedlings, it is necessary to consider that they do not like abrupt changes in growing conditions. If in the spring the tree is not watered, then during the hardening of the seed it is better not to water the seedling. Otherwise, the tree may reset the ovary. Per square meter of power to spend 50 liters of water. If the summer is dry, then you need to water the tree 2 times more. After yellowing the leaves, the seedling should be watered abundantly. In the autumn water consumption increases up to 90 liters per square meter of food. Abundant watering will help the apricot tree survive severe frosts with fewer losses.
How to feed an apricot tree in spring
Top dressing of a sapling should be made together with plentiful watering. Early in the spring it is necessary to feed the seedling with a complex mineral fertilizer in the amount of 35 g per square meter in liquid form.
- Around a sapling it is necessary to make a deep well up to 80 cm deep with a garden drill.
- Fertilizer must be poured into the well.
- In the spring apricot tree should be sprayed.
- This is necessary to protect the flowers from spring frosts. The buds on the apricot tree must be sprayed with urea before blooming.
To prepare the composition, you will need the following components: 600 grams of urea, 60 g of copper sulfate, 12 liters of water. After processing the apricot tree will delay flowering for a week. Spraying will help get rid of pests and protect the tree from disease. In the summer period, apricots should be fed with nitrogen fertilizer at the rate of 25 g per square meter of nutrition after the ovary has dropped. Extra root feeding of the apricot tree consists in spraying with 3% urea composition after harvesting.
Autumn top dressing of apricot tree is made when digging soil under a sapling. When digging, you must make 5 kg of humus, 25 g of nitrogen, 20 g of phosphorus and 30 g of potassium per square meter for young trees. For feeding apricots in the fall, which bear fruit, the rate of fertilizer must be doubled. Autumn feeding of the tree should be done once in 4 years. Excess nitrogen adversely affects the health of the tree. Because of this, fruit ripening may be late.
Apricots are both tasty and healthy.
Useful properties of fruits of a plant do not need the additional description. It is not necessary to say that they are extremely useful and contain a lot of vitamins and valuable microelements in their composition. Many ailments have long been treated with the help of these fruits, therefore apricot has become known throughout the world as “the fruit of health”.
Among the valuable substances essential for the full functioning of the human body in the fruit pulp, the following are practically daily doses for humans:
In addition, dried apricot has the property of long storage, without losing the nutritional qualities for several seasons. In the cold season, dried apricots and dried apricots are an excellent alternative to fresh fruit, which is absent seasonally.
Choosing a site for an apricot tree
Apricot is easy to grow in the southern area, especially comfortable for him on the fertile black soil of Ukraine, in the Crimea and the Krasnodar Territory. However, with some effort, it can be grown even in the Urals. Assistants in the cultivation of fruit crops in central Russia will be a few tips of professional gardeners.
First, apricot is a thermophilic fruit tree. It is necessary to have a future culture in the garden area in a place with abundant natural light and solar accessibility. Apricot trees do not like the north wind, so experts recommend planting plants on the southern sides of fences, fences, buildings.
Like many other fruit trees, these grow only in deeply drained soil (as a rule, earthworms take on the function of a natural cultivator), since it is important for a tree that the soil can pass water and air to a great depth - at least 4 meters. At the same time, the earth should always remain as warm as possible and contain a large amount of fertilizer.
Neighbors fruit culture
When planting apricot is also worth paying attention to the neighboring trees. It is extremely important to please the fruit crop in compatibility and to choose a favorable environment for it. Knowing what to plant next to the apricot, you can wait for the first harvest much faster.
Among the fruit trees, the best "friend" for him is the old pear. Non-fertile deciduous plants, such as Norway maple, ash, oak, are also suitable fruit crops.
Meanwhile, whatever trees are apricot neighbors, it is necessary to observe the stepping proximity from one tree to another. Within a radius of 4 meters, the fruit plant must be left alone. The ideal planting scheme is as follows: between the rows of trees should remain about 6 meters, and another 4 m must be skipped in each row.
Selection of varieties and purchase of saplings
Having decided where to plant apricot on your plot, you should then carefully consider the acquisition of a future culture. In climatic conditions of mid-latitudes, plants are prone to bark at the base of the root collar, so this should be taken into account when buying a seedling.
In addition, it is desirable that the apricot be grafted into the trunk of plum trees or cherry plum at a height of approximately 150 centimeters. This will allow fragile heat-loving apricot seedlings to borrow frost resistance from plum and cherry plum.
The deciding factor when the apricot begins to bear fruit after planting is its preliminary growing conditions. If the seedlings grew in a 30-liter capacity, it will allow them to easily take root in the open area and bear fruit in the second year.
For the central and northern regions of Russia, varieties should be selected that are distinguished by their greatest resistance to cold and disease. The following varieties of fruit are considered to present a tasty and bountiful harvest in the middle lane:
How to plant apricot
Each of the varieties of apricots planted by performing the same procedure. First, prepare a pit, similar to the ditch of a modest size - about 1m to 1m. A large space is needed for the seedling to form a healthy root system.
Deepening the root of the neck when planting is undesirable. In addition, any hill is the best solution for planting fruit crops, even if there is sand instead of soil.
Pruning after planting is a measure that gardeners recommend not to neglect. Seedlings is important to shorten more than a third. After that, the apricot tree will need annual pruning. Removing weak or dead branches and shortening too long, you can ensure the harvest of the larger fruits of bright natural color.
In addition, trimming on the ring of all the extra shoots, incl. vertical, allows the plant to independently overcome disease.
When they plant apricot and how to care for it?
The timing of planting apricots is an important moment, given the southern origin of these fruits. The optimum temperature for rooting seedlings is not less than 15 degrees. В осенне-весенний период этот показатель и является средним, однако предпочтительнее высаживать культуру после завершения зимних холодов.
- Перед тем, как сажать абрикос весной, нужно убедиться наверняка, что морозы не вернуться. В противном случае, теплолюбивый молодняк может погибнуть. At the same time, the upcoming summer will serve as a convenient adaptation period for the emerging plant.
- Planting apricot in the autumn is possible only in the southern terrain. If the mark of the thermometer does not fall below 0 in winter, you can plant it in the ground without hesitation and without fear of a fruit tree. But in the suburbs this can not be done, for the sapling the decision of the gardener will be fatal. Being weak, he is not able to survive the cold Russian winters.
It is important for novice creators of their own garden to know not only about planting, but also about how to care for apricots. In the middle lane, as a rule, the main measures to protect plants from pests and infections are held in late spring - early June.
Both young saplings and adult perennial trees need care. The main task of the gardener is to help apricot in providing dense healthy leaf canopy.
Thick, healthy foliage is needed for the tree when it is ripening and for frost resistance. A feature of apricots is their early flowering, so among fruit trees they are most susceptible to the negative impact of April frosts.
In the autumn it is necessary to get rid of the fallen leaves, which is a carrier of fungal infections. Pathogens are capable of overwintering in it, and with warming they can move away from hibernation and begin to damage the garden. Whitewashing with copper sulfate is considered to be an effective remedy against pests and diseases of apricot trees.
I hope the article will be useful for those who decided to grow this wonderful tree on their site. Do not forget to share it with your friends, as well as subscribe to updates to my blog.
Features of planting apricot in the spring
Good in the south, where it's warm, and apricot lives in a native climate. In other places, planting and cultivation of apricot pose many problems. Often gardeners plant their cuttings on plum or cherry plum to add winter hardiness to the tree. If good varieties are planted exactly on the native tree, then it is considered that the best stocks are seedlings of two types: ordinary apricot and Manchurian apricot. However, they are not easy to find, so for growing apricot seedlings they try to use seeds of local varieties.
Apricot in relatively adult condition does not tolerate the transplant. Therefore, it is safer to grow it from seed, planted immediately on a permanent place. Apricot cuttings do not root at all. If this can be done, the trees grow extremely weak.
The apricot tree in adulthood does not tolerate the transplant, so it is safer to grow it from the stone
Therefore, we have two options:
- purchase a completely young grafted seedling,
- try to plant a bone, taking it from a trusted tree somewhere in the neighborhood.
Doing one thing or another is necessary only in the spring. In most regions - this is the second half of April, in the south - earlier. It is important that the kidneys are still in a dormant state. Autumn planting is possible only in those regions where there is no risk of tree freezing in winter. For example, in the Krasnodar Territory or the Astrakhan Region, the autumn planting season of apricot begins from the end of October and lasts about a month.
How to plant an apricot in the spring
In industrial production, apricot trees are planted in a 3 x 5 meter pattern. But in no case do not plant on six acres more than two trees! From the point of view of pollination, there will be a partner for him somewhere in the neighboring gardens. If you really like the apricot in your climate, the family will be enough “for the eyes” and one. And if not ... So, as they say, no luck!
About 20 years ago, having acquired a new plot, the author of these lines was glad that three adult apricots were growing on it. I was not happy for long. After 2 years, it was necessary to uproot: within a radius of 10 meters, they didn’t want to grow, because all the nutrients sucked the far-reaching roots. On the uprooting of each took 2 working days: the roots were not inferior in thickness to the trunk itself.
The apricot tree needs a lot of nutrition, so it has an extensive root system.
If you plant two trees, between them must be left at least four meters.
When buying an apricot seedling, special attention is paid to its roots. The root system should have several main roots. They must be clean, elastic, not over dried. If, after all, there are damaged areas, they should be trimmed with shears to healthy tissue. Biennial seedlings take root best.
The roots of the seedling, delivered to the site for planting, it is useful to dip into a talker, prepared from mullein and clay, diluted in water. If there is nothing of this - let them float in the water until planting, be saturated with moisture.
Planting an apricot in a prepared pit is almost the same as planting, for example, an apple tree, just remember that our tree will grow on a hill. It is difficult to cope alone, it is better to call an assistant. It turns out that almost the entire landing hole must be filled with fertile soil with fertilizers, and planted almost on a horizontal surface. Previously it is necessary, as usual when landing, to drive a strong stake into a hole. It should stand firmly and protrude from the ground a little less than the height of the seedling. Your assistant will hold the tree by the stem, straightening the roots, and you will pour the soil on them so that a hill is formed. Exactly from the top of this slide should, after the tamping of the soil, protrude root neck. It’s better to be 3–4 cm higher than the crown of the head, but not under it at all! Then with two ribbons loosely, “figure-eight”, we tie the stem to the stake.
Apricot planting scheme does not differ from most fruit trees, you just need to remember that the tree will grow on a hill.
After planting, the tree will have to be watered a lot until new roots grow in sufficient quantity. Therefore, at the top it is necessary to make a roller so that the water does not flow down during the watering. In the autumn of the same year, the roller must be leveled so that the excess water leaves freely: an excess of moisture in the winter maturing tree is more harmful than its lack. In no case should the root neck of an apricot be underground. It is better to let the upper roots be slightly bare, but the neck should breathe. In the spring, you will have to fill in a new roller of earth and perform it for the first few years.
The first 2–3 buckets of water should be poured under the seedling immediately after planting. Carefully, without spoiling the knoll. During the first year of life, apricot should be watered often: the soil should never dry out. Periodically, the mound should be loosened so that oxygen is supplied to the roots. Since August, it is necessary to water the sapling with an infusion of ash, so that he can better prepare for his first winter in a new place. An adult apricot will learn how to extract moisture for itself.
Apricot planting is best done in the spring in the pit prepared from autumn
Thus, the landing steps are as follows:
- Preparation from the landing pit in autumn.
- Acquisition of a healthy sapling (one-year-old, two-year-old).
- Dip roots in clay mash before planting.
- Driving a stake into a hole.
- The distribution of roots on the surface of the planting pit.
- Sleeping roots in soil to form a hillock.
- Tying the stem to the cola.
- The construction of irrigation furrows around the perimeter of the hill.
- Abundant watering.
How to save apricot seedlings before planting in the spring
If you bought an apricot seedling in the fall, and you live in a region where the autumn planting is completely unacceptable, you can save it until spring in two ways, like seedlings of other fruit trees. This - prikop or cellar.
Driving in the garden is the main way to store seedlings in the winter. For its implementation, dig a trench, orienting it from north to south. The length of the trench is according to the length of the seedling put into it.
- For a trench choose a dry, well-ventilated place, without standing groundwater.
- At the bottom of the trench 10 cm thick layer of sawdust or spruce needles, moss can be.
- The prepared seedlings are laid horizontally (tops towards the south) and covered with a 20 cm layer of earth.
- Well shed clean water.
- Before the very frosts of the earth poured more, making a mound.
- Saplings are dug out only after the earth is fully heated, so as not to injure the earth with frozen clods.
There is a nuance in the preparation of seedlings for winter storage. If the leaves are still preserved on them, they should be cut off. Hold the roots of the day in clean water, then cut off the damaged roots.
Video: prikopka seedlings until spring
If there is a cellar - even easier. Especially if the ground was already frozen, but they did not have time to dig a trench. It is only important that it be good: by the time the seedlings are placed in it, the temperature should be close to 0 o C. If there is no cellar, it can be kept on the balcony, but it will be more difficult to monitor the temperature: it should not fluctuate much, be constantly around zero Preparation is similar:
- Cut the leaves.
- Soak in water.
- Cut off damaged roots.
The roots of the seedling right up to the middle of the trunk are immersed in the substrate. These can be peat or sawdust (clean river sand can be added). Throughout the winter, the substrate should be moderately wet, but without stagnant water. Just in case, it can be disinfected with a dark solution of potassium permanganate.
If there are seeds of a good apricot, which has long been growing and abundantly fruitful in one of its neighbors, it is more reliable to use this very method. It will be longer, but you will know for sure that it will grow on your site. Ripe, properly prepared apricot kernels usually sprout well and grow without problems into an adult, strong, fruiting tree. The main thing is that they are really from the same, that is, satisfying all the requirements of the local climate and your tastes. It will be an acclimatized variety. He will definitely retain all the virtues (true, and disadvantages) of his variety.
To get the seeds, take healthy beautiful apricots, completely ripe. We will pick up the bones in the usual way from apricot and place them in warm water for a day. Then rinse under running water, dry well and keep it dry until the spring in the apartment.
In early March, soak them in cold water for a week, periodically, 3-4 times a day, changing the water. Then put it in a box with wet sawdust or moss (sand, as a last resort) and transfer it in an open form to a room with a temperature of +4 ° C to +12 ° C (basement or corresponding shelf in the refrigerator, check with a thermometer!). The substrate should be sufficient (several times larger than the bones by volume). The process of stratification begins, which will take 1–3 months.
Periodically inspect the bones for readiness for planting. The signal is a broken skin and the appearance of a small sprout. If the summer season has not come yet, and the bone is ready, you can hold it for some time at a lower but positive temperature.
If the sprout emerged from the stone early, it is necessary to hold it for some time at a lower but positive temperature.
A place for planting seeds in the garden is chosen in the same way as when planting apricot seedlings. General rules:
- We choose the site protected from winds.
- Landing is best done in early May.
- We plant to a depth of 5–7 cm, the distance is about 15 cm from each other. It is desirable in the same soil in which it will grow the tree itself.
- Well pour the resulting watering of the watering can and mulch dry bulk material.
Soon sprouts should appear. All summer we will take care of them in the usual way: watering, weeding, loosening. You can feed the infusion of ash and mullein. Within a year, the seedlings will be ready for transplanting to a permanent place, which we will carry out according to the general rules. And in four years we will try apricots.
You can try to plant bones in the fall, in the expectation that during the winter they will undergo a natural stratification and grow well. The only risk is that we do not know what the weather will be like during the first winter months. Snow is not always, so the bones in the ground can just freeze. But it’s worth a try: what if? There is a risk, but less hassle.
So, the algorithm for working with stones is:
- Extraction of seeds from ripe fruit.
- Soaking in water, rinsing and drying to preserve until early spring.
- Stratification before sprout revitalization.
- Planting in open ground.
- Care of seedlings.
How to prune apricot when planting in spring
The goal of pruning any fruit tree is to get a powerful, well-lit crown.
Young seedlings are pruned immediately after planting. If the seedling is an annual twig without branches, it is simply shortened at a height of 70–90 cm from the soil. Starting next year, at a height of half a meter, the apricot begins to form a crown consisting of 5–6 main branches evenly spaced around the circumference of the trunk.
Apricot pruning patterns vary according to tree age.
If you plant a tree already with side branches, you can leave the two strongest of them, choosing well located. Shorten them by half. The rest - cut, leaving no hemp. The conductor should be 20–30 cm higher than the left branches. All branches and live buds that grow close to the ground (closer than half a meter) should be removed. Cover up all sections with a garden pitch. This is not very critical for cuts up to 1 cm 2, but it is better not to leave the young sapling with excess wounds.
When to replant apricot in spring
The question of transplanting apricots is controversial. Some believe that there is nothing difficult in this, and the tree will surely take root, and it can be done during the whole season. Some choose between spring and autumn. The majority of modern agricultural scientists agrees that an extra transplant is absolutely useless. We must immediately choose the right place and according to the rules plant. Moreover, it is believed that the bones should immediately be planted in a permanent place. Among the polar judgments must choose the average. And the average is, apparently, that young trees (maximum three years old) can be transplanted, but very carefully and better in early spring.
This should be done before waking up the kidneys, and, as usual, the landing pit should be prepared from autumn. Since for a tree, this procedure will present considerable stress, it will require an enhanced diet. The number of preplant fertilizers applied to the pit should be increased one and a half times. Digging apricot from the old place of residence should be as carefully as possible, retaining all the basic roots. And put on a new place immediately, abundantly watering. Not forgetting, of course, cut the broken roots and branches.
Spring planting of apricot in the regions
It is worth repeating once again that apricot is a southern plant, and no matter how hard scientists try in breeding zoned varieties, planting apricot in areas in the middle lane, and especially in Siberia, carries with it considerable risk. So, in the Middle Volga region, 40 km south of Saratov, apricot crops are abundant and practically annual. Trees almost never freeze slightly and delight the owners with tasty fruits that have “nowhere to go”. And 40 km to the north is a completely different picture. Frosting occurs frequently, and good yields - once every 3-4 years. And this also concerns the so-called local varieties: if the weather is fine, both large-fruited and small varieties bear fruit. If the winter was harsh - do not expect a harvest from either of the others.
Growing in Belarus
Belarus is a republic of forests and marshes. There are many rivers, lakes and almost no mountains. In general, the climate is characterized by sufficient humidity and moderate heat, almost like in central Russia. Therefore, it cannot be said that this is a very convenient region for planting apricot trees. Mostly apricots try to have in their gardens residents of the southern and south-western regions. In the northern areas it is possible to cultivate only the most winter-hardy local varieties.
Where apricots are planted, they do it as discussed above, that is, with seeds of local varieties and grafted seedlings. In addition, many are trying to plant apricot on winter-hardy plum and cherry plum trees. However, if the results are good with the plum, it is not always the case with cherry plum. Ready seedlings sold in Belarus are best suited to the local climate. First of all, it is the development of local breeders - Znahodka and Spandycha. The varieties cultivated in Russia are suitable only for the mildest climate of the Brest and Gomel regions.
In these regions of the country, vaccinations are good enough by the method of summer budding of varietal eyes on seedlings of local varieties. In the first winter, they are full of earth spuds, for complete engraftment and protection from frost. In the remaining areas, ready to plant 2-3-year-old seedlings are trying to plant. The technique of spring planting is no different from the conventional one. Seedlings carry out high-quality pruning immediately after planting, and in subsequent years only diseased and clearly interfering branches are pruned.
Apricot in the Moscow region
The climate around Moscow is characterized by unpredictability and changeability. Frosts in winter often give way to long thaws, and this is even worse for apricot trees: thaws threaten to root out, and then sharply formed ice crusts traumatize them. It is clear that only frost-resistant apricot varieties that can tolerate winter thaws are suitable for the suburban region. The most suitable areas in the Moscow region are the southern directions (to Tula, Kaluga).
Получить обильный урожай абрикосов можно не только на юге, но и в областях с более суровым климатом
Чаще всего при выращивании саженцев для подмосковного региона абрикос прививают на зимостойкие сорта. Прививку выполняют повыше от корней. Обычные подвои — слива, тёрн, абрикос сибирский. Хорошую приживаемость дают саженцы, приобретённые в питомниках Калужской и Московской областей. The best varieties here are Northern Triumph, Lel and Zeus. For apricot in the Moscow region, special clone rootstocks have been bred.
Landing is carried out exclusively in the spring. Seedlings must be with untapped buds, with a maximum of swollen, but in any case not flowering. Now you can often buy seedlings with a closed root system (sold in large capacity with the ground) - they can be planted at any time.
It is best to plant apricot in the south of the site, it is desirable that it was protected from the winds by any buildings or a solid fence. If this is not the case, it is necessary to specially construct an artificial barrier. Apricot in the suburbs should definitely be planted on a mound with a diameter of 1.5-2 meters. At the bottom of the landing pit is placed drainage of broken bricks, large river sand or small gravel. Instead of drainage, slate, iron sheets or another solid obstacle are sometimes placed at the bottom of the pit. In this case, the roots will not be able to pierce it and begin to grow to the sides, which will save them from soaking in groundwater. But at the same time you will have to remember that nothing will really grow near apricot trees!
If there is no fence at the site, then an artificial barrier should be constructed to protect the apricot seedling from the wind
The hill is surrounded on all sides by turf or sowed with seeds of lawn grass. As you grow, you can mow them, and natural mulch will appear.
And yet it is wiser, if you are not in a hurry, in the suburbs to plant apricot stones from a proven tree. And after 2 years already come according to the described algorithm.
Landing in the Far East
One might think that the Far East is not an appropriate area for growing apricot. But this is a rather big region, and the climate here is diverse. Gardeners distinguish three zones according to one or another climate: Primorskaya (near Vladivostok), Khabarovsk and Blagoveshchensk.
Scientists distinguish two groups of apricots - European and Siberian-Manchu. In the wild nature of the Far East apricots grow that can withstand temperatures down to -50 o C and lower. True, the fruits they have little edible. But the Siberian apricot is excellent as a stock, because the tree is not too large. Varieties grafted on Manchu apricot grow in the form of tall trees. Selection work with apricots in the region has been going on since the 1930s. The most common varieties for a long time were Khabarovsk, Amur and Seraphim. Currently, the range is much wider. And in the southern regions of the Far East, some European varieties can grow.
Khabarovsk - the most common type of apricot in the Far East
The peculiarities of the Far Eastern climate lead to the fact that apricots almost do not suffer from root swelling and return frost in early spring, as well as sunburn.
The most suitable conditions for apricot are to the south of Khabarovsk and in the Primorsky Territory. However, they are planted in other regions, and in stanzale form - even under Komsomolsk-on-Amur.
The peculiarities of the soil composition is that rarely where the depth of the fertile layer reaches half a meter. Here it is small. Therefore, it is extremely important to plant apricots on artificial mounds. Pit is also needed to put fertilizer in it. The diameter of the pit 80–100 cm, depth - depending on the soil composition. If clay begins in 25–30 cm, then it is not necessary to dig very deeply, a hill will still be equipped. The landing technique does not differ from that described above in the article. In the Far East, apricots are planted exclusively in the spring, as soon as the weather permits. The first few years for the winter it is necessary to wrap the trunk and the main branches of white paper or cloth to protect against sunburn.
Apricot trees in Ukraine
Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe, so the climate is different in different areas, of course. However, almost all territories are suitable for growing apricots. Only in the northern regions there is a certain risk, and it should be protected from it approximately in the same way as in Belarus. In other places, apricot is a completely ordinary fruit tree. Up to industrial production, the northern border of which is approximately located on the latitude of Kharkov. In Ukraine, apricot grows even just along the roads.
In Ukraine, apricot grows along the roads
The most common in Ukraine is the universal variety of the popular selection Krasnoshchy. Other commonly cultivated varieties are:
- Sambur Early,
- Osobyvy Denisyuka,
- Kiev red-cheeked
- Melitopol Early
- Melitopol late.
Apricot can be planted in Ukraine in autumn and spring, but the best season is still considered early spring. The recommended time is the end of April. Usually use annual saplings. The planting technique in the spring is common, but the mounds here most often do not, the soil composition and the climate do not threaten the root excretion. However, if you come across a plot with a close location of groundwater, the construction of a hill is necessary. The optimum soil is light loam. A hole is dug in the autumn, dimensions are about 80 cm in all dimensions, they are sure to pour drainage, and then add soil mixed with fertilizers. By spring, everything matures for planting.
Apricot is a southern tree, but the successes of breeders make it possible to grow it up to the latitudes of Moscow, and even north. However, you should always take into account weather risks and not be upset if something went wrong. It should be planted in the middle lane only in spring and preferably on a knoll. Planting technology is simple and quite accessible to most gardeners.
Choosing a place for apricot
Before planting the plant, experts advise to choose the area on which the apricot will grow. She must:
- Located on a hillock.
- Knowingly be warm.
- Wind-blown by constant cold winds.
It is advised to plant on the south side of the premises, fences or structures painted white - this is necessary for the reflection of the sun's rays in order to warm up the crown evenly.
The soil at the site of planting must pass air well, that is, be drainage, as the root system requires during plant development.
Important! Unacceptable temporary floodingor excessive soil moisture around the root system. Due to an overabundance of moisture, the plant dies.
In virgin soil containing clay, you should add: peat and sand. And in the sandy soil it is advised not to plant trees, as they decay and get burns, as a result of which they die and do not yield a crop. It is best to plant in the soil with a neutral or slightly acid reaction.
Seedlings need to be planted: 6 meters between the rows and 4 meters in a row.
Planting apricot should be in the spring. Plants are placed in a previously excavated soil to a depth of 45 centimeters. Pit for plants digging before planting. 10 kilograms of humus and 1 kilogram of superphosphate fall asleep.
The best varieties of apricots for the Middle Strip
The summer residents consider Triumph of the North to be the best grade of apricot - a high, self-pollinating tree with a spreading crown. Thanks to good immunity, the plant is not affected by pests and various diseases. Tolerates any freeze. It begins to bear the first fruits after three years, the harvest reaches 60 kilograms. Apricot juicy, bright and colorful, large. Ripens from July to August.
Imagine a few more popular varieties:
- Iceberg reaches a height of 3 meters, the crown is wide. Blooms profusely, but little ovary. The fruit weighs 20-25 grams, round, covered with villi of yellow with an orange tint. Soft and delicate flavor. The ripening period falls on the end of summer (the last week of July — the first week of August).
- Alyosha is a tall tree (it can reach four meters). The crown of his lush, sprawling. Inflorescences are large. Fruits weigh 15-20 grams, round shape, bright yellow tone with a blush. Tasty, villi are small, the fruit from a distance seems brilliant. The fruits ripen from late July to the first decade of August.
- Variety Aquarius, hybrid varieties Lel. Large tree, reaches a height of 5 meters. Gives a great harvest. The color of the fruit is yellow with a slight blush. It tastes astringent. Stone moves away from the pulp. Ripen in the second half of August.
- Royal Apricot - begins to bear fruit after 4 years. Winter hardy look. Fruits are small, oblong, bright orange in color. The flesh is nourishing, sweet and sour.
- Red-cheeked apricot is a self-fertile variety with resistance to low temperatures, a tall tree. Brings fruit in 3 years. The size is larger than the average saturated orange color. Among the advantages worth highlighting self-pollination.
- Snegirek - undersized plant, reaches a height of one and a half meters. The size of the fetus is average. It has excellent taste and juiciness.
- The Countess ripens in August. Brings enough harvest. It is required to thin out the fruits - if this is not done, they will be small. It grows up to 6 meters, the crown is round. Pollinated with the help of other plants. It is considered the most sensitive variety to frost. Fruit weight - up to 25 grams. Pale yellow skin with a blush. The flesh is tasty, juicy, sweet. In dry weather, apricot will feel good, and during rainy summer will suffer from disease.
- Monastic - depending on the temperature ripens during August. The tree is tall, the crown is heavy and wide. High yield, fruit weighing 30 grams. The peel is covered with nap. Bright yellow with a reddish side.
- Favorite - the fruit is late. Tree height - 4 meters. The harvest is large, weighing up to 30 grams, orange with a red side. Pulp compacted, juicy, small stone, easily separated. Later ripening, in cool and rainy years, the harvest does not have time to ripen.
For the Middle Volga region, frost-resistant plants should be chosen, such as:
Before planting, a bulk hill should be made, and the pit should be warmed with slate so as not to freeze the roots.
Planting and care
Pre-required to choose a place isolated from drafts. It is desirable that the soil contained trace elements of potassium. Favorable time of year for planting seedlings is considered spring.
Before buying a tree, you need to decide which seedling is suitable for this region, and how to care for it?
It is necessary to create a drainage for the penetration of air into the soil; it is also necessary to periodically loosen the soil around the plant.
Preparation for planting apricot begins in the fall, with the creation of a hole to plant in the spring. Drainage should be laid out on the bottom, then the soil is mixed with humus, potassium-containing salt, lime and superphosphate.
Water apricot moderately. Excessive watering will result in the death of the fruit plant. During the summer season - 4 times:
- In the middle of spring.
- In the second decade of May.
- 2-3 weeks before full ripening.
- In the autumn, before preparing the tree for the winter.
Cut apricot should be annually. In early spring, the branches frozen after winter are removed. Gardeners are advised to prune the tree, to stimulate the movement of the juice, it contributes to the awakening of sleeping buds.
Summer pruning is required at the end of August. In the autumn, cutting the branches has a fruitful effect on the winter hardiness of the plant.
Strengthened seedlings withstand low temperatures. Before the cold, wrap the trunk with a sacking cloth and sprinkle it around with soil. Young seedlings should be given more attention. It is required to make a construction from wooden boards and to stretch a film on them, to pour it over with earth. Cover the crown with agrofabric in two layers.
Within five years after planting a tree, it is required to fertilize the forest zone. Next, increase the area for fertilizer. In the spring, bring up to 4 kilograms of humus, combining them with 6 grams of nitrogen and 5 grams of phosphorus, 8 grams of potassium. The resulting mixture is designed for 1 square meter.
Important! To increase the yield of apricot is required to regularly make mineral feed.
- In the second year of life, it is necessary to fertilize with 0.06 kilograms of ammonium nitrate, 0.04 kilograms of potassium chloride, 0.13 kilograms of superphosphate.
- For 4 and 5 years - 0.1 kilogram of ammonium nitrate, 0.06 kilogram of potassium chloride, 0.2 kilogram of superphosphate.
- Subsequent years to make 0.37 kilograms of ammonium nitrate, 0.25 kilograms of potassium chloride and 0.88 kilograms of superphosphate.
How to drop a seedling for the winter time:
- A trench with well ventilated air flow is required.
- Lack of groundwater.
- At the bottom spread a little moss, sawdust. You can also put conifer needles.
- It should be shed water.
- After the first weak frosts sprinkle with earth, forming a hill.
- It is necessary to get saplings after sufficient heating of the soil.
- Before placing the plants in the pit for storage, the leaves should be torn off, and the damaged roots should be cut and put in water for a day.
Apricot is a very capricious tree, but thanks to its selection it can be grown in the Middle Belt of Russia. It is necessary to take into account the needs of the plant and select a future variety suitable for the climate of the region in which it will grow.