Trees are natural air filters. Some cultures are used to create parks, squares and alleys. Gardeners prefer to plant ornamental crops on the site for landscaping and creating design. Not only fruit trees are used in garden plots, but also forest crops, for example, Canadian maple. This tree is different decorative: in summer, the crown is covered with green foliage, and in autumn it is painted in bright orange and red colors.
Sugar or sugar maple, also known as Canadian, is a tall tree. Adult plant reaches a height of 40−45 meters. Lifespan up to 400 years. This deciduous tree belongs to the deciduous class. By winter, the leaves fall off completely. The tree prefers illuminated places or penumbra. Reproduction occurs by seed.
Tree bark has a brownish light shade, darkens with age. Culture has a strong root system.
The culture is characterized by a spreading crown. The leaves have a curly shape, the structure is simple.
Flowering occurs in spring. Inflorescences are clusters with small greenish flowers. Fruits - a lionfish, which stores the seeds. One fruit in the form of spliced wings contains 2 seeds. Maple plant is dioecious: on the same tree there are both female and male inflorescences.
Sugar maple gives the juice, which has a pleasant sweetish taste. It is used as a raw material for the manufacture of syrup and sugar.
Varieties and varieties
There are many types of culture. However, on the territory of our country and in Europe only a few plant species are distributed:
- Red maple. It differs from other types of special decorative feature: the leaves have a reddish tint. This is especially noticeable in the fall, when the entire crown is painted in red or orange-fiery color. The leaves have a special shape: the plate is divided into 5 blades with a pointed edge. Leaf length up to 11 centimeters. The crown is pyramidal or elliptical. Use red maple in the design of city parks and alleys. Spreading crown allows you to quickly create a natural corridor. Possible tree planting as an individual object.
- Silver maple. A widespread culture in North America, however, is often found in Russia. The main difference can be considered the color of the foliage: on top - dark green, and the lower back side - a silvery shade. The inner side of the sheet has a velvety surface. The height of an adult tree is up to 40 meters, the diameter of the crown is up to 20 meters. Thanks to the silver crown trees of this type are used in the design of gardens, gardens and parks.
- Latsiniatum Vieri - This is a stunted tree. Its height does not exceed 15 meters. Crohn has an asymmetric shape. The leaves are thin tracery texture. In the summer, the foliage is colored green with silvery inclusions (the back of a sheet is silver), but in the fall it is brightly lemon-colored.
- Bonsai. In principle, it cannot be considered a separate species. This is a form of growing a tree by a special technology. It is the Canadian maple successfully used for growing miniature trees Bonsai. The appearance has decorative characteristics: beautiful inflorescences and leaves, bright color. Growing maple in a pot is a very painstaking exercise, but with the right care, the result will pay off.
Any of the varieties will be a decoration of the garden. But it is worth remembering that this is a large plant that requires space. Before planting, it is worth considering the growing conditions, providing the plant with enough space for growth.
Culture propagates by seeds, however, planting in the ground should be carried out ready seedlings. One year old plants are used for this purpose. However, maple is picky, and you should know a few rules for planting a crop:
- Before planting maple seedlings harden. Plants need to get used to the open air. To do this, a container with a seedling is carried out outside for a while, each time increasing the time spent on the street.
- For the landing, a pit is prepared with a diameter of at least half a meter and a depth of more than 30 centimeters. It is important that the tree trunk was immersed in the ground no more than 5-7 centimeters.
- Pits should be placed at a great distance from each other. Depending on the maple variety, the distance between the seedlings should be 3-5 meters. It is not recommended to plant plants closer to each other, because the crown of the tree is spreading.
- After planting the seedling in the ground, it must be watered. Abundant watering - a guarantee of high survival rate of culture. On one seedling accounts for 12−15 liters of water.
The tree grows rather slowly. But after a few years, you can get a rather large tree that will delight with its beauty and shade.
Culture is considered one of the most unpretentious. Therefore, care for the maple is not difficult. Maple prefers to grow in a spacious sunny area, however, he feels fine in partial shade and in shaded parts of the garden.
This is a frost-resistant plant, maple can tolerate frost up to 40 degrees. This factor makes it possible to cultivate it in any climatic zone of our country, with the exception of the zones beyond the Arctic Circle.
The main factor that gardeners should pay is the shape. The formation of the crown - the main task. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to comply with the following conditions:
- Annual saplings planted in the ground. However, young shoots grow at home or in greenhouse conditions. The important point - the gradual preparation for disembarking on the street. This will harden the plant so that the roots do not freeze through in winter, and the branches do not dry in the heat.
- The Canadian maple has rather fragile branches, so it is preferable to plant it in a place protected from the wind.
- Despite the fact that the maple is a moisture-loving tree, you should pay attention to the drainage of the soil. Stagnant moisture can lead to decay of the rhizome and subsequent illness and death of the entire tree.
- It is recommended to wrap young trees in winter to prevent freezing of the roots.
- Canadian maple saplings are fed with mineral fertilizers, as well as provide regular watering of plants. Strong plants are watered only on dry days.
The Canadian maple reproduces not only by seed, but also by cuttings. In some cases, the process of reproduction is possible. However, the most effective way is considered to be sowing seedlings (seedlings).
Scope of application
Maple is not only an ornamental tree. Its scope is not limited to design.
Canadian maple is used in the construction and furniture industry. It has valuable wood. The strength is not inferior to oak. The most popular exclusive application = is the manufacture of elite maple parquet. This material has a beautiful shade, has high strength and durability.
Maple can also be a raw material for food. For example, the famous maple syrup, which is used by confectioners. Sugar is used in European cuisine for the preparation of traditional dishes and desserts.
And, of course, the main field of application is landscape design. Maple is actively bred by breeders for use in the design of individual plots, city parks and squares, recreation areas. Despite the fact that the maple grows very slowly - it is quite popular decorative culture.
How nice in the summer heat to hide in the shadow of this tree!
- The homeland of sugar maple is the mainland of North America.
- It is most common in the eastern United States.
- A red maple leaf adorns the Canadian flag.
- Well this kind of tree has taken root in Europe, and Russia.
The botanical name is Aser, which translates as "acute". This is due to the peaked shape of the maple leaf:
- A distinctive feature of Canadian red maple is the color of the leaves: dark green color on top, on the back side has a velvet surface and a silvery shade. This type of maple reaches a height of 40 meters, crown width of 20 meters.
- There is a species of maple "Latsiniatum Vieri". It is a low tree whose height is not higher than 15 meters. The tree is interesting unusual asymmetric crown and delicate openwork leaves that have a pinkish tint.
- A separate botanical variety of maple, is a special variety of "Bonsai". It is a miniature tree that is grown in a pot, using special technology.
The tree blooms, the leaves are rich in shades and become the main decoration of the house.
To grow it will require difficult care, but the result will pay for all the efforts.
Planting a plant
Maple Canadian can become an ornament to any manor, but this requires the creation of especially comfortable conditions. It should be planted in a well-lit place.
Planting young immature seedlings is best in the spring or autumn. Planting material should be purchased exclusively in containers, with the root system closed. Earth com is not recommended to destroy. In this case, the plant will take root much faster.
You can propagate the Canadian sugar maple plant using vaccinations, cuttings and seeds.
- In its natural environment, the tree propagates by processes.
- The cuttings are not always well acclimatized, so they try to use seed.
- Another breeding option is air layouts. To form a new root system, the cuttings need to be processed with a stimulator for root formation.
For landing try to use one-year seedlings. They are placed in a container with broken soil, which contributes to the accelerated development of the root system. During growth, the plant requires regular watering and mandatory application of complex mineral fertilizers.
Transplantation in the conditions of open ground is possible after the young plant has got stronger.
Before planting sugar maple seedlings need adapt to the street atmosphere. To do this, seedlings should be taken out of the room for a few minutes, gradually increasing the time spent in the fresh air.
- For planting should dig a recess with a diameter of fifty centimeters.
- The plant is placed so that the trunk plunged into the soil by five centimeters.
- After planting you need to water the plant plentifully. For watering one plant will need up to fifteen liters of water.
- If several Canadian maple plants are planted, then it is necessary to make a distance between three to five meters between the trees, as it should be noted that in the future the crown of the plant will grow strongly.
Sugar variety grows slowly, so you should be patient and observe certain conditions cultivation.
Features of the plant
After flowering on a tree, seeds ripen, which fall on the ground in the spring, under a tree, a fence of young shoots grows, but not many of them survive.
In early spring, Canadian maple juice is moving. from root to crown, like birch.
On the blossoming maple flowers at this time of the year, a large number of insects collect sweet nectar.
The leaves of an adult tree are not subject to the negative effects of pests. Voracious caterpillars and harmful insects bypass this plant side.
In ancient times, hard and durable Canadian sugar maple wood was used in the manufacture of a copy and handles for melee weapons.
Canadian maple, it is sugar, is a powerful deciduous tree, sometimes reaching forty meters in height, with a trunk almost a meter in diameter and a very thick and picturesque crown, which is not the case for the cracked brown-gray bark. But the branches of the maple are beautiful: they have a pleasant reddish tint and shine. And the main decoration of this tree is its leaves. They have intricate cuts, are not very large, reach lengths of up to 11 centimeters and approximately the same width, in summer they are painted in a dark green color scheme, which in the autumn will be transformed into fantastic red, orange and yellow tones.
But the small yellow-green maple flowers collected in clusters are rather inexpressive. They are on some trees female, and on others - male. True, sometimes there are bisexual specimens of Canadian maple. Seeds of this tree are supplied with wings. Combined in pairs, they form a so-called lionfish, which, spinning in the air, flies remarkably, taking the seeds away from the parent tree. Sugar maple belongs to long-lived trees, whose age can reach four centuries. But unlike other long-livers such as oak, it grows quickly.
This tree grows everywhere in the eastern United States and Canada. The Canadian maple has taken root well in the Old World, and in some regions of Asia. The distribution of sugar maple in North America
Currently, there are several decorative forms and varieties of sugar maple:
- large gear maple, Acer saccharum subsp. grandidentatum
- 'Monumentale' - column-like variety, the branches are directed upwards, Monumentale
- 'September Flare', September Flare
- 'Green Mountain' is a winter-hardy variety with an oval, heat-resistant crown, Green mountain
- Sweet Shadow - a variety with "lace" foliage. Sweet shadow
In addition to sugar maple, several other species of this tree are common - red and silver.
This type of maple is one of the most commonly found deciduous trees in eastern North America and stands out among the others with a pronounced reddish tone of leaves that become even brighter and more beautiful in the fall. Red maple is slightly lower than sugar growth, but it has a wider trunk, reaching 1.6 meters in diameter. The leaves, with the exception of color, resemble maple leaves and size and shape.
This woody plant also lives long enough and grows very quickly, acquiring a dense crown in the form of a pyramid or ellipse. Unlike sugar, red maple is less demanding on the quality of the soil, it grows equally well on swampy and arid soils.
This tall tree, reaching a height of forty meters, is common not only in North America, but also in Europe, being distinguished by a noble silvery shade on the back side of dark green leaves and velvety to the touch surface. Thanks to an impressive crown, shimmering silver, this silver "Canadian" is very actively used in the landscape design of parks and gardens.
Sugar maple, capable of producing sweet juice and possessing other valuable qualities, is very much in demand by representatives of the animal world. Its branches and leaves are good food for deer, hares and elks. And proteins, in addition to this feed, add maple buds and seeds to their menu. In America, the inexpressive-looking, but obviously, the nutritious bark of a tree is readily consumed by porcupines. And in a dense and sprawling maple crown many birds actively build their nests.
A man, admiring the appearance of this beautiful plant, long ago learned to extract from it and practical use:
- Maple wood is notable for its excellent hardness, often surpassing the famous oak in it. It produces the best parquet, which, in addition to its exceptional resistance to mechanical stress, has an attractive texture and lends itself well to varnishing.
- Wood is also actively used in the manufacture of furniture, single-layer plywood and wall cladding panels. It has long been indispensable in the production of such specific things as billiard cues, bowling pins and weapon butts.
- Solid and dense wood has been in demand among manufacturers of expensive musical string instruments that use it along with the famous resonant spruce.
- In the spring before the leaves and flowers bloom, the trunk is incised and the maple sap is collected just as we collect birch. The only difference is that maple sap is much sweeter than birch. Therefore, they make syrup, sugar and other sweets.
- And thanks to outstanding external data in the form of a thick spreading crown of noble green tonality in the summer and a surprisingly beautiful red-orange-yellow palette in the fall, Canadian maple is widely represented in parks, gardens and adorns the alleys.
How to plant in the garden
Most often for planting Canadian maple annual saplings are used. They are grown from seeds indoors. The seedlings that have reached one year old are planted in containers filled with fertile and well-loosened soil. Saplings growing in containers should be watered and fed with complex fertilizers.
The accumulated and well-developed tree can then be transplanted into open ground. The best time for this is early spring or late September.
At first, the trees are carried out to fresh air for only a couple of minutes, each time slightly increasing the “walk” time.
When choosing a place to plant, you must remember that this is a woody plant. prefers an abundance of light, although it is not afraid of a small shading, it does not tolerate strong winds, therefore windy elevations are not suitable for it. Immediately before planting, pits are dug up half a meter in length and width, the same depth in which trees are planted so that the trunk hides under the ground a maximum of five centimeters deep. Planted trees should be watered well, spending at least 15 liters of water for each seedling.
Summer seedlings enough water twice a week.
Before planting, one should not forget that the future tree will have a spreading crown, therefore it is recommended to leave a free five-meter space between young trees.
Although this tree species is hardy, still young seedlings for the winter should be warmedso as not to freeze the roots.
If the tree is planted in fertile soil, then at first this will be enough for its normal development. But then in the spring it is recommended to feed the tree with superphosphate, urea and potassium salts. Every year in spring around the tree it is necessary to carry out soil mulching with peat. These trees love moist soil, but do not tolerate stagnant water in the soil, causing them to rot roots.
It is important for this type of tree pruning, which has some features. For example, a maple very poorly tolerates any kind of pruning after the foliage.
In all other cases, pruning helps to form the crown of a tree, removes dried and diseased branches, helps to form new shoots from middle-aged trees. As a rule, when pruning a tree, about 40 percent of last year’s growth of the branches is removed.
The “Canadian Guest” feels more and more confident that he is the master in our gardens, parks and private plots. Its excellent appearance, ennobling landscaping, as well as the high gastronomic qualities of the juice make the tree more and more popular both among urban landscapers and among owners of summer cottages.
Description of Canadian Maple
This tree has a maximum height of 40 m and a life span of 300 to 400 years. It grows in places lit by the sun or in partial shade, requires moderate watering and propagates by seed. It has a dense, voluminous crown, a rough, fissured light gray or gray-brown bark, darkening over the years, shiny smooth red-brown branches. It has a powerful root system.
The simple maple leaf is opposite, it rests on a petiole from 5 to 11 cm long. At the edges, the sheet is toothed and rough, on the top is smooth and dark green, from below is a slightly rough and pale leaf. The width of the sheet also reaches from 5 to 11 cm. The special charm of the maple leaf becomes autumn, repainting in various shades. Since the fall of the maple leaves foliage, it is called deciduous.
Canadian Maple Leaves
In the spring the tree passes a phase of flowering. Maple flowers are small, have a greenish-yellow tint, stick to a long petiole and are clustered in a brush of 8 to 14 flowers. Mostly trees are dioecious. This means that they can have flowers separately male or female, but sometimes both sexes are together on the same trunk, but on different branches. Maple has a fruit in the form of a lionfish sitting on a red or red-brown petiole. The lion has two seeds, the length of which reaches from 2 to 2.5 cm. The color is very bright.
The tree has frost resistance, however, it is sensitive to gusty winds, severe frosts and hail, which can cause irreparable damage to the plant. Therefore, young seedlings in the first years of life during the onset of frost must be wrapped.
Annual shoots or seeds allow maple seedlings to be grown. It is easier and quicker to take root annual shoots. Seedlings are placed in a container with a sufficient amount of land, which contributes to the growth and development of young shoots. The soil is best friable, with the possibility of air penetration into it.
Care of seedlings is simple. Until the plant acquires strength, it must be fertilized, fed with mineral supplements and trace elements. The young plant needs constant watering, but as it dries. Planting seedlings in the soil is best done in the spring or in September, in which case they take root better. But first it is necessary to create the conditions of “habituation” to the natural conditions by taking out the containers with seedlings to the air for a certain time.
Planting of a seedling takes place by placing it in a 50 cm hole. In case of planting several plants, they should be placed at a distance of two meters. The seedling is placed in the middle of the pit so that the trunk is not submerged more than 5 cm deep. After planting, the tree is watered with at least 15 liters of water.
Red canadian maple
Its name was due to its leaves, which may have a red, purple or burgundy color. The leaf is up to 11 cm long and has 5 small, pointed teeth. Red maple inflorescences have differences: small, with a diameter of 3 to 5 mm, with dark green stamens and a bonder, have a yellow-green color, red long pedicels and perianth, rounded in shape. The foliage of red maple can be in the shape of a pyramid or ellipse. Its height can reach from 25 to 40 m. The length of the life cycle is 150-200 years. Growing fast. It has a bright color.
Canadian Maple Garden Decor
It is used to decorate gardens, parks, gardens. The color is beautiful. It goes well with various types of trees and shrubs. With the help of red maple hedges are created. The photo shows a red Canadian maple in all its glory.
One of the most unpretentious plants, since it is undemanding to the soil, fully tolerates shade and frost down to –40 degrees. At the same time, it has increased sensitivity to polluted air and asphalt pavement. The leaf reaches 14 cm in length, has from 3 to 5 blades, pointed.
Sugar maple has a life cycle of 300 to 400 years, growing slowly. With the help of sugar maple create protective forest belts, they are planted in parks. The peculiarity of sugar maple is that it is a source of maple sap, from which maple syrup is produced. Also extracted from the juice maple sugar. In the photo below you can see the sugar maple in his autumn outfit.
A beautiful decoration in the house will be maple, grown using the bonsai technique. The technique with which you can grow an exact copy of a tree in a reduced form is called bonsai and is gaining world popularity in decorating houses and apartments.
At the same time maple occupies an important place in this art. He is rightly considered the king of bonsai. The color of autumn maple leaves, according to the Japanese, can not always find a worthy opponent among the flowering bonsai trees.
A bonsai tree can be grown by gathering seeds. After dropping, they need to be collected, cleaned and dried. Seeds that have green buds will be the most germinating. They are stored in a dry place. In March, before planting, the seeds should be placed in a layer of wet sand for 3 days. Planted seeds in a greenhouse. Saplings change when they reach 2 years in spring.
Caring for a maple growing on a bonsai technique requires constant care. This is quite a laborious job, but worth it. This can be easily seen by viewing the following pictures. Among the various nations of the world, maple takes the place of one of the useful plants that have fruitful energy for humans. If you provide him with the necessary care, the Canadian maple will be an original addition to your home or backyard.
Sugar Maple Application
Sugar maple comes from North America: it is widespread in the eastern United States and Canada, the maple leaf is present on the Canadian flag. However, this tree quickly settled down in Europe and in Russia, it is found everywhere in temperate latitudes. Sugar maple wood is highly valued because it has dozens of applications and is characterized by high strength and density. Additionally, its ability to produce sweet maple sap increases the popularity of the tree.
Sugar Maple General Description
Sugar Maple, also known as Canadian Maple, is a deciduous tree more than 40 meters high. It lives for a very long time: the life of the Canadian maple reaches 400 years. Maple prefers places that are well lit by the sun, or partial shade, it multiplies with the help of seeds. A young tree bark has a light gray or light brown shade, over the years it begins to darken.
Maple has strong roots, the older the tree, the more powerful and branched its root system becomes.
The maple is characterized by a thick spreading crown. The leaves are simple, on the branches, they are located opposite. Sheet plates have a characteristic figured shape, especially beautiful and unusual they look like a canopy when the sheet becomes saturated red or yellow. The tree is among the deciduous, in the autumn months, it completely sheds leaves.
The tree blooms in spring: small yellow-green flowers appear in the branches, gathered in clusters. The fruit of the plant is a lionfish, 2 seeds are placed in each lionfish. Most trees are dioecious, on one plant there are male and female flowers. Sugar maple got its name for its ability to produce sweet maple sap, from which maple syrup and sugar are made.
Two forms of the type species are distinguished:
- Red Canadian maple - representatives are distinguished by the red color of the foliage, which by the autumn becomes even brighter and richer. The subspecies is less demanding on the composition of the soil than the typical variety.
- Silver Maple - a distinctive feature of the tree is the silver color of the back side of the leaf plate. A dense, elliptical crown made a native of Canada a very popular plant in the park areas of Europe.
The choice of location and soil
Ornamental tree feels good on sheltered from the wind, sunny areas. Also, sugar maple develops well in light shading. To the soil composition of the culture is demanding and needs fertile soil with good drainage qualities.
How and when to plant
The best survival rate is distinguished by annual saplings grown from seeds, which grow in containers with fertile and loose soil before planting in open ground, and are also pre-hardened, adapting to the external environment.
Planting, the optimum time of which is considered early spring, is carried out according to the following scheme:
- A pit is dug out with dimensions of 50x50 cm.
- At the bottom of the drainage layer is placed, which protects the roots from stagnant water.
- Sapling with straightened roots.
- The pit is filled with the extracted soil in such a way that the root neck is slightly buried.
- Pristvolny circle trampled and watered at the rate of 1.5 buckets of water under the specimen.
Cultivation and care
To grow sugar maple healthy and pleasing to the eye with its beauty over the years, it is necessary to adhere to agrotechnical growing requirements, which include a number of compulsory care activities.
A moisture-loving plant at a young age requires regular moistening - twice a week. With age, the frequency can be reduced, especially during rainy summer.
Loosening and mulching
Every spring the tree trunk circle should be covered with a layer of peat, which will also maintain the fertility of the soil. After watering or precipitation, it is recommended to loosen the soil, ensuring free access of air to the root system.
If the culture was planted in a soil with a good fertile layer, then in the first 2 years no additional food is required. In the future, it is recommended to feed the wood species with phosphorus-potassium mineral fertilizers, as well as organic matter with a high nitrogen content in an accessible form.
Protection against diseases and pests
Among the diseases, coral blotch is considered to be the most common, at the first signs of which one should immediately remove the affected shoots, after which the cuts should be treated with garden pitch. If a tree has been attacked by malicious insects, then it is necessary to treat the crown with insecticide. As a preventive measure, one should sprinkle maple with a tank mix every spring.
Cropping and crown formation
To form a thick, beautiful crown, you should carry out formative pruning in the spring before the start of sap flow. In the autumn period after the fall of the foliage is not recommended to cut Canadian maple. With the annual pruning, when weak, sick, growing inward shoots are also removed, about 40% of last year's growth is trimmed, which allows to stimulate the development of new branches.
Wintering Canadian Maple
Adult specimens withstand temperatures as low as -40 ° C. However, seedlings and young specimens should be protected from frost and glaciation by wrapping the trunk with a sacking cloth, as well as with the help of mulching and shelter in the fir tree branches of the trunk of a trunk.
Non-specialized description of sugar maple
Sugar Maple, also known as Canadian Maple, is a deciduous tree more than 40 meters high. It lives for a very long time: the duration of the fate of the Canadian maple reaches 400 years. Maple prefers places, beautifully lit by the sun, or partial shade, it multiplies with the help of seeds.
At a young tree, the bark has a light gray or light brown shade, over the years it begins to darken.
A maple has remarkable roots, the older a tree is, the more remarkable and branched its root aggregate is.
The maple is characterized by a thick spreading crown. The leaves are simple, on the branches they are opposite. Sheet plates have a characteristic curly shape, especially beautiful and unusual they look like a canopy, at a time when the sheet gets a rich red or yellow tint.
The tree is among the deciduous, in the autumn months, it completely sheds leaves.
The tree blooms in spring: small yellow-green flowers appear in the branches, clustered in clusters. The fruit of the plant is a lionfish, 2 seeds are placed in each lionfish. Most of the trees are dioecious, male and female flowers are seen on the same plant.
Sugar Maple took the proper name for the property of giving sweet maple sap from which sugar and maple syrup are made.
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