Sour soil in the garden - a problem faced by many owners of private houses and cottages. Since this is a favorite breeding ground exclusively for weeds, it is best for cultivated plants to have neutral and slightly acidic soils. But in vain you should not grieve. Normal liming will allow to deoxidize the land plot for several years. And how to do this folk remedies, we will talk later in our article.
The required pH level in the garden
There is a division into acidic, neutral and alkaline soils. The degree of acidity is determined by the pH icon:
- very acidic - pH 3.8-4.0,
- strongly acid - pH 4.1-4.5,
- medium acidic - pH 4.6-5.0,
- subacid - pH 5.1-5.5,
- neutral - pH 5.6-6.9.
It is recommended to make soil liming after lowering the pH limit of 5.5.
What to do with high acidity
Soil deacidification or liming is the only way to reduce the acidity of the soil to the desired level. It is important to make compounds that contain lime.
This technique will reduce the acid balance of the land for several years. If the soil is heavier, this will last longer, if the light is less. Practice shows that deactivation is carried out on peat sites once every three years, on sand sands once every five years, and on loamy ones once every seven years. Moreover, with an increase in the content of humus in the soil, it is possible to increase the content of lime.
The correct soil Ph should not exceed 5.5
Liming the land
Experts advise to make the liming of the earth in several passes.
During the development of the garden or in the process of deep digging once a couple of years you need to make the bulk of lime in the form of fluff, slaked lime or chalk. Then the procedure is repeated annually, but the concentration of the compositions will be much less.
When the acidity of the garden is uneven, liming the soil can be done zonal - only for those crops that need normal acidity very much. Most often it is solanaceous. If the crop rotation is observed, the whole land plot will have to be processed.
Any composition for liming is scattered as evenly as possible over the site, and then digged up so that the substance is at a depth of 0.2 m from the surface. Moreover, the more uniform the location of the means for deoxidation, the better.
Sour Soil Liming
Application of hydrated lime on acidic soil
Slaked lime is considered an excellent deoxidizing agent. Quick in this situation is not suitable. Before applying the treatment of lime is extremely important to extinguish it with water. The amount of lime will depend on the level of acidity of the soil in the garden. So:
- for very acidic soil it will take 50-70 kg of fluff per one hundred square meters of land,
- for medium acid soil - 40-45 kg,
- slightly acidic area needs 20-25 kg of composition.
Use of dolomite flour
Before you buy this tool you need to pay attention to the degree of ground flour. Practice shows that the smaller the fraction of the composition, the sooner the desired effect will occur.
The best option would be limestone flour, the moisture content of which does not exceed 1.5%, and 2/3 of the composition of the grains vary in size of 0.25 mm.
The concentration of the drug in 1 square. The garden area for highly oxidized soil is 0.5-0.6 kg, for medium acid - 0.45-0.5 kg, and for slightly acid soil - 0.35-0.4 kg. This information is necessarily indicated on the packaging of dolomite flour by the manufacturer.
Folk remedy wood ash
Wood ash is a great opportunity to reduce soil acidity. But in this case, there is no replenishment of calcium deficiency in the soil, which certain cultures badly need. This is especially true of the nightshade family.
Calcium deficiency causes top rot, which soon spreads, affects tomatoes and peppers. That is why experts advise the use of ash exclusively in combination with other compounds or preparations.
Spreading wood ash on acidic soil
When last year there was already a struggle with excess acidity, and this figure is uneven on the site, the ash will work fine. You can use it for re-deoxidation. In this case, per liter of water accounted for 0.2 kg of ash. This solution should be enough to handle 1 square. m of land.
Mel as a deoxidizer in the country
Crushed chalk refers to calcium-containing compounds that allow to remove the acidity of the soil. It is important to note that the grains in diameter should not be more than one millimeter. Otherwise, the effect of liming will have to wait long.
For particularly acidic soil per 1 square. m is recommended to use about 0.3 kg of chalk, for medium acid - 0.2 kg, for weak acid - 0.1 kg.
After the chalk is evenly distributed over the plot, it is dug up, so the substance disintegrating will change the composition of the soil.
Mixing soil with chalk is a great way to reduce its acidity.
Use of siderates for deoxidation
On the shelves of shops you can find specialized products that allow to deoxidize the soil and at the same time fertilize it. Because they contain calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, boron, zinc, copper, manganese and other useful trace elements.
It is recommended to use the preparations in late autumn or spring before digging up by placing materials to a depth of 0.2 m. The reaction of the soil will become neutral in just a couple of years. In this case, after the distribution of green manure land is better to water.
Growing sideratov and subsequent digging with them
Does the soil always need to reduce acidity
Soil deoxidation is not always necessary. First of all, it is when the pH level is within the normal range. And secondly, when cultivated plants planted on the site (for example, sorrel) prefer high acidity. From ornamental crops, this applies to rhododendrons, hydrangeas, ferns, silverweed, heathers, lupins, rhubarb, and even wild mint. As for the majority of vegetables, they prefer a slightly acidic and neutral soil rich in useful trace elements.
Preparation for determination of soil acidity
However, everything good should be in moderation and the use of a large amount of lime fertilizer can lead to an excess of calcium in the soil. As a result, root growth is hampered, especially when the root system of a plant is already weak. Plus, even abundant watering and rain will not wash away the calcium.
And then the desire to improve the soil will only lead to the emergence of new problems. This means that it is not worthwhile to strongly deoxidize the soil every year, you need to constantly check the pH level and only make lime on need.
In the process of soil deoxidation, several methods and means listed above can be used simultaneously, and they can even be grouped. It all depends on your wishes and the availability of available tools and materials. Difficulties in principle should not arise. The main thing is not to overdo it with the concentration of lime in the garden. Since their oversupply will adversely affect the cultivated plants that will grow there.
What is it for?
First you need to know that not all plants love acidic and alkaline soil. So, for example, sorrel and black currant love acidic soil, but tomatoes, cucumbers and cabbage will grow poorly on it. One suburban area can have the same acidity throughout the area, and completely different. Therefore, before deciding to deoxidize the soil in spring, you should determine what the pH level in each part of your garden or garden, and what you plan to grow there.
Acidic earth is a paradise for fungi and pathogenic bacteria, plants simply do not have enough vitality to overcome such an attack, and therefore they often get sick, but there are few useful microorganisms in it. On the ground with high acidity, a lot of weeds grow, and cultivars take root poorly, their root system is poorly developed, and they often die for reasons unknown to the host. A high pH indicates that the earth contains many hydrogen ions. When the owner of the site tries to fertilize the soil and adds additional mineral (or any other) fertilizers, hydrogen reacts with them, because of which they are converted, and the plant simply cannot use them for their own purposes. Soil deacidification in spring or autumn will help reduce the level of aluminum and manganese, while other elements: magnesium, calcium, phosphorus, molybdenum and nitrogen - will be present in the required amount and perfectly assimilated.
One of the easiest
Take two transparent containers and pour a teaspoon of earth into each. Add a little 9% vinegar and stir. If the solution foams - the soil is alkaline, it foams quite a bit - neutral, air bubbles do not appear at all - acidic.
We read on plants
The acidity of the beds with beets can be recognized very simply. The plant will have green leaves, scapes - red, and also a poorly developed root system, if the earth is alkaline. On green leaves red streaks are slightly acid. But if the leaves have a rich beet color, the beets grow large, well developed - the soil is acidic.
Weeds will finally be helpful. Where wheatgrass grows - the scourge of many summer residents, the earth is weakly acid. Mokritsa loves sour, but bindweed and most vegetable crops - alkaline soil.
Soil deactivation in spring should be carried out, starting from the acidity of the earth: the higher it is, the more it will be necessary to introduce deoxidizers. It is important not to overdo it and observe the dosage, because an excess of alkali will harm the earth even more than excessive acidity.
Lime or "pushonka"?
The most common deoxidation of the soil in the spring with lime. This is one of the easiest and cheapest options. It is used slaked lime, for this, in the usual add a little water and stir. It should become loose by reacting with water. It is often called "pushonka." Lime has the most pronounced neutralizing effect and is ideal for very acidic soils.
If you are planning to deoxidize the soil in spring, the norms for introducing the finished “fluff” will be within 50-150 grams per square meter. Should take into account the degree of acidification of the earth. After the lime has been applied to the soil, it should be mixed with the top layer of earth (depth 15-20 cm).
Also, soil deoxidation is carried out in spring with dolomite flour. Such material will be more expensive than ordinary lime, but if there is a possibility, then why not? Dolomite flour is also called calcareous (CaCO3). It, as well as "pushonok", is undesirable to enter into the soil simultaneously with nitrate, superphosphate, urea or manure. So try to stay with one thing. It is useful to introduce dolomite flour immediately before planting the crops, unlike the “fuzz”, it does not burn the plant. It can be added to the earth at any time of the year, but usually it is autumn or spring.
Introduced at this rate (per square meter):
- slightly acid - 300-400 g,
- medium acid - 400-500 g,
- sour - 500-600 g
Dolomite flour is not used for soils on which the gooseberry, sorrel, blueberries and cranberries grow. Processing such a deoxidizing agent should be carried out once every three years.
It will be useful deoxidation of the soil in spring with chalk. This additive is more neutral and is well suited for the land with weak acidity. Chalk grains should be small, no more than 1-2 mm.
Dissolve the land from such calculations (per square meter):
- sour - 300 g,
- medium acid - 200 g,
- slightly acid - 100 g
The earth is sprinkled with chalk, and then the top layer of soil is mixed.
Ash is an excellent fertilizer, it loosens well, and it also deoxidates the soil. The only thing that can cause inconvenience is that it will need three times more than, for example, lime powder. It has less pronounced properties. So, per square meter of alkalized earth will need 1-1.5 kg of ash. It is brought in the spring digging in a dry, crushed form. If you have a large plot, and the land is of high acidity, a rational solution would be to use lime.
Another non-laborious way, and most importantly - completely natural, and even beautiful! This plant is planted throughout the site, then mowed and distributed on the ground. So you can repeat several times, phacelia grows very quickly - in 20 days.
Every experienced gardener knows that eggshells should not be thrown away. It is collected, dried, crushed and added to the soil. So the earth gets a lot of useful microelements, and at the same time its acidity decreases.
Here are some simple and useful tips for those who love and practice the cultivation of tasty and healthy products on their site. All these examples are simple enough and do not take much time. To carry out such a refinement is enough once every 3-4 years. The land will certainly thank you for your hard work - it will give you an excellent and rich harvest.
Adding an article to a new collection
Vegetables and berries grow poorly on the ridges, but the moss and woodlouse are magnificently green, covering every centimeter free? Congratulations, the acidity of the soil clearly exceeds all norms. But do not despair - we will tell you how to deoxidize the soil in the garden in spring and autumn.
Impaired acidity of the soil is bad, first of all, the fact that some batteries become inaccessible to plants. Therefore, even the timely application of fertilizers will not give results. In addition, some bacteria and beneficial microorganisms cannot live in acidic soil, which also adversely affects fertility.
How to determine the acidity of the soil
With a reasonable approach to tillage, it is necessary to determine the type and acidity of the soil before the first plants are planted. However, even if the soil on your site was originally neutral pH, everything could change over time. Fortunately, to determine the acidity of the soil does not need to go to the experts - there are simple and inexpensive methods that are within the power of any gardener.
Determination of soil acidity using litmus test
In order to find out the pH of the soil as accurately as possible, you will need to take a few teaspoons of soil from different parts of the plot, buy a universal litmus test at the pharmacy and conduct a simple experiment.
Wrap each portion of the soil in a dense fabric, put it in a glass and fill it with distilled water in a 1: 1 ratio. After 5 minutes, take litmus paper and dip each in a separate glass for 1-2 seconds. The paper will change color, and on the accompanying acidity scale you can find out the pH and understand what measures are worth taking.
Determination of soil acidity using vinegar
No time to go for special devices? You can do with the fact that there is in every home, for example, 9% vinegar.
Determination of soil acidity using vinegar
Take the glass, put it on a dark surface. On glass pour 1 tsp. land and pour a small amount of vinegar. If abundant foam is formed, the soil is alkaline, if there is foam, but very little is neutral, and if the reaction has not happened at all, the soil is acid at the chosen place.
Ordinary beets can suggest the level of soil acidity: on sour soil, it grows with red leaves, on slightly acidic - with red veins on the leaves, and on neutral - with green leaves and red petioles.
Soil deacidification with lime
Usually, when talking about using lime in gardening, we mean fluff lime (slaked lime). But there is also lime tuff (key lime), cement dust, ground limestone (carbonic lime) and other substances. The principle of action is similar, but the norms and terms of application may vary.
No less functional, but less common in the sale of drywall - lake lime.
Any lime is a rather aggressive product, after its introduction the plants do not absorb phosphorus for some time. It is desirable to carry out soil liming in the fall, introducing a deoxidizer under the digging, so that by the spring the chemical processes in the soil come into balance. If you prefer lime-fluff, then make it in the following quantities:
- on acid soils - 0.5 kg per 1 sq. m,
- on soils of medium acidity - 0.3 kg per 1 square meter,
- on soils of weak acidity - 0.2 kg per 1 sq. m.
Were you able to get ground limestone for your purposes? Then the application rate will be different.
For sandy loams and light loams:
- on acid soils - 0.35-0.4 kg per 1 square meter,
- on soils of medium acidity - 0.25-0.3 kg per 1 square meter,
- on soils of weak acidity - 0.2 kg per 1 sq. m.
For medium and heavy loams:
- on acid soils - 0.55-0.6 kg per 1 sq. m,
- on soils of medium acidity - 0.45-0.5 kg per 1 square meter,
- on soils of weak acidity - 0.35-0.4 kg per 1 sq. m.
Soil deacidification with dolomite flour
Dolomite flour (crushed rock dolomite) is more convenient than varieties of lime. It can be made in the spring and under planting or digging the soil. In addition, it is rich in magnesium, and therefore great for light soils, where it is always lacking. Also dolomitka serves as an excellent baking powder on viscous clay soils, improving not only the composition, but also the structure of the soil.
Dolomite flour is introduced in the following proportions:
- на кислых почвах – 0,5 кг на 1 кв.м,
- на почвах средней кислотности – 0,4 кг на 1 кв.м,
- на почвах слабой кислотности – 0,3-0,4 кг на 1 кв.м.
Раскисление почвы золой
Wood ash is not only an excellent natural fertilizer, but also an effective soil deoxidizer. True, there is one nuance that does not allow to use it thoughtlessly. The composition of the ash depends on a variety of parameters (tree species, their age, place of growth, part burned, etc.). Depending on this, the content of calcium salts can vary from 30 to 60%, and therefore, the application rate will vary. In addition, it is quite difficult to incinerate such an amount of ash, because to fully deoxidize the soil, it must be applied at the rate of 1-1.5 kg per 1 sq. M.
The ash obtained from the burning of grass and weeds contains less calcium, therefore it is applied at the rate of 2.5-3 kg per 1 sq. M.
Therefore, use ash as a mineral fertilizer containing potassium, phosphorus, magnesium and trace elements, and to combat the increased acidity of the soil, choose another option.
Soil deacidification with gypsum
Gypsum, like chalk, also well deoxidizes the soil, besides it has one important advantage - acid, not water, is necessary for its dissolution in soil. Immediately after application, it reacts with acidic soil, lowers its pH to normal and stops its effect, remaining in a passive state for a long time. As soon as the soil is acidified again, the plaster "comes to life" and continues to work.
Gypsum is made from the calculation:
- on acid soils - 0.4 kg per 1 sq. m,
- on soils of medium acidity - 0.3 kg per 1 square meter,
- on soils of weak acidity - 0.1-0.2 kg per 1 sq. m.
Soil deacidification with chalk
Chalk, as well as lime, is introduced into the soil in the autumn, after having been carefully ground it. When storing chalk, wet places should be avoided so that it does not clump into lumps, and the soil is thoroughly mixed, trying to achieve uniformity.
If you plan to deoxidize the soil with chalk, follow these guidelines:
- on acid soils - 0.5-0.7 kg per 1 sq. m,
- on soils of medium acidity - 0.4 kg per 1 sq. m,
- on soils of weak acidity - 0.2-0.3 kg per 1 sq. m.
What plants love sour soil
If all the proposed options for deactivation are not available to you for some reason, you can always plant plants that love sour soil. Of course, there will not be too many vegetables on this list, but there will be enough flowers, coniferous and berries for a completely decent garden.
So, on a plot with moderately acidic soil, you can grow:
From ornamental plants, quietly related to the acidified soil, it is possible to form a full-fledged flower garden or a garden, but without fruit trees.
Now, when you know how to deoxidize the soil in the spring, things are going well on the plot, and you can grow even those cultures that previously categorically refused to take root in the ridges and in the garden.
The benefits of soil deoxidation
Soil deacidification affects the germination and yield of different vegetation crops. In fact, this process is the creation of favorable conditions for the cultivation of garden and other types of crops. Observing and adjusting this property increases the frost resistance of plants, increases the vital activity of the necessary microorganisms that influence the development of crops, increases the amount of mobile nitrogen, creates favorable conditions for certain plants, because the perception of each plant to the soil is different.
The need to increase (decrease) acidity before planting depends on a number of checks. For garden crops, a reduced acidity is needed, because the microorganisms that predominate in acidic soil do not allow them to develop, and for certain types of flowers this condition is not enough, and often the earth needs additional fertilizer.
Deacidification is performed less frequently.as it seems at first glance. The minimum period is 1 time in 3 years, but the time of application of deoxidizers depends on their type and results of the test.
Effect on plants
Such a characteristic of soil, as acidity, affects the ability of solubility, assimilation and extraction of the necessary substances of plants.
If an increase in acidity occurs, then root growth stops, conditions for plant diseases arise due to a lack of nutrients, and this helps to reduce yields or flowering.
In an acidic environment, favorable conditions for development are reduced to a minimum level or disappear altogether, while the supply of useful minerals is stopped and the plant dies.
After conducting long-term experiments, the best soil acidity range was found - pH = 6.0–7.0.
Determination of acidity
The determination of the acidic environment is not a laborious process and is not so diverse, so novice gardeners will not be misled. Despite the frequency of soil deoxidation measures, it is better to check for acidity 2 times a year (in early autumn and early spring).
Methods for determining the level of soil acidity:
- Applying the properties of litmus paper and a sample of land (100 grams) mined from a shallow depth. The ingredients are filled with clean water and compressed for a short period of time. The indicator, which determines the acidic environment, is the resulting color of the paper after the performed manipulations. Red - soil with high acidity (requires intervention), pink - medium degree, blue (sometimes green) - the best level of acidity (does not require intervention).
- Weed use. Knowledge of plants is required. The growth on the moss site indicates a high level of acidity, chamomile and fern mean average, and nettle, shepherd's purse and woodlouse mean low levels.
- Use leaves of cherry or currant, filled with hot water in the tank. The indicator, as in the first method of determining the acidity of the earth, is the color of the contents of the jar. Red color means increased acidity, blue - medium and green - minimal or none.
There are several methods for reducing the acidic level of the soil, such as:
- Liming. The most popular and effective way. The idea is to add limestone (fine grinding is recommended) to the soil. Limestone increases the development of beneficial microorganisms that reduce weed germination. This process takes place every few years. More frequent use will lead to soil overload.
- The use of dolomite (lime) flour. The soil becomes less harmful. The material is much more expensive than limestone, but the application is allowed once every 3 years. The action of flour is not favorable for all types of plants.
- Wood ash. The use of this helper is a tradition of gardening. The action is long, but the result is clearly observed. Wood ash can be replaced by materials such as marl, chalk, grain, alabaster, egg shells, cement, plaster (used).
Period of procedures
The period of application of soil deoxidation depends on the method used and the intended purpose. There are many features of deoxidizers for the seasons.
In the fall, the deoxidation process involves the use of wood ash. Since the vegetation of plants is absent in winter, the long ash performance does not damage the soil, especially since it is not recommended to combine a deoxidizer (ash or a replacement representative) with fertilizers. Autumn deoxidation creates an alkaline environment that affects the neutrality of acidity.
In the spring, liming or the use of dolomite flour is applied. The main task of deoxidation material is saturation of plant organisms with essential nutrientsI, as well as they are difficult to remove from the ground, which increases the duration of their impact. Soil deactivation in spring is also carried out with the help of chalk. In winter, this procedure should not be carried out, otherwise it will be washed out of the soil by running water.
We must not forget about the types of soils, for example, sandy and sandy, sandy, loamy and clayey. The doses applied to each variety vary. For the first recommended dose in the amount of from 3 to 6 kg, and for the second - from 6 to 10 kg per 1 hundred, but the higher the acidity level, the greater the dosing.
Plants in an acidic environment
The variety of vegetation that prefers soil with high acidity is not so great. Particularly fond of acidity are plants such as potentilla, fern, lupins, rhododendrons, heathers, hydrangea. All representatives are mostly ornamental plants. However, strongly acidified land contributes to the yield of other plants:
Determine the level of acidity
The acidity of the soil is expressed by the pH level on a scale from 1 to 14. According to this indicator, the soil can be divided into 3 types:
- slightly acidic - pH ranges from 8 to 14,
- neutral - 7,
- sour - from 1 to 6.
It is best to determine this indicator under laboratory conditions, but if you do not have such an opportunity, you can check the acidity of the soil with the help of determinants, which can be purchased in special stores, or using folk methods.
Samples for acidity need to be taken twice a year from different places: before the start of the season and upon its completion, because it can vary greatly depending on what crops you grow.
The most effective way to check the pH level, of course, is a laboratory study, but not every gardener-amateur can afford such a procedure. But the acid of the soil can be determined by spending a minimum of money, or even free of charge.
The first low-budget method - This is a test of the soil with the help of litmus, or indicator, paper. For such a test, you need to prepare a special solution: mix one part of the soil and two parts of distilled water and let it brew for about 20 minutes.
After that, the indicator should be placed in a solution: if it turns red, then the earth is acidic (the brighter the color, the higher the pH level), if the paper has not changed color, then this reaction indicates low acidity, but if it has acquired green, then the earth is neutral.
Not many people know, but the amount of acid in the soil can be checked by paying attention to what kind of weed grass grows in your area.
If you have plentifully grow horsetail, plantain, veres, sorrel, sorrel, wild mustard, sedge, cornflowers, burnt, and also if the mint planted grows quickly and turns into a weed, then all this means that the acidity level is high.
Different types of clover, convolvulus, coltsfoot, fescue, wheat grass grow well in the middle ground. If your site is located in a forested area or an area with high groundwater, marshy ground, then you have a uniquely high pH.
Very common way - This is a test using ordinary table vinegar. The procedure is very simple: take a handful of soil from your garden and drip a small amount of vinegar on it.
If small bubbles were formed, or the vinegar seemed to boil, this means that the soil is neutral or slightly acidic. If no reaction followed, then the soil is highly acidic. Another common popular method of determination is to use currant leaves. To do this, you will need about 5 leaves of currant pour 200 ml of hot water and let it brew for about 15 minutes.
After the infusion has cooled, a small amount of earth will need to be poured into it - if the water turns red, then the earth is acidic, if the water turns blue - the ground is neutral, and when the acidity is low, the decoction will become greenish.
How to deoxidize the soil
The pH level depends on how much lime is in the soil. If it is not enough, then the earth becomes acidified: in this case, the acid level must be lowered, since most crops prefer neutral or slightly acidic soil.
As a rule, it is customary to deoxidize the soil in the garden in the fall, after harvesting, or in winter, but they also do this procedure in the spring, before the summer season, and the most common means that soil is deoxidized are lime, chalk, wood ash, dolomite flour.
Lime, which you are going to make for deoxidation, must necessarily be slaked, also known as fuzz. The use of quicklime is prohibited. - This is due to the fact that it is going to lumps, and, applying it in this state, you can cause a glut of lime, which is also extremely undesirable.
Fluff can be purchased at an agricultural store or do it yourself. To do this, you will need 100 kg of lime, pour 40-50 liters of water and mix.
Then, when the moisture is absorbed, and the lime dries, it must be well shaken to obtain a homogeneous powder mass - after that it can be used for fertilizer.
Lime should be used on fertile and nutritious, clay and loamy lands with a sufficient amount of magnesium.
Pusenka very quickly begins to act, which means that if you carried out fertilizer in the spring, it is best to grow fast-growing crops on this site - tomatoes, cucumbers, zucchini, etc. The permissible rate of lime is from 0.6 to 0.7 kg per 1 m²: exceeding this rate may make it harder for crops to absorb phosphorus and potassium, and other elements will not dissolve in the soil.
Fertilizer should be applied evenly, and then carefully dig up the area. If you fertilize in the fall, then digging up is not necessary, but still desirable. With fertilizer in winter, the powder is simply scattered on the surface.
The use of chalk is much more effective than lime, because it contains the calcium necessary for plants. As in the case of fluff, only chalk in the form of powder without lumps is suitable for use, it is not necessary to extinguish it.
For clay and loamy soils, a permissible rate of 0.2–0.6 kg per 1 m² is considered: this amount is enough not to fertilize the plot for about 3 years. For sandy and sandy areas the norm is 0.1-0.2 kg of chalk per 1 m².
Chalking the ground with chalk can be both in autumn and spring, evenly scattering the powder and digging the garden to a depth of about 25 cm. It is not recommended to carry out this procedure in the winter, because the chalk is easily washed away with melt water.
The use of wood ash - a very common, but not the best way, because the ash does not compensate for the lack of calcium, which is very necessary in such vegetable crops as peppers, tomatoes, potatoes.
Due to the lack of calcium in plants, rot of stems, leaves and fruits develop. Ash is best suited as a complex fertilizer, because to use it as the main means of liming, you need a huge amount of it.
The norm for deoxidation is 0.6-0.7 kg per 1 m², which is approximately one three-liter jar. For the second procedure, which is carried out the following year, the norm is 0.2-0.3 kg per 1 m².
should be used mainly on light sandy and sandy soils, as they, as a rule, do not have enough magnesium, and the flour restores it.
It is best used for liming areas where potatoes, fruit bushes and other crops that grow slowly are grown. The norm of dolomite flour for sour soil is 0.5-0.6 kg per 1 m². The fertilizer procedure is no different from lime fertilizer.
In addition to the above methods, it is possible to deoxidize a plot in the spring with the help of plants. The most common plant of this type is phacelia. After planting such a perennial plant, the acidity level is significantly reduced.
But also this perennial is a good honey plant and has a beautiful appearance. A year after planting phacelia, its stems are cut and spread over the soil surface, which contributes to a decrease in the level of acidity.
Also, to lower the acid level, plants such as mustard, yellow and white tributaries can be planted, hornbeam, elm, birch, alder, pine can be planted - they can reduce acidity in a radius of about 10 m around them and at a depth of about half a meter.
Is it always necessary to deoxidize?
Lime site is not always necessary. You can not do this procedure or do it very rarely - in cases if you grow a lot of potatoes, sorrel, pumpkin, tomatoes, radishes, turnips, sunflower, spinach, peas, beans and other legumes on your territory, because these crops can calmly grow with high levels of acidity.
Acidic soil has a negative effect on most plants, because it develops a huge number of pathogenic bacteria, and in this regard, many have a question: how to deoxidize it?
For this, the best option would be to use lime, chalk and dolomite flour. But it is very important to observe the dosage so that the earth does not become alkaline and does not harm your future harvest.
Determine the acidity of the soil
Before proceeding with deoxidation, you need to make sure that the soil in the area is acidic and not alkaline. To do this, use a special device pH-meter or litmus paper. But for most gardeners they are not available. Therefore, to determine the level of acidity, you can use the so-called folk methods.
The simplest of them is brewing a mixture of cherry and currant leaves. To do this, put several leaves of these crops in a small container. Затем они заливаются кипящей водой. После того, как отвар немного остынет, в него помещается небольшой комочек почвы с участка. Если отвар окрасится в красный цвет - почва на участке, однозначно, кислая, синий цвет свидетельствует о нейтральной реакции.
To determine the level of acidity will help plants and indicators. If the soil is acidic, the following herbs grow on it in large quantities: horse sorrel, dandelion, horsetail, plantain.
Application of chalk
Chalk - another substance of natural origin, which is used for deoxidation of garden soil. It effectively reduces the increased acidity, while acting very gently. Requires annual submission.
Chalk can be used in the spring. To do this, approximately one month before the planned date of landing, it is evenly scattered over the surface of the site. Then proceed to digging. You can add chalk in early spring over the snow. The melt waters will carry the grains of chalk into the soil.
Attention! Chalk needs to be brought in optimum dosages. If it is too frequent and abundant, it has the ability to accumulate in the soil, thereby causing salinization.
Should I use ash?
Ash can also be used as a deoxidizing agent. However, this is not the best and most effective option. Its use is justified on soils requiring weak deoxidation. To more or less strongly affect the level of acidity, you will need to bring a lot of ash. And this is already fraught with an excess of trace elements contained in it. Therefore, ash - it is rather feeding, than an effective deoxidizer.
If the need to use ash is still there, then it is best to use birch wood. It contains the largest amount of potassium and phosphorus. Its application rate is about 10 kg per square meter.
Green manure plants
Adherents of organic farming can also use green manure plants to deoxidize the soil. It does not have to count the application rate and worry about an excess calcium. Subject to proper crop rotation, it will be possible to do without the use of limestone, dolomite or other mineral fertilizers.
For example, good results are obtained by sowing phacelia. This plant not only reduces excess acidity, but is also an excellent honey plant. Throughout the summer, it will attract a large number of insect pollinators to the nearby beds.
To plant phacelia proceed in the spring. During the entire growing season, it will have a favorable effect on the soil and by the autumn the acidity of the soil will significantly decrease. Before the onset of frosts, planting phacelia is mown and buried in the soil.
In addition to phacelia, other siderats can be used to reduce acidity: white mustard, rye, sweet clover, alfalfa.
How often should deoxidation be carried out?
The frequency of deoxidizing measures depends on many factors. The first and most important of them is the level of acidity. On weakly acidic soils, the main deoxidation is carried out once in 5 or even 8 years. Strongly acidic soil will need to be processed 1 time in 3 - 4 years.
Also, besides the basic deoxidation, it will be necessary to carry out a whole range of works on maintaining neutral acidity every year. For example, you can limit the introduction of a small amount of dolomite before landing.
Now on sale you can find special mineral complexes for regulating the level of soil pH. In addition, they are enriched with various microelements, so in most cases they can be used as a top dressing.
All of the above methods of soil deoxidation in the garden can be combined and alternate with each other. For example, from the spring under a shallow digging make dolomite flour and manure. After that, additionally shed a solution of the biological preparation Baikal-EM1. It contains special soil bacteria accelerating decomposition processes. In 2 - 3 weeks after this treatment, it will be possible to start planting siderats.
The effect of deoxidation on the application of basic fertilizers
To prevent deoxidation from having a negative effect on the number of batteries, it should be carried out in compliance with the norms of consumption and in the recommended time frame. With an excess of lime in the soil, most elements such as boron, iron, manganese and potassium will turn into poorly digestible compounds for plants. After that, cultures begin to suffer from their lack.
The same is observed when sharing deoxidizers with phosphate and nitrogen fertilizers. To prevent these undesirable consequences, deoxidation is carried out in the autumn, and additional feeding is done in the spring. In this case, the work of some does not interfere with the action of others.
In general, after the main deoxidation, the first 2 years to make mineral complexes is not recommended. If necessary, you can limit foliar dressing on a sheet or use organic.
Dilute the soil in the garden is not so difficult as it seems at first glance. The main thing is to comply with the necessary rules and regulations. Also, before starting work, you should accurately determine the level of acidity. An excess of calcium is no less harmful than its deficiency.