Hortense broadleaf got its name in honor of the princess, who was the sister of the Prince of the Roman Empire. Scientists call this plant hydrangia, which is translated from the Greek as "a vessel of water", which is quite logical, because it loves moisture. In general, hydrangeas are grown by bushes from approximately one to three meters, but in nature there are small trees or vines.
They bloom very long, almost three seasons (from spring to autumn). Have spherical inflorescences. The most common types are:
- Large leaf
- Curly Liana (stalked)
Usually the large-flowered hydrangea has a white color, but large hydrangea can be of different colors, including blue, pink, blue, etc. Red hydrangea is considered the most beautiful and richer. The size and shape of this plant is directly dependent on climatic conditions. The first thermophilic varieties appeared in Japan, and they were grown on the ground, and in Russia they were mostly kept at home. There are such main varieties of hydrangea:
- Blushing bride (from a series of varieties of Endless Summer) grows a bush up to 1.5 meters and a width. It blooms for a long time - from June to October. The buds in her in the form of semi-double blossoms, which eventually turn pink. Suitable for cutting due to its flat branches.
- Avantgarde (from the Magical series) - bush, reaching a height of 1-1.2 m, and the crown may be 80-100 cm in diameter. Its flowers first turn green and then change in color. Also great for pruning.
- Blue heaven (from a series of varieties Forever & Ever) - a large-shrub becomes 0.9-1.2 m in height and 60-90 cm in diameter. Throws inflorescences in the warmest months of summer from July to the beginning of autumn. The bud has a spherical shape in diameter up to 30 cm. The coloring can be varied, including pink, lilac or blue.
Fifteen years ago, there were winter-hardy varieties of large-leaved hydrangea, which are very popular among the inhabitants of Russia. Here are some varieties of them:
- Early Sensation - translated as early sensation.
- Red Sensation - literally red sensation.
- Yu-and-Mi (Symphony, Tugheze, Romance, Expreshn).
- Expression - delicate and pink hydrangea.
- Hovaria Hanabi Rose is a light pink plant with mahr.
- Peppermint - pink flowers with white rims.
- You & Me Love are pink flowers with a chameleon effect, i.e. they change color.
There are also among her remontant varieties that can bloom incessantly. Winter-hardy varieties have great advantages, some of them can withstand up to minus 20 C, so they require less care. Very common varieties of red hydrangea, because its color is more vivid and rich. These can be Alpengluch, Red Baron, Hod Red, etc. Large-leaved hydrangea, depending on the soil composition, which affects its growth can vary in color. For example, when the soil is slightly alkaline, it will be pink, and in a more alkaline environment, it can become blue or blue.
Peculiarities of large-leaved hydrangea, planting and caring for it
Planting and caring for this plant requires careful, it has a number of some features. They should be planted in spring, but it can be done in the fall until September 15. For planting you need to choose a place, it is best to take a plot with a small shadow, and where less wind blows. It will be optimal if the rays of the sun fall on it in the morning and in the evening. It can not be planted near trees that absorb moisture. Its roots are afraid of damage, so there is no need to plant plants with a large root system next to them that will disturb them.
When you decide on a landing site, it is necessary to prepare a landing pit, the size of which depends on the hydrangea rhizome. Nevertheless, the pit should be very spacious, at least 50x50 cm and also 50 cm deep. It is necessary to fertilize the plant, for which a special soil mixture consisting of top peat, fallen needles, light earth and humus should be prepared (2: 1: 2: 1). If the soil is clay, then in order to avoid compressed land and constant drought, drainage should be used.
The most important is that the hydrangea need to plant in acidic soil. Before planting, it is advisable to soak the hydrangea in the water, and then select the soil and straighten the roots. Seedlings put in a hole and gently sprinkle the roots with prepared fertilizer. The root collar does not need to be deeply buried; it will give young shoulder straps. After the planting itself, it is necessary to water the plant well. To maintain an acidic environment and to properly care for it, it is best to pour a special mixture of earth around it, ground with peat, then sawdust and needles are poured. All these products will retain moisture and promote acidic reactions.
Top dressing and fertilizer of hydrangea
Soil acidity is important for saturation of the base color of the hydrangea; therefore, it can be watered every two weeks with the addition of alum mixture. It is also possible to carry out experiments with color change, for example, to apply fertilizer only from a certain side. Never use ashes for hydrangea fertilizerbecause it can harm the plant. The best thing feed a weak cow solution.
For feeding you need to perform several steps. In the early spring to form a very fast shoulder straps. In early June, it is necessary to create an effective set of buds. In July, feeding is necessary to make the flowering time longer, especially for remontant varieties. At first, young hydrangeas should be watered with weak potassium permanganate, which protects it from the formation of rot. By autumn, hydrangea is best treated with a special Bordeaux mixture to prevent fungal diseases.
Methods of reproduction of hydrangeas
There are three main ways in which you can multiply the hydrangea:
- In the spring you can split bushand then formed new bushes to place in the fossa.
- In the beginning of May make a slice from the new bush and close, hiding it in the ground, using a bracket. The pit should be 15 cm. It is possible to incise the skin at the point of contact in order to quickly start the initial process of forming the spine. Layers also need to grow in a humid environment, which can be planted in the spring, otsadiv them from the main bush.
- Cuttings produced in early summer. In the morning it is necessary to cut shoulder straps with a length of ten centimeters. Make the lower cut obliquely, with the need to cut the leaves, cut from the top to the middle. Put the flower at home in a glass with a substrate that is special for root growth. This operation can be performed in special cuttings.
Preparing hydrangeas for winter
It so happened that the hydrangea is not a winter-hardy type of plant, so it is imperative that it be covered for the winter. Shelter should be made in advance, somewhere in the very beginning of November, when small frosts occur. You can do this in two ways:
- A bush is filled up with a special peat, forming a good slide, and around it there are good leaves or sawdust, etc. Then all the branches are pressed to the ground, securing them with arcs or clips. Above must be closed with agrofiber and filled with compost. To protect from precipitation, you can put a sheet of slate or roofing material on the whole structure.
- This option is needed when the branches of hydrangeas are very high and strong, because they are very important not to break. They are knitted together and then wrapped in a double or triple layer of agrofibre. The bush is enclosed with a skeleton and dry needles or leaves are being poured inside it, etc. You can also cover with top with ruberoid, slate or film.
In the spring, it is recommended to open the hydrangea slowly, consistently, without revealing immediately to the end, as the frosts may repeat or return. To properly care for this plant and give it an even better look, you need to prune it. It also makes it possible to free the hydrangea from harmful flowers or branches. For this, it is advisable to follow these recommendations:
- At the beginning of summer, it is possible to cut a third part of the flowers that have not blossomed, leaving 5–20 cm of branch from the ground level and so that there is one bud on it to grow.
- Before frosts in autumn, large branches are shortened so that they can be covered with mulch, etc.
- In the spring (April or May), you can cut the dried branches.
Appearance and features
The homeland of the perennial plant is East Asia: Japan and China. Other names among professionals are hydrangia and macrofile. Hortense broadleaf also called garden.
The height of the shrub forms ranges from 0.4 to 1.5 meters. Stems erect, not fruiting. Wide large leaves, inflorescences (15-25 centimeters in diameter) of various colors - this is the appearance of the hydrangea. Flowering is observed from July to September-October.
Big-leaf beauty gives flowers on the shoots of last year, woody only in spring, this explains the freezing during wintering. Buds for flowers are laid in the fall and often die in the cold. Older tree stalks may not survive the cold, so it is important to carefully cover the thermophilic plant.
It grows on different soils, changing the color of flowers from white, pink to dark red and blue. To change the color, they resort to various tricks: they pour it with special dyes, with alum and vitriol, bury rusty nails under the bush, and make peat.
What are the varieties
In central Russia, mainly winter-hardy types of garden hydrangia are grown. Remarkably, several dozen varieties have taken root.
Of greater interest are the remontant varieties, blooming both on last year's and fresh shoots. Thanks to the selection of these varieties, large-leaved hydrangea received a new life.
The height of the shrub to 1.5 meters. The colors of this variety are different (depending on the acidity of the soil) - from white to intense lilac. You can grow at home. The variety originates from a broadleaf species Endless Summer. Nikko Blue develops quickly, expanding, releases young shoots every year.
Inflorescences attractive, large, up to 30 centimeters in diameter. Remontrance is that the flowers bloom on the overwintered and flowing stems. Blooming ball appears lightweight, weightless. Have a constant blue color will allow a weak acidity of the soil, and for the intensity of the color should be made under the bush aluminum sulphate in dissolved form.
An erect shrub is covered with oval leaves and large spherical inflorescences (up to 25 centimeters in coverage). Pink flowers with burgundy splashes. Refers to a changeable mind, the variety is able to change color. It blooms in July and August. It requires shelter, very thermophilic variety, does not like alkaline soils.
The bush on the street grows up to 1.8 meters in height. Burgundy flower, framed in white color, has a coverage of 20 centimeters. He loves acidic soil, changes color, under the conditions created specially. A lover of penumbra and southern parts of the garden.
The undersized (up to 1 meter) shrub of this variety has white flowers. Leaves painted interesting: green with white edging. The acidity of the soil should be reduced, does not like liming. Looks beautiful in group compositions.
Red, thick pink flowers. Bush 100-125 centimeters. Decorative increases on sour soil. It blooms in early and mid summer.
Shoots of this variety grow up to one and a half meters high. Bright red flowers are collected in spherical inflorescences. Flowering - July and August.
Expensive variety of large-leaved hydrangea. Inflorescences (25-30 centimeters) consist of small lace flowers in the center, becoming larger at the edge. The repair plant blooms for a long time: first on last year's shoots, then on young ones. The shrub needs support because of its height (1.5 meters) and to support peduncles.
Winter-resistant, continuous flowering variety (on old and new shoots). Terry flowers look like water lilies. The colors are pink, blue, purple, changing with the reaction of the soil environment. The bush is 1 meter high and about the same in coverage. At the beginning of flowering in the center there is a creamy-yellowish color, it gives the effect of two-color.
"Red sensation" - this hydrangea is continuously (twice) blooming. First, on last year's stalk, then on a fresh shoot. Height 70-80 centimeters, the same width. The color is always red, only changing the intensity. In the morning the sun, after lunch - partial shade: ideal conditions for this variety.
Proper planting, soil preparation
The plant is planted singly or in groups. In the second case, the distance between the seedlings is left at least 1 meter. Macrofile prefers acidic, drained soil. It grows well in sunny areas, with shading at the height of the day.
Planting is carried out in early spring so that good roots will appear over the summer, or in the fall. Dig a hole the size of 30 by 30 centimeters (and a depth of 30 cm.), Add humus, sand and peat. Drain the hydrangea and water carefully. Finish work by mulching the tree part with a mixture of peat and fertile soil.
Important! The root collar is not buried, leaving it at ground level. Roots can be trimmed slightly. Shorten when planting and annual shoots (3 buds).
Watering and feeding
Do not allow drying of the plant, the formation of crusts under it. Regularly watered while simultaneously feeding the bush.
In the spring, special fertilizers containing nitrogen and trace elements are added to hydrangea, which also favor the change in color of the flower. Moderate acidification of the soil is carried out if you need a blue color, and alkalization is necessary to obtain a pink tint.
In the summer they fertilize with phosphoric and potash mixtures, strengthening the plant for winter.
Young landings are not subjected to formative pruning for three years. Get rid of only dried branches. Their presence is determined by scraping a small area with the nail - the green color indicates that the stem is not dead, and the brown one is withered.
Large-leaved varieties need very careful pruning. In order not to harm the buds, which are laid in the autumn, it is impossible to shorten the lignified stems in the spring (spring pruning in adult bushes is carried out by reducing the ends of the shoots by 1-2 buds).
Pruning of macrophiles is carried out to rejuvenate, stimulate growth and clearance of the bush. In summer, during flowering, you can remove a third of non-flowering stems, to a height of up to 20 centimeters from the ground (leaving the lower bud). They will bloom next year.
Shelter for the winter
- Before the onset of frost (before November), the center of the bush is covered with peat or spud,
- Bend the branches gently to the ground, not subjecting to pruning, and the leaves need to be removed so as not to rot,
- If you get a break, then under the branches lay a wooden box or log,
- Cover everything with a spanbond or other nonwoven covering material,
- From above pour enough fallen leaves and light grass,
- The “construction” is completed with a film or roofing felt, giving stability so as not to blow away blizzards.
In the spring, the entire shelter is dismantled gradually, completely getting rid of it when the frost passes.
How to multiply
Breeding methods are as follows:
- Divide the bush. In the spring or in the autumn, dig a plant, divide into parts (so that there are buds on each). Long roots can be shortened. Seated in the prepared wells.
- Rooting using bent offsets. At the very beginning of May, bend a flexible branch (several), fixing it in the near recess. Cut off the leaves, scrape the bark and cover with earth. Water during the summer, check. By the fall, the root system will develop the cuttings, and it will be possible to cut the stem from the mother bush. The following spring, the deposition of this new bush.
- Propagated by cuttings. In early summer, several cuttings are cut from annual shoots, 10 centimeters long. Down the growth slice to make a diagonal. The upper leaves on the stem are cut to the middle, the lower ones are removed. Stimulate the workpiece in a special solution and plant in the ground in the greenhouse or pot. A month later, the roots will grow, they need to be transplanted into separate pots, and for the winter right in the pot prikopat in the garden. You can leave at home until spring.
Botanical features of large-leaved hydrangea
Large-leaved hydrangeaor garden (Hydrangea macrophylla) - highly decorative and fast-growing type of hydrangeas originally from Japan and China. The maximum height in a region with harsh winters is limited to 1-2 m. In this species, erect shoots, ovate, large, bright green leaves and flat, wide cusps of inflorescences up to 15 cm in diameter and 10 cm in height, consisting of fruitful purple or blue pink, with uneven bright strokes, reaching up to 3.5 cm in diameter, fruitless flowers.
Hydrangea inflorescences, which bloom starts in July, retain a high decorative effect until the next spring: they dry up, but still remain very attractive.
Large-leaved hydrangeas, fashion for which came to us from the West, are so captivating in tubs and pots, so unique in their beauty of their almost spherical dense inflorescences and bright foliage - the bushes are still whimsical and unsuitable for the harsh climate. But this does not prevent them from growing even in regions with severe winters.
And although these beauties need special care and protection for the winter, their beauty, nevertheless, has no equal. It doesn’t matter whether you decided to transplant potted hydrangea into the garden or originally purchased a garden plant - the principles of growing and caring for shrubs will still be the same. The main difficulty in growing large-leaved hydrangeas is related to the need to preserve last year's shoots, on which this type of hydrangea blooms, during a long and harsh winter, not only without freezing, but also without drying out.
Criteria for choosing a hydrangea garden, or large-leaved
The right choice of variety is a key success factor in growing large-leaved hydrangeas. This plant has more winter-hardy and less hardy varieties that can only winter indoors. The stated frost resistance of this type of hydrangea - up to -18 ° C, is characteristic only for varieties adapted to the harsh climate and mainly - modern.
Choosing hydrangeas, you should give preference to plants not by the degree of their decorativeness, but by the factor of adaptation to your climate - by plants of local garden centers and nurseries. Imported large-leaved hydrangeas are more likely to cause frustration.
Be sure to check if the variety has been tested in your area or whether it is grown in a climate similar to yours. When choosing a variety, it is worth paying attention to another very important factor: remontant or ordinary cultivar.
Remontant varieties to which the majority of modern macrophilous plants belong - hydrangeas, which can boast not only a variety of colors, but also the ability to bloom both on last year's and on young shoots. Such hydrangeas bloom guaranteed: even if something does not succeed or winter protection is not enough, young twigs will still give at least a few inflorescences.
Hydrangea macrophilous is not grown as other types of hydrangeas, including tree and paniculata. If other species have much more similar than excellent, in the requirements for care and selection of conditions, then large-leaved hydrangea requires a special approach to itself.
Large-leaved hydrangeas should be bought only in containers or pots: seedlings with an open root system do not get accustomed and you should not even experiment with them in regions with severe winters (injuries received by the root system will not allow the plant to fully adapt and increase the root system sufficient for to withstand the winter even with shelter).
Hydrangea macrophylla (Hydrangea macrophylla). © MJJR
Conditions required for large-leaved hydrangea
Despite the status of shade-tolerant shrubs inherent in all, without exception, hydrangeas, macrophiles are not among those. Even in the southern regions with mild winters this plant can be planted only in partial shade and not in the shade, and in regions with severe winters the plants should be attributed to light-loving.
But picking a place for large-leaved hydrangea, you should not rush to plant it on hot sunny areas, protecting it from midday and dining rays. So that the large-leaved hydrangea does not suffer from the heat and overheating of the roots, the plants are planted in a place where they will be illuminated not by the day, but by the morning or evening sun (but not less than 6 hours a day). Ordinary solar sites will lead to the fact that the bushes in the summer will wilt and wither daily leaves and buds, the latter may not recover even at night.
Choosing a place, it is necessary to take into account the location in relation to trees and shrubs. Despite the fact that in most landscape projects, hydrangeas can be seen under the trees, planting macrophills in such a company is still not the best idea. Hydrangea is moisture-loving and under trees can suffer from a lack of moisture, which the giants will pull out of the ground.
Hydrangea macrophylla (Hydrangea macrophylla). © Marian St.Clair
Planting large-leaved hydrangeas
Planting a macrophill requires great care and careful preparation. The main attention should be paid to the preparation of the site and the dredger, which will be filled with a planting pit.
The optimal time for planting in regions with severe winters (including in the middle lane) is spring. Hydrangea is planted as soon as the weather permits, the soil not only thaws, but warms up, and the threat of severe frosts will pass.
For large-leaved hydrangea, the recommended landing distance is about 1 m.
Hydrangea is not filled up with just the soil taken out when digging a hole, but a special ground mixture is prepared in which the roots adapt and germinate more quickly. Peat, humus, and coniferous soil are added to garden soil in equal shares, preparing a loose and super nutritional mixture.
The garden soil removed from the pit, in turn, can be replaced with a mixture in equal shares of turf, leaf soil and sand. But the key point is the determination of soil acidity, which, in turn, will ensure the color of the inflorescences. If you want to grow those same blue, blue or purple hydrangeas (you can get them only from varieties with pink or red color, but not from white-colored hydrangeas), then you need to prepare in advance such a soil that will provide the original high acidity.
For hydrangeas with blue colors, the pH should be between 5.0 and 5.5. For hydrangeas with white, pink and red buds, the allowable value is from 6.0 to 6.2 (in acidic soil, the color of non-white varieties will change to lilac or blue).
In any case, large-leaved hydrangeas should not be planted into the soil with a lime reaction (the maximum permissible pH value is 6.4). If you want to get blue or lilac stains, then aluminum sulphate should be added to the soil. At the same time, if the soil is changed specifically to produce blue hydrangeas, you need to remember that such an additive is only the first step. In the future, save the colors will be possible only with proper watering and fertilizer. In addition to the acidifying additive, a full portion of complex mineral fertilizers is also introduced into the soil. Today, the addition of hydrogel has become fashionable, which allows you to more effectively retain moisture.
The dimensions of the landing pit should correspond to the size of the large-leaved hydrangea root clod: about 35 cm in depth and width for small bushes in small containers and half-meter holes for larger specimens. Preparation of the landing pit will also require additional tweaks. To avoid the risk of water stagnation even on ordinary clay soils, improving water and air permeability, creating an optimal environment, a drainage layer (clay or pebbles, but not rubble) should be laid at the bottom of the planting pits.
Before planting, the upper free layer of the substrate is carefully removed from the container (it is usually quite polluted), and the plant is watered abundantly at least several hours later. Taking out the hydrangea, you need to be very careful and try not to destroy the earth bed. In a tight container or pot around the perimeter of the earthy coma, as a rule, strong young roots curl, as if braiding a substrate. They need to carefully, without hurting the small roots, straighten, straighten.
At the bottom of the fossa poured a thin layer of soil and create a small mound. Set on it hydrangea, straightening long roots. Then the seedling is carefully poured with the prepared soil mixture, carefully tamping the soil and gently compacting it around the root ball. When planting, care must be taken to ensure that the level of root penetration does not change.
Planting of large-leaved hydrangea is completed with abundant watering and mulching: the trunk circle is covered with a layer of peat or a mixture of peat and compost 7 to 10 cm high.
Planting hydrangea large-leaved
Humidity and watering requirements
Large-leaved hydrangeas, like any other type of this shrub, did not accidentally receive the name hydrangei. But if some types of hydrangeas are satisfied only with watering during droughts, then the large-leaved beauty needs a more careful approach. For this hydrangea, the soil in the circle should be kept constantly wet.
Since it is possible to achieve uniform humidity only with system irrigation, hydrangea macrophiles are watered regularly (at least once a month), teaching procedures in drought and heat (the optimal strategy is 1 watering per week). For each bush hydrangeas use 20-25 liters of water, deeply soaking the soil under the plant. Hydrangeas are watered at the root, so that both the garden soil and the clod of earth that they have kept on planting soak up.
Watering need shrubs, not only in spring and summer, but in the fall. Lack of moisture during the preparation for the winter can cause severe damage to the plant. But excessive humidity in the fall is very dangerous. If the weather is rainy and there is a lot of precipitation, then large-leaved hydrangea is protected from getting wet, because under cover it should go away with low soil moisture and dried crown.
You can simplify the irrigation process by taking care of mulching: it will allow you to more effectively retain moisture and protect the root system from overheating. For mulching garden hydrangeas, materials that play the role of an acidifying additive — coniferous litter, coniferous soil, or pine bark. Mulch update 2-3 times per season.
Characteristics of water for irrigation of hydrangeas are of great importance. For blue and lilac hydrangeas, watering can be done only with soft or acidified water, the pH value of which does not exceed 5.5. But also for any other hydrangeas, it is preferable to use soft or rain, warm, defended water.
For large-leaved hydrangeas, you can install a drip irrigation system, effectively directing water to the roots and maintaining a stable soil moisture.
Watering a large-leaved hydrangea
Pruning and formation of large-leaved hydrangea
As is the case with most flowering shrubs, garden hydrangeas should not be pruned immediately and start these regular procedures from the very first year. In the first three years, the shrub builds up the root system, and while the process of rooting lasts, you should not expect luxuriant flowering, for its stimulation there is no need to carry out regular pruning procedures. The only thing that will need bushes - sanitary pruning or cleaning, during which dry and damaged shoots are removed.
Only after three years they begin to carry out regular procedures. Hydrangea inflorescences can be removed both in autumn and spring, but it is better to leave them for the winter, as well as the upper leaves, for optimal protection of the buds. Pruning on remontant and ordinary, blooming only on the shoots of the previous year, hydrangeas, is different:
- In ordinary varieties pruning is carried out in early spring, after removing the shelter, combining sanitary pruning with the removal of last year's inflorescences to the first living bud on the branches (if the inflorescences were not removed in the autumn).
- In remontant hydrangeas, pruning is carried out to the second or third bud on all shoots, stimulating the development of several lateral peduncles and increasing the number of inflorescences.
On old bushes of large-leaved hydrangea for rejuvenation, a partial cutting is carried out in the spring: remove 2-3 oldest shoots (but not more than a quarter of all branches), in place of which new replacement branches will gradually grow. Cardinal rejuvenation will not only make you wait for a new bloom for several years, but also increase the risk of losing hydrangea. It is better to rejuvenate the plant gradually, after several years removing the oldest shoots.
Pruning of large-leaved hydrangea
Feed and acidification for hydrophobic macrophilia
When choosing a type of fertilizer for feeding, you should consider the desired color of large-leaved hydrangeas. For blue and lilac hydrangeas, you can only use fertilizers with low phosphorus content, an excess of which even a normal amount can prevent discoloration. For intensive and pure red and pink hydrangeas, on the contrary, choose fertilizers with a high content of phosphorus.
For hydrangeas, it is better to use special fertilizers, which are in the product lines of all popular manufacturers of top dressing for garden plants. Fertilizers will also be suitable for other plants that love acidic soil - rhododendrons, heathers, etc. But you can use complex universal fertilizer, and nitrogen, potash and phosphate fertilizers separately, mixing them yourself.
The main advantage of special fertilizers for hydrangeas is the correct ratio not only of the main elements, but of trace elements that fully meet the characteristics of the shrub.
If you mix fertilizers yourself, rather than using ready-made preparations, for blue hydrangeas, mix 25 g of nitrogen fertilizer with 5 g of phosphate and 30 g of potash per 1 feed, and for pink and red - 10 g of nitrogen with 40 g of phosphoric and 10 g of potash .
For large-leaved hydrangeas, three supplements are usually applied:
- Spring, which is introduced at the very beginning of the growth of large-leaved hydrangea and containing all three trace elements (can be replaced with organic dressing or combined with both supplements).
- Two summer feedings (in June for budding and a few weeks after the start of flowering), which can be carried out both with special fertilizers for hydrangeas, and exclusively with potash-phosphate fertilizers, which improve the maturation of the shoots and preparation for winter.
For all hydrangeas, from which they want to achieve blue, blue or purple flowering, in addition to the usual fertilizing, acidification procedures are carried out, watering the plant with special fertilizers. During the entire active season with a frequency of 1 every 7-14 days, the plant is watered with aluminum sulphate, or rather with an aqueous solution of aluminum sulphate in the ratio of 1 tablespoon of the drug to 1 liter of water.
Iron or aluminum alum is also used (8-10 crystals per 2 liters of water per plant). For hydrangeas, who want to get a bright pink or red color, when you change the color and signs of soil overdose it is better to reverse the procedure in time - alkalinization, bringing a handful of ash or dolomite flour into the soil.
Aluminum sulphate for acidification of the soil and dyeing of large-leaved hydrangea flowers. © Hugh Conlon
Wintering of large-leaved hydrangea
The easiest way to protect low-resistant large-leaved hydrangeas for the winter is to dig and carry them into pots and containers while either in a cool room with a tub or on a window sill in a room with at least 2 months of full shading.
However, the constant digging and planting will not allow the plant to increase the normal root system, and the absence of a full-fledged resting phase will still affect flowering, and the risk of infection with diseases and pests will increase. If you want to keep the hydrangea macrophilia indoors in the winter, it is best to grow it initially as an indoor or garden container plant, the care of which is somewhat different from the general rules.
For successful wintering in the soil, any macrophill hydrangea without exception needs to be protected and sheltered, even the newest varieties with enhanced resistance or remontant varieties that bloom more luxuriantly due to the ability to produce inflorescences on young sprigs. After all, even the best hydrangeas, winter hardiness is limited to only 18 degrees of frost. The shelter of garden hydrangeas is often compared to the shelter of roses, and they really have a lot in common.
The classic method of protection for large-leaved hydrangea for the winter involves the creation of several layers of shelter:
- in mid-September, leaves are removed from the bushes of large-leaved hydrangea to improve lignification, and up to half of the shoots are removed before the first frost (if autumn is rainy, then a frame is additionally erected over the plant to protect against waterlogging)
- in late October or early November (if autumn is cold and the first frost is observed earlier, then in mid-October), hydrangea shrub with peat using about 1 bucket per plant,
- when the temperature drops dramatically, a lapnik or plank is laid on the soil, the shoots of the plant are tilted and pinned,
- the bush is covered with a thick layer of nonwoven materials
- above the bushes fall asleep dry leaves
- Leaves are covered with non-wetting protective materials (roofing material or film).
Each stage of the shelter is created in a few days, completely closing the hydrangeas only with the onset of stable frosts: vypryvanie threatens the bush no less than freezing. Holes in the shelter are left to severe frosts, with the possibility of opening them during periods of thaw.
Hilling of a large-leaved hydrangea for the winter. © Kathy Purdy
There are other options for shelter of large-leaved hydrangea:
- foliage bushes of large-leaved hydrangea are bent to the ground, covered with leaves or covered with spruce leaves, and covered with boxes or wooden boxes on top,
- after hilling around the bushes, spruce branches are laid out or wooden flooring is set, the shoots are pinned and covered with large-leaved hydrangea bushes with lapnik or dry leaves, covering with nonwoven materials from above, the last layer of shelter is made of peat or sawdust covered with waterproof materials
Shelter removal is carried out gradually, layer by layer with a difference of 2 to 3 days to 1 week. Начинают снимать укрытие в апреле, а заканчивают только после того, как полностью исчезнет угроза весенних приморозков.
Борьба с вредителями и заболеваниями крупнолистной гортензии
Крупнолистные гортензии сложно назвать самыми стойкими и выносливыми. Этот вид гортензий часто страдает:
- от хлороза, который встречается на щелочной почве и при поливе жесткой водой, чаще всего, проявляется в пожелтении листьев (бороться можно подкислением почвы),
- от ложной мучнистой росы, проявляющейся в маслянисто-желтеющих пятнах (бороться лучше медьсодержащими препаратами и фунгицидами),
- from rust (the main method of struggle - spraying of copper sulphate),
- from septoria (fungicides, burgundy and bordeaux),
- from spider mites, which, when drought and low humidity easily bind all shoots (requires the use of insecticides),
- from mice and other rodents who are attracted by a warm winter shelter (it is better to set traps in advance or arrange appropriate means).
In the first year after planting, any large-leaved hydrangea should preferably be poured with a weak solution of a complex action fungicide to protect against rot and disease (a weak solution of potassium permanganate can also be used).
Hydrangea macrophylla (Hydrangea macrophylla)
In autumn, as part of the winterization procedures for large-leaved hydrangeas, it is better to carry out and prophylactic spraying with Bordeaux mixture, which will improve the safety of the branches, reduce the risk of podprevaniya and prevent fungal diseases.
The large-leaved hydrangea (macrophile) has long adorned the ornamental gardens of Asia and America, delighting the eyes of visitors with bright inflorescences of pink, lilac, blue and white colors. In Europe, the same shrub began to grow relatively recently.
His homeland is Japan, but the triumphant march across all countries began in France, where the most popular varieties were bred. The second name of a moisture-loving plant is hydrangea, which in Greek means “vessel with water”.
It is important to know. The large-leaved hydrangea looks like a spherical bush, grows in favorable conditions up to 3 m. In the central part of Russia, due to the cold climate, the perennial bush grows only up to 1 m in height.
Macrofile is thermophilic, less frost-resistant than petioled varieties of hydrangea. Here are its brief specifications:
- stems - bare, strong, grayish, erect, slightly prostrate,
- leaves are oval, wide, bright green in spring and summer, by the autumn - with a reddish tint, pointed at the ends,
- inflorescences - round, large, gathered in an umbrella-like shield,
- flowers - two types, fertile (fruiting plates in the middle of the corolla) and sterile (with large spherical shields),
- color of inflorescences - from white, light pink, to lilac, fiery red, bluish-blue shade,
- bloom - from late June to early August,
- fruits - egg-shaped boxes.
Broad-leaved hydrangea is widely used by landscape designers and gardeners in many countries as a decoration of territories, gardens, parks, grown instead of a hedge and a fence near houses.
In total, about 80 species of hydrangea were bred. Some species are grown only as indoor or greenhouse due to high light-loving and low winter-hardiness, others are successfully cultivated in the garden. Three remontant varieties are most popular with gardeners.
- Avantgarde. The bush has very large, dense inflorescences with a diameter of up to 30 cm. The petals of the lush hats amaze with a variety of shades, the petals are white, pink, green, lilac and blue.
- "Blushing Bride Endless Summer". This hydrangea broadleaf in the people received the name "Reddened Bride". Its buds are first white, then become semi-double, gradually turning pink.
- Blaumeise. The compact bush grows up to 120 cm, blooms since July, delighting the eye with lace inflorescences up to 15 cm in diameter. The petals are bluish in color, they can be painted in a lilac or pinkish tone when planted in different soil. Flowering occurs only on last year's shoots, so you need shelter for the winter.
Thanks to the efforts of breeders in the gardens of Russians, since 2000, new varieties, more winter-hardy, have appeared:
- "Endless Summer" ("Endless Summer"),
- "Red Sensation" ("Red Sensation"),
- "Early Sensation" ("Early Sensation"),
- varieties of the Forever series,
- a series of "" U-and-Mi "with double flowers,
- repair species - Firewight White, Bloom Star, Coco Blank, Mini Penny, Ripple.
Lovers of pink terry inflorescences should choose the varieties of “Expression”, “Hovaria Hanabi Rose”, “Peppermint”, “You & Me Love”. Connoisseurs of bluish colors will love the Nikon Blue, Freepon, Mini Penny, and Dzhomari varieties. Those who want to plant a macrophilus with multicolored buds should choose the varieties “Sweet Fantasy”, “Ramarss”, “Expreshn”, “Freedom”, “Compeito”, “Shloss Wackerbarth”.
On the photo - hydrangea macrophylla Endless Summer On the photo - large-leaved hydrangea Schneebball On the photo - hydrangea leafs You & Me Together
Site selection and conditions of detention
Planting and care in the open field are of great importance when growing a large-leaved hydrangea. From the choice of location, soil composition and regular irrigation, fertilizing depends not only the health and growth of the bush, but its survival in winter. You need to know how to care for the macrophile in the garden in order to achieve decorative and long-term lush flowering.
- Lighting and location. The large-leaved hydrangea is rather light-requiring, but it also tolerates light penumbra, shading at the fence, at home. However, it can not be planted under tall trees, it requires a good soil moisture. In the bright sun, the bush will suffer from drying out, it will bloom in the shade later, and the inflorescences will become small and lose their decorative effect. An ideal place would be where the sun illuminates the soil for at least 6-7 hours a day, giving light penumbra at midday.
- Temperature. Planting large-leaved hydrangea in the open ground in the spring is possible when the soil warms up, the threat of frost will pass. In the heat, the plant does not grow well, but in the fall it requires shelter, as it does not stand frost above 10-15 degrees below zero. In spring, when the temperature of the air is long below minus 10 degrees, open buds can freeze, which will lead to the absence of flowering in summer.
- Air and humidity. Young bushes should be protected from strong winds and spring frosts, covering after landing for a couple of weeks with non-woven material. The plant prefers to grow in a well-ventilated place, loves frequent watering, spraying the leaves and the stem, drip sprinkling. However, in the draft bushes it is better not to plant, the best option is at the fence, along the house, where there is protection from the wind and heavy rain.
- Priming. The shrub grows well in mild and moderately acid soils (pH 5.5). The composition of the soil for hydrangea should be selected on the basis of one part of sand, sod, leafy soil, humus and peat. It must be remembered that the soil should not be calcareous, otherwise the root system will suffer. Depending on the acidity of the soil, the color of the flowers may change; this must also be taken into account when growing different varieties.
It is important to know. Large-leaved hydrangea in most cases (with the exception of a few varieties) blooms only on the shoots of the previous year. If in spring the buds at the ends of the shoots are frozen up or the branches are cut, flowering will not occur in the current year.
Preparing for landing
Landing broadleaf hydrangea should be carried out on a cool gloomy day or before the rain, when the bright sun does not shine, the weather is calm. The time for this is from late April to mid-May in spring or early October in the fall. Before planting in the open ground, several procedures should be carried out for the best survival of the bushes.
- When planting several copies between them observe a distance of at least 1 m.
- If possible, pick up 2-3-year-old seedlings with a closed root system in the nursery, planted in a mixture of sand, peat, sawdust.
- Prepare a permanent place for the bush, digging the ground, adding peat, sand, leaf turf, humus in equal parts.
- They dig pits with a depth and a width of 35-50 cm, in the presence of clay and loam, sand, gravel, broken brick, crushed stone as drainage is poured to the bottom.
- A special composition is poured into the pits: for pink, red and fiery red hydrangeas with acidity pH 6.0 to 6.2, for blue ones - 5.0-5.5 pH, adding aluminum sulphate to the soil.
The next stage is the direct planting of bushes in the prepared ground.
- Release the root system from seedlings.
- Put the roots in the pit, straightening their hands.
- Ensure that the root collar remains at ground level.
- Fall asleep roots, tamp mound hands.
- Each bush is watered with 15-20 liters of water.
- Mulch with sawdust, pine needles or pine bark to a height of 5-8 cm.
Many gardeners at the same time planting organic and mineral fertilizers are introduced into the pits, stimulating the formation of flower buds in the next year. Ensure that the mulch in the bushes always remain wet, this is an important condition in the cultivation of hydrangea. During the summer, the soil is loosened 2-3 times, watered regularly and weed away from weeds.
Rules of care and cultivation in the garden
Large-leaved hydrangea, the care of which in the garden will be regular and timely, will please the owners with rapid growth, abundant flowering and lush crown. The main points in the cultivation of ornamental shrubs are watering, mulching, sanitary or formative pruning, and fertilization.
- Watering. Water for irrigation should be soft, free of lime, chlorine and impurities. The best is a rainwater collected in a barrel or bucket, but a water supply system that is at least a few hours apart and warmed to the sun will do. With regular watering immediately from the tap may damage the bush with leaf chlorosis due to water hardness. To soften, periodically add a few drops of lemon juice, 9% vinegar. Hortensia loves abundant watering: under one bush once a week it is necessary to pour at least two buckets of water. During prolonged rains, hydrangea can be watered a couple of times a month. About the lack of moisture indicates sagging, twisting, sometimes - yellowing of the tips of the leaves, loss of elasticity of the stems, cracking the ground. However, the overflow can not be allowed, the plant does not like it.
- Feeding. During the season you need to produce 3-4 fertilizing hydrangea. In the spring, during or 2 weeks after planting, a complex fertilizer containing nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium is applied. In the absence of these trace elements, flowering is unlikely to come. Such ready-made mixtures as “Green Bool”, “ECOstyle”, “Pokon” have proven themselves well. You can also use compounds for feeding azaleas, rhododendrons, self-prepared herbal infusions. Mass or liquid is dissolved in two buckets of water, each bush is well shed. In mid-June and early July, hydrangea should be fed with potassium and nitrogen, by August nitrogen products should be eliminated, preparing the plant for wintering. Lime and ashes to make the soil is strictly prohibited. When applied to the soil twice a month of iron salts and alum, you can change the color of the flowers to blue or blue. To give a pink tint, it is enough to water the ground with a solution of potassium permanganate, this will additionally protect the roots from rot.
- Mulching and loosening. Mulch bushes for the first time immediately after planting, then - as needed, if the soil is blurred by rain. Loosen the ground 3-4 times over the summer, trying not to damage the roots. For mulching use not only peat or sawdust, but also pine bark, pine needles, dry rotted leaves.
- Crop. Spring pruning is rarely done, as the bushes are blooming on the shoots of last year, and you can cut flower buds from the stems. Only at the beginning of June it will be clear which branches have dried up and died, there will be no error when removing dry, weakened shoots. For rejuvenation of the bush, sanitary pruning is performed, removing all branches by 1/3 with a sharp sheath. When forming the crown, the procedure is carried out for 2 seasons. In the early spring of the first year, the main gains are shortened to visible kidneys. In the fall, weak shoots that violate the spherical shape of the shrub are cut off on strong side branches. After the end of summer flowering, the flowering shoots are also cut off, repeating the actions every year on a new one.
- Transfer. It is usually required for an incorrectly chosen site of replanting, strong thickening or for the reproduction of a shrub by the method of dividing the rhizome into parts. When transplanting a purchased plant from a pot to a garden, its root system should not be disturbed.
Large-leaved hydrangea before winterizing plentifully watered. Before frosts or immediately after them, all faded buds are cut, the bush is covered with non-woven material, bending the branches to the ground. They follow that the shelter does not touch the upper kidneys. After a couple of weeks, the shrub is cleaned from dried leaves, then wrapped again with spunbond or lutrasil.
A truly large-leaved hydrangea is harboring already in October, without waiting for the soil to freeze. The branches are fixed to the ground with wire or plastic arcs, sprinkled with peat, humus. Sometimes wooden boxes are crafted, covering them with stunted landings.
It is important to know. It is necessary to cover the upper third or half of the bush, making sure that all the branches are under the material. The trunks can be laid out “by the sun” on the ground or gathered in a bun, bend down a bunch of lapnik or board. Structures should be pressed with bricks or scraps of boards.
To protect against frost, dry leaves, pine needles, earth are sprinkled on top, lapnik branches and sawdust are spread over. All these layers in the spring should be opened gradually, as warming. After heavy snowfall, the constructions are covered with snow, each 1 cm of it protects from 1 degree frost. Shelter is able to protect the shrub from 8-9 degrees frost.
Decorative characteristics of hydrangea
Hortensia refers to flowering perennial shrubs. The flower grows in the form of a compact multi-stemmed bush with beautiful, large, rich green leaves.
The plant can have two types of flowers - small fruit-bearing and large fruitless. Spherical inflorescences of hydrangea similar to large caps. The color of the flowers can be pink, purple, cream, pale white, light green. Color depends on soil pH. Alkaline soil gives inflorescences a pink and lilac shade, sour - blue, and neutral - white. Decorative flower and hue inflorescences attached flower sepals, while the flowers themselves are colorless.
At home, with proper care, the plant can grow to one meter. On one bush in a houseplant can be from 1 to 7 spectacular inflorescences, which are located above the upper leaves of the shoots. A blooming balloon of hydrangea in diameter can reach up to 30 centimeters. The smaller inflorescences on a plant, the larger they are.
Room hydrangeas, in comparison with garden ones, are more compact, but the intensity of their colors is higher.
Most popular room hydrangea varieties
At home, only large-leaved hydrangea is grown in a pot, which currently numbers more than 100 varieties.
- Ramars Mars - the bush differs in compactness and inflorescences, which diameter is about 20 cm,
- "Airlie Blue" - a tall plant with bright blue buds.
Varieties with red inflorescences:
- "Prima" - medium-flowering variety with small flowers, inflorescences 15-18 cm in diameter and a stem height of 20-25 cm,
- "Red sensation" - the plant is different maroon-red inflorescences, which, after entering into the soil of aluminum sulfate or iron salts, become maroon-purple.
Varieties of pink color:
- "Europe" - tall (40-50 cm), an abundantly flowering shrub with an inflorescence in diameter of up to 25 cm and large flowers with a diameter of 6 cm,
- "Hamburg" - a plant whose height is from 35 to 40 cm, it blooms profusely with large flowers with a diameter of 4-5 cm,
- "Goliath" - a variety with a bush height of 60-70 cm, sepals with deeply cut edges, dark pink large inflorescences and late flowering.
Varieties with cream and white inflorescences:
- Souer Tharese is an early-flowering plant with a low-growing shrub up to 40 cm in height, inflorescences with a diameter of 15-17 cm and flowers of regular shape,
- M - me E. Mouillere - differs in rather narrow leaves, flowers from 2-6 cm and inflorescences, diameter from 18 to 20 cm.
Hydrangea - home care
Hydrangea cannot be attributed to easily grown indoor plants. The plant is demanding not only to the conditions of detention, but also to strict observance of certain rules for its care. Negligence and error, this spectacular, but capricious flower does not forgive.
The hardest thing to follow and maintain cyclical development hydrangeas in a pot. It is necessary to take care of the flower at the stage of bud formation, and carefully monitor the conditions for wintering.
Hydrangea refers to deciduous shrubs, the foliage of which is not preserved even at room temperatures. During the rest period, the plant sheds its leaves. At this time, he needs to provide a cool place and correct the watering and fertilizing. This period lasts for two and a half months in the winter season. In the spring the plant begins to grow actively.
Lighting for hydrangea at home
The requirements of the plant to light is the same for both the garden and for indoor conditions. Hortensia prefers a bright place protected from direct rays. It is best to place a flower with a pot. two or three meters from the south window. The direct rays of the sun will cause the loss of the decorativeness of the leaves and threaten the flowering.
The intensity of the hydrangea lighting should not change throughout the year. Reducing light in the winter time can have a detrimental effect on the flower. Therefore, the plant must be rearranged to a brighter place, or used to increase daylight fluorescent lamps. A plant experiencing a lack of light in winter will weaken, become vulnerable to pests and diseases, lose its decorative effect.
Кроме хорошей освещенности, комнатный кустарник любит свежий воздух. Поэтому помещение необходимо регулярно проветривать без создания сквозняков. In summer, hydrangeas in pots feel most comfortable on balconies and loggias with shading, on terraces and in cool places in the garden.
Air temperature and humidity
Indoor hydrangeas need cool conditions. For many years, with their flowering, they will delight only in a room where the air temperature does not exceed + 20C.
In the winter period of time when the plant is at rest, you should not forget to take care of it. At this time of year, the temperature range should be from + 4C to + 9C. Winter this indoor culture can even on the glassed-in balcony or loggia. In this case, the shoots will need to be cut by two-thirds, cover the plant with spruce branches, and wrap with non-woven material. It's okay if the shoots get frozen in the winter. After pruning, the plant will quickly recover, begin to grow into foliage and bloom.
About the comfort of the temperature for hydrangea say its green leaves. If the flower starts dropping them, then the room is too warm for him.
In addition to cool conditions, hydrangea requires high humidity. For this You can buy a humidifieror place a saucer next to the pot or a tray with wet moss and stones.
Features transplantation room hydrangea
Caring for hydrangea at home implies an annual transplant. The soil should be fertile, consisting of turf, leaf soil and sand (3: 3: 1).
Since the root system of the plant is horizontal, it is recommended to select a wide and spacious pot for it. In order not to damage the roots and minimize stress, flower transplanted by transfer.
At the bottom of the pot should be laid a thick layer of drainage, then a layer of earthen mixture, which is set in a prepared plant. Around the roots, the fresh substrate is poured so that the root collar is at the same level as the ground surface.
After transplantation, hydrangea must be watered well, and the soil on top should be covered with peat mulch. This will not allow moisture to evaporate quickly.
This is the easiest way of breeding, which requires great care, and compliance with some rules:
- bush is divided during the annual transplant,
- all processes must have a sufficient number of roots and a growing point,
- The shoots and roots of the delenok are first shortened, and only then they are seated in pots and watered.
The bushes divided and planted in spring will root well by autumn.
Seed potted hydrangea breeds at the end of winter. The soil for sowing should consist of humus, turf and leaf land (1: 1: 1). Seeds are sown on the surface of the earth mixture. It is not necessary to seal them in the soil. The sowing container on top is covered with a film or glass.
Every day, crops should be aired and moistened from the sprayer. Care must be taken that the soil is always slightly wet. When the first shoots appear, the film or glass is removed.
As soon as two real leaflets appear on the seedlings, they should be transplanted into a deeper container with the same composition of the earth. Grown up and grown saplings are seated in pots, the diameter of which should not be more than seven centimeters.
Experienced growers propagate hydrangea by cutting, as this the most reliable way of breeding.
In January-February, cuttings of 7–8 cm in length are cut from the basal shoots of the plant. There should be up to three internodes per segment. On the upper part of the cutting, the leaves are shortened by a third or half, and removed from the lower part completely.
The segments are processed by the root stimulator, planted in sand-peat substrate, watered and covered with glass jars. Such a method of their maintenance will help prevent the soil from drying out, and will maintain the humidity of the air that is optimal for the development of cuttings.
Capacity with seedlings should be kept in the most bright place at room temperature in 18-20C. After three to four weeks, the cuttings will take root, and they can be seated in individual pots.
From rooted in January-February to the fall grow a bush of 3-4 shoots. If grafting is carried out in March-April, then the result will be a hydrangea with one stem.
Only caring owners who comply with all the rules of care and requirements for temperature, soil selection, lighting and watering will be able to observe the luxury of hydrangea blooming. But such care is worth it. After all, this beautiful plant is fresh and fashionable will look in any setting and in any interior. It can be used to decorate residential and industrial premises, winter gardens, balconies, terraces and flower beds.
This is an ornamental low shrub that can reach a meter in diameter. It has rich green rough leaves and inflorescences with a diameter of up to 30 cm, the color varies from blue to lilac. It blooms for a long time - from mid-summer to the first frost. Large-leaved hydrangea "Aisha" is suitable for group or single planting.
Grows pretty fast but demanding of moisture and soil - does not tolerate limestone. He loves warm, does not tolerate winter - requires shelter for the time of frost.
"You and me forever"
This is an unusual variety of hydrangea whose flowers change color from blue to pink in the flowering process. The bush grows up to 1 meter in height, blooms in the second half of summer and early autumn. Flowers terry, "many-tier", are collected in large inflorescences. The variety takes root well in the sun and in partial shade, easily tolerates frost up to -30 degrees.
Planting and care
Caring for hydrangea is not a big deal. This is a heat-loving plant, loving light and abundant watering. For landing it is better to choose scattered spot and protected from strong winds. It is preferable to plant a bush on the east side, since the sun is important for the plant in the morning.
Depending on the desired color is to choose the soil. Fertile or clay earth is best, red soils and sands are contraindicated. To obtain a bright color is better to choose a slightly acidic soil (pH 5.2−6). On neutral it is possible to achieve pale or white colors. The presence of alkali can cause yellowing of the leaves and their "pallor". This is due to the fact that in such areas is usually not enough iron and magnesium. To get rid of the problemneed to handle bushes iron chelate, you can also use the experience of gardeners of the past and bury several iron objects under the bush, for example, cans or nails.
Bushes should be planted in early May. Planting hydrangeas in the fall in open ground is possible only in the presence of warm weather, otherwise the plant does not root. Landing will occur as follows:
- Prepare a place 2–4 weeks before disembarking: dig a hole about 30–50 cm deep and 60 cm in diameter. Width should be larger as the roots grow in breadth. The distance between large bushes should be about 1.2−1.6 meters, between small - up to 2.5 meters. Large trees should be located 3 meters to hydrangea. When disembarking, “alive” hedge digging trench meter wide. If you want to get early flowering, it is worth planting bushes at a distance of 70−80 cm from each other, and after 2−3 years to plant them,
- The pit is filled with a mixture of humus, leaf soil and sod (equally) or a mixture of parts of peat, parts of sand, 2 parts of black soil and 2 parts of humus. You can optionally add 25 grams of urea, 30 grams of potassium sulfate and 200-250 grams of bone meal,
- After a specified time in the mixture, you need to dig a hole, plant a bush there, straighten the roots, and put it back to sleep. The root neck should be as much as possible buried by 2–3 cm, otherwise the plant will not bloom,
- Under the bush it is necessary to pour a bucket of water and sprinkle with peat or sawdust, then cover it from the direct sun.
Caring for hydrangea is simple:
- In the first 2 years, it will be necessary to prune all the buds so that the hydrangea begins to actively develop the roots,
- Watering should be regular and abundant, as the drought will adversely affect the bush's winter hardiness. You will need to pour out 15−25 liters of water every 2 weeks, and during dry summer - every week. It is better to do this in the morning or in the evening when there is no sun. After watering the land should be loosened. To prevent rot periodically in the water should add 2−3 grams of potassium permanganate,
- When planting in fertilized soil, the plant does not require additional feeding in the first 2−3 years. Then you will need to make nutrients according to the scheme: until July - sour complementary foods, after - potassium and phosphorus. At the end of spring, complex mineral fertilizers are applied: 15 grams of potassium sulfate and urea + 30 grams of superphosphate + 10 liters of water. Can be supplemented with bird droppings or mullein tincture. 2 weeks before flowering and in the middle of flowering potash-phosphoric top dressing is introduced: 75 grams of superphosphate + 50 grams of potassium sulfate + 10 liters of water,
- It should not be used as a fertilizer ash, as well as abuse of organic matter and nitrogen,
- Pruning hydrangeas in the fall includes the removal of dry leaves and twigs. If the leaves remain, they will start to rot. You can leave only the buds and a couple of leaves around them,
- Large Leaf Hydrangea does not tolerate winter and the temperature is below -20−23 degrees: it is best to dig it out, transplant it in pots and bring it into the house. This does not apply to winter-hardy varieties - they easily survive winters in Central Russia. In the southern regions with a mild winter, you can limit yourself to hilling (land digging) and mulching with needles or peat,
- To rejuvenate a bush, it needs pruning to the root — only a stump 5-7 cm tall should remain. Next year, instead of the old trunk, new ones will begin to grow,
- In order to get a small tree instead of a bush, you need to select one sturdy sprout and trim all the rest. The following year, the main shoot is pinched, and new shoots are removed. Next, you need to monitor growth and prune weak shoots.
Preparing for the winter
If it is impossible to dig up and hide the hydrangea in the house, you should prepare for the winter and cover it:
- Preparing for the winter begins with pruning dry bushes and removing leaves,
- The land around the bush is plowed and mulched with manure, peat or needles,
- Trunks bend down to the ground and fall asleep with sawdust and dry leaves, spruce branches will also work,
- From above everything is covered with a box,
- If the bush is high, if the trunks are tied up in a “cocoon”, above which a “hut” is built on the frame. The latter should be above the bush, so as not to lean on the branches,
- Inside the "tent" fall asleep dry leaves.
It is possible to remove “shelters” only at the end of April, when it will be warm enough at night. Is it necessary to trim the hydrangea for the winter? This is necessary for the recovery of the plant and its further growth.
If hydrangea does not bloom
The reasons may be:
- Oversupply or nutritional deficiencies: It is important to follow the fertilizer application, especially nitrogen and organic matter: when they are enumerated, flowering may not occur,
- Sun: bright, direct sunlight makes the bloom short and not sufficiently lush,
- Wrong preparation for winter: it is important to remember that flowers bloom on last year's shoots. They can not be removed in preparation for winter, otherwise you can not wait for the flowers.
To speed up flowering or make it lush, you need to sprinkle it with a solution of gibberellins (50 grams per liter). This should be done when the inflorescences grow to 4−5 cm 2 times with an interval of a week. This will allow you to get flowers ahead of time for 2-4 weeks.
Also, if desired, gardeners can change the white or pink color to blue. The color itself depends on the acidity of the soil and the concentration of aluminum. To change the color, it is necessary 2 months before flowering to begin watering the bush with a solution of aluminum-potassium alum - 100 grams per bucket of water. You will need to hold 3-4 watering every 2 weeks. Depending from accumulated concentration can be obtained from pale blue to deep blue.
Large-leaved hydrangea is an ornamental shrub that is often found in gardens. It blooms profusely, giving flowers of different colors. Caring for a plant does not cause any difficulties.
Large-leaved hydrangea: variety description
In the natural habitat (subtropics) hydrangea receives the maximum amount of moisture and light, therefore, the height of some adult specimens can reach 4 meters. Naturally, it is difficult to create subtropical conditions in the open field of temperate climate, but in our climate it is quite possible to grow a healthy and beautiful shrub. However, it should be borne in mind that the height of such flowers reaches a maximum of two meters, and only with proper care.
In addition to varieties intended for cultivation in the open field, there are compact indoor species, the height of which does not exceed 60 cm. At the same time, all varieties have one thing in common: oval leaves of dark green color with a pointed edge.
Exterior features of the flower
Large-leaved hydrangea fell in love with gardeners, not only because of its high decorative effect, but also because of its long flowering. The first buds appear in June and do not fade until the beginning of October, and their shade may be white, cream, pale blue or pink, depending on the variety.
In the past, growing hydrangeas in the open ground was invariably accompanied by shelter for the winter. Now this event is not mandatory, but only if you grow special winter-hardy varieties bred by breeding.
Types of hydrangea
There are many types and varieties of hydrangea. Among them there are both ordinary and winter-hardy, and even remontant ones, therefore it is rather difficult to choose the right one. As a rule, when selecting a variety, gardeners are guided by the peculiarities of the soil and the climate of the region where they live, as well as the supposed shade of inflorescences.
Among the most popular varieties of large-leaved hydrangea are:
- Avantgarde - large shrub with bulky inflorescences, the diameter of which can reach 30 cm. In this case, the color of the buds can be any, ranging from white to blue and light green.
- Blaumaise - a fairly compact plant, since the height of adult specimens rarely exceeds 120 cm. A distinctive feature is dense inflorescences with petals of different sizes (they are larger towards the edge, and smaller towards the center). The shade of the flowers depends on the acidity of the soil. When neutral, they are blue, but, as the acidity increases, they first become lilac, and then pink. Representatives of the variety are not resistant to cold, so they must be covered for the winter.
- "Red Bride" - popular name for the variety with the complex name Blushing Bride Endless Summer. This name the flower received because of its unusual features to change the shade of the petals. As soon as they appear, they are painted in a uniform white color, but as they unfold, they begin to turn pink.
The varieties listed above are traditional, so they are not resistant to cold and require mandatory shelter for the winter. However, quite recently, quite a lot of new breeding species were bred that have increased winter hardiness and disease resistance. Such species include representatives of the Endless Summer, Early Sensation and Red Sensation varieties, terry varieties of large-leaved hydrangea (Romance, Symphony, Touguze, Ekspreshn, etc.).
No less popular are the repair varieties Coco Blanc, White Ball, Ripple and others. Their distinguishing feature is that flower buds are formed not only on the shoots of last year, but also on young shoots. In such shrubs, the first buds appear in May or early June, and a little later inflorescences form on the shoots of the current year.
But the most unusual are the blue and multi-colored varieties. The shrub with blue buds can be grown on slightly acidic soil (varieties Jomārī, Mini Penny, Nikko Blue, etc.), and for obtaining multicolor цвет owts, you should prefer the varieties Ramars, Magic Sunfields or Expresn.
Features of growing
Large-leaved hydrangeas can hardly be called hardy, frost-resistant and undemanding. This species often suffers from various diseases and pests when grown in the garden.
- Chlorosis occurs when watering with hard water and planting in alkaline soil, is manifested in the yellowing of the leaves. Struggling with it, acidifying the soil with various additives.
- Downy mildew is manifested in oily-yellowing spots, to fight the bushes sprayed with fungicides and special preparations.
- With rust on the leaves of the hydrangea are struggling, sprinkling the green parts of the plant with copper sulphate.
- Bordeaux or Burgundy liquid helps to get rid of septoria.
- Because of the drought, spider mites appear on the bushes. They are destroyed by insecticide solutions.
- Plants are protected from mice and other rodents by traps and by folding special preparations.
- Root rot is struggling with soil shedding a solution of potassium permanganate.
- In the fall, they carry out preventive spraying with Bordeaux mixture to keep the branches from drowning and fungus.
Where and how to plant
As mentioned above, hydrangea refers to people from the subtropics, so just to randomly plant it on any part of the flowerbed is not a good idea. In order for the plant to take root, it forms a lush shrub with bulky buds, you need to try to choose a plot where the seedling will be comfortable.
Кроме влаголюбивости, крупнолистная гортензия имеет и некоторые другие особенности, которые касаются освещения и типа грунта. Именно этим нюансам мы уделим повышенное внимание.
Many gardeners mistakenly believe that subtropical crops need bright light throughout the day. In fact, this point of view is not entirely correct, since such plants, including large-leaved hydrangea, prefer bright, but diffused sunlight. In other words - pick a slightly shaded area for this flower, but try not to plant hydrangea under large trees. Such plants consume a lot of moisture from the soil, and the flower simply will not have enough water.
Selection of a site for a flower
The lack of moisture and light can cause a delay in the onset of flowering, or lead to the fact that the inflorescences are small. The ideal location for hydrangea will be one in which the lower part of the bush is in the shade and the upper part is in the sun.
We select the soil
Under natural conditions, hydrangea grows on the lower tier of tropical and subtropical forests, the soil in which is light, loose and has a slightly acid reaction.
To recreate similar soil conditions at home, mix in equal proportions sod and leaf earth, sand, peat and humus. It is important that there is no excess lime in the soil, as it negatively affects the condition of the plant.
Fortunately, the sensitivity of the hydrangea to the level of acidity of the soil is reflected in the appearance of the inflorescences, so you can easily determine which element is missing in your culture. For example, if the petals are pink, this means that the soil has a slightly alkaline reaction, and blue or saturated blue inflorescences are formed on acidic soils.
Most hydrangea varieties are sensitive not only to cold, but also to strong temperature changes, so you need to carefully select the planting time in open ground.
Planting in open ground
It is best to plant in the spring, when the threat of frost has passed, the soil warms up and the warm weather stabilizes. In addition, it is important to leave enough flower space for growth and development, therefore, between individual seedlings need to leave at least a meter of free space.
From the basic rules of landing it is worth highlighting:
- Well depth: depends on the size of the seedling. For small plants there will be enough pits with a depth of 35 cm. The width and length of the hole should be the same. If the plant has already grown, the depth and width of the hole increase, so that the root system of the seedling can be freely spread in the pit.
- Drainage and soil: At the bottom of each well, you must put a layer of drainage material. Despite the fact that hydrangea loves moisture, stagnant water at the roots can cause rot and death of the plant. After the drainage layer is laid, you can begin to fill the hole with earthen mixture, the composition of which was given above.
- Fertilizer: During planting it is necessary to make both mineral and organic fertilizers. They will contribute to the formation of flower buds.
After that, a seedling is installed in the hole, straightened its root system and sprinkle it with soil. Next, you need to water the soil and grind it. A layer of mulch will retain moisture in the soil, which is extremely important when growing this crop. Peat, sawdust or pine needles can be used as mulch, and the layer of material should be at least 10 cm.
Care for large-leaved hydrangea
The large-leaved hydrangea is considered to be a relatively unpretentious crop, since it is grown not only in summer cottages, but also in difficult soil-climatic urban conditions.
If all the recommendations for planting have been followed, the plant will really turn into a lush and sprawling shrub, but in order to improve the conditions for growing the crop, you need to provide it with a certain care. The main recommendations on this will be given below.
Watering a flower
Hydrangea refers to crops that do not respond well to high levels of lime in soil or water. Therefore, the liquid for irrigation should be soft. It is best to use rainwater for this purpose, but if it is not possible to collect it, you can also use ordinary tap water, but it should be left for some time before use.
At the same time, continuous watering from water from the tap can provoke chlorosis of the leaves, since even distilled tap water is still considered hard. Therefore, periodically it is necessary to add a few drops of lemon juice or a little vinegar for acidification.
Regarding the frequency of irrigation, in the absence of natural precipitation, moisture is introduced into the soil about twice a week, pouring a bucket of water under each bush. If there are rains and mulch around the plant is moderately wet, watering can be reduced to once a month.
The content of certain trace elements in the soil is directly reflected in the shade of colors. Of course, this does not affect the health of the shrub, but by introducing certain substances into the soil you can achieve an unusual effect when both blue and pink flowers are present on one shrub.
It is very simple to make: one side of the shrub needs to be fed twice a month with iron salts or potassium alum (crystals) dissolved in water. The other side of the plant can not feed. After some time, one side of the inflorescences will turn blue or even blue, while the other will remain soft pink.
In addition, organic fertilizers (for example, mullein solution) can be used as a top dressing. It is better to bring them in early spring, before the buds begin to swell, so that the plant can form strong shoots. Further feeding is carried out in early June, when the formation of buds begins and directly during flowering. During these periods, you can use any fertilizer, both organic and mineral. The only substance that can not be fed hydrangea, is ash.
In addition, in the first year after planting, young hydrangea can be periodically watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate or any other liquid fungicidal agent, since young cultures are very susceptible to stem rot.
Cropping and crown formation
A common mistake of gardeners is that they too often and intensively cut hydrangea. In fact, this culture practically does not need this procedure. Rather, on the contrary, too much shortening of the shoots or removing extra branches can cause a delay or lack of flowering.
Shortening of shoots is permissible only if they were damaged during the wintering period or if symptoms of diseases appeared on them. Such a feature of trimming hydrangea is due to the fact that the plant forms new flowering shoots in the axils of last year's shoots, and if you remove them, the buds simply cannot form.
It also does not make sense to form the crown of large-leaved hydrangea, since healthy adult specimens form a rather lush and beautiful crown without this procedure. If the bush is old and needs rejuvenation, it is possible to cut only a part of the oldest shoots, so that in place of replacement branches will be formed.
The main task in growing hydrangeas is to preserve the plant during the winter. Particular attention should be paid to the tops of the shoots, which form flower buds, but more often than other parts of the plant suffer from cold.
Winter Shelter Culture
Preparing for the winter should start in the fall. If autumn is dry, the plant needs to be watered intensively, since the amount of moisture in the soil will determine how well the plant will survive the winter. It is also advisable to spray the branches with Bordeaux mixture so that they do not penetrate under the covering material and become a victim of the fungus.
The first winter shelter is provided at the end of October, when the first autumn frosts begin. To do this, bushes spud up to a height of 30 cm, and in early November, bend the branches to the ground, fall asleep them with dry spruce branches or leaves. Above you can put the box so that the shelter does not fly away under the gusts of wind. Then you can cover the box with sacking or agrofiber and leave it until spring.