Garden flowers, plants and shrubs

Marsh marsh (Caltha palustris L

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


They strengthen the cardiovascular and central nervous systems, reduce capillary fragility, regulate blood pressure and heart rate, and also stimulate the activity of the adrenal cortex.

They have a positive effect on the bronchi: they increase the secretion of bronchial glands, dilute sputum and remove from the bronchi. Excite the cough center, due to which the removal of sputum. In addition, saponins regulate the water-salt metabolism and activate the activity of hormones. Another property - saponins inhibit DNA synthesis in cancer cells, which blocks their reproduction.

Carotene is a natural antioxidant and immunostimulant, so it has a complex positive effect on the body. Carotene prevents the development of cancer, helps to eliminate toxins, normalizes protein synthesis. Due to its antioxidant properties, carotene slows down aging.

It improves attention and memory, positively affects the state of the nervous system. Promotes the absorption of lipids and improve their metabolism. Regulates the liver and normalizes cardiac activity, and also reduces the concentration of harmful cholesterol.

The value of this vitamin for the human body can not be overestimated. It regulates the processes of cellular respiration, boosts immunity, stimulates the action of adrenal hormones, strengthens capillaries.

Tannins

Form a protective film, preventing the negative effects of various stimuli - chemical, bacterial and mechanical. They narrow pores and blood vessels, as well as strengthen the walls of capillaries. It is thanks to tannins, marsh marigold is used in the treatment of wounds and burns.

Are natural analgesics, that is, painkillers. They also help to stop bleeding, reduce blood pressure and the excitability of the central nervous system. However, at the same time, alkaloids are quite toxic, therefore, it is necessary to prevent excessive use of caluric-based drugs.

Linoleic acid

It has anti-inflammatory action and strengthens the human immune system, normalizes the work of his nervous and cardiovascular systems. Also, linoleic acid helps to lose weight, as it regulates the metabolism and normalizes the level of insulin in the blood.

As we can see, the plant, called the gill, frog and marsh burdock, contains many different types of nutrients. But their concentration is not too high, so the marigold is not used as a separate therapeutic agent.

Summarizing the above, we list the healing properties of marsh marigolds and diseases, which it treats due to these properties:

  • Anti-inflammatory: bronchitis, rheumatism, burns, inflammatory diseases of the joints, colds, sore throat, inflammatory diseases of the liver and biliary tract, gynecological diseases, cystitis, urethritis,
  • Painkiller: pain during menstruation, as well as wounds, burns and inflammations,
  • Expectorant: bronchitis, bronchial asthma, cold cough,
  • Antitumor: the effectiveness of the use of an aqueous extract in cancer is proven,
  • Antiscorbutic: scurvy,
  • Diuretic: with high blood pressure, hypertensive crisis, metabolic disorders,
  • Immunomodulatory: colds, sore throat,

Of course, this is not an exhaustive list of diseases and pathologies, which will help to ease the usual marsh plant. Marsh marsh is used for prostatitis, nail diseases, whooping cough, diseases of the urinary tract, anemia.

Application Methods

For various diseases, the powder marm is used in various forms:

1) Externally - for skin diseases, wounds, burns, a leaf of marigold applied to a burn or bruise will reduce pain and inflammation, and the juice will help alleviate the symptoms of herpes and accelerate the healing of deep wounds,

2) In the form of an aqueous extract - for cancer,

3) Infusions, decoctions - with scurvy, cough, gynecological diseases, as well as in violation of the liver and gallbladder.

4) Tincture - for herpes, asthma, bronchitis, diseases of the biliary tract, cough, scurvy, whooping cough.

In addition, with dried grass marsh marigolds take baths that help with rheumatism, neuralgia and colds. For inflammation of the joints apply compresses from dry grass.

Also marsh marigold is a source of vitamin C, but this is not its main property, but rather an auxiliary one. The main components are still saponins and tannins. To know the composition of marigolds is necessary in order to calculate those components to which individual intolerance may be.

Collecting and harvesting

Before preparing medicinal decoction or infusion from marshmallow, it must be properly harvested and prepared in order to neutralize the poisonous protoanonemonin contained in it - a volatile compound with a pungent odor. This substance has a necrotic (i.e., causes tissue necrosis) and a local irritant effect. It is destroyed by drying or heat treatment of the plant. At the same time, proto-anemonin has a pronounced antibiotic effect. That is why fresh juice from leaves of marigold is useful in the treatment of purulent wounds and burns.

Based on what part of the plant will be consumed, choose the time of collection and method of storage. Roots, leaves and stems, as well as marigold juice are used mainly. Consider the features of the collection and storage of these parts.

They are dug in early spring or at the end of autumn after the end of growth, that is, during periods of dormancy of the plant. Then the roots should be thoroughly rinsed, cut into small pieces and dried in the shade. In this case, the raw material must be protected from moisture, often turn the pieces. In addition to the natural way, you can dry the roots in an electric dryer at a temperature of 50-55 degrees.

Leaves, stems, flowers

Gather during the flowering season marigolds - in April-May, in dry weather. Dry ground parts of the plant similar to the roots.

Dried parts of marigolds (both roots and ground parts) should be stored in a dry cool place out of the reach of children and animals. Shelf life - no more than 2 years.

Juice is not harvested for future use - it is always used fresh. The juice is squeezed from the leaves and stems of the plant and is used as soon as possible after squeezing.

Recipes of traditional medicine

As already mentioned above, salmon is used in various forms for various ailments. Tincture of marshmallow can be found in pharmacies, and in addition, marsh marigold is part of various pharmacy fees. However, in the arsenal of traditional medicine there are recipes for some medicinal potions on the basis of marigolds, which can be prepared at home by yourself. The following are the main folk recipes healing compositions containing marsh calum marigold:

1. A decoction of the roots.

1 teaspoon of dried and chopped roots boiled in 250 ml of water in a water bath for half an hour. Then cool the broth and strain. Add boiled water until the original volume is reached.

This decoction is used as an aid in anemia, as well as in cancer. It is recommended to take it inside on 1 tablespoon 3-4 times a day.

2. Compress for joints.

Inflammatory diseases of the joints can cause quite strong pain, and they need to be treated comprehensively. One of the local remedies for combating pain and inflammation in the joints is a compress with marigold leaves.

3 tablespoons of dried leaves pour 200 ml of boiling water, insist for an hour. Then cool, slightly squeeze, wrap in cheesecloth and attach to the sore joint. Regular use of such compresses will help eliminate joint pain and symptoms of inflammation.

3. Infusion for treating fever.

Increased temperature caused by the fight against human immunity with pathogens. The components contained in the leaves of marigolds, can improve immunity, strengthen the body's defenses. Therefore, it will be useful to apply an infusion of leaves of marigold at the fever. The recipe is simple.

1 teaspoon or dried leaves pour 200 ml boiling water, infuse for 1 hour, then strain. Take this infusion should be 1/3 cup 3 times a day with meals, the course of treatment is 3-6 days.

4. Decoction for colds.

In case of colds, a decoction of the marigold will help mobilize the immune system, reduce fever and reduce the symptoms of inflammation.

1 teaspoon of dried roots pour 250 ml boiling water, then boil in a tightly closed enamel bowl on low heat for no more than 30 minutes. After this, the broth must be cooled and filtered using a triple layer of gauze. Then bring to the original volume by adding the required amount of boiled water. Take after eating 1 tablespoon 4 times a day.

6. Bath with dried grass marigolds

Prepare a decoction of the dried leaves of the plant (3 tablespoons of leaves, pour 200 ml of boiling water and leave for an hour), then add it to a bath filled with hot water.

This bath will be useful for rheumatism, neurodermatitis, as well as for mild cold. Take this bath should not be more than once a week.

In addition, an antitussive agent is prepared from marsh marigold flowers in combination with a coltsfoot and plantain. Kaluzhnitsa in this broth is an auxiliary component that promotes the expectoration of sputum. From these dried herbs make water decoction, which is used for colds and bronchitis.

All recipes of folk remedies from calabrias are quite simple to prepare. We already know that during drying and heat treatment, marsh marigold loses its toxic properties, and therefore it is possible to take decoctions of dried leaves inside without fear. But still it is necessary to strictly observe the recommendations on the method of preparation of therapeutic agents from the marigolds and their dosage. Otherwise, instead of the healing effect, you can get a diametrically opposite, because this plant contains many active substances.

At the same time, a number of sources in general do not recommend using calf marrow as a medicine. They argue that after all this is a poisonous plant, so its healing properties are very doubtful. The question of who to believe in this case, only the doctor will help to understand. Without his recommendations, you should not use any remedies, especially if at least some poisonous plants act as the main component.

In addition, it should be remembered that drugs from marigolds, like other drugs, have a number of contraindications.

Contraindications

Since marsh marigold contains active components and is poisonous in nature, it is first necessary to follow the recommendations of doctors for its use and the preparation of decoctions and infusions. Self-medication is always dangerous and can lead to unpredictable consequences.

The main contraindications to the use of drugs from the marigolds are as follows:

  1. Pregnancy and lactation,
  2. Children's age (up to 12 years),
  3. Individual intolerance to the components

With unreasonable use of decoctions and infusions of marshmallow, symptoms of poisoning may appear: nausea and vomiting, dizziness, diarrhea, irritation of the skin and mucous membranes. Do not take drugs from the marigolds for severe chronic diseases.

Before you start cooking a decoction or infusion of harvested marigolds, you must make sure that the dried leaves or roots do not have extraneous odors, are not damp, and have no traces of insects. If there is even a slight hint that the workpiece can be spoiled, it is better not to cook anything from it.

The use of kaluzhnitsy in cooking and in everyday life

If we talk about the non-medical value of marsh marigolds, we should first of all mention that it has a lot of pollen, therefore it is an excellent honey plant.

Quite unexpected use marsh marigold is found in cooking. For example, her unblown flower buds, cooked by pickling with the addition of cloves, pepper and bay leaf are similar to capers, such “capers” are used as seasonings for soups. In the Caucasus, young dried stalks of marigolds are used in the preparation of dressings for roasts and meat stews. And dried roots of marigold can be used as a natural seasoning for a variety of first and second courses: borscht, solyanka, cabbage soup, as well as fish and meat dishes.

However, despite the healing properties and the content of useful substances, at the present time, the calotice is most often used in landscape design as an ornamental plant. It perfectly adorns both natural and artificial reservoirs and streams. Its bright yellow neat flowers and squat stems will undoubtedly decorate the cottage or garden plot.

In our time, breeders even deduced several modifications of the marigold for landscape design. This, for example, terry marsh marigold, which has many petals, or white marsh marigold with pleasant milky white flowers.

So, marsh marigold, fairly common in our country, can not only decorate gardens and natural landscapes, but also be a pretty good medicine. The most important thing is to comply with the necessary safety requirements and remember about contraindications.

In medicine

In the domestic pharmacopoeia, marsh marigold is not listed, because the plant has some toxic substances in its composition. Herb grass (Herba Calthae palustris) is used in a number of countries. The homeopathic medicine Caltha palustris is prepared from fresh plants during the flowering period. Apply with painful menstruation, whooping cough, herpes, bronchitis.

It is important to remember that the ground part of the raw marigold is poisonous to the body, therefore it is forbidden to use inside the grass and flowers of the plant without prior treatment. After boiling or pickling poisonous substances completely lose their power and the plant can be taken as a therapeutic drug.

Contraindications and side effects

Contraindications to the use of marigolds the following: pregnancy and lactation, idiosyncrasy, children's age. Overdose is determined by the symptoms: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhea and a rash on the body. Large doses can lead to serious poisoning of the body.

In cooking

Flower, not yet blossomed buds, cooked by boiling or pickling with the addition of bay leaf, cloves, pepper - the famous German dish "capers". Caloric roots are also used as a seasoning for meat or fish dishes, borscht, salads, and saltwort. After the beginning of flowering, the plant is no longer toxic, so they collect leaves and young shoots for dressing cabbage soup, main courses. Caucasians use dried young stems to season roasts, cooking meat broths. Dried, shredded plant roots have long been mixed into flour for baking bread.

Botanical description

Marsh marsh is a perennial herb, reaching a height of 25-30 cm. Stems are erect or creeping, fairly branched, short rhizome. Kaluznitsa, growing in water, can have long stems (up to 3 m). In early spring, the vegetation of the plant begins. The lower leaves are heart-shaped, petiolate, large, the upper ones are enveloping stems, bud-shaped, sessile. The edges of the leathery leaf plates are crenate, serrated, veins appear on the underside. The leaves growing under water are dark red or purple, and those that are in the air are green. From bright sunlight often leaves protruding above the water surface, curled in funnels.

Flowers of marsh marigolds of dazzling yellow color, brilliant, up to 6 cm in diameter. Interestingly, flowering occurs only at the age of plants over 10 years. About 7 flowers are located on long flowering shoots of marigolds in the axils of the upper foliage. The corolla consists of five petals, the pistils can be from 2 to 12, and the stamens are many. The first beaters open in April, and the flowering period lasts until May. Brightly colored petals are able to focus the sunlight, thereby increasing the temperature inside the corolla. And this, in turn, increases the chances of good insect pollination. Flowering shoots die after the formation of small seeds. Formula marsh marigold flower: * CH5L5T∞P∞.

Fruits of marsh marsh marigold The number of leaflets corresponds to the number of pestles in a flower. One leaflet contains up to ten black seeds with a shiny surface (up to 2.5 mm in size). In late May - early June, the seeds ripen and spill out. Seed can form a large number - up to 3 thousand. Kaluzhnitsa also multiplies vegetatively. Floating seeds at the shore serve as food for the birds. Bottom leaves do not die off after the fruiting of the plant, providing the marigold with a supply of nutrients for early flowering next year.

Spread

Judging by the name of the plant, marsh marigold is a inhabitant of wet meadows, ditches, wetlands. Произрастает повсеместно большими зарослями, группами по берегам рек и озер, у ручьев, в тихих заводях рек. Встречается по всей европейской части России, на Украине, на Урале, в Восточной и Западной Сибири, на Дальнем Востоке, Чукотке, Курильских островах и в Японии, Азии. Даже в холодной зоне Скандинавии и Исландии калужница радует своими желтыми цветками.

Заготовка сырья

Kidney marsh marigold harvested with the arrival of spring (in March), and the young leaves - in season. The above-ground part of the plant, in particular the upper leaves, is harvested during the flowering period (from the beginning of April to the end of May). Raw materials are dried in a ventilated room or with the help of special dryers, the temperature for drying should not exceed 50 degrees.

The rhizomes of marigolds are dug in early spring or autumn, cleaned from the ground and dried. Shelf life of dried raw marigolds - no more than 2 years.

Chemical composition

The chemical composition of marsh marigold is under study, but the presence of many vital components already indicates the healing properties of marsh marigold. It contains: flavone compounds, quercetin, carotene (5.2 mg%), choline, anemonin, xanthophyll, ascorbic acid (37 mg%), birberin, bitterness, saponins, linoleic acid, fatty oils, alkaloids, tannins (8 ,one%). Its leaves and stalks are poisonous when fresh, and after boiling and pickling they become safe.

Pharmacological properties

The active ingredients in the composition of the marigold are saponins, anemonin, flavonoids, choline, as well as carotene and xanthophyll contained in flowers. As a saponin-containing raw material, marsh marigold would have found a wide range of applications, but there are still a number of limitations associated with the toxicity of the aerial part of the plant. Protoanerin - a toxic substance that when cooking or drying marigold becomes absolutely safe, transforming into anemonin. The latter goes into inactive anemonic acid. Due to the presence of saponins, the plant contributes to the dilution of sputum in the body of the patient and its removal from the bronchi, the synthesis of corticosteroids is accelerated, the regulation of water-salt metabolism occurs, the activity of hormones is activated. Saponins prevent the formation of DNA in cancer cells, this prevents the proliferation of tumor cells.

The action of flavonoids is aimed at reducing the fragility of small capillaries, blood pressure is regulated, the heart rate returns to normal, and the function of the adrenal cortex is stimulated.

Use in traditional medicine

The healing properties of marsh marigolds have long been known. It has diuretic, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant properties. In folk medicine, the plant in the form of alcoholic or aqueous infusions is used for ailments of the liver and gallbladder. In combination with the plantain and coltsfoot of marigold flowers prepare antitussive drug (water decoction). Since ancient times, marsh herb has been used by people to treat cough, bronchitis, whooping cough, dropsy, scrofula and rheumatism, relieves menstrual pain in women, treats urinary tract ailments, has a soothing effect and heals neuroses.

Bog marigold is antiseptic. It is indicated for inflammations, burns and wounds of the skin, as it has wound healing and antimicrobial properties. Kaluzhnitsy leaves, scalded with boiling water and wrapped in gauze, are applied to damaged skin in the form of lotions and compresses. Broth wash the wounds. The rich content of vitamin C allows you to use calabash for the treatment of scurvy. Healing potions from this plant have a beneficial effect on the growth of nail plates, relieve fungal infections. Juice of fresh leaves remove warts, heal deep wounds. Kaluzhnitsa has a weak antitumor effect on the human body. Because of the presence of toxic substances, the marrow is consumed in small doses.

History reference

Translated from the Latin name of the plant - Сaltha - translated "bowl" or "basket" (these vessels resemble the open flower in appearance). Caltha was previously used as a name for calendula by Pliny and Virgil. Karl Linney also named this potting box.

Even in the times of Ancient Russia, Kaluzhnitsa got its name for “addiction” to grow in swamps and fairly wetted areas (kaluzhnitsa - from the word “Kaluga” or “puddle”). According to another version, the name of the plant is associated with the dialecticism “Kaluga”, meaning “swamp, swamp”.

Popular names for marsh marigolds: paddling pool, water snake, frog grass, oil, cow, yolk or greasy color, kurolep.

Literature

1.Krylov M. G. Herbs of life and their searchers. - M .: "The book on demand." - 342 s.

2. Uzhegov G.N. Official and traditional medicine. The most detailed encyclopedia. - M., 2011. - 1340 p.

3. Encyclopedic reference. Treatment with plants. - M .: Publishing House "ANS", 2005 p. - 1024 s.

Marsh marsh marigold: description, area, pharmacological properties

Kaluznitsa belongs to the family of buttercups., which, in turn, belong to a large genus of perennial grassy shrubs growing in wetlands and wetlands.

The name of the plant comes from the word “caltha palustris”, which translates from Latin as a vessel or bowl (an open flower resembles a bowl in shape). The word marigold is rooted in history. At the time of Ancient Russia, the plant was called Kaluga (from Old Slavonic Kalyuzh), which means a swamp or puddle. The people of the plant is called a frogbattle or a water snake, because of the love of water and marshland.

The stem of the marigold is branched and rather thick, about 3 cm in diameter. Smooth large leaves, buds of yellow color. Plant height is about 80 cm, sometimes it reaches the meter.

Calarium is found in the temperate zone, both hemispheres.It sometimes grows in the continental climate. The area is very widespread, from the Far East and Central Asia to Central Europe. In Russia, it is widespread except in the northern regions. On the territory of Russia there are several sanctuaries where the marigold grows and is safe. Reserves are scattered throughout Russia:

  • Chukotka
  • Sakhalin.
  • Kurile Islands.
  • Caucasus Mountains.

Kaluzhnitsa prefers raw meadows, river banks, swamps and ponds. There are varieties of marsh marigolds that grow in water, like water lilies.

Today, scientists have about 40 species of this plant. It is surprising that the territory of the countries of the former Soviet Union grows only 6 species. In medicine, only one species is used - marsh marigold, on the use and therapeutic properties of which we will discuss further.

Marsh marigold.

Used in medicine marsh marigold, is the most common variety, and also covers the largest area of ​​growth. Plants are found throughout Europe, in Siberia, in the Far East, in the Caucasus. In the south of Russia, in Kuban, marsh marigold is one of the most common plants. This is due to the presence of canals, rivers and other bodies of water.

Like the brethren, this type of plant is preferred by swampy marshy lowlands, shores of water bodies, marshy meadows and forests. This species is able to change depending on the place of growth, that is, there are forms growing on the shore, floating on the surface of the water or completely immersed in water.

It is important to know that kaluznitsa treat a number of poisonous plantsThis plant is especially toxic during the appearance of inflorescences and fruits. The whole above-ground part of the plant is poisonous, but for serious poisoning you need to consume about a kilogram of fresh fruits or leaves. Therefore, the plant remains dangerous to pets.

Kaluzhnitsa has found its use in pharmaceuticals and medicine. Because of its toxicity, it is dangerous for the body, so you should consult a doctor before use. Only a specialist can prescribe the dosage and regimen.

And also the plant is used as a spice.. The inflorescences are boiled in boiling water and marinated in vinegar. Marinated buds are added instead of capers in borscht, salads and casseroles. Rhizome is used as a flavored seasoning, is added to fish and meat dishes.

Growing and breeding

You can grow your potholes at home. Even an inexperienced gardener can take care of the plant. It should be remembered that in the wild plant prefers raw placestherefore on a site it is necessary to look for the shaded places with constant moisture. On a dry place, plants require constant watering. With a lack of moisture it blooms badly, the buds wither and lose their beauty.

When the bushes grow plants should be rejuvenated.

The easiest way of breeding marigolds is to divide the bush. The time for the procedure is better to choose in early April or September. During growth and flowering, the division procedure is possible, but undesirable. The plants will not die, but the buds and leaves will wither.

Shrubs are divided into parts of medium size. This allows you to achieve flowering in the first year after planting. With the help of bending down the stems, you can create beautiful decorative forms for the garden or landscape plot. Plants shoot arrows, which take root next year, in the spring of the outlet can be seated on the site.

It is also possible reproduction grains. The collected and peeled seeds are sown in late autumn or spring. Accordingly, they begin to emerge next spring or late summer.

Spring sowing last year's seeds involves the stratification, which consists of two stages

  • Keeping seeds at a temperature of + 10 ° C for about two weeks.
  • Two months the seeds are kept at a temperature of + 20 ° C ..

On the second floor, seeds sprout. Seedlings are slowly forming, and flowering begins after a few years.

Ornamental quality plant is not popular among gardeners, but recently used for decorating private ponds.

Bright flowers and lush leaves will decorate the pond or pond around the fountain in a landscape style. It is convenient to use marigold as a small and coastal plant, as it can grow at a depth of up to 10 cm. Florists are attracted to early and long-term flowering, as well as unpretentious cultivation.

Plus is the fact that marigold marigold grows easily and has a large intraspecific variety. And it is also considered a positive factor for the optional presence of a reservoir for growing a plant, ensuring abundant watering. The potted marigold can be grown in any corner of your garden or plot.

Kaluzhnitsa looks great both alone and next to other plants, If only the growing conditions are suitable. It is best to choose partner plants on the principle of flowering time. Kaluzhnitsa blooms 7 months a year, Therefore, neighboring plants need to be planted in the foreground. At the end of the flowering of neighbors, the flowerstrike in the background will create a background of constant flowering.

Moisture-loving beauty in the neighbors choose plants with powerful leaves and large flowers:

Description marsh marigolds

Marsh marigold (Caltha palustris) - herbaceous perennial plant, species of the genus Kaluzhnitsa of the family Buttercup (Ranunculaceae). Total family Kaluzhnitsa (Caltha) - unreadable from 3 to 40 species. On the territory of the former USSR 6 species grow.

The stalk of the marsh marsh fleshy, erect (or ascending and ascending), less often - lying (in this case it is easily rooted at the nodes), leafy, naked. Plant height from 3 to 40 cm or more. Cord-shaped roots, collected by a bundle.

The leaves of marsh marsh marsh are alternate, whole, reniform or heart-shaped, crenate or jagged-toothed along the edge, dark green, naked, shiny. Bottom leaves are large (sometimes up to 20 cm in diameter), on long fleshy petioles, stem ones - much smaller, on short petioles. Floral leaves sessile.

Marsh flowers of the marsh number up to 7 are located on long peduncles in the axils of the upper leaves. The perianth is simple, bright yellow, orange or golden, up to half a centimeter in diameter, the corolla consists of 5 leaves, each 25 mm long. Many stamens, pistils from 2 to 12. In the European part of Russia it blooms in April-May.

Fruits of marsh marsh marigold - mnogolistovka. The number of leaflets corresponds to the number of pestles in a flower. Leaflets have a spout at the end. The leaflet contains up to 10 brilliant black seeds (up to 2.5 mm in size), falling out of it after ripening (in May-June).

Marsh marigold. © free photos

Requirements for growing marsh marigolds

Location: marsh marigolds require open spaces with sufficient moisture. In this case, the most abundant bloom. But the shadow-penumbra is also endured if this shadow is created by deciduous trees and during the flowering period the area is illuminated by the sun.

The soil: Since marigolds in nature are plants of damp places, they need rich, well-moistened soil. With constant watering can grow in dry places.

Kaluzhnitsa marsh in the field. © stanze

Using marsh marigolds in garden design

Kaluzhnitsy irreplaceable near reservoirs, in damp places. One of the earliest floriferous flowering plants, in which the foliage grows and the whole summer remains fairly decorative. At registration of the shores of decorative ponds and streams, marigolds can be successfully used, creating juicy bright yellow spots both in clean plantings and in proximity to other plants.

It is advisable to select the types of marigolds, combined according to environmental needs, which complement each other in terms of flowering, color of flowering and vegetative plants. Planting of the marigold should be such that during flowering it is not obstructed by other plants, and after flowering, when it loses its decorative effect, species with late-growing leaves are in the foreground.

The best partners for marsh marigolds: The softest medunitse, Forget-me-not Alpine, Brunner, Krasodnev, Ostrich, Highlander of the Serpentine, Chinese Astilbe, Badan Thick, Khosta.

Features of growing marsh marigolds

Kaluzhnitsa is an unpretentious winter-hardy plant that does not require special attention, but likes to drink some water. Therefore, it is often necessary to water her bushes, pleasing charming flowers.

Kaluznitsa grows well in rich fertile soil, in the sun or in partial shade. A more abundant flowering of the marrows is observed at a sunny location. With a lack of moisture, the marigold flower blooms not for long and not so plentifully, quickly losing its decorative effect.

Lush bush marigolds eventually distributed in width, spreading to the sides due to creeping shoots. After 3-4 years, the marsh marigold grows heavily and becomes less decorative - then you need to rejuvenate the plant and transplant in combination with reproduction.

Marsh marigold. © Leo-seta

Reproduction of marsh marigolds

The most common method of breeding marigolds - the division of the bush. It is better to start the division in early spring or in September. At the height of the growing season, in principle, division is possible, however, the plant immediately leaves and drops leaves, although it does not die. The larger the delenka, the faster it will bloom and the more abundant the flowering will be. Very small delenki can bloom only in the second year.

To increase the reproduction rate of valuable ornamental forms of marsh marigolds, you can use such a method as bending the stems to the soil and fixing them with wire hooks. In most cases, the stems rooted in the nodes and by the autumn they manage to form several small rosettes, which can be separated next spring.

Marsh marigold. © Joshua Mayer

Sowing marsh marigolds is carried out with freshly harvested seeds ripening in June. When sown immediately after ripening, the seeds germinate at the end of summer; in the case of sowing before winter, shoots appear in spring. For spring sowing, phased stratification is recommended: about a month at 10 degrees, then two months at 18-20 degrees. Germination occurs at 18-20 degrees. Seedlings bloom in the second or third year. You can propagate by cuttings throughout the growing season.

Kaluznitsa refers to the remarkable primroses - heralds of spring. In nature, I think everyone is happy to watch the flowering in early spring of squat bushes of marigolds, forming bright and elegant places.

Plant description

Marsh marsh (Cáltha palústris)

Kaluzhnitsa is a herbaceous perennial wild-growing plant of the Buttercup family.

There are about 40 species of this species.

A characteristic feature of the marsh marigold is its height. The plant reaches up to 40 cm in height during germination in meadows and fields, and in the aquatic environment it reaches 3 m.

The stem is fleshy, leafy, naked, may be erect, rising, creeping or ascending. The root system is shallow, fibrous. The plant is slightly poisonous.
The leaves of marsh marigold are dark green, alternate, bare, heart-shaped with a jagged edge. On the back of the leaf are pronounced veins of red - blue color. The size of the sheet plate is not the same in the root zone. Leaves 15 - 20 cm in diameter, on long fleshy petioles. On the stem, they are smaller in size and on short stalks. In the upper part of the stem near the flowers leaves are sessile. With a long stay in the bright direct rays of the sun, the leaves curl into a tube.

Flowers 5 cm in diameter, mostly yellow, but there are orange, white and golden specimens. The flowers are arranged singly or in groups on long peduncles from the axils of the leaves of the upper part of the stem. The flowering period is April-May, the first flowering is observed from 8-10 years old.

In June - July, the fruit ripens - a multileaf with a small amount of seeds.

Зимостойкий вид хорошо переносит самые сильные морозы до -35°С. Влаголюбивые растения могут прорастать и на сухой почве при условии обильного полива.

Калужница тонкочашелистиковая или тонколепестная Caltha leptosepala

Калужница тонкочашелистиковая или тонколепестная Caltha leptosepala

Разновидность двухцветкового вида вырастает до 35 см в высоту. Стебель гладкий, прямой. Листья зелёные, гладкие, длиной до 10 см, с цельным или слегка резным краем, на черешках длиной 5 — 25 см. Blossoms are fine white flowers up to 2 cm in diameter with a bright yellow core. Separate petals of elongated oval shape. 1-2 flowers bloom. at the ends of long stalks (up to 30 cm).

Callozhnitsa floating (Caltha natans)

Callozhnitsa floating (Caltha natans)

Aquatic miniature herb with white, up to 4 cm in diameter, flowers. The leaf blade is floating, round in shape with smooth edges, 3-4 cm in diameter. Perfect for decorating artificial ponds and ponds.

Kaluzhnitsa membranacea (Caltha membranacea)

Kaluzhnitsa membranacea (Caltha membranacea)

Dense blooming form with small bright yellow flowers. Stem branched up to 30 cm in height. The leaves are large, 10-15 cm in size, dark green, round or reniform, on long 20-35 cm petioles. At the peak of flowering on one plant can bloom at the same time up to 20 flowers.

Marsh marsh (Caltha palustris)

Marsh marsh (Caltha palustris)

Perennial up to 60 cm in height, with numerous fibrous, cord-shaped roots. Near the root system, the stem, thickened at the apex, is reduced and branched. The bare stem is erect or rising. The leaves are dark green leathery, smooth and dense, with a jagged edge, heart-shaped at the base of the stem, on long petioles. Stem sessile bud-shaped leaves are smaller in size.

The flowers are bright yellow up to 4-5 cm in diameter, bloom in April-May, the flowering time is not more than 20 days, the fruits ripen in July. After flowering, the herbaceous plant grows heavily, with the leaf plates becoming darker in color. The plant is slightly poisonous.

This moisture-loving plant is found throughout the European part of Russia, Siberia, the Far East, Central Asia, mainly in swampy meadows, forests, along water bodies, along rivers and lakes.

Kaluzhnitsa two-flowered (Caltha biflora)

Kaluzhnitsa two-flowered (Caltha biflora)

Homeland - wet meadows and fields of North America. Compact bush about 8 - 10 cm in height. Green smooth heart-shaped leaves up to 7 cm in diameter. White flowers up to 2 cm in diameter, grow on long peduncles, towering above the plant. In May, flowering begins. The plant prefers light areas on wet soils.

Forest Kaluznitsa (Caltha sylvestris)

Forest Kaluznitsa (Caltha sylvestris)

Perennial with erect stem, grows to one and a half meters. Leaves reniform or rounded, up to 15 cm in diameter.

Kaluznitsa forest blooms with white flowers up to 3 cm in diameter, collected in groups of 5 to 15 pieces. The flowering period is April-May.

Prefers sunny or semi-shady areas with moist soil. Most often found in the Far East, Korea, and China.

Caluznitsa fistula (Caltha fistulosa)

Caluznitsa fistula (Caltha fistulosa)

The tallest herb of all representatives of the genus of marigolds. During the flowering period, the plant does not exceed 15 - 30 cm tall. After it is strongly drawn out and reaches 80 - 120 centimeters by the time the seed box is ripe.

The stem and branches are thick, hollow. The leaves are dark green, leathery, large, on long petioles. By July, the foliage grows heavily, with the leaf plates increasing to 10 - 15 cm. The flowering period is May-June, the peak of flowering occurs at the end of May and the beginning of June. Flowers loose, rich yellow, up to 5 - 7 cm in diameter, abundantly cover the bush. Prefers moist soil and shady areas of the garden.

White marigold (Caltha palustris var alba)

White marigold (Caltha palustris var alba)

Low compact perennial herb 15–20 cm tall. Requires at least 10 cm of space around it. Green smooth shiny leaves heart-shaped - rounded with a city edge. Small single white flowers with separate elongated petals and a yellow core.

Marsh marsh terry (Caltha palustris plena)

Marsh marsh terry (Caltha palustris plena)

Compact spherical bush reaches 30 cm in height and 30 - 45 cm in width. Multi-petal terry flowers are bright yellow. Kaluzhnitsa terry begins to bloom in May. The leaves are heart-shaped - rounded, dark green. Prefers a shadow and a penumbra with a damp soil.

Kaluzhnitsa marsh lush (Caltha palustris subsp laeta)

Kaluzhnitsa marsh lush (Caltha palustris subsp laeta)

Perennial, with rising or ascending bare loosely branched stem, grows up to one and a half meters in height. At the base of the stem leaves are larger, deeply heart-shaped, as if covering the stem. The remaining leaves, 3–8 cm in size, are kidney-shaped or heart-like crenate.

After flowering foliage grows, the sheet plate reaches 30 centimeters. The flowers are bright yellow, loose, bloom from May to October.

Kaluzhnitsa multifoot (Caltha polypetala)

Kaluzhnitsa multifoot (Caltha polypetala)

Homeland varieties - wetlands of the mountains of the Caucasus and Asia. Due to the violent growth of perennial acquires a spherical shape up to 15 - 30 cm in height and width. The leaves are dark - green, the flowers are yellow - golden, up to 6-8 cm in diameter, flowering period is May - June.

Caluznitsa marsh squat (Caltha palustris ssp procumbens)

Caluznitsa marsh squat (Caltha palustris ssp procumbens)

Stem creeping or ascending, naked, slightly leafy, with large green heart-shaped leaves. The flowers are yellow solitary, up to 5 - 8 cm in diameter.

Plant Care

Kaluzhnitsa extremely unpretentious plant. Frost-resistant, does not need additional shelter for the winter. When planting marigolds in dry soil, it is necessary to provide additional watering.

It grows equally well in open areas and in the shade, but in sunny areas there is a brighter and more active flowering. A very moisture-loving plant, with a decrease in watering, the marigold flower begins to bloom less often. The bush grows in 3 - 4 years, to preserve the decorative it is necessary to plant the plants by dividing the bush.

Planting, growing and breeding

For growing bog marsh marigolds, special conditions are not needed, it is enough to ensure a plant with good watering and not to expose it to strong sunlight. In this case, marigolds will delight with beautiful early flowers and abundant green foliage. It is necessary to plan the planting of the marigold so that it does not overlap other garden crops.

Plant Rooting Stimulants

Necessary drugs to accelerate rooting can be purchased in special gardening shops. When choosing, special attention should be paid to the composition, shelf life, method of use, storage conditions and precautions. In any case, the purchase of half of consist of chemistry. A more environmentally friendly and less costly tool can be prepared independently at home.

Stimulator, prepared on the basis of willow twigs, is a means of "growth hormones", which are abundantly present in willow cells. To prepare a stimulant, it is necessary to cut 4 to 6 twigs of willow into 3–5 cm long pieces, pour them into the pan, pour cold water on them.

The smaller the pieces, the more nutrients the stimulator will contain. The pot is put on a slow fire and cooked for 20-40 minutes. After that, remove the pan from the heat, wrap a towel and leave for 10 - 12 hours. In prepared containers, through cotton wool, a fine sieve or gauze, pour the resulting broth, which is stored in a cool room for no more than 30 days.

The obtained undiluted infusion is watered with transplanted plants, young seedlings, seeds before sowing.

Apply other stimulants to improve the root formation of cuttings: honey, dissolved in water, sliced ​​potato tuber, aloe juice, yeast.

Applications marsh marigolds

Despite its poisonous qualities, the plant is actively used in alternative medicine and homeopathy.

Decoction and infusion of leaves of marigolds are taken in case of metabolic disorders, fever, anemia, cough, bronchitis, asthma, diseases of the genitourinary system, cold, jaundice and diathesis.

Infusion of grass flowers used in ascites. Baths with the addition of grass decoction are used in the treatment of rheumatism and catarrhal diseases. To speed up the healing of small wounds, ulcers and burns, apply fresh leaves of marigold, pretreated with boiling water.

How is the poisoning of the temples

The reaction of the body to mall poisoning - headache, dizziness, ringing and tinnitus, malfunction of the digestive tract (bloating, diarrhea, colic), impaired normal functioning of the kidneys (frequent urination, the appearance of protein in the urine, change in urine color).

When marigold juice falls on the skin of the body or mucous membrane, burns, burning, boils, allergic reactions occur.

First aid for poisoning - gastric lavage and the adoption of a laxative. For burns, the affected skin area is thoroughly washed with warm water and treated with an antiseptic. To reduce the allergic reaction take an antihistamine.

Collection and storage

All parts of the plant are used in alternative medicine. The aboveground part of the plant is harvested during the period of active flowering. Flowers and leaves are dried, laid out on a flat surface in a well-ventilated closed or darkened room, turning over periodically, or dried in an oven at 50 - 60 ° C.

The root system is removed after the flowering period, closer to the fall, well washed from the ground, cut into pieces, dried and dried in an oven.

Cooked grass is transferred to linen bags or bark boxes. Shelf life is not more than two years.

Application in landscape design

Kaluznitsa is well suited for decoration of the coastline in artificial reservoirs, as well as decorating parks on wet soils. It develops equally well both in open areas and in partial shade. At registration of man-made ponds and reservoirs the marigold is perfectly decorate the water surface. The decorative marsh marigold should be planted so that at the time of flowering it is not blocked by other plants, and after flowering the lush greens favorably emphasize the bright flowers of the plants of the adjacent garden plantations.

The flowers of the marsh marigold and its large leaves combine well with Alpine forget-me-not, lungwort, mountaineer, astilba, bergamous, ostrich.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send