Copena — perennial that feels great in the shade, and therefore can be a good complement to a dense garden. Garden lily of the valley (the second name is kupeny) is ideal for creating designs in a natural environment, especially considering the plant's ability to grow rapidly.
In total, there are about 50 species of kupen, and various varieties differ not only in the color and shape of flowers, but also in the size of the bush itself (for example, the giant Chinese kupen grows to a height of 120 cm). Professional growers and amateur growers prefer to grow fragrant, medicinal, whorled, undersized or broad-leaved.
If you decide to plant the plant described in your garden, then the following information will be especially useful.
Place for landing kupeny
Virtually any soil composition is suitable for the growth and normal development of the kupene, but it looks best when planted in partial shade or shade. The only requirement for soil - compulsory fertility. On scanty areas, which are also located in the open sun, the garden lily of the valley will not look so spectacular, and the buoy grows in such conditions much worse.
When choosing a site for planting, it is necessary to take into account the depth of groundwater, because this plant does not tolerate stagnant fluids. If you plant a cupola under the trees, then it will rather quickly save you from weeds, since the dense thickets formed by it do not give them any chance of life.
Planting and breeding kupeny
Despite the fact that many experts talk about the possibility of planting buried in open ground at any time of the year, it is best to do it at the end of summer, after clearing the chosen place from weeds and digging the soil 20-25 cm deep. In addition, a little ash can be added to the soil and mineral fertilizer can be applied, at the rate of 10–15 g per bush.
A drainage layer is also poured into the finished landing pits (crushed stone and sand are excellent for this role), and then compost is added, which is pre-mixed with the top layer of earth. Further developments depend on your chosen breeding method.
Division of rhizomes
One of the most popular variants of vegetative propagation of the garden lily of the valley is the division of its rhizome, and the resulting tree should not be too small.
The landing process itself is as follows: a part of the rhizome with a stem or a kidney is horizontally sunk into the ground by 8-10 cm, after which the earth is compacted above them and abundantly moistened. In the first two years after such a landing, the kupena develops very slowly, and more intensive growth begins only with the full survival of the root.
If you decided to propagate the cupola by planting part of the rhizome of the donor plant, then the soil should be dug over the selected site (30 cm deep), remove all weeds and loosen it well. It is also useful to add wood ash, organic and mineral fertilizers.
After planting, a young bush should be protected as much as possible from excessive attention.
In addition to vegetative propagation, seed is often used. However, the seeds of the kupena are very rarely tied, since the pollination of a plant can occur only with the help of long-trunk bumblebees. The exception is the broadleaf lily of the valley, in which almost every year new fruits appear in large numbers.
In general, seeds lose their germination quickly and need to be stratified, but when choosing this method it is better to carry out a landing closer to winter.
At one place the plant can grow up to 15 years.
Simply put, when answering the question “How does a buried breed multiply?”, It is impractical to talk about the possibility of a seed variant.
Kupena in landscape design and combination with other plants
The thick ornamental thickets formed by the activity of the bupenes make the plant a welcome guest in any garden or flower garden. The garden lily of the valley will perfectly hide all empty and unsightly parts of the territory and will make such places a real paradise.
It is also good when it grows in the shade of trees, which is why it is often used for planting tree trunks of garden trees. However, the plant will be able to help with the organization of rockeries, becoming an excellent central addition among short-growing fellows (for example, daisies, asters or pansies).
Using a bath in landscape design, you will definitely not lose, because even after it has flowered, the gracefully curved leaves of the plant will maintain the overall composition in a new color.
“Solomnova print” will be an excellent background for daylilies and irises, and in the general planting with tulips will help to hide the fading of spring bulbous. In addition, the kupena is great for the neighborhood with other plants, which, like her, prefer penumbra.
These include various types of ferns, a diverter and morrozniki. By the way, these plants are often chosen for the role of neighbors for kupeny.
Kupena looks good in cutting, so that it is often used to create bouquets or whole flower arrangements.
Care of the bath in the process of growing
After dropping the bathhouse at the dacha or in the garden, you must provide her with good care in the open field. This concept means timely watering and mulching of the soil, quality weed control, as well as regular plant nutrition.
Watering and mulching the soil
The selection of watering regime depends largely on what kind of garden lily you grow. For example, a multi-color whip should be watered regularly, but in moderate doses, constantly maintaining the soil moisture, but not flooding the plant itself.
At the same time, the kupu is broad-leaved, medicinal and pink, does not need frequent watering and tolerates long-term droughts well. Therefore, it is necessary to water these types of baths only when there was no precipitation in a particular region for a long time, and the soil is very dry.
If weeds interfere with other plants practically all their life, then the coupena suffers from them only in the first few years after planting. A young plant is not strong enough to cope with climbing parasites, but once the lily of the valley begins to grow, the weeds will have no chance.
However, so that the saplings do not die even at the initial stages of their development, well inspect the place of future planting and carefully collect all the weeds. Protecting the plant will help and rinsing its rhizome, which is performed before the direct placement of the buried in the ground.
As we have already mentioned, bupena is quite unpretentious to the composition of the soil and can grow on depleted soils, but if you want to get a beautiful and full of strength plant, then you should plant it in the ground, rich in humus. When planting in fertile soil (including fertilized when planting plants), lilies of the valley can not feed a few years.
Otherwise, when you got a very scanty territory, for rapid growth, you will have to purchase complex and mineral fertilizers that are applied to the soil twice per season: the first time in early spring, and the second during flowering. In addition, even on the earth rich in vitamins, the plant feels better if once a year, in the spring, it is additionally fed with organic fertilizers: manure or compost.
Resistance to pests and diseases
Perhaps, kupena is almost the only plant that is highly resistant to natural pests and diseases.
Garden lily rarely suffers from such misfortunes, but in dry weather it can still be attacked by snails, slugs, and in some cases caterpillars of the sawfly, which in a matter of minutes are capable of completely destroying the leaves of the plant.
That is why it is so important not to miss the moment of the appearance of insects in order to begin the correct struggle with them.
Successful cultivation of kupeny involves the fulfillment of another requirement, which is relevant in preparing for the winter season. The ground part of the garden lily, with the onset of cold weather, simply dies off, and the rhizome calmly waits frost in the ground.
However, this feature is relevant only in a temperate climate, so that nothing more is required of you. However, if cultivation of kupena occurs in areas with severe frosts, the plant should be provided with additional shelter. It can be done with sawdust, peat or lapnik.
In short, the cultivation of garden lily of the valley will bring the desired result only if all the recommendations regarding planting and plant care are strictly followed.
Flowers appear at the very beginning of summer, when there are still few flowering plants in the garden, and delight the eye with its white color and similarity with miniature bells. Inflorescence bisexual, collected in small groups in the axils of the leaves
Rhizome horizontal, it clearly shows the traces of dead shoots, resembling a seal.
Note! The second name, bought by the British, is “Solomon's seal” for thickening on the roots of a plant. The word “kupena” itself was formed from the ancient Greek “knee” and “set” for a long rhizome consisting of many joints. In Russia, it has many names - wolfberry, raven eye, hellebore, core, wolf's fang.
This perennial not only has decorative qualities, but is also a powerful medicine that can cure or alleviate the symptoms of many diseases.
Kupena: planting and care in the open field
The plant grows well on any soil and prefers settles in partial shade or shade. In nature, it grows under the canopy of forests and feels great in shady places.
He is a close relative of the lily of the valley in May, and was once part of the Landyshev family, now abolished. Now belongs to the family of Asparagus.
Lily of the valley close relative kupeny
The plant does not like close to the groundwater and die when the water stagnates.
Note! In places that are suitable for bathing, it quickly grows and begins to squeeze out the neighboring plants. In the garden it is very good to plant it under the trees, where it grows violently and eliminates the need to regularly weed out.
When to replace the bath? In principle, it is possible to plant a cupola in an open ground at any time of the year, since the plant has excellent survival. But it is best to transplant in late summer or early autumn, when the roots have gained a good supply of nutrients.
The seeds of the kupena reproduce very rarely, since for pollination the plants need long-trunk bumblebees, without them the ovary will simply not be. An exception is the kupen broadleaf, whose seeds ripen perfectly without these insects. Also, planting material quickly lose their germination and need stratification, and the cultivation process will take several years.
Growing kupen in pots
The fastest and most productive process of breeding lily of the valley garden (so-called amateur gardeners) - the division of the bush.
Planting kupeny and further care are very simple:
- At the site of the intended landing, a planting pit is dug, into which drainage and complex fertilizers are introduced.
- The pit is filled with fertile soil and compacted.
- Rhizomes are dug into the soil by 8-10 cm and around the bush they form a watering groove, into which 5 liters of water are poured.
- In the first couple of years of life in a new place after disembarkation, the bush develops slowly, and later with full rooting, the bush begins to grow and grow in width.
- Care is reduced to regular weeding and watering.
Interesting! Since kupena is a perennial plant, its roots and buds winter well in the ground. Numerous leaves, forming a dense carpet, die off for the winter, and grow back in the spring.
The ability of the garden lily of the valley to quickly fill shady garden corners, inevitably displacing weeds, undemanding to the soil and watering make this plant indispensable in landscape design.
Care for the bath after the growth of the bush is practically not required. The plant lives by itself and requires only restrictions in freedom, because, growing in different directions, it is able to flood all around.
Shrubs have high cold resistance, do not freeze and do not require any shelter for the winter, natural snow cover is quite enough.
Important! It is not necessary to plant a plant in a valley filled with spring meltwater, as garden lilies of the valley cannot stand the stagnant moisture and may even die.
Kupena: diseases and pests
Kupena is highly resistant to common plant diseases. During cold and rainy periods, the plant may be subjected to powdery mildew or gray rot. In this case, remove the affected areas and spray the remaining green mass with a solution of fungicide, observing the dosage given in the instructions.
The sawfly of Solomon, capable of gnawing leaves to skeletal veins, is a dangerous pest for the kupene. Larvae eat green mass, which lay small flying flies. Fight this scourge with insecticides.
Caterpillar pest kupeny
Sometimes plants are attacked by pests such as caterpillars and slugs affecting leaves and young shoots. In this case, you can try to use folk repellents, but it is much easier to apply a comprehensive means of pests and spray them with plants.
Useful properties of the bath
Garden lily has medicinal properties, contains a number of useful substances for the treatment of diseases: cardiac glycosides and flavonoids, ascorbic acid and alkaloids. In folk medicine, the plant is used to treat acute respiratory infections and bronchitis, pneumonia and rheumatism, fibroids and gout. Compresses with infusion kupeny perfectly cope with bruises and wounds, decoctions help in the fight against diseases of the stomach, including an ulcer.
Useful properties of the bath
Important! To combat boils and pimples, an alcoholic infusion of the plant is used, and to refresh and whiten the skin - rhizome juice. Garden lily helps in stopping bleeding, as an anesthetic and anti-inflammatory agent.
Despite the fact that the plant is poisonous, with proper heat treatment, poisons lose their poisonous ability and thus allow the use of products with a bath in a first-aid kit, use broths and infusions in the treatment of various diseases.
Thus, the garden lily is not just a beautiful plant in landscape design, but also a useful shrub that can cure many ailments. In addition, the kupena is a weed fighter. Do not many gardeners dream of such a flower?
Description kupuyu drug
Medicinal kupena (Polygonatum officinale) - herbaceous perennial plant up to 60 cm high. Popular names: wolf eyes, wolf grass, wolf apples, wolf berry, wolf berries, raven eyes, weed eyes, raven, smooth eyes, crane pods, strawberry seal, crane , kupena-lupena, helmeritsa forest, hare cabbage, signet, cockerel, tirlich, deaf lily of the valley and other names.
It’s worth starting the description with the fact that the medicinal bath (Polygonatum officinale) is assigned to the family of lilies. The stem and rhizome of the plant are knotty, at the top the stem is bent by an arc, the leaves are alternate and turned in one direction.
The leaves are bathed oblong-oval, ovate, green above and gray-green below. The fruit is kupeny - a bluish-black spherical berry. The flowers are white, naked, drooping, in the bosom of leaves of 1 or 2. It blooms from May to June.
Cupena is growing throughout the European part of Russia and the CIS, in Western and Eastern Siberia. Growing kupena among shrubs in coniferous and deciduous forests.
For the preparation of medicinal products from kupene raw material is grass (leaves, flowers, stems) and rhizome. The grass is harvested from May to June, and the rhizomes - in the fall.
The rhizomes of the medicinal kupena contain mucus, starch, ascorbic acid, alkaloids, arabinose, fructose, and glucose. All parts of the medicinal kupena contain cardiac glycosides. Vitamin C and glycosides are found in the leaves.
Healing properties of the bath pharmacy
Traditional medicine uses the medicinal properties of the pharmaceutical kupeni for dropsy, hemorrhoids, colds, rheumatism, back pain, edema of various origin, diabetes, hernia, and also as an enveloping, blood-purifying, anti-inflammatory, hemostatic, emetic, emollient and expectorant. Fresh leaves of the plant are also applied externally, applying them to wounds, and boiled - in the form of poultices for bruises.
- The decoction and tincture of the rhizomes of the kupena are indicated for bronchitis, pneumonia, headache, inflammation of the upper respiratory tract, peptic ulcer, osteochondrosis, arthritis, heart ailments, gout. The juice of fresh roots helps to remove blemishes on the face and freckles. Just do not forget about the possibility of skin burns!
- Rhizomes kupeny, infused with alcohol 40% (or vodka) is used in the form of droplets with scabs and pimples on the body.
- The decoction of the root of the medicinal drug is applied externally in the form of lotions, compresses, and washing with bleeding abrasions, bruises, gouty and rheumatic pains.
- Растение купена лекарственная может использоваться для лечения острых и хронических гинекологических заболеваний.
- Небольшие дозы отвара из корневищ применяются для лечения язвенной болезни желудка и двенадцатиперстной кишки.
- Отвар из корневища купены способствует рассасыванию синяков. Рекомендуется также при ревматизме и подагре.
However, it is necessary to take into account that the plant is bought - poisonous and great care is required for internal use!
Many-flowered or fragrant kupena
Multicolored kupena belongs to the family of the Lily of the Valley, has a rather modest appearance, but it looks elegant. Plant Solomon's seal prefers shady places. If the flower is planted on too sunny a plot, its growth may not occur so quickly, and an adult plant will not please you with its pomp. It is recommended to plant a flower under a tree - it will look beautiful in the form of thickets.
There are no more than 50 species of kupene distributed throughout the world, mainly concentrated in Asia and Europe. Two main varieties are grown in Russia: a fragrant or medicinal kupena used in pharmacology, and a multi-flowered kupena, often used for decorative purposes.
This plant is distinguished by a rather powerful root system, several upright stems, often located at a slight inclination. In height, they sometimes reach 1.3–1.5 m. The broad lanceolate leaves on the stems grow vertically, as a result of which it seems that they are planted on it. And for the size of the leaf, small tubular flowers looking out of the sinuses, looking down, are often not noticed. They have a pale yellow color at the edges, descending on the "no" to the center. In some species, the petals in cream and pink scales with a double-edged frame. At the end of flowering, fruits appear on the coupe, which cannot be consumed: they are toxic to humans.
The fragrant kupena refers to perennial plants, does not reach a height of 70 cm: average values for a bush are 40-60 cm. Leaves range from 10 to 14 cm, width - 2-5 cm. On the back side they are rough and dull, with silver shine, on the front glossy, dark green.
The plant has a branched and long root. There are 1-2 white flowers on a pedicle, opening in late May. Dark blue fruit berries appear in late June. In nature, medicinal bath can be found on the edges and between shrubs, in coniferous forests.
Plant any soil, but if you want growth to occur rapidly, it is better to give preference to a dense, fertile land. Poor soil inhibits flower development, and it looks painful. Wet soil is well suited, but it should not be allowed to stagnate moisture.
Choose for planting a place where the groundwater is deep. Did you know? The plant got its name “Solomon print” due to its unique healing properties and unusual shape. According to legend, King Solomon awarded the seal with his seal for the opportunity to cope with many diseases.
Before planting, it is recommended to fertilize the soil of the garden bed for cultivation with the use of mineral fertilizer (15 g per shrub) or wood ash. In the hole is to fill the drain, add compost, mixed with the top layer of earth.
Description kupeny: varieties and varieties
Multicolor Kupena belongs to the lily family. Koupena is the owner of a graceful curved stem, on which are two bright rows of bright oval green leaves, and small white flowers bloom in their axils.
In nature, there are about 50 species kupeny. Most often you can find 3 of them.
Medicinal kupena. It grows among forests and shady bushes of the northern hemisphere. Does not exceed half a meter in height, blooms in late spring - early summer. The fruits of medicinal kupeny have a strong emetic effect.
Scented kupena. It grows up to 80 cm in height, has bluish-green leaves. Fragrant kupena blooms in mid-May and blooms for 5 weeks. As a habitat in nature, this flower chooses the slopes of low mountains and hills, shady thickets of forests and forest glades.
Koupena many-flowered. This variety is more often than other growers planted in pots and in open ground. Color many-flowered kupena in early summer.
It is interesting in its structure rhizome kupeny. It consists of links, and when last year's sprouts die, in its place remains a small platform covered with cork cloth. By its appearance, it resembles a seal, which gave the second name “Solomon's seal” to kupene. According to legend, King Solomon awarded this seal for his healing properties. After all, infusions of root kupeny are known for their anti-inflammatory and wound-healing effects.
Attention. All parts are poisonous.
It is possible to land a bath for any soil, since it is absolutely not demanding. But if you want the plant to look perfect, it is best to transfer the cultivation to the shade, on fertile, dense soil. In the sun, the bath will grow a little worse and look less impressive. When planting in open ground, it is desirable that groundwater come close to the surface. Watering is needed regularly, but the plant tolerates stagnant moisture. Best of all, it bathes itself in the shade of trees, forming lush thickets, in which even weeds do not survive.
Before planting, kupeny in the open ground, first prepare the beds. Drainage from rubble or sand is poured into the harvested hole, and compost is added to the soil.
The cultivation of kupene from seeds in garden floriculture is practically not found, because pollination of this flower can occur only with the help of long-trunk bumblebees. Seeds are planted in late autumn, and sprouts appear in spring, and sometimes even only for the 2nd year. In addition, a seed plant can lose maternal symptoms. These plants begin to bloom only in the 3rd year, and sometimes on the 5th.
Fertilizer and dressing
If you planted a bucket in fertile soil, then for good development it is enough to apply fertilizer once a year. To this end, in the spring they pour organic matter (manure or compost) and some mineral fertilizers into the soil. This will be enough for the development and flowering of the kupeny.
The easiest and most effective way of breeding kupeny - division.
The flower can be planted in open ground at any time of the year, but it is best to do it in late summer or early autumn. Place for planting must be cleaned of weeds, dig up to 25-20 cm in depth. The root of the cup is articulated and very fragile, therefore it is very easy to divide it. Delenki with a bud or stem are planted into the soil to a depth of 8-9 cm. They are located horizontally.
The first couple of years the growth of the flower will be slow, until the root finally takes root, then the bump begins to grow rapidly. It is recommended to divide the bathhouse once every 3-4 years, planting delenki at the same place, otherwise the bathing can crush their neighbors in the garden.
Diseases and pests
Kupena, the landing and care of which does not bring any trouble, is equally pleased with the almost complete absence of diseases. This flower is bypassed and pests, only occasionally in the dry time or in the second half of summer you can find slugs and some caterpillars on its leaves. But this problem is easily solved with the help of "Intavira" or any other analogues.
In appearance similar to the lily of the valley. Plant height ranges from 10 cm to 1.5 m. The rhizome is multi-ridged, woody, mostly horizontally close to the soil surface. On the rhizome there are rounded traces with a depressed middle - the so-called seal of Solomon. According to legend, it was left by the king thanks to the healing properties of the plant. From these marks is determined by the return of the plant.
Numerous growing points release stems to the surface. They are ribbed, covered with a thin smooth skin of a green or reddish shade. Arcuate shoots are covered with large sessile leaves, arranged alternately. The shape of the sheet plate is oval, the edges are smooth, the tip is pointed. The leaves are covered with embossed veins running vertically.
When it blooms
Flowering occurs in May-June. Snow-white bell-shaped buds appear in the leaf axils. They are collected in whorls, hang down on the bottom edge of the stem, exude a rich pleasant aroma. After pollination, fruits appear: rounded berries of a reddish hue, which become blue-black as they ripen. Each berry contains 1-9 seeds. Be careful - they are poisonous.
Growing kupeny from seeds
Seeds kupeny photo
Perhaps seed and vegetative reproduction kupeny.
Growing kupeny from seeds is a rather troublesome process, but it allows you to immediately get a large number of seedlings.
- Collect ripe fruit, remove the seeds, rinse the pulp.
- Hold the seeds in the vegetable section of the refrigerator for about 1 month.
- Sow in a container with a sand-peat mixture and keep at an air temperature of + 2-5 ° C for 3 months.
- The next 3 months, the crops should be kept warm (about 20-23 ° C).
- Then again keep in cool about 3 months - at this stage the seeds will begin to germinate.
Kupena seed seedling photos
- Sprouts develop slowly. Grow at an air temperature of 20-23 ° C, the lighting must be diffused, moisten the soil.
- Landing in the open ground spend the spring. Flowering occurs in the 3-4th year of growth.
Reproduction by dividing the bush
Vegetative reproduction spend in late summer or early autumn.
Rhizome division is the easiest and most effective way of reproduction. To divide the bushes should be every 3-4 years, otherwise the kupena will grow strongly and will drown out their neighbors. Dig a bush, gently divide into parts. Delenki should be large, contain a segment of rhizome with growth buds and part of the stem.
How to plant seedlings kupeny
Delenki, as well as plants grown from seeds, are planted in the same way.
- Dig the area to the depth of the spade bayonet, get rid of weeds, level the soil.
- Recommend to make complex mineral fertilizers, compost, ash. Add sand to dense, heavy soil.
- When planting, place the rhizome horizontally, deepen by 8-9 cm.
- Between plantings, keep a distance of about 20 cm. Seal the soil, water.
Delenki will settle down for about 2 years, and then the bush will begin to grow and give flowering.
Grows best in the shade. On a sunny plot develops more slowly.
Watering and loosening the soil
Water only with severe drought.
To preserve moisture and to avoid the formation of a crust on the surface of the soil, the plot should be mulched. Loosen the soil is not recommended, so as not to damage the roots of the plant. Carefully tear out the weeds.
If the soil is fertile, it is enough to introduce complex mineral fertilizer or organic matter in early spring. Fertilize poor soil in spring and flowering period.
Pharmaceutical or medicinal bath is fragrant Polygonatum odoratum
Pharmaceutical or medicinal bath is also fragrant Polygonatum odoratum photo
Kupena 30-65 cm high. Ribbed stems are covered with oval-shaped leaves. Flowering starts in mid-late May and lasts about 5 weeks. Flowers white, bell-shaped form.
Kupena whorled Polygonatum verticillatum
Whorled Kupena Polygonatum verticillatum variety ‘Rubrum’ photo
Plant height is 30-60 cm. The leaves are sessile, the lower ones are alternately attached, the upper ones are collected in whorls of 4-8 pieces each. Leaf length is 10-17 cm, width - 1.5 cm. Flowering begins in June and July.
Polygonatum multifilón multiflora
Polygonatum Multiflórum multiflowered photo
Plant height is about 1 m. The leaves are arranged in two rows. Small white flowers 1-4 are collected in the axils of the leaves. It grows best in the shade, loves moisture.
Kupena Pratty Polygonatum prattii
Kupena Pratty Polygonatum prattii photo
Beautiful plant with placers purple bells, collected in thick paniculate hands. The leaves are lanceolate, elongated, and have a peculiar greenish-silver color. Stems are dark purple.
Kupena in your garden: the benefits
The advantages of this perennial for a gardener and amateur grower are the simplicity of the plant, the possibility of planting it in shady places, dense gardens:
- it perfectly hides empty places of a flower bed that are unsuitable for other flowers,
- it is often planted as a design for pristvolny circles,
- kupena perfectly complements stunted plants on a bed,
- even after the end of flowering the garden lily of the valley will be a wonderful element of garden design - the background for irises, lilies and other flowering plants,
- The plant multiplies by dividing the rhizomes, so unpretentious in the care, grows quickly, thereby displacing weeds.
Choosing a landing site
When planning the landscape of the site, do not forget the advice of experienced flower growers: it is advised to plant the carnival closer to the hedges and bushes - to grow, the tall stems of the flower sometimes lose their attractiveness and become bare. In one place the flower grows from 12 to 15 years.
It is better to plant the flower in a place where there will be no direct sunlight.
The soil should be fertile, moderately moist, fertilized with mineral fertilizers, ash.
Note: the close occurrence of groundwater adversely affects plants.
The area intended for planting the plant must be prepared in advance: the soil should be treated from weeds and their seeds, dig up to a depth of 25-30 cm.
Landing in the ground
It is more expedient to plant a multicore flower in the open ground in late summer or in early spring, before the first frosts have occurred.
Kupenu is planted in pre-prepared planting pits: a little sand mixed with rubble is placed on the bottom, and the top drainage is covered with a layer of soil mixed with compost.
The distance from one flower to another should not be less than 20 cm - 25-30 cm will be optimal.
Legend has it that the wisest King Solomon himself appreciated the amazing properties of this flower. Traditional medicine kupena medicinal known as hemostatic and anti-inflammatory agent used in osteochondrosis, gout.
Broths were famous for the therapeutic effect stomach ulcer and respiratory diseases.
Juice of stems and leaves is effective for purulent rashes on the skin, eczema.
The fruits of this medicinal herb are used in medicine as an emetic.
This plant contains many useful substances, but at the same time, the rhizomes and fruits are poisonous and, if they are not properly metered, can harm health.
This method is the most simple and common. Rhizomes have a cranked appearance, they have marks from dead stalks, which are called seals. They are necessary to determine the age of the flower. Since the rhizomes are quite fragile, their division should be done carefully. By August - September, kidney renewal may already be noticeable. The division is usually performed in early September or early March. This event is not recommended to carry out more often 1 time in 3 years. In addition, the flower will be updated and you will receive a new planting material, the division will allow you to control the growth of the culture.
Important! The plant is resistant to diseases and pests, but at the end of the summer slugs can attack it. In order to prevent this, be sure to process the culture with the “Inta-vir” preparation. It is necessary to plant sprouts in pits with a depth of maximum 8 cm, while they should be placed horizontally. The distance between seedlings should be no less than 20 cm. After planting, mulch should be laid on the soil. During the first few years the growth of the flower will be slow, but then it will begin to rapidly grow upwards.
How to care for a plant
If you want the baths to always delight you with a beautiful view, you need to know how it is planted and taken care of in the open field. Watering and caring for the soil. The plant does not need constant and thorough care. Watering should be carried out only during droughts; during other periods, the baths will be fed with rainwater and groundwater. To avoid a crust on the ground after the irrigation procedure, it is necessary to mulch the shrub. Loosening is not recommended, as it is possible to damage the plant's root system - it is quite fragile and is located close to the surface. To fight weeds can only be the first few years, after the end of this period, the bushes grow and do not give a chance to break through the weeds.
If kupena grows in fertile soil, one fertilizer per year will suffice. Organic fertilizers, such as manure or compost, are used as top dressing. Also mineral fertilizers are added in a small amount.
Kupena reacts negatively to frequent transplants. This plant will feel great in one place for a long time, up to 20 years. If, however, transplantation is necessary (for example, to obtain seed material), do not disturb the shrubs with obsessive care - gradually it will regain its strength.
Use in landscape design
Kupena in landscape design is used quite often. The plant gives the original fresh look unsightly areas, creating an extraordinary comfort in them.
Kupena forms dense ornamental thickets, and covers well empty and unsightly areas. Since Kupena is a shade-loving plant, gardeners often plant trees and trees near the tree trunks.
Tall kupena looks good in the central part of the infield, for example, in rockeries with flowers such as pansies, daisies, irises and daylilies. Kupenu is planted next to plants such as fern and hellebore in order to protect the plant from sunlight.
Купена пользуется огромной популярностью среди дизайнеров, благодаря своему красивому раскидистому виду: даже после цветения растение привлекает к себе внимание. The flower will be an original decoration of the rocky garden, it will harmoniously look with such flowers as daylilies, hosts, irises, tulips, forest geraniums. Floral compositions also do not do without bathing - it fits very well into any bouquet. Once you have become familiar with the description of the culture, the features of its reproduction and care, you will not be difficult to grow a beautiful and unusual plant on your site.
Views for garden cultivation
Kupena is a very popular plant, species for garden cultivation are highly decorative. But not all of them have a set of useful properties. In the gardens, planting of the following types of bathing is possible: caring for them in the open field will not be difficult:
Kupena medicinal (pharmacy). Plant height up to half a meter. The leaves are large, located on a granular stalk. Buds are formed on an inclined stem on long stalks. Blossoms in May and June.
Koupena many-flowered. The height of the bush is about 100 centimeters. The leaves are oval. Flowers of 5-6 pieces are formed in the leaf axils. Blooms throughout June, after flowering forms the berries of dark blue color. The variety of this species Varieregatta, with white stripes at the tips of the leaves, is particularly decorative.
Koupena fragrant. The leaves of this species have a bluish tinge. There are varieties with crimson bases and streaks. Plant height about 80 centimeters. Flowering continues throughout May and the first decade of June.
Koupena whorled. Plant height from 30 to 60 centimeters. The leaves are lanceolate, up to 17 centimeters long, with pointed edges, light green. The upper leaves are collected in whorls of 5-8 pieces. White flowers, elongated, hang on long peduncles.stony soil. The bush grows no more than 20 centimeters. Ovate leaves, pubescent below. It produces single shoots, in the axils of the leaves of which white flowers are formed.
Koupena is plentiful. In nature, it grows in coniferous and deciduous forests among shrubs and shady edges. Plant height is about 50 centimeters. The leaves are located on two sides of the stem. Have a lanceolate form, leaf length 9 centimeters. Flowers are small, from 2 to 5 pieces are formed on long stalks. After flowering leaves dark blue berries.
Siberian kupena. One of the highest, up to 60 centimeters of species. The leaves are lanceolate or linear, grow in verticils, 8 centimeters in length. Flowers of 2 pieces are formed on bare pedicels. Perianth white, with greenish teeth and slightly pubescent. The berries are red.
Kupena pink. It grows in China, Tien Shan, Siberia. The stem of the plant is a straight, reddish shade. Leaves linear-lanceolate, grow in verticils of 5-6 pieces, up to 15 centimeters in length, with slight pubescence. Flowers are formed in the axils of leaves of 2-4 pieces. Perianth pink, lanceolate, with teeth bent outward. At the end of flowering in June, forms red berries of elongated shape.