Vegetables

Rice cultivation - conditions, planting and care

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send


This grass has a fibrous root system, with airy cavities that provide air access to the flooded soil. Rice is a bush consisting of knotted stems, which are about 3-5 mm thick, and from 38 cm in height, it is also 3-5 m high (deep-water forms). The stems are mostly erect, but there are ascending and creeping. The leaf is lanceolate, the inflorescence is a panicle, which is 10–30 cm long. The panicle is squeezed or spreading, hanging or erect depending on the variety of rice. A large number of single-flowered spikelets on short legs are located on it. Whole, ordinary grain of rice consists of a hard shell, under which is a brownish grain. Under the peel is the endosperm, the most nutritious part of the grain, and that’s what we see in the form of white rice, called polished or ground. About 94% of it contains starch, about 6-10% of protein, but, unfortunately, it contains almost no B vitamins and minerals. Grinded rice is cooked faster, easier to digest by the body. In hot, humid climates, the product is stored longer.

Rice growing

There are 3 types of fields on which this grass is grown: dry valleys, checks and estuary. In the fields of checks, the cultivation of rice is cultivated with constant flooding until the crop matures, then water is drained and the harvest begins. This type of harvest is the most common, so collect about 90% of the world's rice products. Upland fields are located in areas where there is a large amount of precipitation, so they do not require artificial irrigation. Rice of the same varieties can be grown on those and other fields, however, the yields in the fields are higher. The estuary rice field is mainly located in the floodplains of rivers and cultivated during the flood period. In this case, use rice of a special grade, with a fairly rapidly growing stem, panicles of which float on water. Compared to growing rice in other fields, this method yields a much lower yield, but it is more traditional for those regions where the grass is the most important nutritional element for the population, for example, in Asian countries.

There are thousands of different varieties of rice in the world. For example, in Asia, each field gives its own variety of this culture. It is classified according to the length of the grain, type of processing, color, flavor. According to the degree of processing, the cereal is divided into white rice, brown and steamed.

The following types of rice are distinguished:

  1. Paddy: Undestructed rice, just brought from the field, can be stored for several years.
  2. Rice husk - removing it from the grain is the first stage of processing, used as animal feed and as fertilizer.
  3. Bran shell: it is obtained in the process of grinding the grains, used for breakfast cereals and animal feed.
  4. Ground white rice: the most common. There are round grain, medium grain and long grain rice, photos of which can be seen in the article.
  5. Steamed Rice: Undestructed rice is presoaked in water, and further processed with steam under pressure.
  6. Brown or unpolished. There are medium grain and long grain rice, the price of which does not differ too much from the price of ground rice, and is considered much more useful than white rice.
  7. Broken rice: when processing rice grains break, large pieces are used for confectionery and breakfast, small - for rice flour.
  8. And also such types of rice as jasmine, basmati, Egyptian and wild are widespread.

History and distribution

About 7 thousand years a person consumes and grows rice. Photos showing this can be found in ancient manuscripts of China and India. Even then, in the paddy fields, a system of canals was used to irrigate this crop. Where he appeared for the first time is not established, however, some scientists agree that India is considered to be his homeland. According to other sources, it is known that rice fields in China appeared in the 5th millennium BC and approximately by 500 BC they were already located in Southeast and South Asia, China and India. Spreading, this grass has adapted to different weather conditions, for example, in South Asia, large amounts of water and heat were needed for a whole year, and in Japan, Korea and central China, varieties that tolerate cold and need some water began. In Asia, rice is still harvested and planted by hand, grown for centuries on mountain plateaus, hillsides and small patches of land. In the 13th century, rice fields appeared in Sicily, in North America, he found himself together with the French, the British and the Japanese. Portuguese and Spaniards brought rice to South America. Rice cultivation in Russia began more than 300 years ago.

Rice in Russia

In the Russian Empire, the first rice field appeared in the time of Ivan the Terrible. A decree was issued to the Astrakhan voivode to grow "Saracen millet," which was exactly what rice was called then. In the lower reaches of the Volga, the fields were located, but the result of the experiment, unfortunately, remained unknown.

Under the rule of Peter I, the “Saracen millet” reappeared in Russia, it was sown in the Terek river delta, and the fate of the harvest was again lost among urgent state needs. And only in 1786 rice reappeared on the territory of Russia, - was brought by the Kuban Cossacks. Rice fields are located in the swamps of the Kuban River, and after receiving a good harvest, rice fields arose in Russia.

Rice consumption in the world

There are 2 approaches to the consumption of this cereal: “Western” is typical for the countries of America and Europe, and “Eastern” for the countries of Asia. In eastern countries, rice belongs to the daily food, in Europe, rice gained its fame later, and it initially belonged to exotic plants and was prepared exclusively for the festive menu. Over time, rice also became one of the main food items, but, unlike in Asian countries, rice began to be cooked in Europe with poultry, meat, seafood and spices.

The need for rice culture

About 350 million tons of rice is produced on Earth annually. More than half of people on the planet use it 3 times a day. And in Japan, 78% of farms are focused on rice cultivation, for example, although the cost of rice is much higher here. The consumption rate of this cereal per person in Asia is 150 kg per year, and in Europe - 2 kg per year. About 12-13 million tons is the annual volume of world imports and exports, that is, approximately 4% of the total crop on Earth. South America and Asia are the main exporters of rice, and Europe is the importer.

Sowing rice

For the cleaning of seeds, special sorting separators are used, then the seeds are checked for germination, with indicators less than 90% of the grain are considered unsuitable. 5–8 days before sowing, the seeds are dried in the sun, soaked them in warm water for 2-3 days, after swelling they are dried to flowability and begin to sow in the preheated soil up to 10 cm deep. The narrow-row disc sowers with flanges or ordinary private. Good results are also obtained by the cross-diagonal method of sowing rice. On flooded soils, they apply spreading from an aircraft, so one can sow about 150 hectares per day with the help of one aircraft. Rice can also be grown from seedlings. This method is used in Vietnam, China, Japan and other countries. Rassadnaya culture in the CIS countries found in Azerbaijan.

Irrigation and care for rice crops

There are 3 ways to irrigate rice crops:

  • constant flooding - the water on the field is during the growing season,
  • shortened flooding - there is no water layer at the beginning and at the end of the growing season,
  • intermittent flooding - the water level is maintained for certain periods.

In the camps of the CIS use mainly shortened flooding. On soils that are not highly saline and relatively clean from weeds, watering is carried out after sowing and before germination. After sprouting, the rice field is poured, and a not very large layer of water is left during tillering - about 5 cm. Then, gradually, the water layer is increased to 15 cm, and at this level the water reaches the wax ripeness of the plants. Over time, the water supply is slightly reduced, so that the land has dried to maturity, and you can start harvesting. To destroy algae, chemical weed control or airing the soil dried rice field. Photos of this procedure can be found in many recommendations on irrigation and rice care.

Rice cultivation technology

The All-Union Scientific Research Institute of Rice developed a technology of rice cultivation, thanks to which it is possible to obtain from 4 to 6 tons of grain per 1 ha. The technology is designed taking into account the specifics of the soil, climate, varieties.

For the southern regions and the Krasnodar Territory, 8 variants of the rice crop production technology have been developed:

  1. The basic technology, which includes 66 operations, is accompanied by a high yield of rice, high fuel consumption and high labor intensity.
  2. The technology in which seeds are sown to a depth of 4 or 5 cm, and includes 49 operations. Here preliminary soil preparation is used: autumn planning and early plowing.
  3. Technology in which tillage operations are combined: leveling the microrelief, using mineral fertilizers and herbicides, sowing, rolling up the surface.
  4. The technology, which provides for minimal tillage: it does not include such operations as plowing, disking, chising, operational planning, plowing.
  5. Technology, specialized in checks, flooded with water, that is, where the rice field is not possible to dry in spring and autumn, as well as in rainy time during the period of sowing and soil preparation.
  6. Bezherbitsidnaya technology that allows agrotechnical methods to deal with weeds, diseases and pests.
  7. Technology without the use of pesticides for the cultivation of dietary rice.
  8. The technology, where all energy-intensive and time-consuming technological processes are performed with units KFS-3.6 and KFG-3.6 and rotary plow PR-2.4. A distinctive feature of the method is smooth plowing.

Optimal climate

When growing rice, warm climatic conditions and abundant irrigation are simply necessary. Tropical countries are ideal for this, but it can also be grown in subtropical regions.

In Russia, they also began to grow rice, and it was also very successful. Primorsky Krai, Chechnya, Astrakhan Region, Dagestan, Rostov Region, Kalmykia - Russian rice is grown in these areas.

However, 80% of such a culture in Russia is sown in the Kuban, because there is the most suitable climate and the summer lasts longer.

Landing features

By its appearance and requirements, the culture resembles reeds, so when planting it is necessary to create suitable conditions for its growth. The place where the rice will grow, you must first pour plenty, besides so much that the earth turned into dirt.

In order for rice to grow well and develop properly, a network of trenches is made all over the field, through which water will flow to the plant. Quite often, the areas where rice is grown are located in mountainous areas or foothills.

In some cases, establish a kind of terrace. With this option, the water from the upper section gradually reaches the bottom and covers the entire field. For watering the plantation using either the construction of the jugs, or a special mechanism.

Weeds are removed manually, so a gateway must be present at the site so that you can flush the water.

Self-cultivation

You can grow a plant yourself, if there is a free area in a region with a warm climate. There are several other requirements for the site, namely:

  • the sun should warm the soil all day
  • air temperature during the day is +21, at night - no less than +15 for 3 months,
  • ideal for growing plants are suitable floodplain meadows, but if there is no such place, then the soil in the area should certainly keep moisture,
  • good irrigation system and the ability to drain water if necessary.

Selection of varieties

The first step is to find a suitable grade.. For example, the following varieties are grown in the Kuban (for the Russian climate, the last four are most suitable):

  1. Krasnodar-424.
  2. Darius-8.
  3. Estuary.
  4. With a little finger.
  5. Noble.
  6. Kasun.
  7. Kurchanka.

When the grade is picked up, the field is prepared. The site must have clay soil, because it holds water better. In addition, it is necessary to pay attention to the acidity of the soil, which should be quite high. At the same time, the ground must be thoroughly dug up and removed weeds.

Planting and care

On a flat area you need to make grooves so that the roots of the plants can be covered with water. The best distance between the grooves is considered to be a gap of 30 centimeters. In Asian countries, as a rule, transplanting is performed, but this is quite troublesome. There is a simpler way: water is poured into the grooves, it should cover the soil at least 5 centimeters.

If you use this method does not work, you will need a constant soil moisture. Also, if the earth contains an insufficient amount of minerals, they must be added to the soil. Planting seeds is carried out at a distance of 10 centimeters. After that they are filled with compost or mulch. Since organic compost holds water well, it will be a good addition, especially if the climate is dry.

When the seedlings sprout a couple of centimeters, they should be watered as much as possible, and it is better to fill them with water. And also, if the distance between shoots is too close, then the plant should be thinned, and the extra shoots should be planted on another ridge. The distance between plants should be at least 30 centimeters. If done correctly, the rice will grow pretty quickly.

After 4 months, the plant should be above 40 centimeters, while the grain will begin to ripen. At this time, the land is required to drain. Over the next 2 weeks, the area where rice grows is not necessary to be watered. As a result of such actions, the plant will begin to turn yellow and the grains dry up.

At this time, the plant is again watered abundantly or the grooves are filled with water for 24 hours, and then the water is drained. As soon as the grains become completely yellow, the harvest will be ready.

Further, all the ears need to be cut along with the stems, and spread them out in a dry room with good ventilation so that they dry out.

Today, rice is used as a main dish, as well as a side dish for mushrooms, meat, vegetables. Use it for dessert. Many vitamins are found in unpolished rice, because it is not processed. In addition, compared to white, there is more fiber in unprocessed rice. It also contains a lot of proteins and vitamins.which are perfectly assimilated.

There are six main types of rice:

  • Long grain - This type of rice gives light and crumbly grains. It is usually slightly drier than other varieties.
  • Medium - This type of rice, when cooked, is moist, delicate, slightly sticky, creamy. It has the same texture as the long grain.
  • Short grain - Cooked - becomes soft and sticky. It is also a sweeter rice, which is usually used in sushi cooking.
  • Sweet (Gummy) - This rice is also called sticky rice. Often used in the manufacture of frozen foods.
  • Aromatic - This type of rice has more flavor than other varieties. This category includes basmati, jasmine, red, black, and japanese.
  • Arborio - Creamy rice with a soft center, used mainly for cooking risotto and other Italian dishes.

Planting rice

Rice seeds are not difficult to find in stores for gardening or farming.

There are six main types of rice:

  • Long grain - This type of rice gives light and crumbly grains. It is usually slightly drier than other varieties.
  • Medium - This type of rice, when cooked, is moist, delicate, slightly sticky, creamy. It has the same texture as the long grain.
  • Short grain - Cooked - becomes soft and sticky. It is also a sweeter rice, which is usually used in sushi cooking.
  • Sweet (Gummy) - This rice is also called sticky rice. Often used in the manufacture of frozen foods.
  • Aromatic - This type of rice has more flavor than other varieties. This category includes basmati, jasmine, red, black, and japanese.
  • Arborio - Creamy rice with a soft center, used mainly for cooking risotto and other Italian dishes.

Planting rice

Choose a landing site

For best results, make sure that the soil in which you plant is slightly acidic, clay. You can also plant rice seeds in plastic buckets, with the same type of soil. When planting, make sure that you have a reliable source of water and a way to drain this water at the time of harvest.

  • Выберите место, которое получает достаточное количество солнечного света, так как рис лучше всего растет при ярком свете, и теплой температуре, по крайне мере, 21 градус.
  • Подумайте о сезоне – ваша область должна позволить произрастать рису от 3 до 6 месяцев. Рису требуется долгий вегетативный период, поэтому для него лучше всего подходят южные области

Preparing rice seeds for sowing

Soak the seeds in water to prepare them for planting. Let them soak for at least 12 hours, but not more than 36 hours. Then remove the seeds from the water.

  • While your seeds are soaked, plan where and how you want to plant them. Most prefer to plant seeds in rows to facilitate watering and weed removal. Consider building sealed trenches so that the water lingers in them and is plugged (berms can also be used). However, the area should not remain flooded. as suchit just needs to stay wet.


Plant seeds in the soil in late spring when the temperature becomes steadily warm.

Before planting, get rid of weeds and level the soil. If you use buckets - fill them with moist soil for at least 15 centimeters. Then just plant the seeds.

  • Keep in mind, if you plan to flood the beds with water - it is much easier to flood several smaller spaces than one large one. If you land outside, using several seed beds will be easier to manage and maintain.

Care of seedlings

Fill a bucket or garden space with at least 5 cm of water.

However, this is only the recommendation of supporters of the old school. Many people say that the main thing - keeping the soil constantly wet - does not necessarily need to be flooded.

This step is up to you - just make sure the ground is wet.

  • Add compost or mulch to the soil, lightly covering rice grains. This will automatically close the seeds into the soil. Organic compost contains moisture, so it will be very useful, especially in drier climates.

Observe the water level in the planting area, maintaining a constant soil moisture.

If you wish, maintain a water level of 5 centimeters for growing rice. At the very least, make sure that the soil is constantly wet, if not flooded. Expect to see growth of seed shoots after about 1 week.

  • If your plants are in buckets, you might think about moving them at night (when it gets cooler) to a warmer place. Rice thrives in heat, and if the temperature drops, you are likely to see slow growth.
  • We emphasize that the rules for watering are a purely individual thing,

different around the world. Some commercial rice farms flood to a level of 5 cm. Some up to the level of 20 centimeters, some simply moisten the soil. What you practice depends on you and the conditions in which your rice grows.

Rice features

How does this plant grow? In order for the rice crop to grow fertile, it will take a very moist soil.

This tropical annual plant prefers shade. An important condition for its growth is the liquid regime in the phases of formation.

For example, when a seedling occurs must be saturated with liquid.

Further suitable criteria are such when the field will be covered with a layer of moisture. Temperature is affected by the swelling of the grain.

At a temperature of +13 above zero, the seed in order to germinate, absorbs moisture for five to seven days, with +17 - a couple of days will be enough for him, and with +27 - only 15 hours will be enough.

The interval in which this culture will actively grow is quite large and varies from +12 to +41 inclusive. The best temperature is +18, and the duration - up to three days. The seed stops growing at +10, maximum +12 degrees.

Plant rice in crop rotation

Cultivation of this plant is carried out on special five - nine-field crop rotations.

In order to obtain large yields, the agromeliorative conditions for growing this crop should be favorable.

For this, rice fields are freed from flooding. On them plant dry cropsas a rule, fodder grasses, or leave the area under steam.

This means that the crop rotation of rice as a crop contains steam and grass fields.

At the end of flowering of such predecessors, such as leguminous plants and herbs, it is possible to sow rice within three years. If the field was planned under steam - then two years. Herbs do not just connect to the rice crop: they destroy the weeds of the bogs, impregnated with nutrient compounds of the earth, show themselves as the best quality feed.

The introduction of the steam link is of great importance, in particular for the performance of repair tasks that are associated with land reclamation. Moreover, precisely because of the siderats fertility increases. Rice fallow are sowed by the following plants:

  • rape,
  • Vicia
  • peas
  • soy
  • buckwheat and other plantations, as well as mixtures.

Where rice grows

This plant is cultivated in areas with a tropical climate, but it is also found in the subtropics. Today, the grass has spread in India, China, Indonesia, and South America. In Asian countries, the culture is cultivated by hand.

American breeders, for example, have developed a more advanced method of seeding - from an airplane on the field. Places of cultivation of cultivated rice are flooded with water, pre-cooked flat rice fields.

Unnecessary to care varieties suitable for hitting dry terrain and plateaus. There is a wild form of rice, which is unlikely to look familiar to us white. It is found in the States and Canada on multiple lakes of not very large sizes.

Why does rice grow in water

This cereal is a plant that is not afraid of pouring. The root system receives oxygen delivered by leaves from the surrounding air.

Nutrition brings water, it also allows you to deal with weeds, thereby increasing the level of yield. In order to create suitable conditions for the convenient growth of this cereal crop, the field lands are divided into zones using rollers. Created channels that are filled with water.

Cultivation technology

The technological process of rice cultivation on checks is not dependent on weather conditions, since it is entirely under the control of man. A similar method is most used for growing cereals. Planting rice is performed in this way.

For growing seedlings seedlings are sown to pre-prepared cells. Their germination is performed at an air temperature of + 13 / + 16 degrees.

After that, the finished seedlings are planted on the check.

After two or three days, checks are poured up to the water level above the ground plane between 13-15 cm. For optimal growth, the planting requires heat, for this reason the temperature should be no lower than +25 degrees.

When the time comes for the destruction of weeds, the water is drained. After weeding, which is done by hand, the checks are filled again. In order for this grass to ripen and the soil to dry, water must be drained before harvesting the grass. Approximately it is necessary to carry out when the stalk of green color changes on lemon.

Rice cultivation in China

Chinese breeders have received 10 thousand varieties of this grass. They differ in growing conditions, growing region, ripening period, as well as external characteristics: dimensions, color and density of grain.

For the cultivation of some varieties may be suitable flooded rice fields, and for some - dried soil. Breeding rice in China is made on fields flooded with water.

According to him, planters move on foot or in boats, regardless of the weather conditions. For planting rice applied the original method.

Seeds are sown in a special greenhouse. Soil becomes mud mixed with water. This is done in order to select the most viable plants that can grow successfully in the future.

When the sprouts stretch to 10 cm in height, they are thrown into the water, in the ground they will all be established spontaneously. When they grow up to 50 cm in height, it is time for blooming. The smell of flowers resembles the smell of boiled rice, but it is softer and sweeter.

During this time, grains are formed. After harvesting rice is placed straight on the roads for drying, then it is sent to the warehouse. The humidity storage is continuously monitored.

If the grains are provided with impeccable conditions, then this grass can be stored for 12 months, in a packaged form - up to three years. Every year in China make order 600 billion kg of rice, but still it is not enough to satisfy the demands of the entire population of this large country.

The history of rice in our country

Just recently, a large number of Kuban rice had the opportunity to boast the showcases of almost all domestic shopping centers. The active breeding of this culture in their own country began to be engaged under N. Khrushchev, but at first it was not very large rice fields.

Even before Peter the Great, and then - the revolutionary figures at the end of the Soviet government began attempts to grow this cereal crop on an industrial scale. And only when in the sixties of the last century reclamation devices were manufactured, and industrial cultivation of cereals in the Krasnodar Territory it became real.

Kuban rice

At the present time, 90 percent of all the rice produced in our country’s land is capable of growing only in Krasnodar territory. For this purpose, all conditions are formed in the territory under consideration.

Krasnodar Territory is distinguished by suitable natural environment and unique climatic conditions. Breeding of this cereal in the Krasnodar Territory is carried out using such lands, which have the name fluvium and floodplain. The area of ​​their location is the lower part of the Kuban River. At this place is always warm weather and there is always a stock of agricultural resources.

Due to the fact that this terrain has a flat terrain with slight slopes, it is possible to create rice fields with checks of considerable scale. In the Kuban for breeding rice apply modern equipment. The technological process of cultivating a culture can be symbolically divided into three periods.

In May, when the weather is settled and will be stably warm, they start growing cereals. Land pre water carefully. When the sprouts grow to a maximum of 20 cm, begin to flood the field. The heads of the culture should protrude out of the water. On the eve of the harvest, the moisture is drained. This is done 15, maximum 20 days before the start of work.

In the fields, the desired level of fluid is maintained due to a system of channels. To grow 1 kilogram of rice cereal, consumes about seven tons of water. Cleaning activities are carried out with the introduction of specialized harvesters into work and only on clear, warm days. If the field is covered with fog or it rains, do not remove technical equipment in the field.

Rice as one of the main raw materials crops use such industries:

Thanks to rice it became possible manufacture of various products: cardboard, paper, bags, ropes, baskets, and more. etc. Rice straw is used as feed for livestock, because there is an undeniable benefit in it, because rice husk is full of useful elements.

People in food most often prefer eat white rice. However, red is considered the best in Japan. It acquires a pink tint due to the influence of beneficial micro-substances. The dishes made from it were eaten by kings and emperors.

Rice in a crop rotation

Cultivation is carried out on special 5-9-field crop rotation. To obtain high yields, agromeliorative conditions for growing rice should be good. For this field is removed from the flooding. They dry land plants, usually fodder grasses, or leave areas for fallow. This means that crop rotation includes grass and steam fields.

After such predecessors as legumes and herbs, rice can be sown for three years in a row. If the field was reserved for steam - two years. Herbs are not accidentally included in the rice crop rotation: they destroy swamp weeds, saturate the soil with nutrient compositions, and provide high quality food.

The inclusion of a steam link is of great importance, especially for the performance of repair work related to land reclamation. In addition, due to the siderata fertility increases. Rice fields under steam are sown with vika, canola, soybeans, peas, buckwheat and other plants, including mixtures.

Where is growing?

Rice is cultivated in countries with a tropical climate, but it is also grown in subtropics. Currently, grass is distributed in China, India, South America, Indonesia. In Asian countries, culture is grown manually. America, for example, came up with a more advanced way of planting - from an airplane to the field.

Places of cultivation of cultivated rice are flooded with water special flat fields. For shaking unpretentious varieties suitable dry areas and plateaus. There is a wild form of rice, the appearance of which is different from the usual white. It is found in the USA and Canada on numerous small lakes.

Why does rice grow in water?

This culture is such a plant that flooding is not scary. How does rice grow? The roots get the oxygen supplied by the leaves that take it from the air. Food is supplied to plants by water, it also helps to cope with weeds, thereby increasing yields. To create favorable conditions for comfortable growth of rice, the flat lands are divided into plots with the help of rollers. Channels are formed, which are filled with water.

How is rice grown in China?

Chinese breeders brought 10 thousand varieties of this cereal. They differ from one another by region and growing conditions, size, color and density of the grain, as well as the period of its maturation. For the cultivation of some varieties are suitable flooded fields, and for others - dry land.

Rice cultivation in China is carried out in fields flooded with water. According to him, farmers move on foot and by boat, regardless of the weather. For planting rice, a non-standard method is used. How does rice grow? Seeds are sown in a special greenhouse. Soil is mud mixed with water. So do in order to select the most viable plants.

How does rice grow? When the seedlings reach 10 cm in height, they are thrown into the water, they will root in the soil on their own. When they grow to 50 cm in height, begin to bloom. The smell of flowers resembles the flavor of boiled rice, but more tender and sweet. At this time, grains begin to form.

After harvesting, rice is scattered right on the roads for drying, and then sent to storage. Moisture is constantly monitored at the warehouse. If the grains are provided with ideal conditions, rice is stored for 12 months, in prepacked form - for three years. Every year, China produces 600 billion kilograms of rice, but still it is not enough to meet the needs of the entire population of the country.

The history of rice in Russia

More recently, the abundance of Kuban rice could boast the counters of Russian stores. Active cultivation of culture in our country began to engage in Khrushchev, it was small rice fields. Earlier, Peter 1, and later - revolutionary figures after the proclamation of the Soviet government attempted to cultivate rice. And only when in the 60s of the last century reclamation systems were created, the industrial cultivation of cereals in the Krasnodar Territory became possible.

Figure Kuban

Currently, 90% of all Russian rice is grown in the Krasnodar Territory. For this purpose all conditions are created in this region. The region is characterized by a favorable environmental situation and a unique climate. Rice cultivation in the Krasnodar Territory is carried out using such lands, which are called floodplain and fluvial lands. Their location is the lower part of the river Kuban. It is always warm here and there is a stock of land resources. Due to the flat terrain with small slopes, it is possible to build rice fields with large-sized checks.

In the Kuban for the cultivation of rice using modern technology. The process of growing a culture can be divided into three stages:

  • In May, when the weather sets and becomes warm, they start planting cereals. The soil is well watered in advance.
  • When the seedlings grow to 15-20 cm, flood the field. Culture tops should peek out of the water.
  • Before harvesting the water is drained. This is done 14-20 days before.

In the fields, the required water level is maintained by a system of canals. To get one kilogram of rice cereal, seven tons of water is spent. Grain harvesting is carried out with the use of special combines and only on fine days. If fog hangs over the fields or it starts to rain, the equipment does not come out into the field.

Using

Rice as the most important raw material uses the medical, textile, perfumery industry. Cardboard, paper, bags, ropes, baskets and many other products are made from it. Rice straw is used for livestock feed, although there is undoubted benefit in it, since the husk is rich in nutrients. People mostly use white rice. However, red is considered the best in Japan. Он становится розоватым в результате воздействия полезных бактерий. Приготовленные из него блюда употребляли в пищу императоры.

Особенности культуры

Рис представляет собой зернышко, в котором содержатся углеводы (80 г), белки (7.13) г, жиры (0.66 г), вода (11.61 г). В нем также присутствуют витамины группы В, железо, медь, селен, микроэлементы. The seed has a shell under which is located the white part. It is most often eaten.

The root system of the plant has a fibrous structure, it contains cavities. These caverns provide oxygen delivery to the soil flooded with water.

In the process of growth, rice looks like an ordinary shrub with nodular stalks. The thickness of the stalks ranges from 2 to 4 mm. Height is 40 cm and more. In some cases, the length can reach 4 meters.

The leaves are oblong. The inflorescence resembles a whisk up to 20 cm long. It can be grouped in one direction, or it can be opened wide. It has spikelets with short legs.

First, the plant has a green color. As ripening brown shades appear.

Rice culture appeared a few thousand years ago. As it spread across the globe, the adaptive qualities of the plant appeared, helping it to survive in various weather conditions. For the cultivation of annual plants suitable chernozem or oozy soil, which contains many organic substances. Ripening rice can last up to 120 days. In order for rice to be stored as long as possible, it is necessary to create a warm, moist environment for it.

Due to the beneficial properties of rice culture is widely used in various spheres of life. It should be noted that cereal culture is used not only in cooking. It is effectively used in medicine, manufacturing. By means of it paper products, baskets, ropes are made. Straw is an excellent feed for livestock, because it contains many nutrients.

Why grows in water?

Rice crop prefers very high humidity. It is through the water that all the necessary substances are fed. In addition, water saves the plant from weeds, allowing you to get a bountiful harvest.

To provide this crop with suitable conditions for growth, the land is zoned. Water is poured into the formed zones. At the time of emergence of the first shoots, the soil should be saturated with water.

There are several ways to water rice.

  • Constant. The soil is all the time in the water.
  • Partial. At the beginning and at the end of the growth of the plant, water layer is made less.
  • Temporary. At certain periods of plant growth, the desired water level is maintained.

It is also important to note that the grass plant prefers shade. The most favorable temperature for growth is 18 degrees above zero. Although rice will yield in the temperature range from 12 to 40 degrees above zero.

Depending on the indicator of the rice thermometer, it takes a different amount of time to get enough water. So, with a sufficiently critical temperature of 12 degrees above zero, the plant will need a week to saturate with water. The higher the temperature, the less time it takes to absorb moisture, which is necessary for full growth. For example, at a temperature of 30 degrees it will take only 12 hours.

Varieties

There are about 40,000 species of rice worldwide. In China alone, 10,000 different varieties were bred.

All varieties differ in the following criteria:

  • type of cultivation
  • growing area
  • growing time,
  • sizes,
  • Colour,
  • the density and shape of the grain.

On the shelves of stores you can find about 20 varieties of rice, which vary in type of processing, price. At the same time, low price does not mean poor quality product.

In addition to the usual white rice, there are grains of brown, brown and even black color, which is typical of wild varieties. Color depends on the type of purification of the grain of the shell.

It is important to note that the darker the color, the more natural the product is and the more nutrients it contains.

In Asia, grow an unusual variety of rice that has a brown-brown shade. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that during cooking the grain size increases several times. The higher the shelf life of the grains, the better their taste.

Depending on the grain size, the following types of rice are distinguished.

  • Long grain. This type is often used to prepare basic dishes. The size of the grain is 8-9 mm. The product is light, does not stick together.
  • Average grain. This view has a size of about 5 mm. More often used for cooking desserts. The product has a uniform texture, retains its shape after cooking.
  • Fine grain. Grain sizes are approximately 4x2 mm. The product has a sticky texture, contains a large amount of starch. It is more often used for sushi.

The following rice varieties are widespread.

  • Basmati. The product is distinguished by long grains. It has a pleasant taste, aromatic smell. It is a traditional Indian dish.
  • Jasmine. The product is represented by long, thin grains of white color. It has a fragrant smell. It is a traditional Chinese dish.
  • Wild. Grains have a dark color up to black. The length of such fruits may be different.

By type of processing, the following types are distinguished.

  • Polished. Rice has white color. Grains can be in the form of a circle or an oval, medium or large.
  • Brown unpolished. This type of culture is represented by various grain sizes. Long, short, medium kernels are found. Unlike traditional white rice, only rice shells are removed during processing. Germ, bran remain in the product. Such a product is considered the most useful.
  • Paddy. This is unprocessed grain. Its shelf life can reach several years.
  • Steamed. Such a grain is pre-soaked in liquid. Then steam treatment is performed.
  • Broken. During processing, the grain is broken. Large parts are used for cooking, and fine particles are ground into flour.
  • Shell After grinding the grain remains the outer shell, which serves as a nutritious feed for livestock.

Where is grown?

Asia is considered the birthplace of rice. Tropical climate is suitable for grain crops, so it can be found in India, Indonesia, China, and America. In Russia, rice fields prevail in the Krasnodar Territory, namely in Krasnodar. In Kuban, the most suitable climate for growing rice. The presence of a special type of soil, which is located in the lower reaches of the Kuban River, allows you to get the best yield.

Rice also grows in the CIS countries, for example, in Uzbekistan and Azerbaijan. It can be seen in Australia, Vietnam, Japan, the Philippines. On the territory of Russia culture can also be found in the Astrakhan region, Primorye, the Chechen Republic.

In Canada and America you can find wild rice varieties. In appearance, they have little resemblance to traditional grains and are very resistant to environmental influences. Their favorite localization is small lakes. It should be noted that such rice is poorly processed, and also difficult to assemble. Therefore, it is not cheap.

Plains and even mountain surfaces are also suitable for planting rice.

There are various fields for growing crops.

  • Sukhodolnye. The location of such fields eliminates the creation of artificial devices for additional irrigation. Due to the natural conditions, the soil is intensively saturated with moisture.
  • Firms. The main task is performed by the bays of the rivers, which are used to grow the rice field. For this field, select a special variety of rice with a minimum period of aging.
  • Irrigated. A special flooding of the terrain is carried out using excavated pits. Two weeks before harvesting the water is removed. After drying, the land is harvested.

Agrotechnology

The technique of growing rice involves carrying out certain activities to create an enabling environment.

  • Before sowing the seeds, they are cleaned. For this purpose, sorting mechanisms are used. After cleaning, a quality check is carried out. Unsuitable seeds are discarded.
  • Before the sowing, about a week, the seeds are dried. Then put in warm water for several days. After this, it is dried again and only after that it is laid in the prepared ground. The depth of the seed should not exceed 8-10 cm. Rice sown in rows, crosswise or randomly from the plane. It should be noted that in Asia they prefer to do everything with their hands, and in the West they more often resort to using the latest technology.
  • The soil is prepared in advance. To do this, it is treated with steam or planted fodder grass and legumes, contributing to the draining of marshlands. In addition, herbs are the best source of nutrition for the earth. Steam exposure helps the soil recover faster.

It is important to note that after growing legumes or herbs, rice can be sown for three years in a row. If, however, resort to the technology of soil treatment with steam, then this soil is suitable for sowing rice crops only for two consecutive years.

In Asia, there is a special technique of growing grains. In order to select the most viable grain, which will give a good harvest in the future, sowing of seeds produced in greenhouses. As the soil is used mud with water. After the length of sprouts reaches 9-10 cm, they are put into the water. Then, when the length of the sprout reaches 45-50 cm, the plant begins to bloom, emitting the smell of cooked rice.

The harvested crop is dried, left in special places, where strict control over temperature and humidity is maintained. With proper storage, the grains remain fresh throughout the year.

When growing rice in the Kuban applied modern technology.

The whole process of growing is divided into three stages.

  • The soil is abundantly watered. This is done in the spring when the weather gets warm.
  • The second stage is started after the plant has grown to 15-20 cm. The field is intensively filled with water.
  • The third stage involves draining the soil. Work is done about two weeks before harvest.

The required water level is maintained with the help of modern fixtures.

In Russia, several types of grain crops cultivation technologies have been developed that allow to obtain high yields, for example:

  • tillage by mechanical leveling, fertilization, soil saturation with herbicides,
  • processes using technical units, plows, which allow to obtain smooth plowed soil,
  • technology without the use of fertilizers allows you to grow varieties of dietary rice,
  • modern non-herbicidal agricultural technology allows you to effectively deal with weeds.

The use of modern technological methods for growing rice crops has expanded the scope of application of this priceless product, which is known throughout the world.

How to grow and collect rice, see the video below.

Harvesting

Cut the stems and let them dry. When the spikelets turn golden (about 2 weeks after draining) Cut the stems under the spikelets that contain the grains.

Let them dry for 2-3 weeks. The moisture should completely go away so that you can get a clean grain.

Bake them at 82 ° C for an hour.

Take the spikelets and put them in the oven for firing.

It should not be too hot or the grain will burn.

During this hour they should get a dark shade of golden brown.

Separate cores from enclosures

Allow the ears to cool. Then rub them in with your hands (or use a mortar and pestle) to separate the kernels from the shells. Now you are dealing with rice grains that you used to see in the store.

Pin
Send
Share
Send
Send