Vegetables

Planting cucumbers in open ground seeds or seedlings - when to plant and how to grow

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When planning planting cucumbers, gardeners have a choice of where and how to plant these vegetables.

Of course, it is considered more efficient to grow cucumbers in greenhouses or greenhouses (cucumbers usually appear in them earlier, and more), but this method is more material and physically costly.

It is much easier to plant cucumbers immediately in the ground, and, by the way, they often grow more delicious and healthy. And with proper care you can get a great harvest. .

But how to plant cucumbers in the open ground with seeds correctly? How to prepare the soil, which seeds to choose and when it is best to plant? Let's talk about this in more detail.

Terms of planting cucumber seeds in the ground

Since the cucumber is a heat-loving crop, it is planted only if the soil is sufficiently heated.

And this happens much later than cucumbers are planted in greenhouses and greenhouses.

The condition for planting in the ground - the soil should warm up to a temperature of about 13 ° C, when measured at a depth of 10 centimeters.

This is due to the fact that at a temperature of less than 10 ˚C plant seeds can rot, and above 16 С˚, their shoots will appear very slowly. Therefore, the average soil temperature is 13 ˚C.

In central Russia, this temperature is tentatively set to the third decade of May, and for example, for Siberia, this is the first decade of June.

Landing should be carried out in sunny weather, during the day.

Selection of seeds for planting

Varieties used for open ground should be zoned, i.e. adapted for growth in a specific soil-climatic zone.

Perfect varieties that have already become "classic", the national varieties of Murom and Nezhensky or Little Russia.

When choosing seeds for open ground, you should consider the purpose for planting. If for pickling cucumbers, then it is necessary to choose early-maturing varieties, if for preservation - then pickling, late-ripening.

There are also universal varieties that are used for both salads and canning.

Well-proven for use in the open field fruitful, versatile, early ripening variety Competitor with excellent taste, used in salads, and for pickling.

From early-maturing varieties, it is also possible to use Altai, Graceful, Cascade, Universal and other varieties.

Of the varieties used for pickling, the Russian taste pickling is suitable salting, Far Eastern 27. Hybrids can be used - they are more resistant to diseases - Swallow F 1, Secret of the F 1 company and others.

Each gardener, of course, prefers his favorite varieties.

The best predecessors for cucumbers are cabbage, peas and tomato.

It is highly undesirable to use as a previous crop, cucumber, pumpkin or zucchini.

Cucumber - a plant very demanding on soil fertility. Therefore, the bed on which the placement of this crop is planned should be well fertilized. From autumn, under the main tillage, it is desirable to add humus at the rate of one bucket per square meter.

It is also recommended to apply potassium sulfate in the fall - cucumbers are responsive to potash fertilizers.

Acidic soil should be deoxidized with chalk or hydrated lime, or use an alternative method - applying ash from the autumn in a dose of three-quarters cup per square meter - this technique will help reduce the acidity of the soil and at the same time enrich it with potassium.

In the spring, at the place where seedlings are planted to be planted in open ground, organic fertilizer is applied - rotted manure, if not, then nitrogen fertilizer may be applied, for example, urea or urea (5 grams per square meter), or nitrophoska (30 grams per meter).

After fertilization, the bed is formed, and immediately begin to plant.

How is landing

Cucumber seeds should be checked for germination and pickled - if they are home-made.

If the seeds were purchased in a specialty store, then, as a rule, they do not need dressing - they are already treated with special preparations.

Homemade seeds can be etched - treated for diseases, with a solution of potassium permanganate.

There are different opinions about soaking. Some believe that soaking is necessary, others are of the opinion that it is possible to sow and not germinated seeds and provide them with sufficient watering for better germination.

To determine the germination of seeds they are soaked - for 24 hours, pour warm water. Then spread on a wet fleece, a rag, toilet paper and create optimal conditions for germination. As soon as the spine begins to appear, seeds can be planted.

How to plant cucumber seeds in the ground?

This method of landing is very simple and does not require extra time.

Planted seeds on the garden, in a well-spilled soil. They usually sow in rows, at a distance of 30 centimeters from each other, to a depth of 5 centimeters. In each well laid two seed. The seeding rate is 8 grams per 10 m2.

After folding the seeds in rows, sprinkle them with soil or a substrate, for better germination and water.

After planting, you can cover the ridge with a covering material, which will help to preserve moisture and heat for seed germination.

Some, put on top of the arc and pull covering material. When using this design to plant cucumbers in open ground can be 10 days earlier.

Since cucumbers are a moisture-loving plant, it is necessary to provide them with sufficient watering, especially during the period of germination. Cucumbers - climbing plant, so it is better to make them backups.

Further care will consist in top dressing - about three times per season, for example, nitrophoska (divorced at the rate of 40 grams per 10 liters, 300 to 500 grams are applied under each root, depending on the age of the plant).

Also, care is loosening, removing weeds and combating diseases and pests - if necessary.

How to plant cucumbers

For growing vegetables choose a well-lit area, which is protected from the winds. Around the cucumber beds form the "backstage", which can serve as plantings of potatoes, corn, sunflower, hemp, legumes. These tall plants provide an optimal microclimate for cucumbers. Planting vegetables in open ground can be done by seedling or with the help of seeds. The choice of method depends on several factors, including the particular climate of your region, the timing of the harvest.

Unlike tomato, cucumber is often planted with seeds. This is due to the fact that cucumber seedlings are very fragile, with delicate roots and shoots, so it is easy to damage. In addition, it does not tolerate acclimatization to changing conditions (wind, sunlight, air temperature, a different soil composition). Only experienced farmers who know all the details of this process can achieve a good harvest when planting cucumbers seedlings.

For ordinary gardeners more suitable way of sowing seeds in open ground. In this case, the fruits appear only a week later, but the plants will be strong and resistant to external negative factors. Warm beds with a height of at least 20 cm are suitable for cucumbers. A layer of organic matter inside the site not only provides vegetables with beneficial substances, but also heats the roots, saturating them with carbon dioxide.

Cucumber is a heat-loving culture, therefore, it should be planted when the temperature of the topsoil warms to at least 13-15 degrees. However, the plant does not feel very well even at high temperatures (if the rate rises above 28 degrees), then the development may stop. Garden beds must first be fertilized with organic matter (chicken manure, mullein or manure). This will provide vegetables with nutrients and disinfect the earth, destroying the causative agents of many cucumber diseases.

The plant needs regular watering: with a lack of moisture, the leaves will begin to turn black, become brittle, and the bushes themselves will experience stress. Excessive soil moisture is no less destructive for cucumbers. As a result, there will be less oxygen in the ground, due to which the tops will turn pale, and the development of greenhouses and lashes will slow down greatly. Water for irrigation using room temperature (about 18 degrees). The ideal soil moisture is 80%.

Since culture prefers a short light day, it is better to grow it in the middle or late summer. Despite the thermophilicity of the vegetable, it only needs 10-12 photoperiods per day. Features of the process of planting seedlings and seeds have common features, which consist in the selection and preparation of the site. It is better to organize the beds from north to south, and to add organic fertilizer to the crop preceding the cucumbers.

An alternative is to feed the soil immediately before planting the seed / seedling. The best choice would be cow dung. Under the preceding plants, it is introduced rotted (per 1 sq. M. Leaves 5 kg), and before sowing cucumbers it is used in the form of a solution with water 1: 5. You can replace the compost with chicken manure (dissolve it in water 1:20) or with a complex mineral supplement.

Planting cucumbers in open ground seeds

Many gardeners prefer to plant cucumber seeds at once on an open garden bed. That cucumbers had time to grow, time is necessary. It all depends on the climatic characteristics of the region and the specific variety, but it is not customary to plant at the end of June. One of the most important conditions for the proper cultivation of plants is the nutritional value of the soil. To this end, in the fall mineral and organic fertilizers are applied to a small depth, which rot in the ground until spring.

In the north of the country, a place for planting cucumbers is covered with fresh manure, and in the spring, warm constructions are made for vegetables. Since the culture is thermophilic, it feels best in the south and in central Russia. The optimum temperature for growing vegetables will be 20-25 degrees during the day and 15 at night. If the weather is not happy and the thermometer index drops to 10 degrees, then problems arise: the growth stops, and if the cooling is prolonged, the plant may die. When choosing a variety should be considered:

  • the need for pollination (there are species that are self-pollinated and pollinated by bees, it is better to take the first for open ground - they are usually tastier),
  • resistance to frost, cold snaps, heat and drought,
  • immunity to common cucumber diseases - rot, cladosporia, mosaic,
  • the branching feature of the plant (this factor directly affects the yield).

When planting cucumbers in open ground, it is recommended to stop the choice on zoned varieties (intended for growth in a particular area, taking into account the specifics of its climate) and breeding crops. Despite the fact that hybrids are more adapted to frequent changes in weather conditions, you need to stock up on the covering material that will be needed for frosts. Successful varieties for planting seed method will be as follows:

  • F1 crane,
  • Admiral F1,
  • Herman F1,
  • Bidretta F1,
  • White angel F1,
  • Aquarius, etc.

When to plant

Planting in open ground can be carried out even with a cold prolonged spring. Like other vegetables, cucumbers are planted in the growing phase of the moon, when the plants activate their growth and recover well. It is recommended to plan work in the garden on the lunar calendar and not plant seeds on unfavorable days. The time of day for sowing does not matter. Planting dates will depend on the climate of a particular region, weather conditions in spring and summer, the selected variety. There are only three variants of sowing, suitable for culture:

  1. Early. When the earth warms up well (at least 15 degrees at night), you can engage in sowing of cucumber seeds. The ideal temperature for plant development is 18-26 ° C. As a rule, this mode is set around June 1-5, but the date may vary depending on the climate of the region. In the southern regions of the earth manages to warm up earlier, then the vegetable is planted in the second half of May. When planting earlier, when the temperature ranges from 10 to 15 degrees, the plants often stop growing and die. Early sowing is also good because at the beginning of June a short day of light lasts, since the cucumbers need sunlight for only 10-12 hours a day for normal development. When planting a vegetable at the end of June, high temperatures and a long light day will not have the best effect on crop yields. When choosing early varieties, it is recommended to focus on such as: Competitor, Universal, Cascade.
  2. Average. It is carried out from May 25 to June 10. Practically all varieties of culture are suitable for the second sowing. When planting in June, the crop is harvested at the beginning of August, although these periods vary depending on whether you chose early - medium or late-ripened cucumbers.
  3. Late. To do this, choose a special variety - better pickling. Quick-ripening vegetables, optimal for late sowing, with a vegetation period of 45-50 days. The harvest of such species will coincide in time with the fruiting of tomatoes. The big advantage of this variant of sowing is the ability to eat fresh vegetables until frost. Late planting of seeds is carried out in July. If this month is hot weather, for the beds make shelter of film (agrofibre).

How to sow correctly

Seeds should be sown in several passes, otherwise you can lose money with the deadlines: for example, cold can unexpectedly return. In addition, this option allows you to extend the period of fruiting vegetables. Landing in the warm regions of the country begins in mid-May and ends in mid-June. Later it is not recommended to wish, because the heat and the long daylight hours are not the best conditions for the growth and development of culture. The technology of sowing seeds includes the following steps:

  1. Selection of planting material. In addition to varieties zoned for specific regions, there are hybrids that are characterized by maximum resistance to diseases. Preference is better to give the last - it will save you from unnecessary trouble and increase productivity. In addition, an important role is played by the ripening time and purpose of the variety (universal, salad, pickling). If the package does not indicate the intended purpose, look at the photo of vegetables: if they have white pimples, cucumbers are suitable for fresh consumption, and fruits with dark ones are pickling option. The age of the seeds should be at least 2 years, since during storage their germination increases. The optimum age of planting material will be 6 years, and after 9 it is no longer suitable.
  2. Soil preparation. Bed for cucumbers form in the direction from north to south. Before sowing, the soil is fed up with rotted cow dung, it is previously diluted with water in proportions of 1: 5. Alternative options are allowed - complex fertilizers or chicken manure solution.
  3. Seed preparation for planting in open ground. Pre-material is heated for 20 minutes at a temperature of 42-45 degrees in order to achieve more friendly shoots and speed up the fruiting time. Another way to warm the seeds is this: hang them in a gauze bag near the heating battery or stove. Do it for 2-1,5 months before sowing. The temperature of the air in the room should be above 20 degrees. One-year-old planting material and one grown in the Leningrad region is especially in need of warming up. Dry the seeds heated in an oven or drying oven at 60 degrees for 3 hours. To do this, planting material is placed on a metal grid (or baking sheet) in a thin layer, stirring several times.
  4. Disinfecting seeds. To this end, they are kept in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of product per cup of water). The procedure lasts 20 minutes, after the planting material is thoroughly washed with water.
  5. Processing by microelements. In order to speed up the seedlings and the fruiting of the crop, the heated and disinfected soak the planting material in solution in one or several microelements. An example of a recipe is 10 g of potassium nitrate, 5 g of superphosphate per 1 l of water. The optimal temperature of the liquid at the same time - 40-45 degrees. The procedure lasts 12 hours. After the seeds should be dried.

  1. Sowing. In the prepared area, furrows are formed with a depth of 2-5 cm and a step of 50 cm. The depth of planting material varies depending on the type of soil: for light land with low groundwater, the optimum level will be 3-5 cm, for heavy soil - 2-3 cm. Seeds are placed in the grooves with an interval of 3-4 cm from each other. 10 square meters. m will take about 50 g of seeds. If the soil is dry, before planting it is watered, and the seeds are sprinkled with humus, loose soil with sawdust or peat.
  2. Care for cucumbers in the open field. Immediately after the appearance of the first shoots, particular attention is paid to soil moisture and the condition of the plants. If the leaves wither in the afternoon, in the evening the bed should be watered with water of 20-25 degrees. When the plants are closed, they are thinned (only 2-3 times per season), removing the weakest shoots. Оптимальным расстоянием между кустиками является 5-15 см. Кроме этого, землю на участке важно рыхлить и пропалывать грядки. Когда огурцы разрастутся до центра междурядья, рыхление прекращают, чтобы не повредить корни. Еще следует равномерно расправлять на земле развивающиеся растения.After the beginning of the fruiting culture, the abundance of irrigation increases to 5 liters per square meter m. Moisturize the soil almost daily, with the exception of cool, cloudy days. Feeding cucumbers is not needed if the land was properly filled before planting. However, by lowering the temperature longer than a week, the leaves may turn pale. To restore their color will be nitrogen fertilizer (urea). Consumption is 7-10 g per 10 liters of water. The procedure is carried out with a whisk or by hand spraying. The optimal time is evening, otherwise the sun's rays will burn the foliage.

Planting cucumber seedlings in the ground

Gardeners, whose site is located in the floodplain part of the river, will receive a very rich harvest of vegetables, without even preparing the soil beforehand. Loamy and sandy soil with close groundwater storage is ideal for culture. Its only drawback is the lack of potash salt. Moisture-loving cucumbers do not tolerate light sandy soils that are not capable of holding fluid. However, heavy ground, where moisture lingers for a long time, is not for a vegetable. With a high level of soil acidity will have to fight through the introduction of lime.

When planting a plant, it is necessary to take into account the climate of your region, because cucumbers like heat. When planting seedlings is not the last temperature of the soil and the air is of great importance. The soil temperature for seedlings should be at least 15 degrees, but the best indicator would be 18-20 ° C. With a colder mode, seedlings, if they grow, only during the day - under the influence of sunlight, and at night they will stop growing. Seedlings landing method is suitable for any regions. However, bottling is more suitable for areas with a harsh climate.

The key to success in growing vegetables in the open field will be the right choice of varieties adapted for planting. Among them are unpretentious and undemanding, who are able to safely endure adverse weather conditions. These include:

  • Adam F1,
  • Christina F1,
  • Cappuccino F1,
  • Carolina F1,
  • True friends F1,
  • Darling F1,
  • Schedric F1,
  • ATOS F1,
  • Kustovoy,
  • Baby, etc.

How to plant seedlings

In open ground, the culture can be planted seedlings, it has some differences from sowing seeds. The technology of planting seedlings involves the following actions:

  1. Substrate preparation. Tanks (sudochka) filled with wood granules layer of 3-5 cm and poured with hot water. Pressed sawdust begins to swell and crumble, you need your fingers to help the granules crumble. While the material is still warm, seeds are laid out on it at a distance of 2-3 cm from each other. On top of them sprinkled with hot sawdust. Substrate for cucumber seedlings prepared from sawdust and peat in proportions of 1: 3. First, for each bucket of sawdust you need to make 20 g of ammonium nitrate, mix the ingredients and insist them for at least 2 days. After the substrate is mixed with peat and 8-10 g of potassium nitrate and kept for another 2 weeks (periodically, the mass must be stirred).
  2. Sowing seeds for seedlings. Planting material is planted in 10x10 cm pots, containers are installed in plastic boxes about 20x30 cm in size. This is done at the beginning of May. Approximate consumption - 16-18 plants per 1 square. m. The finished soil mixture is poured into pots and watered. In a wet substrate, holes are made in 1 cm deep, and they are placed into 1 piece of grains per pot. On top of them sprinkle with a thin layer of a mixture of sawdust. Boxes in which pots are drawn up are covered with a film until the moment when the first shoots appear, after - they take shelter. Watering seedlings is not necessary when the humidity in the greenhouse about 80%. If the seedlings are grown in room conditions, the substrate is moistened 2-3 times during the growing season.
  3. Hardening seedlings. A week before transplantation, plants are accustomed to natural conditions. To this end, they are taken out to fresh air, for the first time in the evening, the second time at lunchtime (in the shade), and on other days, seedlings can be left on an open area at any time. The day before transplanting the substrate must be watered several times.
  4. Transfer to the open garden bed. It is better to do this on a sunny day, when the air temperature reaches 25 degrees or higher. The earth should warm up to 25-30 ° С, thanks to the previously applied hot manure. The distance between the plants in a row should be equal to 12-14 cm. Only the roots of shoots sprinkle on the soil. With excessive seeding depth there is a risk of root rot.
  5. Care. Does not differ from the care of seed plantings. However, in the rassadny method of growing vegetables, the crop appears 2 weeks earlier.

Cucumber growing technology

To date, the most widely used two technologies for growing cucumbers in greenhouses and in the open field. If growing cucumbers in greenhouses more practiced by farms, the majority of gardeners and gardeners sow these vegetables in open ground.

The success of growing cucumbers outdoors depends on the following conditions:

  • The correct choice of terms of sowing seedlings in open ground, which excludes the defeat of young plants with frosts.
  • Providing timely and proper garters growing cucumber stalks to the trellis.
  • The right choice of beds for the location, which must be protected from the wind and well lit by the sun.
  • Planting is provided with appropriate care, including regular watering and proper fertilization.

Choosing a place for beds

It was noticed that cucumbers grow best in the beds, where in the past they grew tomatoes, cabbage, peppers, carrots and potatoes. The site itself, where the beds will be broken, must be on the side of the site that is well lit by the sun. Cucumber does not like drafts and wind, so you should properly plan the location of the beds. Also nIt is recommended to have a landing in the shade of trees, where the cucumber is often sick and does not bear fruit well.

But to place the beds in those areas where in the past they also grew cucumber, watermelon, melon or various other pumpkin crops is not recommended. In this case, the landing will often hurt, and the yield will leave much to be desired.

Proper preparation of planting material

The use of properly prepared seeds and high-quality planting material will become a prerequisite for obtaining a high-quality crop of cucumbers in the garden plot. Currently, you can find on sale various varieties and hybrids of cucumber, which differ in their purpose, ripening terms, taste characteristics of the grown crop, and so on.

When choosing a particular variety, you should consider:

  • The origin of a particular variety. Hybrids that are practically not ill, are very popular today, but it will be impossible to get quality seeds from them for the next year.
  • Consider the time of ripening.
  • The possibility of growing a particular variety in open ground.

Important. Choosing seeds for planting, you should pay attention to the shelf life of seeds. Usually they retain their properties for 5 years. Moreover, the most prolific have an age of 2-3 years.

Sprouting seeds at home

It is possible to grow cucumbers in the open ground by planting seedlings and sowing germinated seeds. In that case, if the cucumber is planted at the end of May, it is possible to sow seeds germinated at home. Such germination is performed as follows:

  • Seeds before planting sorted, after which they are 15 minutes immersed in a three percent solution of salt.
  • When soaking, remove the floating seeds.
  • Disinfection is carried out using a one-percent solution of potassium permanganate, for which the seeds are soaked in such a solution for half an hour.
  • Seeds are placed in a solution of wood ash, which is prepared from a liter of water and half a glass of ash. This treatment is carried out for 6 hours.
  • Warming up of seeds is carried out in an oven or on the battery. Such processing usually lasts 24 hours.
  • Prepared seeds are laid out in fabric bags or wet cloths. You can additionally use a solution of nitroammofoski, which is prepared by adding a small teaspoon of fertilizer to a liter of warm water. The optimum temperature during germination is not lower than 23 degrees.

Council Do not allow full germination of seeds. They should only swell and roll.

As soon as the seeds are filled, they can be planted on seedlings or directly into open ground.

Growing cucumber seedlings

Planting cucumbers in open ground seedlings can significantly improve the performance of fruiting, and the gardener has the opportunity to obtain a good harvest. Such growing seedlings at home does not represent special complexity, therefore each gardener will cope with it.

Sowing cucumbers performed capacity of 10 to 10 or 12 by 12 centimeters. You can use paper bags or plastic and peat pots. The containers are filled with a mixture of soil and humus, after which seeds are planted to a depth of 3 centimeters and they are regularly watered.

Approximately a week after the cucumbers were planted in the ground, the first leaves will appear, and you can replant the seedlings in the open ground after a month. When growing seedlings at home, it is necessary to observe the temperature regime at the level of 20-25 degrees, regularly water the pots with sprayer seedlings and feed the plantings with potassium fertilizers several times.

Proper preparation of the beds

Experienced gardeners recommend perform such preparation of beds for planting in the fall. Earth must be dug up; dolomite flour or hydrated lime is added with increased acidity. Also, since autumn, at the rate of 6 kilograms per square meter of garden area, organic matter is introduced, including compost, peat and humus. Additionally, before planting vegetables, mineral fertilizer can be filled up at the rate of 10 grams of bed of 60 grams of potassium sulfate.

In the spring a few weeks before planting the seedlings should form high beds, and additionally make a small amount of fertilizer - urea, superphosphate and ammonium nitrate from the calculation 30 grams per square meter. It is useful to cover the ground with a transparent film, which will allow the soil to heat up, and subsequently the seedlings will quickly start growing.

We plant cucumbers in open ground

Determine the time when you should plant seedlings and cucumber seeds in open ground, you can by temperature in the yard. It is recommended to perform this work as soon as the soil warms to 15-17 degrees. Usually this is noted in late May or early June. But planting cucumbers in open ground in early May is possible only in the southern regions.

When planting seedlings It is necessary to maintain a minimum distance between the bushes of 20 centimeters. Planting seedlings can be in a row or in a checkerboard pattern. If you are planting swollen and properly prepared seeds, then after planting, thinning of the planting is allowed.

Care for cucumbers in the open field

Providing appropriate care to plantings will be a guarantee for obtaining an excellent harvest on the plot. It should be said that a cucumber is a low-maintenance vegetable, but without proper attention from the gardener it will be impossible to get any good harvest.

It will be necessary for the gardener to perform a thinning of the plantings, which allows the removal of weak and non-viable plants which will only select food in the main fruit-bearing stems.

Most of the common hybrid varieties of cucumbers are self-fertile, that is, they do not require pollination to form the ovaries. However, it was noticed that such self-fertile varieties still show better yields when they are pollinated by insects. To attract such pollinating insects it is useful to spray the plants sweet sugar mixture or honey solution.

In the same place, the gardener will need to loosen the soil on a regular basis, which, in turn, will improve the oxygen supply to the root system and prevent the formation of a superficial crust. Also, once a few weeks, a slight earthing up is performed, which prevents stagnant moisture between the rows of plants.

It will also be useful to perform mulching plantings.that prevents rapid loss of moisture, improves the supply of oxygen to the soil and evenly heats the soil.

Cucumbers are moisture-loving crops, so it is imperative that several waterings per week be required. For such irrigation should be used only separated and warm water.

When growing cucumbers in the open ground, they can be tied to a trellis or the rods themselves will be placed on the ground. In recent years, most gardenersin the practice of technology with the garter of plants to the trellis, which improves the yield and simplifies the care of plantings.

To improve yields, it is recommended to pinch cucumbers, for which the upper part of the shoot is removed. Also, the gardener, when using the technology to tie plants to the trellis, should remove all lateral layers, which can worsen the yields of grown cucumbers.

Experienced gardeners recommend carrying out 3-4 vegetable feedings during the growing season.. For this work, the following nutritional compositions can be used:

  • Light solution of mullein.
  • Divorced in water at a consistency of 1 to 10 chicken droppings.
  • Mineral fertilizers based on phosphorus and potassium.
  • Excellent results are shown by the introduction of wood ash into the soil.
  • You can prepare the nutritional composition of 10 liters of water, 10 grams of superphosphate, the same amount of potassium salt and ammonium nitrate.

Proper harvest

During the period of active fruiting harvesting can be carried out every two to three days. Remember that it is not necessary to delay harvesting, as ripe cucumbers, being on the mother plant for a long time, acquire a characteristic bitterness, which impairs their taste. That is why it is recommended to harvest twice a week, which will guarantee the excellent taste characteristics of the vegetables you grow.

Conclusion

Cultivation of cucumbers in the open field is a currently popular technology that is simple and at the same time allows you to get a great harvest. Gardeners, having provided even the simplest care for plantings, will be able to get an excellent harvest of delicious crispy cucumbers on the plot;grown under the open sky.

Choosing the best varieties of cucumbers for growing

Before you start sowing, it is necessary to choose a variety and what cucumbers should be planted in an open ground gardeners do not have even the slightest idea. It is good if there is help from knowledgeable people nearby (neighbors in the precinct who have been doing this for years). But with ignorance of the basic plan of action, the novice gardener is lost. Yes, and you need to choose a grade. Accordingly, this problem arises much earlier than how to plant cucumbers in the open ground with seeds and grow them qualitatively.

Considering that the housewives love to use their green crop in the preparation of various salads and stock up on conservation for the winter, so the conclusion is that the universal varieties that are used for various purposes will be relevant.

In order not to climb into the jungle of various types and modifications, you can identify the types of optimal variants of cucumbers, which can differ both in their yield and in appearance:

  1. Gherkin view. In addition to fresh use are ideal for salting and canning, early and mid-season. Moreover, how to plant cucumbers in open ground are instructions on the package. The following describes the classic method of planting.
  2. Smooth varieties. Good yield, ideal for fresh use, rarely used in conservation, but in recent years are very popular among gardeners.

Under the place of cultivation is selected and the variety that can settle down to this place. So, more modified versions are used that possess those necessary qualities that are not inherent in the varietal. And how to sow cucumbers in open ground is described on the package, as some data varies (planting depth, the interval between seeds). Although a minus of such varieties is the impossibility of collecting seeds.

Beginning the cultivation of cucumbers in the open field

Before starting the action, you need to check the seeds that were purchased in advance, after which it will be possible to plant cucumbers in open ground. There is one simple "grandma" way - pour water and follow their buoyancy. Quality material will fall through time to the bottom, empty will float on the surface. Then the liquid is drained, laid out on a porous cloth (for example, gauze) and moistened. Choose a warm place with good lighting for germination. All that can eventually produce a crop will soon germinate, while the rest will be worthless. Next, find out how to plant cucumbers in open ground and do it without any problems.

The process of planting culture

On how well it is done, depends on further fruiting and ease of maintenance of the beds. Если были приобретены семена для посадки не в тепличных или парниковых условиях, то посеять их нужно грамотно. Как вырастить огурцы: посадка и уход в открытом грунте и немного о том, как сделать это правильно рассмотрим далее.

Подготовка земли под посадку

Для того чтобы начать процесс посадки, необходимо подготовить почву. For this, places are selected where there are no drafts and winds. If there is such an opportunity, then it is worth choosing the site that will not be located in an open area. Humidity is also important. If there is a lake or another reservoir nearby, then this place is perfect.

The earth must have such qualities:

  • structural and well heated,
  • not sour and moisture-consuming.

After the selected site, which will be set aside for cucumbers, proceed to the next steps.

Arrangement beds for cucumbers

Since these vegetables do not require further transplantation, the correct planting of cucumbers in open ground is done by the method of ordinary sowing. To do this, prepare the ridges hoe, which have a depth of 5-7 cm. The distance between the lines of the beds can be different - from 20 cm to 60 cm. It depends on the area of ​​their location, varietal characteristics. The best option is 40 cm.

Sowing cucumbers in open ground

Into the formed indentations sow those seeds that were prepared in advance. Further, the scheme of planting cucumbers in open ground looks like this: the interval should be approximately the same, no need to sow chaotically, the roots of the plants located close to each other interfere. It is supposed to do an interval from 15 cm to 20 cm between the planted seeds, so sowing cucumbers in the open ground will occur correctly and allow the plants to develop normally. Those grooves that remain at the edges of the groove, use for covering the top.

Watering planted seeds

So, all the seeds are buried, now it is worth pouring water over them. You should not do it under pressure, because the newly planted material can simply be washed out.

The use of a watering can with a diffuser and a hose with a similar nozzle would be ideal, so watering will be even and with a slight pressure, simulating rain.

If the earth is clay, then it is necessary to water not the seeds after planting, but the dimple itself. The soil with moisture at the top after watering will make a crust that will not be able to pass air to germinate seeds.

Covering seed beds

If the weather has not stabilized (as often happens in our regions in the spring), it is better to cover the seeded beds with sacking, polyethylene or bedspreads. At first, the seeds are very fond of heat. Therefore, before germination on the surface it is better not to reveal. After all, the temperature for planting cucumbers in open ground is optimal if it is above 10 degrees Celsius.

This rule directly refers to the continuation of how to plant cucumbers in open ground and avoid possible difficulties in this. The key here is the value of "open ground", which is not quite warmed up in the spring, but it is already necessary to sow. A more or less stable temperature inside the bed will help to withstand the covering.

All manipulations with disembarkation are quite simple and every beginner gardener can repeat them. In this doubt, how to plant cucumbers in open ground, will disappear by itself.

Conclusions about the correct planting of cucumbers in open ground

After finding out how to plant cucumbers in open ground, you will be able to plan your site to determine the amount of space for each vegetable. To obtain a crop for sale and for personal nutrition, they plant several varieties that will satisfy all requirements.

In order for the harvest to be expected, it is necessary to have knowledge of how best to plant cucumbers in open ground, before that you should also know how to prepare the site and how. The rules are so simple that even the summer resident who has done this for the first time can enjoy his own harvest.

As a result, it is worth highlighting a chain of key values ​​that will affect the production of a good harvest. This is a variety, plot, care, which includes a set of measures that prevent the death of the plant (watering, getting rid of insect pests, feeding). Complex actions will not be able to deprive a gardener with good fruiting.

Basic requirements for growing

In order to avoid many problems and facilitate your work, you need to know some of the nuances that relate to the cultivation of cucumbers.

You can plant cucumbers on the place where tomatoes, cabbage, peas, potatoes used to grow. At least three years can not be planted where previously grown carrots, beans and melons.

The timing of planting cucumbers in the ground depends on many factors. The most basic is how planting will be carried out: seeds or seedlings. Another equally important factor is considered to be the climatic conditions. Cucumbers need light, heat and enough moisture.

The deadline for planting cucumbers in the ground with seeds is approximately around 11 June. At a later date, experienced growers recommend planting sprouted seeds. If cucumber seedlings are planted in an open ground protected by a film, the dates are in the first days of May. Without the film and other shelters on the soil need to shift the time until the end of May.

Vegetable culture is a heat-loving plants, so planted when the earth warms up well. Favorable soil temperature should be 16 degrees. At the same time it is necessary to provide a shadow when the air temperature exceeds 27 degrees.

Since autumn, the land for cucumbers needs to be dug up and fertilized. Suitable bird droppings or mullein. They will not only compensate for the lack of nutrients, but also protect them from many pests and diseases. Cucumbers at planting can be fed organic fertilizers. Suitable diluted manure in water at a ratio of 1: 5. You can use mineral supplements, for example, Agricola, Ammophos, Superphosphate.

Vegetables need to organize the correct and regular watering. If the soil is flooded with water, the roots may rot.

When drought leaves first brighten, then turn yellow, and the plant ceases to grow. It is impossible to water with cold water, it should stand for about a day.

The root system of the cucumber is not very branched and does not go deep into the roots. Therefore, it is impossible to loosen the ground around the plant, weeding should be only manual. Useful mulching. Hay, peat, sawdust will be suitable as mulch. Mulch will keep moisture in the soil, will not let the weeds disperse, and the cucumbers during maturation will lie on a clean layer.

How to plant cucumbers in open ground depends on planting material. The seedling, or seeds, which plus everything else can also germinate, acts as the last.

Preparatory stage

How to plant cucumbers, everyone decides for himself. It is believed that high yield can be obtained if the seedlings are planted under the open sky. If the climate is mild, the soil is fertile, then you can immediately try to sow the seeds on garden beds.

Experienced vegetable growers plant seeds several times at different time intervals, in the tenth of May and in early June. This is done in case the cold returns. Later, it is not worth sowing, since the July heat and a long light day have a bad effect on the development of young saplings.

The first step, how to properly plant cucumbers in open ground, is the selection of the correct seeds. You can choose varietal or hybrid types of cucumbers.

Hybrids are derived on the basis of several varieties, to obtain the desired characteristics. They are easier to care for, as they are less prone to disease, tolerate temperature fluctuations.

Another important criterion in the selection of seeds is the desired time of fruit ripening. There are early, middle and late varieties. Choose a company you need only proven and proven best.

Sow only large and dense seeds. After sampling, they need to be disinfected, for example, by dropping it in solution with manganese to get rid of bacteria on the shell. You can warm the grain at a temperature of 60 degrees. This will allow sprouting to go up quickly and begin to bear fruit earlier. Another useful procedure is soaking in nutrients.

In order for the seeds to sprout sprouts faster, many previously germinate them.

Any humid environment in which the grains are placed for some time is suitable. You can place the seeds between two layers of towels or use sterile cotton, lined in a plate.

If cucumber seedlings are grown at home, on a windowsill, another method of germination is appropriate. A layer of matter is impregnated in growth biostimulants, spread out on a plate. Planting base spread on a wet basis and cover with glass or film. Humid environment will promote rapid germination. On average, germination takes from 2 to 7 days.

An important issue is how to put the seed in the hole when planting cucumbers. Spread seeds need a sharp end up. It is from there that the root will grow, curving down. The sprout, making its way through the soil, cleaves the seed and pushes the leaves out. If they are sown with the tip down, the sprout will come to the surface of the earth with a shell and may die. It is also recommended not to plant a seed vertically with the blunt end down, but slightly at an angle.

Seedless way

If the planting of cucumbers in open ground is carried out in a seedless way, the seeds are immediately sown on the beds. For sowing cucumber seeds in open ground, you must first prepare the soil. To this end, in the fall, the site is being dug up and fertilized.

How to plant cucumber seeds in open ground there are a few rules. At the site they make grooves with a depth of 3.5 cm, the distance between the grooves is approximately 45 cm. The distance between the seeds in the furrows should be 4 cm. Then it is useful to sprinkle them with organic components, such as peat or humus.

How to plant cucumber seeds in open ground there is another way. Instead of the furrows, they dig individual holes in the form of a square, the sides of which are equal to 20 cm. At what depth should the seeds be planted? The depth of each hole is approximately 4 cm.

How many seeds should be placed in a prepared well? It is recommended to plant in one hole two or even three seeds. This will increase the chances of germination. After seed germination, a less strong plant can be removed. If you managed to carefully dig, you can transplant to another place.

There are many other ways to plant seeds, for example, it is possible to sow cucumbers in open ground in the following way:

  • in a garden where it is supposed to sow seeds, they dig a trench about 80 cm deep,
  • on the bottom of the trench lay out the branches of fruit trees,
  • the next step is to lay out the compost,
  • then comes a layer of manure,
  • at the end, all nutrients are filled up with loosened soil and seeds are planted.

Whatever methods are chosen, the main thing is to plant the seeds in the recesses. Do not forget that the edge of the seed should be at the top.

After sowing of cucumbers in open ground with seeds, it is desirable to set above the beds of the arc on which the film is tensioned. The procedure will help the heat to remain inside and the seeds will quickly emerge.

Work with germinated seeds

If seeds are planted with cucumbers, it is better to germinate them first. Sprouted cucumber seeds will allow you to get a strong seedlings, which will be actively developed. It is only important to follow all the rules. To sprout sprouts need heat. If the air temperature is below 22 degrees, the process may stop. As soon as the seed has slit, it is removed from the general mass with special forceps, which has been disinfected.

To plant seeds of pre-sprouted cucumbers is necessary when the sprout is 0.5 cm in size. The seed will germinate from the ground already on the third day, but on condition that the weather is warm.

In a well-warmed earth, wells of about 3.5 cm in depth are made in which the germinated seeds are placed in a horizontal position. With sprouts you need to be careful, if damaged, the plant may die. Recommend in one well put three seeds in the form of a triangle.

As soon as the cucumbers are planted in the ground, they are watered with settled water, mulched and covered with foil before the first seedlings appear on the bed.

Homemade

The scheme of planting cucumbers in the open field with the help of grown seedlings has its own characteristics. In early May, the seeds are planted in boxes of soil and placed on a well-lit, warm window-sill. It is recommended to prepare the land on the basis of peat, potash and ammonium nitrate with the addition of sawdust.

How to sow the grain? In the prepared moistened soil they make indentations equal to 1 cm and place grains there. After all the seeds are planted and powdered with earth, the container is closed with glass or film. As soon as the majority of shoots rise, the film is removed.

The plant is ready for transplanting when 4-5 leaves appear (this is approximately 25 days after planting the seeds). A week before transplantation, seedlings are recommended to begin to harden. Daily it is useful to take it to the street or an open balcony. The day before transplanting the soil is well watered.

Cucumber seedlings are planted in open ground on a sunny, dry day. Together with the earthy clod, sprouts are placed in open ground, not too deep. It is recommended only to sprinkle the roots. With a deep landing will increase the risk of their rotting.

How deep can you plant cucumbers? The depth of the fossa should be equal to the size of the earthen coma that has enveloped the roots of the seedling. The interval between the seedlings should be about 18 cm. Between the rows, a distance of about 35 cm. As soon as the plant is planted, the soil is watered and mulched.

Aftercare

Further cultivation of cucumbers also involves careful and careful care. In the first days after transplantation, or when the first leaflets appear on the sprouts with the seed method, you need to monitor the soil moisture. If the leaves are sluggish, in the evening you need to water the plant with settled water.

It is useful to thin the beds, removing the weak and sick sprouts. The first thinning should be when two leaves unfold (when planting cucumbers was carried out by the seed method), the second thinning is carried out when 5 leaves appear on the plant. Unnecessary sprouts are not torn out by the root, but only cut off. Thus, the space between the plants will be large, and the root system will not be damaged.

Loosening can be done, but only gently and not too deep. But when cucumbers grow, loosening stops.

Some cultivated cucumber varieties require a pinching procedure in order to branch the side stalks to increase the harvest. Can be applied horizontal or vertical tying to the support.

If seedlings were planted, the flowering period should begin in 25 days. If seeds were planted, then a week or two later. To entice insects that pollinate flowers, it is recommended to spray the plants with a sweet solution. Sugar and boric acid are dissolved in hot water.

During the fruiting period, cucumbers require daily watering, provided that there is no rain.

Top dressing is necessary if the summer is cool, pests have appeared or the appearance of cucumbers has changed for some reason. But do not get too carried away with fertilizers, as not only the deficit, but also an overabundance of some elements may affect the health of the plant.

What fertilizer is useful to put into the soil after transplanting to a permanent place? Most often, it is recommended to make mineral dressings when planting cucumbers. They can be made independently or mixed with organic ingredients. Phosphorus is needed to strengthen the root system, the vegetable needs nitrogen during its growth, and the plant needs potassium during flowering.

How to feed cucumbers? The most popular organic fertilizers are manure and bird droppings. These best supplements provide the plant with all the necessary elements, help strengthen the roots and the stem, as well as stimulate growth. Before use, dilute with water. Wood ash can be added to increase efficiency. You can process infusions from other components, such as nettle or potato tops.

Yeast is considered a good fertilizer. Composition based on them will strengthen the roots, activates growth and increases resistance to disease. Both dry and live yeast can be dissolved in water. It is necessary to water a plant in two weeks after disembarkation.

During the entire growing season, the cucumbers planted can be treated with dry ash or infusion based on it. Wood ash will not only enrich the earth with nutrients, but also scare away many pests.

Experienced look

Secrets of growing cucumbers from Tatiana, 47 years old.

I always grow cucumbers with seeds. Planting begins with the preparation of cucumber beds. I make the furrows and water them well. Seeds always choose self-pollinated and never germinate them. Soot seeds at a distance equal to one of my palm. Then I sprinkle with a small layer of earth and cover with a film. So they will be warm, and they quickly germinate.

As soon as sprouts are observed, I install the film on the arcs. I thin the beds, leaving a large distance between the vegetables sown. After the seedlings are strong, I install the trellis and begin the garter. Never such a method has ever failed.

Nadezhda, 54 years old

How many times did not plant cucumbers with seeds on open beds, the result was always different. But often young shoots attacked pests. Чем только не обрабатывала. Поэтому остановилась на посадке в открытый грунт уже готовой рассады. Над грядками устанавливаю арку с натянутой пленкой. Подкармливаю составами только на натуральной основе. В ход идет яичная скорлупа, банановые корки, древесная зола, и конечно, навоз. Эти компоненты позволяют вырасти полезным и вкусным огурчикам.

О каких моментах следует позаботиться?

If you are going to grow cucumbers, you should take into account a number of important nuances based on the characteristics of this crop. In short, the work should be approached in a comprehensive manner, without losing anything.

Table. Requirements for growing cucumbers

Special attention should be paid to the root system. In our case it is superficial, so the vegetable needs a structured soil with high humidity and good access of oxygen. The cucumber root (which is about 1.5% of the total mass of the plant), being only 5 cm from the surface, can go a maximum of 40 cm. In this connection, it is impossible to loosen the ground around the cucumber, since each such procedure leads to injury. roots, and recovery takes more than 7 days. Therefore, instead of loosening and weeding, you should resort to mulching, making organic dressings and pre-planting suitable predecessors.

The latter include:

Invalid predecessors - carrots, beans, as well as all melons (they have a common disease with cucumber).

How to plant cucumbers in open soil

After reviewing all the features, you can proceed directly to the landing. The procedure is nothing complicated, however, some important nuances still exist.

Cultivation of cucumbers in open ground

So, the work traditionally must begin with the preparation of the site.

Stage one. We prepare the soil

Landing should begin with the selection and preparation of the site. This is one of the most important stages, as the cucumber, as we have already found out, is light-requiring and responds well to fertile soil. For this reason, it is better to organize the beds from north to south, and to add organic dressing to the previous crop or, alternatively, to fertilize the soil before planting the cucumber.

Fertilizer for cucumbers

In our case, the optimal fertilizer is cow dung. Under the preceding crops, it should be applied rotted (approximate consumption 5 kg / m²), and before planting - as a solution (1 part of manure should be diluted in 5 parts of water). In the absence of manure, it is quite possible to use chicken manure (mix in a ratio of 1:20) or any mineral fertilizer of a complex type.

Importance of compliance with fertilizer dosages

Note! Mostly warm beds over 20 cm in height are suitable for cucumbers. An organic “cushion” inside such a bed will not only provide useful elements for cucumbers, but also warm the roots and saturate them with carbon dioxide.

Warm bed device

How to make warm beds

How to make a biological heating

Method one. With the help of seeds

It is better to sow seeds in several stages, otherwise you can lose money with the terms (for example, the cold may return unexpectedly). In addition, this simple move will extend the fruiting period. Sowing can begin in mid-May and end in mid-June. Later this should not be done, since the summer heat and long light day are not the most favorable conditions for the development of culture.

Sow seeds in multiple doses.

Step 1. It should start with the preparation of planting material. Today, there are not only varieties that are zoned for specific regions, but also hybrids that are more resistant to diseases. It is better to give preference to hybrids - this will allow to get rid of unnecessary worries and significantly increase the yield.

No less important are the ripening terms (cucumbers can be early, middle and late ripening) and the specific purpose of the variety (for salads, for pickling, universal).

Note! If the package does not indicate the intended purpose, then you need to look at the photo: the vegetables intended for fresh consumption have white pimples, and those that are suitable only for preservation are dark.

Hybrids and cucumber varieties bee pollinated for open ground

Also note that the age of seeds should be at least 2 years. This is explained by the increased germination of seeds of all melons during storage (the optimum age is up to 6 years, by the 9th year the grains are no longer suitable for sowing).

Step 2. Before sowing, the selected seeds need to be heated for 2 hours at 60 ° C (the seedlings will be more friendly, and fruiting will occur earlier).

Preseeding heating of seeds

Then it is necessary to keep 12 hours in a solution consisting of the following components:

  • manganese sulfate (0.2 g),
  • potassium nitrate (10 g),
  • superphosphate (5 g),
  • water (1 l).

Then the seeds are dried and sown.

Step 3. In the prepared area, one should make furrows 2 cm deep with a step of 50 cm. Seeds are placed in these furrows with a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. The average consumption is 50 grams per 10 m². If the soil is dry, then it must be watered before sowing, and the seeds sprinkled with humus, peat or loose soil with sawdust.

Sowing of treated cucumber seeds in open ground

Sowing Cucumber Seeds

Step 4. It remains only to look around: if there are bird nests near the site, then the bed should be thrown with brushwood, it is also advisable to put wind rattles and stuffed animals. So the birds do not peck young shoots.

The second way. With the help of seedlings

Cucumbers can be planted on the site and seedlings. To do this, seedlings are cultivated on a well-lit window-sill: in the first days of May, the seeds are sown in 10x10 cm or 8x8 cm pots, which are installed in boxes. Approximate consumption - 16-18 plants per 1 m².

The method of planting cucumber seedlings in sawdust

Unfolding cucumber seeds

Particular attention should be paid to the substrate - it must be prepared from sawdust (25-30%) and peat (70-75%). At first, 20 g of ammonium nitrate should be added to each bucket of sawdust, then the components should be mixed and kept in this form for at least 2 days. Then they are mixed with peat, potassium nitrate (8-10 g) is added. All this is mixed and aged for 2 weeks (during this time the mixture must be mixed several times). Ready substrate is poured into pots, it is watered.

Holes 1 cm deep are made in the wet substrate, the grains are placed in them (prepared as in the previous method, 1 for each pot) and powdered. The box is covered with a film that needs to be removed after the first shoots appear. Watering the seedlings is not necessary if the humidity in the greenhouse is about 80%. As for indoor conditions, the air is drier here, so watering should be done 2 or 3 times during the growing season.

Create greenhouse conditions

7 days before transplanting, the seedlings are hardened, that is, they are accustomed to natural conditions. The first time it needs to be taken out to fresh air in the evening, the second time - at lunchtime (always pritenyaya). On other days, seedlings may remain open. 24 hours before transplanting the pots must be watered several times.

The transplant must be made on a sunny day at an air temperature of 25 ° C. The temperature of the soil will be around 25-30 ° C due to hot manure. The distance between shoots in a row should vary between 12-14 cm. Characteristically, only roots should be filled with primer. If the embedment depth is too deep, there will be a risk of root rot.

Planting cucumber seedlings in open ground

Note! Further care is almost the same for both methods. However, in seedling cultivation, the fruits ripen 14 days earlier than in seed.

Stage Three. Further care

Growing cucumbers, care

In the first days after transplantation (in the case of seed cultivation - immediately after the appearance of the first shoots), special attention should be paid to the soil moisture and the condition of the plants. If in the daytime the leaves wither, then in the evening the beds should be watered, and the water temperature should be 20-25 ° C (approximate consumption is about 1.5 l / m²). When the plants close, they are thinned (a total of 2-3 times) by removing the weakest shoots. Between plants should be left 5-15 cm. In parallel with the thinning should carefully loosen the soil and weed the beds. Subsequently, the loosening should be stopped when cucumbers grow to the middle of the row spacing, otherwise the root system can be damaged. It is also necessary to evenly spread the developing plants on the ground.

On the photo cucumber lash

Flowering will begin in 30-45 days (or earlier if cucumbers are grown in a seedling manner), depending on the particular variety. When fruiting begins, watering should be increased to about 3 l / m², and should be watered almost daily (except on cloudy days).

The photo is organized on the bed drip irrigation

Watering cucumbers in the garden

Top dressing is not required, provided that the soil has been properly filled. But if the lower temperature is observed over a week, then the foliage may turn pale. To restore the color in this case, the leaves must be treated with any nitrogenous fertilizer (for example, the same urea), while the consumption should be 7-10 g per bucket of water. This procedure is performed using a whisk or a hand sprayer, but always in the evening, otherwise the sun's rays can burn the leaves through the droplets of the solution that covered them.

Collection of greenhouses is carried out in the morning.

As a conclusion. Breeding features

If the selected variety gave a really good harvest, then it is desirable to collect seeds from it. To this end, on several plants leave a certain number of large fruits (maximum 3 per bush) and allow them to ripen. But it should be remembered that this procedure is acceptable only in respect of these varieties. The fact is that hybrid cultures are incapable of repeating the mother culture from grains, which means it is pointless to leave them for breeding.

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