Amateur flower growers are always attracted by the opportunity to grow at home some exotic plant, unusual for the area. Surely every person had a dream to have on hand fragrant citrus or ripe bananas. Today you will learn how to grow a banana at home from the seeds of a purchased fleshy fruit.
Description of the banana plant for home cultivation
If you doubt whether it is possible to grow a banana at home, then the answer is - you can, but be prepared for the fact that this is quite a troublesome thing. To grow a banana at home, you need to familiarize yourself with the features of this plant:
- Tropical varieties grow to 10-12 meters, and homemade banana tree is dwarfed, and its height does not exceed 2 meters.
- The length of the leaves is about 1.5 m, and the width is 30 cm.
- The bases of the leaves fit so closely together that a pseudostem (stem of the plant) is formed in this way.
- And the stem (rhizome) is hidden under the ground. It has the shape of a ball, and in parallel performs the functions of the roots of a tree.
- The main inflorescence grows from the middle of the pseudostem, which dries out after the end of the fruiting process.
Important! Remember that a banana is really not a tree. In theory, it is a perennial herb.
- The life span of the growth of banana is about 40 years. New psevdostebley grow at the site of drying out. If growth occurs on the scale of industry, then reproduction proceeds by dividing the rhizome, in other words, radical processes are deposited. When the process is removed from the rhizome, it retains all the varietal characteristics of the plant. But specimens grown from seeds are used for decorative purposes.
Banana species for the home
Modern flower growers with the same success grow both ornamental "trees" in order to decorate the room, and plants with tasty, juicy fruits. On average, such instances grow from 2 to 2.5, and mini bananas reach only 1-1.5 meters.
To the fruit varieties that are popular for growing at home, we include such bananas:
- dwarf Cavendish,
- Cavendish Super Dwarf,
- dwarf Kiev,
- supercarlik Kiev.
The decorative varieties of exotic plants include:
- Chinese dwarf,
- bright red.
These varieties bloom brightly and beautifully, but the fruits of a banana tree in these varieties are inedible, small.
Sprouting seeds from purchased banana
If you are interested in how to grow a banana from seed, then first you need to buy wild fruit in the store. They are extremely rare, but the usual fruits are not suitable, as they are removed for export at a time when their seeds are in an embryonic state. Wild fruits are distinguished by their small size and the presence of dark seeds in the pulp.
If you managed to find the desired fruit, make sure that the skin is not damaged. To extract seeds from a purchased banana with your own hands, you need to perform the following actions:
- The yellow fruit is placed in a plastic bag, then wait until the peel is completely dark.
- After that, the fruit is removed, peel the skin, and make a cut along the middle. Remove the seeds from the inside with a sharp object and lay them out one by one on a paper napkin.
Important! It is necessary to carefully sort the seeds, because only rounded grains are suitable for planting, and flat specimens should be selected and thrown away.
- After the seeds are separated from the pulp, they are thoroughly washed.
- The resulting seeds pour warm water, then leave them alone for 3 days.
- At the end of the three-day period, wash and dry the seeds.
- After completion of the preparation process, an inert substrate is required. For these purposes, suitable coconut or sphagnum, which are easily bought in shops for florists. Prior to use, the substrate is sterilized with steam, then it is cooled, mixed with perlite and poured over with potassium permanganate solution.
If you do not have the opportunity to purchase coconut or sphagnum, you can use a mix of peat and coarse sand in proportions of 1: 3. To do this, lay the bottom of the tank with drainage material (gravel, broken brick, foam plastic), on top of which place a layer of substrate 5-6 cm thick. Properly press the seeds into the bedding mixture, then water the plant.
The shell of banana seeds is very dense, so before immersing them in the soil, it should mechanically break its integrity. This can be done by rubbing the surface with sandpaper, scratching or using surface files with a nail file for a manicure. It is important not to overdo it, and not to damage the core.
The process of the appearance of the first shoots takes from 2 to 3 months.
Important! Seed production is a laborious process, so we recommend buying ready-made seeds in a gardening shop.
Before you grow a banana tree, you need to take care of its transplant from germinated seed. The scheme of action is as follows:
- Take the topmost layer of soil (5-7 cm) from under hazel, lime, birch or acacia.
- Add sand, humus and ash in the proportions 10: 2: 1: 0.5 to the substance. Mix the resulting composition, and send in the oven for roasting for 5-10 minutes.
- Bottom lay drainage material, and on top of it vsypte moistened sand. Already after the sand, place the prepared warm soil, calcined in the oven.
Interesting! To prevent the pot from adjoining close to the tray, place a grid or several pebbles between them. Thus, air can penetrate to the roots without obstruction.
- Germinated seeds are deepened into the soil to a depth of about 2 cm, lightly sprinkled and watered.
- The houseplant must grow, and the roots will eventually take over the entire pot area. In this case, the banana must be transplanted into a larger container.
Rules for the care of indoor banana tree
To care for an exotic plant is quite simple:
- Loosen the soil regularly.
- Watering spend abundantly, but infrequently. As an indicator, the drying of the top layer of soil in a pot 1-2 cm deep will serve.
- Spraying in the summer period is done daily, and in winter it should be done once a week.
- It is necessary to strictly monitor compliance with the temperature regime so that the tree does not wither. The optimum temperature for growth is + 25 + 30. It is possible and less, but now with +15 the development and growth of the plant slows down significantly.
- With proper care, the banana grows and develops at an accelerated pace, and after the appearance of 11-15 leaves, the tree blooms.
- Lighting for indoor wood is extremely necessary. Place the pot on the south and east side of the dwelling, and in the winter season provide additional lighting.
- Top dressing should be made systematically. It occurs once a week in the summer using humus and wood ash. Take 200 grams of humus, dissolve it in a liter of water and leave for a day, so that the solution is infused. Enter into the soil during watering.
- Every six months, water the tree with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
- Inorganic fertilizers should be excluded.
- Under natural conditions, the tree can be affected by root nematodes: black weevil, roundworms, fungus. At home, the pests practically do not bother the tree, sometimes the spider mite, which appears with reduced humidity, is a problem.
You can skip the period of preparation of seeds and rooting sprouts, and just buy a banana tree in the store for gardeners, but the cultivation of exotic with their own hands captures, and the result is valued much more. After the efforts you have made, you can enjoy the result and surprise the guests with an exotic plant that can become the main decoration of your home.
Now let's talk about how to grow a banana at home. At home it is quite possible to recreate a microclimate suitable for a tropical fruit. Like any grass, it is quite demanding to care, but your efforts will pay off with a delightful original look of exotic greenery, which everyone will like!
Two breeding methods
First you need to figure out how this plant is best propagated by exotic. A banana can be grown at home in two ways: the first one is quite laborious - growing from seeds. However, it should immediately be noted that the fruits of such a plant will be inedible and filled with stones.
Planting material can be purchased at a flower shop or ordered online, which specializes in exotic flowers. Sprout grown from seeds is likely to be a wild crop, but do not be upset! The uncultured subspecies is much stronger and more viable than plants bred specifically for rooms. You have purchased banana seeds and are ready to start planting them, but before that, carefully consider planting material. Pay attention to the strong rind or even the shell of the seed, which should be slightly damaged before planting. It is enough just to scratch or chop off the skin of a banana seed, thus we will facilitate the future germ's task and speed up the germination process for several days.
Seed only need to press a finger, but do not sprinkle it on top of the ground. Cover the pots with cling film and place in a bright place where direct sunlight will not fall. As the soil dries, wet it. Separately, pay attention to quality drainage in pots to avoid stagnation of water and the death of seeds. Seeds at home do not germinate quickly, from planting to the appearance of the first shoots will take from 2 to 3 months.
Buying plants in the store
If you do not want to wait until shoots appear and the sprout begins to develop, then for you the second method of cultivation is to buy a young plant, which is derived especially for the house by means of a long selection. It is worth noting that such a sapling will be more capricious than his wild brother, but do not despair, a little effort and everything will work out! In addition, such bananas multiply vegetatively and will be able to reward your labors with real home-made bananas.
Once a banana is a houseplant, how can you take care of it at home? You bought a small plant in a flower shop in a tiny pot, which you should transplant in a week, but for now examine the plant for the presence of parasites and small pests.
For the future of the banana, choose a spacious container. It is necessary to make good holes in it, fill the clay with a layer of 1.5 - 2 cm, add sand 1.5 - 2 cm, fill with earth. The graft is carefully transplanted: it is important not to damage the root system and delicate foliage. If growing conditions are favorable for your plant, then it will develop quite quickly. Then you may need more than one transplant per year. Good drainage is most important. For a plant, stagnant water is destructive, from which roots can rot.
Also requires daily hydration of the leaves, spraying or rubbing. Dry air adversely affects foliage. In the period of active growth and development can be fed organic fertilizers, in the same proportions as for other plants.
The optimum temperature for active growth can be considered from +23 to +28 degrees, in winter from +17 to +20 degrees. Humidity and quite high temperature - the key to success! In the wild, bananas prefer the scorching sun, for this reason they are well suited sill south window. It is necessary to select a place with sufficient lighting. Lack of light adversely affects growth and development. Now we know how simple and easy it is to care for this exotic palm tree at home.
In the world there are a huge number of different varieties and types of bananas, which differ in color and size. Here are just some of them:
- Baby banana or finger (baby / nino / lady finger), this name comes not only from the size, which does not exceed 7.5 cm, but visually it resembles a human finger. The ripened fruit has a bright yellow color, a sweet pronounced aroma and delicate texture of the pulp.
- The blue banana of the island of Java is one of the most non-ordinary representatives of its kind in color. As the name implies, its rind has a bluish-green rind, and the fruit itself has a sweet creamy taste.
- Banana Barro (Burro) is suitable for fans of geometric shapes! After all, the fruit is a bit like a square. And do not be afraid of black spots on the skin - this is an indicator of the ripeness of the fetus. This type of banana has a bright, fresh aroma similar to lemon.
- Banana Cavendish (Cavendish) is the most common in the world. Its fruits reach 25 cm. The rind has a juicy yellow color with small green veins. When overripe, the shell turns black and the flesh becomes soft.
- Banana Plantine (Plantain) is ideal for decorating dishes, because the color of its flesh is a pinkish hue. Visually, this species highlights the elongated shape smoothly "thinning" to the place where the flower was. However, before enjoying its taste, you will have to tinker - I do not eat this sort of banana raw, it must be extinguished or fried. Plantine is also distinguished from its fellows by its higher starch content and low sugar.
- Banana Manzano is also called apple, because its short fruits have an unusual strawberry-apple flavor, and fully blackened skin indicates ripeness.
- Red banana or Jamaican - another unusual representative of bananas. Besides the fact that ripe fruits have a dark burgundy color and pink flesh, this species is endowed with aroma, reminiscent of raspberries.
For growing at home, selectively bred dwarf bananas of the Cavendish variety, such as Tropicana and Kiev dwarf, are most suitable.
- Banana Tropicana (lat. MusaTropicana). One of the most famous representatives in indoor floriculture and landscape gardening. At home, caring for him is the same as for the rest of the species. It has oval, elegant dark green leaves with little pigmentation.
- Kiev dwarf (Latin Musasuperdwarfcavendish) or a banana room fructifying dwarf. Vkarlik grows up to 2 meters in height. With good care from one plant, you can get about two hundred of their own mini-fruits. A pot with a flower is best placed near the east or south window, the northern rooms are not suitable for fruiting. Temperature range not lower than + 16 degrees. The flowering of the banana lasts throughout the year, after the flowers appear small fruit collected in clusters.
What diseases are characteristic of indoor banana tree? How to help an exotic plant? Let's look at the most common difficulties that everyone can face:
- Slow growth, decrease, wilting of foliage may be due to nutritional deficiencies. For a start, you can conduct a series of planned dressings, and you can transplant it into a larger pot.
- Drying of the leaves, withering of the young shoots, twisting and yellowing of the tips are all connected with dry air. It is necessary to spray the crown more often and increase the overall humidity in the room.
- Pale and shallow foliage appears with a lack of sanctification. It is recommended to use artificial lamps in winter.
- Soft drooping leaves signal to us that the temperature in the room is too low. That is why in the winter room banana is more vulnerable. The plant should not be located near the “cold” windows and drafts.
- Dark pigmentation between the veins on old leaves is a common occurrence and no need to worry.
- In the spring the plant did not leave the period of rest and did not go into active growth? Then you need to conduct a routine feeding.
- Darkened stalk at the base and became soft. This is the most unfavorable sign of all! The base of the stem rots from an overabundance of soil moisture, if you do not reduce watering and do not take urgent measures, the plant may soon die.
This fruit has many beneficial properties! Traditional medicine says that the banana is one of the most acceptable products for cholelithiasis. Bananas are useful in liver diseases and gastrointestinal diseases. The pulp of this berry is saturated with fiber and dietary fiber, which has a beneficial effect on the digestion process, as well as potassium salts, which contribute to the elimination of body fluids and good heart function. Scientists have shown that people who consume a banana daily are more optimistic and concentrated.
Also, banana fruits can be used as fertilizer for indoor and garden plants. With garden everything is clear, he threw pelts in a pit for compost and for another year he fertilized the beds, but what about fertilizing or feeding indoor plants with a banana? Its peel contains a lot of potassium, which is so necessary for the growth and development of plants.
Banana peel can be used as a dry top dressing for home flowers. To do this, the skin is dried, then triturated or crushed into powder. The resulting mass can be mixed with the earth or powder directly under the root of the flowers.
Features care after purchase
After acquiring a germinated houseplant, it is kept at rest a few days at the very place where the banana is to grow. Then the plant follows transplant in a suitable size pot.
Home and Garden Banana does not need in pruning. Его обрезают лишь в случае омоложения растения или для отсечения поврежденной наземной части.
Хорошо развившийся банан, выпустивший до 18 крупных листков, зацветает. Появляются розетки, в которых распускаются красно-фиолетовые бутоны цветов. They last from 3 months to 1 year, with time beginning to slope to the ground.
How does a banana bloom? Photo:
A tropical plant needs good diffused lighting - then it will develop and bear fruit safely. Therefore, home banana is better to place on the south, eastern or southeast window sill. Or next to the appropriate windows, if the plant has already reached a large size.
If this is not possible, the only available option is north window, it is necessary to resort to additional lighting.
However, even a light-loving plant like a banana needs protect from direct sunlight so that they do not burn its leaves.
Therefore, home and garden (as well as a balcony) banana need to bring on from the direct rays of the sun using gauze.
Another factor necessary for successful cultivation is high humidity. In summer, a room banana needs to be sprayed at least once a day.
It will also be relevant to place near it a container with moist expanded clay. In winter, the issue of humidity becomes less important: spraying can be done only once every 7 days.
Banana is required much water, but the main rule of watering remains the same: moisture should not stagnate in the soil. Therefore, it is necessary to water the plant when the 2-centimeter upper soil layer dries out (this is easily checked by touch).
Winter requires even more rare watering. Tap water for irrigation is fine, but it should be kept for at least 24 hours and should be close to room temperature (or even a little more than a couple of degrees).
Banana prefers neutral or slightly acidic earth. For the home copy it is prepared from the following components:
- 1 bucket of linden, walnut or acacia soil
- 0.5 liters of ash
- 1 liter of humus,
- 2 liters of coarse sand.
The resulting mixture must be shed with boiling water to get rid of possible pests.
Concerning garden banana, then, in the case of unsuitable soil on the plot, add a couple of buckets of rotted manure, a handful of complex fertilizer and half a bucket of sand to the landing pit.
Banana boasts good growth and a corresponding good appetite. He needs additional feeding once a week in the summer and once a month in the winter.
How to feed him at home? For this purpose, alternate:
- Humus (only cow): 200 g of manure diluted with 1 liter of boiling water and leave for a day.
- Ash: 1 tablespoon, diluted with 1 liter of water.
- Sideral fertilizers: 1 tablespoon of chopped herbs pour 1 liter of boiling water and leave for 24 hours.
Fertilizers for bananas are applied immediately after watering.
Banana grows extremely fast. Every two weeks the plant releases a new leaf. In less than a year, it can overcome height two meters (if it is provided by this look and variety). Therefore, in the early stages of plant care, more frequent transplant.
Before the onset of a cold snap, it is necessary to warm the banana for the winter: you should sprinkle the roots of the garden banana dry sawdust, and cover the ground part with a cardboard box, wrap it with a film on the outside and secure the cover properly so that not blown away.
The main thing that the roots did not freeze: everything else concerning the above-ground part of the plant is fixable and recoverable.
If the winter is warm, it can continue its growth - in this case, the young tender shoots should also be sheltered from the cold weather.
Homemade banana in winter does not need in no special conditions. The only difference from summer care is significantly reduced watering. Protect the plant from cold.
For low instances home banana (from 10 to 20 cm) suitable pot with a capacity of 1 or 2 liters, respectively. Large plants with a height of 60-70 cm are planted in a container with a volume of 10-15 liters.
These recommendations are better. do not neglectbecause too big a pot for a small plant is an excess of excess soil and water stagnating in them, which will lead to souring the earth and, as a result, to rotting roots.
At the bottom of any pot is laid out a 7-centimeter drainage layer made of expanded clay or fragments of red brick, which should be covered with sand. Put the pot on standso that through drainage holes to the root system arrive more air.
If optimal conditions are created for a banana, it will grow very quickly, and it will have to be replanted every year. As a rule, transplantation is carried out in the spring, if there are no urgent reasons to do it earlier.
Planting and growing from seed
At home, only a wild-looking banana with inedible fruits is subject to germination from seeds. It is a little similar to the usual for us fruit and generously filled with seeds, of which grow a houseplant, carrying only a decorative function.
Seeds - photo:
For better germination, a hard seed coat can be slightly to harm using nail files. Banana seeds are kept in warm water for a couple of days to germinate, and only after that they are sown in the soil. Its composition may include 4 pieces of river sandmixed with 1 part peat. Good also needed drainage layer.
Seeds are sown on the surface of the earth, slightly pressing them, but not sprinkling on top. Then the container must be covered with glass or transparent film. Keep the container with the seeds should be in a well-lit place, but from the direct sun they should be protected.
Periodically "Greenhouse" should be aired, as the soil dries out - to moisten the soil from the sprayer. Do not overdo it: moisture should not stagnate. If signs of decay appear, the damaged area of soil is removed, and the surface of the remaining is treated with manganese solution. Shoots should be expected after 3 or 4 months.
If you are interested in where the banana seeds, then take a look at the following photo:
How to grow a banana from seed room, you can find out by watching an interesting video:
Banana bunch begins to ripen from above. Do not be surprised that the taste of your bananas will be different from the store ones: your fruits ripen on the plant, and for the stores bananas are broken even immature and they “reach” after transportation - in gasification chambers.
At home also possible peculiar "Aeration" bananas, which for some reason did not have time to ripen on the garden or houseplant. These bananas are placed in a plastic bag together. with ripe apples. It is these fruits that will start the ripening process. The success of this procedure not guaranteedbut completely is real.
Bananas rarely get sick and are attacked by insects.
Due to the dryness of the air, a spider mite may appear on the leaves, for the same reason the leaf plates may dry out at the edges. But all this is easily fixable.
Dry areas are carefully cut off, the yellowing sheet is cut off completely.
They reproduce by basal offspring (they are also called “children”). They are separated in the spring when they grow up to 10-15 centimeters in height, and they have sufficiently strong roots.
Cut off offspring with a piece of rhizome, the slice is covered with ash, and "Baby" immediately put in the ground. Its composition is the same as for adult plants. Pot with young plant put in a bright and warm place and take care of him, as an adult instance.
- serotonin and tryptophan,
- vitamins and other beneficial substances.
Bananas are also useful because they provide the body with a charge of energy, promote effective mental and physical work. Especially they are relevant in diabetes, atherosclerosis, kidney disease, liver, hypertension.
Create a corner of tropical exotic in your home or garden not difficult: enough to buy a banana plant. The cultivated look also will delight you not only with an impressive appearance, but also with edible and tasty fruits.
Watch the video of how bananas are grown in the greenhouse:
The history of the banana tree
Many written sources talk about how banana was grown. For example, the first mention can be found in the manuscripts of the ancient Greeks, Arabs and Romans. The drawings of the plant were found on a fresco in ancient Syria and Egypt. The banana tree got acclimatized in Africa in the 16th century and became almost the main product of food in such a dry region.
At the beginning of the twentieth century, a banana bewitched the hearts of many people, thanks to its unusual appearance, it became one of the important exhibits of Victorian greenhouses and home winter gardens.
Basic tips on how to grow a banana at home
- Soak the seeds before planting for a couple of days with warm water. It is desirable to maintain the temperature from +35 to +40 degrees.
- Water change no more than 2-3 times over the entire period.
- After the expiration of the seeds cleanse the remaining pulp and mucus.
- Disinfect the seeds in ten percent bleach and then rinse in clear water.
- Planting seeds in the ground, keeping the distance between them 8-10 centimeters. But it is best to plant them in separate pots, when you transplant the plant, the risk of damaging the roots will be minimal.
Banana grown at home is inferior in size to those plants that are exhibited in flower shops, and soon bloom. But having grown it in the conditions of the microclimate of your home, he will rarely get sick and, most likely, will bring rich fruits.
What kind of plants are bananas?
They do not grow on palm trees, but on grassy plants, whose spherical fleshy roots are located deep underground. From the rhizome (rhizome) grows a juicy stem, formed from leaf stalks (false stem).
Around the main stem of the rhizome grow root offsprings - processes. Plants have huge leaves, the length of which reaches up to 2-4 m, and the width - up to 60 cm. The leaves that grow quickly enough gradually die off. Their dried and hardened petioles form a false stem of the plant.
If you look at the photo of a banana tree, you can see that the stems of the lower dead leaves formed a kind of trunk, and in the upper part are green leaves. During this period, the plant really resembles a palm tree.
In favorable growing conditions for a week, one leaf appears. When about 45 leaves grow and a real stem is formed inside the false stem, it produces one huge flower spike. This happens approximately after 8 to 12 months.
White tubular nectar-filled flowers in a multi-tiered cascade hang down. Male, the smallest, are at the top of the peduncle. In the middle part there are larger bisexual flowers, and in the lower part - the largest - female. It is because of them that the fruits are fastened after pollination.
The upper flowers, having fulfilled the function of pollination, fall off, and on the lower tiers of the peduncle further development, growth and ripening of the fruits occur. The bunch consists of separate tiers. In each tier grows several brushes. Depending on the variety and conditions can be from 6 to 15 brushes.
The total height of the tree can reach 5-8, and in natural growing conditions and 15 meters.
Initially, the fruits have a light green color. When ripe, depending on the variety, gradually acquire shades of yellow or red. For the purpose of a longer period of storage and transportation, they are cut off green. At this stage of maturity, they are also not eaten by rodents.
The ground part of the plant that left the plant dies off. The following year, a new stem grows from the oldest of the rhizome processes, and the plant repeats the same cycle of growth, flowering and fruiting. When growing bananas in agriculture, the next year leaves the strongest shoots, and the rest are harvested to avoid depletion of the land.
According to the technique of growing bananas are berries.
With all the variety of wild species (there are about 40 of them altogether), plants growing in nature have oval inedible fruits filled with seeds. Bananas grown as agricultural crops, which we buy for food, are the result of the work of breeders. In nature, such varieties do not exist.
Some of the wild species live in nature for up to a hundred years. Intensive fruiting on industrial plantations lasts for a period of ten to fifteen years, after which it is renewed.
Now you know how to grow bananas. There are no fundamental differences in their growth, flowering and fruiting in the wild and in agriculture. Significant differences are in reproduction.
The wisdom of growing bananas at home and in the greenhouse
You can grow in home or greenhouse conditions, some decorative or fruit varieties of bananas.
For decorative, suitable for growing at home, include such varieties:
- bright red
- Chinese dwarf,
Their height ranges from one to one and a half meters.
Among the fruit varieties with high taste, suitable for growing at home, include the following:
- Kiev dwarf (1.5-1.7 m),
- Kiev supercarlik (1 m),
- super dwarf cavendish (1-1.3 m),
- dwarf cavendish (1.8-2.4 m),
- pointed (2 m).
Growing a banana in an apartment and getting tasty fruits is quite possible if you have the desire, certain care skills and the ability to create the necessary conditions, which we will discuss later. So where to start? Of course, with planting material. For the cultivation of an ornamental variety, you can purchase seeds, for a fruit variety, you can buy a rooted specimen in a pot. For such a purpose, dwarf and super-dwarf varieties are suitable.
Next you need to prepare the substrate. To do this, suitable land from deciduous forest, which we take under acacia, linden, hazel, birch. Land not taken under oak, chestnut or poplar is not suitable.
We dig up the top layer of earth with a thickness of 7-10 cm. To it we add 10% of humus, 5% of wood ash, 20% of river sand. All mix and fill with boiling water or calcined for disinfection. At the bottom of the pot we put drainage (it is very important that there is no stagnation of water), then - a layer of wet sand, on which the earth mixture is laid. You can use the ready-made floral substrate purchased in the garden shop.
Do not put the pot directly in the pan. For a good outflow of excess moisture and air circulation in the pan should put a few pebbles on which to place the pot.
How to plant a banana?
Leave the purchased copy of the copy for acclimatization in the apartment or house for several days. Then transfer to a pot prepared for this purpose. As your pet grows, it will need to be transferred to a larger tank.
At each transfer, it must be buried below the previous time. We select pots taking into account such need. Bananas in fruit capacity of about 50 liters.
The optimum temperature for the development of your pet is from 25 to 30 degrees Celsius. When it decreases to 15 degrees, growth stops.
The lighting should be bright, in the apartment the pot should be placed directly by the window. If in the summer you take it out to the street or a balcony from scorching rays, you should make light shading out of gauze or tulle. You can set the pot in the "lace" shade of trees.
Watering. Large leaves evaporate a lot of moisture. Therefore, watering should be abundant, but not often. To avoid rotting of the roots, water when the top layer of the substrate, 2-3 cm thick, is completely dry and crumbles in the hand.
Feeding. For fruiting need feeding. In the warm season, feeding is advisable to be made weekly, and with the transition to winter, their frequency is adjusted to 1 time per month. The following solutions give a good effect:
- biohumus or humus (but not chicken or porcine),
- from green plants (quinoa, lupine or other weeds),
- for specimens above 1 m, it is helpful to add fish meal to the solution. Her presence enhances fruiting.
You can grow bananas in the greenhouse. At the same time, conditions for their development and fruiting should be created similarly to those described above. If you prefer a decorative option and were able to get seeds - dare. To begin, you will need to damage the seed coat, so that it sprouts soon. You can do this with sandpaper or nail files.
For seedlings, you can use plastic cups. Put drainage on the bottom, then pour the substrate, leaving about 3 cm to the top of the cup. Place a seed in the middle of the substrate. Glasses set in a warm well-lit place, cover with glass, periodically pour and ventilate. Sprouts appear after 3 months. Further care is similar to the above described cultivation.
Banana plant. Varieties for growing in a room
General view and biological features of the plant:
- The height of the banana tree in the tropics reaches 10-12 m. For growing at home, there are varieties of dwarfs that grow no more than 2 m.
- Leaf length 1.5-2 m, width 30-50 cm.
- Their bases are very close to each other, thus forming the stem of a plant (pseudostem).
- Actually the stalk (rhizome) is under the ground. It has a spherical shape and in parallel performs the functions of rhizome.
- The inflorescence emerges from the middle of the pseudostem, which dies off after fruiting.
Attention! A banana tree is not a tree at all. This is a herbaceous perennial plant.
The life of the rhizome of each banana tree is about 40 years. At the places of drying out pseudostem grow new. On an industrial scale, bananas are propagated by dividing the rhizome, that is, they root out the root processes. So all varietal qualities are fully preserved. Plants grown from seeds are used for decorative purposes. Их плоды, чаще всего, для употребления в пищу непригодны.
Home lovers grow as bananas with very tasty fruits, and trees that serve as interior decoration. The average height of such plants is 2-2.5 m, and some dwarf varieties are 1-1.5 m. The first are:
- Sharpened banana
- banana Cavendish dwarf,
- Banana Cavendish Super Dwarf,
- Kiev dwarf,
- Kiev supercarlik.
- Velvety Banana,
- Lavender banana,
- Chinese dwarf,
- Bright red banana.
These varieties bloom very beautifully and can produce small, inedible fruits.
How to get seeds from a purchased banana and germinate them
To independently obtain seeds from a purchased banana, you will need to perform the following steps:
- A banana with a yellow skin is placed in a plastic bag until it is completely browned.
- Peel the flesh and cut it to the level of the core.
A sharp object to remove the seeds from the pulp and lay them one by one on a paper napkin.
Attention! Only round-shaped seeds are suitable for planting. Flat specimens should be selected and discarded.
- To separate from the pulp, the seeds are well washed.
- The resulting material is poured with warm water and left for 2-3 days.
- Wash well and dry again.
Next, seeds are germinated, which requires an inert substrate. Suitable sphagnum or coconut, which can be purchased in special stores. The substrate must be steam sterilized. After cooling, mixed with perlite and watered with a solution of potassium permanganate.
If it is impossible to purchase a substrate from plant fibers, a mixture of coarse sand and peat (3: 1) can be used. Banana seeds are grown in this way:
- The bottom of the tank is covered with drainage material. A layer of substrate 5-6 cm thick is placed on top.
- Seeds are pressed into the substrate and well watered.
- To preserve moisture arrange greenhouse made of polyethylene.
- During the day, the temperature is kept at +27 .. + 33 ° C, and at night +20 .. + 25 ° C.
Seeds germinate for a long time - from 2 to 3 months. To eliminate the mold that may appear during this time, it is enough to treat the substrate with potassium permanganate.
How to plant a germinated plant and care for it
For the cultivation of banana plants take the top layer (5-7 cm) of soil from under the hazel, birch, linden and acacia. Sand, humus and ash are added to the ground thus collected in a ratio of 10: 2: 1: 0.5, respectively. The whole composition is stirred and calcined in the oven. The bottom of the pot is lined with drainage material. Moistened sand is poured over it, and then the prepared soil.
Council To prevent the pot from adjoining close to the pallet, you can put a few small stones or a grate between them. This technique will allow air to penetrate unhindered to the roots.
Sprouted seed is sunk into the soil no more than 2 cm, sprinkled and well watered. After the banana grows up and the roots “take hold” of the entire space of the pot, it is rolled over into a larger container.
Banana care in a room consists of the following tasks:
- Regular loosening of the soil.
- Watering. It should be carried out infrequently, but plentifully. An indicator is the drying of the upper (1-2 cm) layer of soil in a pot.
- Spraying In winter, they do it once a week, and in the summer every day.
- Maintaining temperature. Acceptable temperature for banana +25 .. + 30 ° C. At + 15 ° C, the growth and development of the plant slow down greatly.
- Lighting. Banana fit only the southern and eastern sides in the dwellings. In winter, you need to provide additional lighting.
- Feeding. Fertilizer should be regularly. Suitable biohumus, infusion of herbs.
Growing a banana from the seeds is troublesome. But after all the efforts, you can enjoy yourself and amaze your friends with a beautiful exotic plant, which, perhaps, will be the main decoration of your home.
Is a banana a tree or a grass?
Realizing that science could not do without science, I undertook to read special literature and learned a lot of interesting things. It turns out that a banana is not a tree, but a herbaceous perennial (from the banana family). It is distributed in countries with tropical and subtropical climates. It grows up to 12 m in height. It has large, palm-like leaves. Banana flowers are red-purple, bloom separately - up to 3 months each.
Banana fruits are considered berries. They are assembled in brushes up to 300 pcs. And one such stems can weigh up to 60 kg. From planting a banana to fruit ripening takes a year and a half.
Bananas are both sweet and savory.
Edible varieties of bananas are divided into dessert and plantain. Dessert fruits are eaten fresh, dried, used to prepare sweet dishes, drinks. Plantines eat only after heat treatment. Of them prepare a banana puree and other savory dishes. The flowers and young shoots of bananas are used as vegetable greens. And with the infusion of flowers and roots of the plant they treat bronchitis, gastric ulcer, dysentery. Juice from the leaves - neuralgic disorders, wounds on the skin. Fruits are considered useful for anemia, hypertension, heartburn, and depression. Peel the fruit remove warts.
Banana on the windowsill
In our climate, bananas are grown at home or in heated greenhouses. If the temperature drops below 16 °, the culture stops growing, and at 10e it can die. For normal development, a banana needs 20-30.
Seeds of fruit, as I was convinced, do not germinate. Viable seeds should be sought in stores. And it will be decorative (inedible) varieties. And dwarf fruit varieties of bananas for indoor i content are sold only in the form of mountain- | neck plants. True, at home they will not bloom as fast as in the tropics, only for the 3-5th year. But the fruits should grow no less tasty than imported ones.
Banana should be plentifully watered and sprayed daily to create a familiar microclimate for it. Fertilize it 2 times a month with complex feedings. Loosen the ground every month <неглубоко –="" максимум="" 3="" см="" вглубь).="" регулярно="" удаляйте="" засыхающие="" нижние="" листья.="" от="" вредителей="" –="" паутинного="" клеща,="" нематоды="" –="" обрабатывайте="" банан="" настоем="" табака,="" раствором="" марганцовки="" или="" мыльной="">неглубоко>
A plant is transplanted when its roots begin to look out of the drainage holes. A new pot is picked up 5 cm wider than the previous one. The trunk (false stem of leaf stalks) is slightly buried. After fruiting, the aerial part of the banana dies. But there are scions from the rhizome (rhizome).
When the scions reach 15 cm, they are cut with a knife along with pieces of rhizome. Sections are powdered with crushed coal and plants are planted in small pots with soil from garden soil, sand, charcoal and peat (2: 1: 1: 1). As a drainage, a layer of expanded clay 2–3 cm thick is poured at the bottom of the pots. They are kept bananas by the sunny window. In the winter they illuminate.
If you manage to buy seeds, before sowing, rub them on fine sandpaper to facilitate spitting and soak in warm water for 2 days. Then dip into the bleach solution (10%) for 5 minutes. To disinfect and rinse under tap. Plant in separate pots. Recess not much. Cover with transparent bags and air each day. Seeds germinate from 1 to 10 months.
Since I wanted to have a fruit banana at home, I had to buy not seeds, but a potted plant as a gift for the upcoming year of the Monkey. I can't wait to bloom now!
© Author: Tatiana ORLOVA, Moscow
Their bananas are sweeter and more fragrant.
Larisa IVANOVA from under Chashnikov (Vitebsk region) in her own greenhouse grows different exotics. Particularly proud of the banana plant, which regularly bears fruit since 2012.
I'm surprised: does a midland gardener really get his banana? Mistress shares experience:
- The first seedling bought in the spring in a pot. He was about 1 m high. At home, he landed him in the ground in the greenhouse. Land took the most ordinary, from the garden. At the bottom of the fossa laid claydite as a drainage, then poured abundantly. When the water was absorbed, planted a sapling, as he grew in a pot, covered it with soil and compressed tightly.
The place for the newcomer chose the sun (this is important!), But in the rest the exotic plant turned out to be unpretentious. As for the temperature, the main thing is that at night it does not fall below +10 degrees. To watering a banana is not particularly demanding. Sometimes I feed with organic fertilizers - in our country it is the waste of sturgeon that we breed (I clean it from filters and dilute it with water). And so you can use the peat Oxidate (according to the instructions). Fruiting in a banana begins when it grows to 1.5-2 m, the ovary appears. Our fruit began to fall in the fall.
TIP: Flower growers sometimes complain that bananas in a pot rot. The reason - gray rot. To prevent this, the yellowing leaves immediately cut to the trunk. If this is not done, rot can spread to the whole plant and destroy it.
They ripen on the plant for 4-5 months. A bunch can weigh up to 20 kg, because of which the trunk may break. Therefore, without props can not do. By the way, their bananas are much more fragrant and tastier than the purchased ones.
After fruiting, I cut the above-ground part to the level of the soil - there will be nothing more on this place, but new shoots are coming from the mother plant. And it all starts over again! Recorded
Banana can be grown in an apartment or house. The seedling should be transplanted from the pot into a large container (with a volume of at least 50 l), at the bottom of which pour a 5-centimeter layer of claydite for drainage. After fruiting and cutting the stem, new shoots are carefully deposited with a part of the maternal root (one plant can be left in the same container).
- If the plant is grown on a windowsill, you need to take care that the leaves do not touch the glass (the leaves can burn out) and that there are no drafts. Steep temperature surges have an adverse effect on the plant, because it is a tropical culture, which is threatened by the terrible weather of other countries.
- Select a window located in the south and further in descending order. A window located in the north is not the best option, regardless of the season, the plant requires daily additional lighting.
How to water the plant
Banana does not forgive overflow and dry land. It is watered only after the top layer of the earth dries out. It is necessary to water abundantly before the first drops appear on the pot tray. If you do not want the potted soil to acid and the roots of the plant start to rot, the excess immediately pour out water from the drip pan.
Over-dried soil leads to the death of the roots, even if watering begins again, the remaining living roots will not be able to feed the plant and soon some of the leaves will die. In the summer, the plant is watered with water, which is settled at room temperature. If the temperature has dropped to +16, watering should be reduced.. In the summer the plant loves when it is sprayed every day from the spray.
Then spraying is done only in the morning or in the evening in order to avoid the sun getting on the wet leaves. In winter, spraying is stopped or retained, but not more than once a week.
How to choose a flower pot for a plant
For a young plant that grows no higher than twenty centimeters, a pot with a volume of 2-3 liters will well come off. A plant that has grown more than one and a half meters can be transplanted into a pot of up to twenty liters. The size of one pot reaches 50 liters. It is important to remember that immediately planting a plant in a large pot should not be, as the roots rot, thereby causing the plant to become unwell. In this case, the plant is no longer to flowering.
Selection of soil for planting
Soil can be purchased at any garden stores, but you can also cook it yourself. All you need is a soil based on biohumus (one liter), river sand (two liters) and wood ash (one and a half liters). All ingredients are mixed, and the soil for planting is ready.
The bottom of the pot is covered with expanded clay to create good soil drainage. Sapling planted a little deeper than he grew before. Due to this, he grows a lot of adventitious roots on the trunk, thereby accelerating growth and development. By using the drainage holes in the pot, the roots of the plant will receive oxygen, so it is recommended that they not be clogged with soil.
Fertilizing for plants
During the growing season room banana feed once a weekWhen the plant is at rest, no more than once a month. For feeding you can use biohumus based fertilizer. Need to feed liquid fertilizer onlywhen watering a plant. Other fertilization methods are not suitable, as you can accidentally burn young roots.
What difficulties can be encountered in growing a banana
Banana almost never attack pests. Every day, inspect the leaves for pests and diseases, especially if you recently bought a plant and it has not passed quarantine. For prevention, it is recommended to loosen the top layer of soil and sprinkle with tobacco dust, but no more than once a month. Many growers water the soil once every six months with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Also try to avoid drafts.
Try and feel free to experiment! Good luck!