Common ash photo description leaf leaf tree krone diameter characteristic grade nana
Latin name Fraxinus excelsior L.
Family Oleaceae Hoffmgg. et Link - Olive
Ash Ash Description
Ash Ash - a large tree of the olive family with a height of up to 40 m. On average, the length of ash is about 25 m.
Crown young plants narrowly ovoid, later wide-round.
The bark is gray-brown, smooth, cracked in old trees. The trunk is gray, finely fissured, the shoots are thick, light gray.
Buds are black, finely speckled.
Leaves opposite, pinnate, oblong-elliptic or oblong-ovate leaflets, pointed, large-crested along margin.
Flowers bisexual or dioecious, inconspicuous. The flowers are reddish, gathered in a multicolor paniculate inflorescence. Blossoms to bloom leaves. Fruit - winged nutlet up to 4 cm long.
The fruit is a single-seeded nutlet.
It blooms in spring Ripens in August - September.
Highly resistant and drought-resistant (excellent), sufficiently resistant to diseases and pests (good), but in some years the leaves are damaged by ash groove, trunks and branches - a small ash tree beetle. Every year, common ash blooms in late April - early May, bears fruit well, gives abundant self-seeding (excellent). Light-requiring, grows well on moist fertile soils, but tolerates poor and dry. It grows fast, dustproof and gas resistant.
The plant contains cellulose, phenols, coumarins, flavonoids, tannides (5%). In the cortex there are carbohydrates, including stachyose (30–60%), phenols, alkaloids, coumarins, quercetin (0.7%), lipid suberin, coumarins in the branches. Mannitol, sucrose, starch, malic acid calcium, ursolic acid, essential oil, saponins, vitamin C, oxycoumarins, carotenoids, coumarins, flavonoids, tannins (4.57%) were found in the kidneys and leaves, 12%), vitamin B1, protein (10%).
The wood is strong, beautifully textured, well polished. Used in construction, for interior decoration of buildings, furniture and musical instruments. Plywood made of woody savers is especially appreciated; blue and black paint is obtained from wood. The leaves and branches serve as food for deer, roe deer, sheep, goats and cattle. A flowering tree is a perchonis.
Use in landscape design
A beautiful tree with a large light crown. Widely known in culture. Decorative durability 60–70 years.
Suitable for park, alleys, street plantings, as well as for casing roads, the creation of various protective plantations.
For gardening, the forms of common ash are valuable: common single-leaved ash (F. excelsior f. monophylla Desf.) with simple or partially trifoliate leaves, common ash single leaf weeping (F. excelsior f. diversifolia pendula ait.) with a thick low umbrella-shaped and weeping crown, golden ash (F. excelsior f. aurea willd.) - shoots are bright yellow, the leaves are smaller.
Collection and processing of medicinal raw materials
Medicinal raw materials are the leaves and bark. The leaves are harvested in the first half of summer in dry weather, dried in the sun and dried in a shade or well ventilated room. Raw materials are considered to be dry, when the leaf stalks do not bend when bent, but break. The bark is harvested during sap flow from the trees to be cut, cut into pieces 10-15 cm long and dried in the sun or in a dryer at a temperature of 45. 60 ° C, occasionally turning over. Store in bags or cardboard boxes in a dry place for 2 years.
Recipes for various diseases
A decoction of leaves and bark is used for liver diseases, urolithiasis, bronchopneumonia, pulmonary tuberculosis, inflammatory diseases of the kidneys, rheumatism, polyarthritis, radiculitis, gout and dysentery, as well as an antihelminthic. To prepare a decoction of bark and leaves, 2 tablespoons of crushed raw materials are poured with 1 cup of hot water, boiled in a closed enamel bowl in a water bath for 30 minutes, cooled at room temperature for 10 minutes, filtered through two or three layers of gauze, squeezed and adjusted to a volume of boiled water to source. Accept on 1 /3 glass 3-4 times daily before meals.
Collection 1. Cooking broth. 20 g of crushed young sprouts are poured with a glass of boiling water, boil for 15–20 minutes, cool, filter. Take 1 tablespoon 3 times a day with a persistent cough.
The homeland of this plant is Transcaucasia and Europe, right up to Iran. Ash can be seen in the European part of Russia, in the Caucasus, in Ukraine, in Moldova.
The plant prefers oak-hornbeam and oak forests, especially wet zones on the banks of streams and rivers, raw forests of plains and mountains of medium elevation.
The plant contains the following substances: resin, rutin, quercitrin and other flavonoids, coumarin, gums, essential oil and tannins.
There are also contraindications. Since common ash can be considered poisonous, the recommended dose for treatment should not be exceeded.
- For the treatment of gout and rheumatism, ash leaf tea is used. It is prepared in this way: take 1/4 l of cold water, pour 2 tsp of it with it. on top of the leaves, heated to a boil and then boiled for about 3 minutes. Then the resulting drink must be cooled and filtered. It is necessary to take 3 cups every day.
- For the treatment of rheumatism and gout, it is recommended to extend the course of treatment up to 14 days, consuming two cups of medicinal drink per day. Also, this tea has a slight diuretic effect.
- To wound quickly healed with fresh cuts, apply ash bark. To do this, take a fresh bark of the tree and attach a juicy side to the wound. Bark is recommended to be changed 2-3 times a day.
Ash Ashor fraxinus excelsior is a deciduous tree growing in Russia, Europe and America. The main features of the tree:
- It has elongated, oblong leaves, shaped like oval eggs. The leaves have an intense green color,
- The leaves grow on the branches quite rarely, so the sky shines through the crown,
- The fruits are lionfish, about the same as those of maple,
- The tree has flexible, elastic branches, slightly elongated upwards.
A tree can be both a wild-growing and a cultivated plant. This tree can often be found in the forest, with the exception of marshland.
origin of name
In Latin, this tree bears the loud name fraxinus excelsior, in English it is called common ash, and in Russia and some other Slavic countries it is customary to call it "ash." There are several versions of the origin of this name. The most common version is presented in the famous explanatory dictionary of the Russian language Dahl. If you look into this dictionary, open the letter “I” and find the word “ash”, it will say something like this: “this is a deciduous tree, derived from the word “Clear”, “clear”, “clear”. Most likely, the tree received such a name due to the fact that through its rarefied crown you can clearly see the blue sky.
However, there is another version of this name. It is associated with ancient occult medicine. Ancient herbalists and healers believed that the decoction and the infusion of the leaves has the unique property of “clearing up” consciousness: the person who drinks this medicine gets the ability to predict the future. This version also looks quite plausible.
Interestingly, in the old Russian language the word "ash" was originally feminine, like most other tree names: "birch", "aspen", "alder". Then this word just changed the genus. From a grammatical point of view, the word in modern Russian refers to the second declension (to which the words masculine and neuter) belong and is inclined according to the rules of masculine nouns with zero ending.
Benefit for health
People in many countries have known since ancient times that common ash, or fraxinus excelsior, is a medicinal plant.
In folk medicine apply infusions and decoctions of leaves, fruits and bark. It is believed that medicines made at home from medicinal raw materials, have the following properties:
- Helminths, pinworms, Ascaris, Giardia and other parasites are expelled from the body.
- Eliminate long-term cough and treat diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract:
- Normalize heart activity,
- Normalize digestion and relieve prolonged constipation.
Medicines for external use, made on the basis of the bark and leaves (infusions for compresses and lotions) contribute to the tightening of wounds and scars, pulling pus out of purulent wounds, and treating trophic ulcers.
The ancient Romans and Greeks believed that medicines from leaves and fruits were the best. antidote to the bite of a mad dog. Also in ancient times, representatives of many countries instilled fresh juice of tree leaves into their eyes. It was believed that it gives the eyes a healthy glow.
Tea brewed from dry leaves in Russia was used for colds and fever. This tea has a diaphoretic effect, helps reduce heat and restore the body quickly after the flu, acute respiratory infections or acute respiratory viral infections. It was believed that the tree can get rid of the strongest fever.
Harm to health
Despite its beneficial properties, the plant can be poisonous. When treating tinctures and decoctions of leaves, fruits and bark, it is necessary to consult with your doctor, as well as strictly follow the prescribed dosage. In large doses, medicines based on this plant become poisonous. In this regard, medicinal raw materials, made on the basis of ash, do not go into the composition of herbal preparations produced by the domestic pharmaceutical industry.
In the case of improper dosage of medicines, which include fruits or leaves, a person can be seriously poisoned. The first signs of poisoning are nausea, vomiting, dizziness, general weakness and movement disorder. At the first signs of drug poisoning, you should consult a doctor or call an ambulance at home, depending on how you feel. In this regard, medications based on this tree are not recommended for younger children. Poisoning with herbal home collections of their fruits and flowers of ash ash, unfortunately, not uncommon.
Ancient herbalists attributed to the tree fraxinus excelsior numerous magical properties. In Russia, herbalists especially revered the day of Ivan Kupala. On this day, at midnight, rural healers and sorcerers went to the forest to gather medicinal herbs. It was believed that at this time the plants are endowed with special magic power. Usually, everyone tried to find a fern flower that opens treasures, but many healers went into the woods at night to prepare for the leaves of the tree. It was believed that tea from its leaves makes consciousness “clear”, helps a person to make the right decision and soberly, “clearly” look at the world.
In Europe, traditionally it was believed that the tree makes a person invulnerable as well as unsinkable. Many sailors, going on a long voyage, took with them the bark or the fruits of ash as a talisman. "At random". When Christopher Columbus discovered America, many Europeans went there in search of a better life. When the inhabitants of England, France and other countries sailed large ships to their new homeland, they carried with them ash seeds.
People sincerely believed that the magic tree would help them cross the ocean unharmed. Then, when the settlers sailed to America, they planted these seeds on a miraculous shore in memory of their distant homeland. So in America there were European varieties of wood.
Ash in Viking mythology
Vikings - nationalities that lived in the territory of modern Scandinavian countries - also endowed the tree with sacral properties. For many European nations, the myth of the so-called world tree - the tree from which life originated on earth. The ancient Vikings believed that the world tree is a giant ash. Deep under the ground, at its roots, is the underworld - the dark kingdom of the dead. High in the sky, where the crown of the tree rushes, there is the heavenly world - the world of gods and other higher beings helping man. And the trunk of a giant ash tree is a place where ordinary people live.
The Vikings believed in this beautiful myth so much that they called themselves "children of the ash". They believed that people are like leaves on the world tree. He was endowed with sacral properties, and cruel treatment of this tree was severely punished. The ancient Vikings dedicated their folklore to the ash. They worshiped ash as they worship gods. Such an attitude towards trees is characteristic not only of the Vikings, but also of many other nations deifying nature. For example, the tree was worshiped by the Druids - the priests of the ancient Celts.
In the horoscope of the druids
As is known, the ancient Celts were pagans. They worshiped the elements and nature: flowers, trees, herbs. The priests of the ancient Celts, the Druids, developed special horoscope. In accordance with this horoscope, each person, depending on the date of his birth, has a close relationship with any tree (birch, mountain ash, spruce). His character and his destiny depend on which tree a person is connected with.
The central place in the druids' horoscope was occupied by ash. According to the ancient Celtic horoscope, people born "under the sign of ash" are distinguished by rationality, truthfulness and honesty, openness. They are always ready to help in difficult times, they are generous and generous. Under the ash tree, the ancient Celts often made sacrifices. Perhaps that is why ash in English has the unusual name “ash” - ashes, in memory of bonfires, on which ancient Celts, the ancestors of modern Anglo-Saxons, offered their sacrifices.
The ancient Celts believed that ash has the ability to absorb negative energy and convert it into positive. To do this, you just need to stay a little next to the tree, touch its rough bark and see how blue skies shine through its rare leaves.
In landscape design
Due to its beautiful carved leaves and unusual, sparse crown ash is actively used in landscape design. Ash saplings are planted in parks, along alleys, in playgrounds and in lonely public gardens. Quite often, ash can be found in the cemetery, this beautiful and majestic tree perfectly fits to the atmosphere of light sadness that usually reigns in such places. Ash looks spectacular both alone and in group plantings. It looks good with birch trees, maples, linden trees and other deciduous trees.
Summer residents who decide to plant an ash in the front porch or in the front garden should bear in mind that he likes wet soil. However, ash does not tolerate stagnant moisture and does not like when the soil hardens, so the ground near the ash needs to be loosened regularly. Ash usually tolerates the cold weather of the Russian Central Belt. The plant grows well in almost any soil, with the exception of moorland. In the swamps ash is not found.
Ash - a unique tree. Many nations endowed him with sacred properties, and this is not accidental. Due to its healing properties and spectacular appearance, this tree is sung in legends, myths and legends. Ash can be seen in almost every corner of the globe, with the exception of Africa, the Arctic and Antarctica. But ash is most common in the countries of Western and Eastern Europe, and, of course, in Russia. This tree should be known to anyone who is interested in the nature of his native land and loves his homeland.
Ash Tree looks like where it grows
Ash - from flowering plants of the family Oleaceae (olive or olive) - contains 65 species: usually they are medium and large-sized trees, mostly deciduous, although some subtropical species are from evergreen plants.
The name Ash, Russian, is associated with the etymology of the word "Clear." The English name of the tree "ash" is rooted in the old English AESC, which means "spear". The botanical name in Latin - Fraxinus - also means "spear", probably because of the shape of the leaf, in the form of the tip.
Seeds, popularly known as keys or as helicopters, are a kind of fruit.
Ash Ash (Fraxinus Excelsior) is a native species for most European countries, with the exception of northern Scandinavia and southern Iberia (Spain), as well as south-west Asia, northern Turkey, the east of the Caucasus, and Mount Elbrus. The northernmost point of distribution is the Trondheimsfjord region of Norway.
This is a large deciduous tree, with a domed crown. The leaves are often among the last to open in spring, and the first to fall in the fall. Flowers open to leaves.
Female flowers are somewhat longer than male flowers, they are dark purple, without petals, and the wind pollinates them.
Both male and female flowers can occur on the same tree, but more often, on the same tree - all the flowers are men, or all the flowers are women. A tree is a man, it can produce female flowers next year, and a female tree can become a man.
Ash has characteristic leaflets, not individual leaves. Leaves in leaflets are arranged in pairs, with one odd leaf at the end.
The shape of the sheet has slightly jagged edges. Fruits (airplanes) hang in bundles. The fruit of the lionfish is dry, flat. Это стройная, тонкая полоска семян — созревание происходит осенью и диспергирование в течение зимы.
Если посадить незрелый (зеленый) плод в землю — он прорастет быстро. However, his plant will live only 18 months (the plant will not survive the second winter). Ash is a long-lived tree, but rarely lives for more than 250 years.
The air dome and a short leaf of ash-tree allow to leave a lot of sunlight in the lower levels of the forest and, therefore, the ash-tree grove and the mixed ash-tree forest are rich in various flora.
The rapid growth of the plant is a valuable quality ash, making it an important resource for growers. This is a universal tree with a wide range of applications. Trees are often planted on a ten-year cycle to provide a sustainable source of wood for fuel, for construction and woodworking.
The color of wood varies from creamy white to light brown, and the core of the tree can be olive brown. Ash wood is tough and very durable. It lacks the natural resistance of the oak - it is capable of rotting, and therefore is not suitable for burial products in the ground.
Due to its high flexibility, impact resistance and resistance to cracking, ash is a traditional material for onions, tool handles, especially for hammers and axes, tennis rackets and is widely used in the construction of aircraft models.
- Ash is a valuable material as firewood because it burns well even when it is “green” (fresh cut).
- Ash is often seen as a hedge.
- Because of its elasticity, ash wood is widely used for making reeds. The wood can be bent to form the handle of the cane.
The light color and attractive texture of ash have made it popular in the manufacture of modern furniture, especially in the manufacture of chairs, dining tables, doors, other decorative items and wooden floors.
The mythology of the tree Ash
In the 13th century, the poetic Edda, written Scandinavian mythology, which goes back to the traditional sources of the Viking age, tells about the mythological ash, Yggdrasil, which was the center of the world. Its roots were enshrined in the abyss of hell, and were watered with streams of wisdom and faith. His trunk supported the earth, and his crown touched the arc of heaven.
History knows ash, like the Ash Tree (Ash) - "The Tree of Life." It was believed that it plays a key role. Mystical properties were attributed to this tree, and the ash forest was burned to ward off evil spirits.
European part of Russia, Crimea, Moldova, the Caucasus, Western Europe, the Mediterranean, Asia Minor
in floodplain and ravine forests, in grass rich deciduous mixed forests, near rivers and streams, on stony slopes, in the Alps to an altitude of 1400 m, on moist, loose, deep, sometimes superficial, rich in lime or moderately acidic loam and clay soils
- 25-35 m,
- in Moscow at the age of 40 - 13 m
elongate ovoid, then highly raised, broadly rounded, light, with thick, relatively sparse, arched branches and thick shoots growing upwards
up to 200-300 years and more, young growth retains up to 70-75 years
in the first 3 years the average, then fast, the annual increase in height - 30-45 cm
good at liming
seeds need a two-stage stratification: warm, at + 15 + 20 ° C for 3-4 months, then cold, at a temperature not higher than 0 + 3 ° for 3-4 months
cuttings rooted weakly, rooting rate - less than 20% when treated with Kornevin
hygrophilous, in a drought at a young age in need of watering
does not tolerate pruning
winter hardy, but young trees suffer from late spring frosts
young trees need shelter
trunk straight, columnar, 0.3-0.4 (1) m in diameter, in young trees with greenish-ash-gray bark, later gray or dark gray, remaining long smooth, with age with a clear, almost regular pattern of frequent cracks
shoots are light gray, greenish, naked, with rare whitish lentils, often with heavily swollen leaf scars and a clear trace of the stem of the lunate form
black or brown-black, with small specks: apical ovate, laterally compressed, sharp, smaller side, rounded, with renal scales hairy in the upper part
opposite, single-pinnate, up to 40 cm long, from 11 (7-15) oblong-elliptical sessile leaves 49 (12) cm long and 1.5-4 (5) cm wide, at the apex pointed, unequated, unequally-striped, pere, with wedge-shaped whole base, on top, butt, with depressed midrib, below with prominent whitish veins and brownish or white hairs, on grooved, petioles, early falling
dark green above, lighter below
yellow, green, brown-green
in may, before leafing
flowers are small, yellow or reddish-green, inconspicuous, single and bisexual, pollinated by the wind
flowers are collected in paniculate inflorescences up to 4-12 cm long, developing at the ends of last year's shortened shoots (10 cm)