One of the main symbols of the end of spring is lilac, its bright and fragrant inflorescences are known to everyone. The Hungarian lilac, described below, is one of the most unpretentious and hardy species of this shrub..
Description of the Hungarian lilac
Hungarian lilac is the most compact species in its family. In the wild, it grows up to 3-4 meters in height, and the diameter of the crown is always less than the length of the shrub. It is worth noting that the growth stops after the size of the lilac reaches the maximum mark. The annual increase in this species is 25-30 centimeters.
Hungarian lilac - shrub with a dense deciduous crown, having an ovoid shape
Hungarian common lilac has a natural round shape of the crown, thanks to which it does not need constant shaping trimming. Shoots in this species grow upward and create a noble openwork effect. Also worth noting is the unusual color of young wood, she colored purple-magenta.
The leaves of such a shrub grow to 12 centimeters in length and have the shape of a wide ellipse with light notches along the edges. The leaf color is rich green, shiny, the inner side is characterized by a gray-green tint and the presence of light pubescence.
A peculiarity of the Hungarian lilac is the pyramidal arrangement of the inflorescences, which consist of small, delicate-purple flowers. Each individual flower does not exceed 1 centimeter in diameter and has the shape of an elongated tube. The size of the entire aromatic bunch can reach 30-35 centimeters. The flowering of such a shrub occurs 15-20 days later than in other species and lasts for 3-4 weeks.
Inflorescences of the Hungarian lilac
In addition to the beautiful appearance and spectacular flowering, the Hungarian has the following advantages:
- unpretentiousness to climate and care,
- high frost resistance and drought tolerance,
- durability bush, which is equal to 90 years.
This shrub is distributed not only in Europe and central Russia, but also in regions such as Siberia, the Urals and the Arctic. This fact indicates that it can easily endure even the most severe winters.
What is the best time to plant?
Experienced gardeners argue that the best time to adapt a shrub to new conditions and, accordingly, its planting will be the period from mid July to early September.
The best time to plant a Hungarian lilac is the end of summer.
You should not plant Hungarian lilac in frozen land, because in this case, the seedlings are most likely not to take root and die. Based on this rule, we can conclude that the spring planting is not suitable for this type of lilac, because the earth does not have time to warm up, and the autumn one, because it will already be cold. Before the onset of the first frosts, the bush should have time to get stronger and take root, therefore, the colder the climate in the region, the earlier the planting should be carried out.
Selection of planting material
Wild-growing varieties of Hungarian lilac can be planted directly from seeds that previously undergo a two-month stratification at a temperature of 2-5 degrees.
As for varietal species, in order to get a new sapling will have to use the method of cutting, while rooting can be both young and lignified twigs. They very quickly give new roots even without pre-treatment.
The finished seedling should have a strong and well-developed root system with a length of 20-30 centimeters. Before planting, the crown of the bush is shortened by 2-3 buds, and too long roots are cut to size.
Rules for planting in open ground
When choosing a place for lilac, you need to take into account the fact that it does not tolerate stagnant moisture, therefore You should not plant it in areas with high groundwater and lowlandswhere precipitation and melting snow accumulate.
The main criterion for selecting a site for planting Hungarian lilac is a well-lit area, closed from the wind.
A landing pit for such a shrub is dug out with sheer walls; on average, its dimensions will be 1 meter in depth, length and width. Creating massive lilac plantings, it is worth remembering that the crown of the shrub grows up to 3-4 meters in width, so the distance between the seedlings should be at least 2 meters. After the landing pit is ready, it is filled with fertile mixture:
- 15-20 kilograms humus,
- 10-15 kilograms compost,
- 300 grams wood ash,
- 50 grams superphosphate.
After all the preparatory work is completed, you can proceed to the main part:
- Landing lilac best spend in the eveningwhen the bright day sun disappears,
- Sapling set in the planting pit and gently straighten the roots, and then covered with earth,
- Around the lilac trunk soil is lightly tamped, watered and mulched 7-cm layer of humus or rotted foliage.
Planting Hungarian lilac is a fairly easy process, which is not much different from rooting other types of shrubs.
Care for the Hungarian lilac
Caring for the Hungarian lilac shrubs is very simple and straightforward even to a novice gardener.
During the flowering period, the plant is watered frequently and plentifully, it is necessary to maintain the vitality of bright flowers. In summer, the soil should be moistened only on hot days.
In the first year of life, before the onset of the first frost, 5-6 soil is loosened, then this procedure is repeated three times per season.:
- once in spring, right after the soil dries,
- the remaining two are distributed over the summer period and carried out in conjunction with the removal of weeds.
Taking into account that the Hungarian is naturally endowed with the correct form of the crown, it will not need to be further formed, but starting from 3-4 years of life, it will be necessary to help the plant to identify the skeletal branches. For this, for 2-3 years, in early spring, 5-10 of the most powerful and healthy branches are chosen from the entire crown, and the rest are cut.
The formation scheme of the Hungarian lilac bush
Also this shrub needs regular rejuvenating and sanitary pruning:
- In the first case work should be done in early spring, not yet swollen buds. During rejuvenation, remove old branches that prevent the growth of new shoots. Also pruned shoots growing in the wrong direction and knocked out of the overall composition of the branch,
- In the autumn, after the foliage disappears, they perform sanitary pruning., removing damaged, dry and diseased branches.
Feed the lilac as follows:
- In the phase of active growth, the shrub needs nitrogen fertilizers, therefore, starting from the second year of life, 50 grams of urea or 65 grams of ammonium nitrate are applied under the shrub. Also popular are organic fertilizers, for example, cow dung diluted with water in a ratio of 1k5. It is poured 50 centimeters from the lilac trunk,
- Phosphate and potash fertilizers begin to make 1-2 years after ammonia. For such purposes, use 40 grams of superphosphate and 30 grams of potash nitrate per adult shrub. They are instilled to a depth of 6-8 centimeters and immediately irrigate. As a complex fertilizer, wood ash is taken, 200 grams of which is bred in 8 liters of water and the bushes are poured over them.
Hungarian perfectly tolerates even the most severe coldtherefore does not need shelter for the winter period. In addition, a nice bonus is that it quickly recovers after returning frosts and quickly adapts to any weather.
Application in landscape design
Taking into account such positive aspects of Hungarian lilac, as the compactness of the crown and lush flowering, we can say that this shrub will look advantageous in garden compositions and not overshadow the neighboring plants. Usually this shrub is used for the following purposes.:
- creature hedge,
- as one of the elements of the shrub or wood groups
- in building planting of different types and varieties of lilacmatched for bloom and color,
- at mixborder design or rabatki,
- also Hungarian lilac can be grown on any beds.
Best of all, this shrub looks close to viburnum, hydrangea, tree peony, phlox, lupins, perennial green shrubs and evergreen coniferous plantations.
Hungarian lilac is one of the most interesting and easiest to grow shrubs. With it, you can refresh the design of the garden and give it a new shade.
Hungarian Lilac: Description and Origin
Hungarian lilac (syringa josikaea) is widespread in European countries. In the wild form, it is found in the Carpathians and in the north of the Balkan Peninsula. The plant was practically not subjected to breeding work, so it can not boast a variety of varieties. In the gardens and parks planted the wildest lilac - unpretentious, frost-resistant, quietly tolerating the lack of moisture.
The shrub is medium in size, the most compact member of the family with strong, not drooping branches. Rarely grows above 3 m. The diameter of the crown is relatively narrow, the plant looks elegant and looks good even in very small areas. Leaves are heart-shaped or oval, dark green, slightly concave, with a dense glossy surface. An important feature is the pubescent reverse side of the leaf. A well leafy shrub maintains decorativeness even after flowering, the crown does not thin and does not need to be formed. The roots are powerful, able to absorb moisture from the deep layers of the soil. In the spring on the bush appear young purple-purple shoots, giving the plant an elegant look.
Flowers are collected in small, but plentiful openwork brushes. Buds are non-curved, tubular. The color of the petals is saturated, lilac-purple, the unopened buds are darker. Lilac has a very rich, but delicate flavor. Brushes bloom in late May, flowering continues until mid-June. There are varieties with buds of different shades, including two-color.
Planting and growing
Hungarian lilac differs from other varieties in undemanding and low sensitivity to air pollution. Spectacular bushes with dark green leaves are great for urban landscaping, without requiring daily painstaking care. Low bushes are widely used in landscape design for the design of flowerbeds and microborders, of which they create dense hedges. The plant has earned positive feedback from amateur gardeners, noting its undemanding and durable.
Like other types of lilac, the Hungarian variety is sensitive to light. The best place to land is a flat, well-lit area without high groundwater flowing through. The shrub feels good in the bright or scattered sun, but tolerates penumbra as well. Hungarian is not demanding on the composition of the soil, but in fertile areas flowering will be more lush.
Reproduction is carried out by cuttings. They are planted in autumn or late summer, spring planting slows down the development of the bush. If necessary, the plant can be moved to a new place even in adulthood. To improve soil survival, complex mineral fertilizer or organic matter is applied to the soil. Watering the bushes is necessary as the soil dries.
An important point of care is pruning. Immediately after flowering, faded panicles are cut off, this stimulates the abundant tying of buds in the next year. In the spring, the shrub is thinned slightly, avoiding thickening, and the dried and damaged shoots are removed. If desired, art haircut is possible, Hungarian lilac perfectly tolerates the formation of the crown and does not stop flowering.
Hungarian Lilac (Latin: syringa josikaea) - shrub with a dense deciduous crown, having an ovoid shape. Its height can reach up to 3-4 meters. The diameter of the crown can reach up to 4 meters. The leaves of the shrub have an elliptical shape. Leaf length reaches from 6 to 12 cm. In spring and summer, they have a dark green color, yellow in autumn.
Special beauty shrub reaches during flowering. Description of the color of lilac: flowers of a tubular form are collected in pyramidal inflorescences. Their color is bright purple. Flower size does not exceed 1 cm. The photo shows the flowering lilac Veneger.
Hungarian lilac picks up color 7-10 days later than ordinary lilac. The flowering period lasts up to 20-25 days.
Varieties and forms of Hungarian lilac
Most modern varieties are based on common lilac. Russian nurseries do not offer their varietal diversity in Hungarian. In horticultural culture, there is only a standard shrub and several of its forms.
Forms of Hungarian:
- pale (in Latin: Syringajosikaea f. pallida) has a soft lilac color of a fading shade,
- red flowers form (Syringajosikaea f. rubra) - purple, with a reddish tint,
- white-flowered form (Syringajosikaea f. monstrosa) - white flowers,
- pink (Syringajosikaea f. rosea) - pink flowers pastel color, with a purple tint.
Favorable conditions for planting a Hungarian
For a good growth of the Hungarian lilac it is necessary to take into account all the favorable conditions for planting: light, soil, moisture-loving, weather conditions.
Conditions for growing Hungarian:
- undemanding to soil composition,
- resistant to frost
- drought resistant.
The main criterion for selecting a landing site is a well-lit area, closed from the wind. Hungarian lilac light-loving plant.
To shrub soil is not picky. But it is not necessary to plant it on wetlands, flooded with autumn and spring periods. Lilac roots are sensitive to moisture, even a short stay in the water leads to rotting and death of the root system. The ideal soil for it is fertile, with a good drainage layer, moderately moist soil. Best suited subacid or neutral soil composition.
Hungarian lilacs are well accustomed and give growth in the first season, if you plant it in mid-July until early autumn. Planting shrubs carried out in cloudy weather. As a rule, the soil in late autumn and spring has a high degree of humidity. This has a negative effect on young roots. Seedlings during this period take root badly and do not immediately give a growth. Lilac bushes are planted at a distance of 2-3 meters from each other.
Preparation for planting begins with the arrangement of landing pits. The dimensions of the pits depend on the composition of the soil: fertile soil - 50 cm by 50 cm, sandy soil –1 m by 1 m. They are dug out with sheer walls.
Planting pits are filled with a special substrate consisting of compost, wood ash, superphosphate.
- humus or compost - 15-20 kg,
- ash - 200-300 g,
- superphosphate - 20-30 g.
Superphosphate is an oxidizing agent. The proportion of ash must be correctly calculated based on the soil acidity index. To neutralize superphosphate in conditions of high acidity, it is recommended to increase part of the wood ash.
How to choose the seedlings for planting?
In order for the Hungarian lilac to take root well, special attention should be paid to the choice of a sapling. It should not be high, its crown is cut into three buds. Carefully inspect the roots before purchasing a seedling. The cutting for planting should have a healthy well-branched root system. The preferred length is at least 25 cm. Before planting, it is recommended to carefully inspect the roots. Damaged processes are removed completely, and too long neatly trimmed.
When planting, the seedling is placed in the middle of the pit, the root system gently straightens. All roots should be directed down. Lilacs are filled with pre-prepared substrate and crushed at the base. This will allow the ground to lie down tightly to the roots and provide power to the bush.
Proper care of the Hungarian lilac
After planting lilac poured abundantly with water. 1 bush requires 20-25 liters of water. Then the base is peppered with peat or humus. In the warm season it is recommended to loosen the soil (up to 4 times per season).
Within two years after planting, the bush must be fertilized only with nitrogen. It is contained in urea and ammonium nitrate. After the lilac gets stronger and rooted, it is fed with a special solution of manure and water (1: 5). Fertilizer can not be poured directly under the barrel, otherwise the lilac will begin to rot. The solution is neatly distributed from it at a distance of about 50 cm.
In the autumn, fertilization with potash and phosphate fertilizers is carried out. This may be superphosphate in the dosage - 40 g per adult bush, potash nitrate - 35 g, wood ash - 200 g per 8 liters of water.
The first few years after planting, the near-stem circle of young lilacs needs shelter for the winter season. For this suitable peat or dry leaf. The cover layer must be at least 10 cm.
Pruning and shaping Hungarian lilac
Hungarian lilac has its own natural beauty of the crown, it is compact and keeps its shape without applying special effort to it, it is clearly seen in the photo below, where the variety from one of the Eastern European nurseries is illustrated.
Syringa josikaea ‘Villa Nova’
But to give a stricter silhouette, you can do shaping scraps. There is nothing complicated about it. Usually it is enough to give the direction of growth. Hungarian perfectly keeps the specified shape. Кустарник не требует постоянной стрижки. Обрезка проводится по общему стандарту.The crowns of adult bushes are thinned out in early spring before their active gardening. Branches thin out from the inside. This allows you to give a beautiful appearance. After flowering, lilac panicles are carefully trimmed.
Hungarian lilac hedge
Hungarian lilacs can be an excellent choice for creating a hedge to enclose a site. In order to carry out the correct formation of a hedge, it is necessary to take into account the volume of growth of shrubs. Under the lilac stands a large area. Plants are planted in line at a distance of 1.5 meters.
For the first 3 years, lilacs in a hedge do not prune or fertilize. At the 4 year begin feeding. Regular watering is not required. Pruning is carried out in order to thicken the bushes. On young shrubs up to 10 powerful shoots are left. After the lilac gains its strength, pruning is done only to give shape or to rejuvenate bare bushes.
Formation in the standard form
It is remarkable, the Hungarian lilac effectively looks in a standard form. The stab form is a lush tree grown on a flat trunk with falling branches or a rounded silhouette. To create a decorative boom, you must choose unvaccinated lilac. In early spring, one shoots are taken from the shoots, growing to a height of not less than 1 meter. The roots are cut off in a square shape - 20 by 20 cm. The varietal lilac is grafted onto the cuttings. In the fall, lilacs are carefully dug out and planted on well-prepared land. Radical shoots removed.
The photo is an example of a lilac formed by a bob.
How to propagate already growing shrubs? Hungarian does not give offspring, which determines some difficulty in its reproduction. The main method is grafting. Both green branches and lignified trees are suitable for rooting. With proper care, new seedlings are easy to produce. Rooting cuttings occur in 90%.
Lilacs can be propagated from seeds. Previously carried out stratification - simulating the winter period. For this 2 months the seeds are kept at a temperature of 3-5 degrees. Sowing begins in spring and autumn in the prepared soil.
The absolute majority of the subspecies cultivated from the common lilac and even nurseries can not boast a large variety of varieties. Widespread in the culture received only some varieties.
- Pale. It has a light lilac color close to the natural shade with lilac fading.
- Krasnotsvetkovaya. The look is remarkable a purple or reddish shade.
- Belotsvetkovaya. The usual variety, owes its name to snow-white flowers.
- Pink. It has flowers of soft pink color with a slight lilac tint.
Planting Hungarian lilac and further care
To the composition of the soil, the Hungarian is not very demanding, the main condition is not to choose marshy or often flooded areas. Shrub root system is very sensitive to waterlogging, in conditions of high humidity, the roots of the plant are more susceptible to decay and death. The most preferable place is a nutrient well-drained soil, with a neutral or slightly acidic composition.
The most favorable time for planting is from mid-summer to early September. This is due to the fact that this period accounts for the peak of the biological activity of the plant. In mid-spring or closer to October, the ground is very wet, and this can have a negative effect on the root system of the shrub. Experienced gardeners recommend plant in the afternoon or in cloudy weather. This is due to the fact that after planting the plant needs to acclimatize and survive the stress after planting in a new ground. The bright sun in this case acts as a negative factor.
The shrub grows pretty well and is able to grow in the first season. Planting bushes produced at a distance of two or three meters from each other. Landing pits do not make too large, half a cubic meter is enough. The root system should feel free, roots are evenly distributed in the pit and sprinkled with soil. The basis for the soil is compost, slightly diluted with wood ash.
Shrub care after planting
- Immediately after planting, it is necessary to water the plant, and after the liquid is fully absorbed, carry out mulching using a mixture of peat and leaves.
- The land near the shrub is regularly loosened, the depth of loosening should not exceed five centimeters.
- Ash can be used as a fertilizer. For the convenience of making it stir in water for irrigation at the rate of 200 grams of ash per ten liters of liquid.
- During the period of active vegetation requires frequent abundant watering. In mid-summer, watering is done only on hot days.
- For lush flowering produce regular pruning shrubs. In early spring, choose about ten strong branches, the rest must be cut.
Hungarian lilac is remarkable for its endurance and ability to winter comfortably even in the northern regions. Even young plants do not require special preparation for winter, the species tolerates frosts and does not need shelter.
The use of plants in the design of the garden
Various shrub subspecies well complement decorative compositions using most garden plants. Hungarian lilac at the same time combines the elegant appearance and severity of individual elements. This allows the shrub to not only stand out from the rest of the plants, but also to emphasize their decorative advantages. Description of color in species can be considered conditional, as lilac is capable of forming flowers of various shades each season.
Pluses of a bush:
- suitable for decoration of hedges,
- blends well with other types of shrubs and trees
- can be grown in flower beds of any size
- able to make a highlight in the design of any landscape.
Hungarian lilac will be a good option even for a novice landscape designer. In addition to the decorative appeal, the plant has several advantages - the Hungarian is highly resistant to drought and frost, and with proper care it can reach the age of more than eighty years. Shrub will rejoice in its bloom Next season will be the decoration of any garden.
Description: Varieties and Varieties
This member of the genus Lilac differs from other species and varieties in its later flowering. It is less common in the domestic form than ordinary lilac. Although the care they are almost not different. Hungarian lilac has a dense egg-shaped crown, almost not prone to chaotic growth and does not lose the shape of a bush. In height the adult plant reaches 4 m.
- The leaves are elliptical, up to 12-13 cm long. The bottom side of the plate has a ciliate edge and a little hairiness. The color is saturated green, turning yellow in autumn.
- The diameter of the crown - up to 4 m.
- Flowering occurs 1-2 weeks later than that of common lilac, and lasts about 3 weeks.
- The flowers are tubular, bright-lilac-colored, up to 1 cm in diameter, combined into pyramid-inflorescences up to 30 cm long. They are less dense and openwork, with a narrower shape and a clear division into tiers. This makes them very decorative. Varieties are different shades. There are such types:
- white flowers,
- red flowers,
- pale (with a very light tone of purple buds).
Attention! The life of a shrub of any of the varieties with proper care is up to 90 years.
Planting a plant
The initial set of favorable conditions for Hungarian lilac is an important factor in its successful cultivation for many years. It is possible to carry out the reproduction and planting of shrubs in the open field in the period from July to the beginning of autumn. It is important that at least a couple of weeks remain before the first frost. The root system of the seedling need to have time to adapt to the soil.
The Hungarian lilac should be planted on the soil with a neutral or slightly acidic balance. The earth should be nutritious, well loosened and slightly moist. To work start in the evening:
- Use only material with healthy roots, the length of which is at least 30 cm.
- Place the seedlings at a distance of 2-3 m between them.
- Size of planting holes: 50x50x50 cm for fertile soil. The walls of the fossa must be made steep. If the soil in your area is infertile, double the size of the hole.
- Prepare a nutrient mixture, which is based on humus. Mix wood ash (up to 300 g), compost in combination with superphosphate, if the soil has an alkaline composition.
- Before planting, inspect the seedling again. Shorten shoots by 1-2 buds. Trim the roots if they are too long.
- Place the shrub in the center of the pit. Straighten the roots. Fill the free space with a fertile substrate. Tamp the landing site.
- Sapling needs abundant watering (20-25 liters per bush). After 15-20 minutes after it - mulching with foliage or humus (layer - 7 cm).
Care culture. Fertilizer and dressing
In addition to the overall fertility of the soil, Hungarian lilac is not demanding to care in conditions of open ground. The main features of its cultivation are reduced to such moments:
- In the spring and summer loosen the soil about 1 time in 2 months.
- Two seasons after planting lilac needs only nitrogen fertilizers.
- Shrub likes abundant watering. But do not overdo it.
- From the 3rd year of plant life, plant for it manure (1: 5). When watering this solution fertilizer should not fall on the trunk. Bring once a season.
- An adult specimen is also fed with mineral mixtures containing phosphorus and potassium. For example, potassium nitrate (35 g / bush), dissolved in water, wood ash (200 g per 8 l per plant) or other fertilizers based on instructions. Terms - spring, before the end of flowering.
- The Hungarian variety of lilac is frost resistant. It is necessary to shelter for the winter only young bushes and only the trunk circle. Use dry peat or foliage. Layer thickness - 10 cm.
- Rejuvenating pruning plant is not needed. Formative - at will. Shrub well holds a given direction of growth. In early spring, you can thin out the inner twigs, and after flowering - remove faded buds.
Combination with other plants
In the open field lilac everywhere will have to court:
- in hedges,
- in mixborders,
- in combination with other shrubs and stunted trees (including lilacs of another species, which differ in terms of flowering time),
- in shrub rabatkah,
- in flower beds.
From a Hungarian lilac variety you can form a small stem tree with a spherical crown on a smooth and level trunk. This form looks spectacular during flowering. In March, pick up a sturdy escape of a graft-free bush, from a height of 1 m. Cut its roots in the form of a 20x20 cm square, and plant a varietal lilac on the cutting itself. In the autumn, plant the hardened specimen in a permanent place, removing the root growth.
The advantageous difference between the Hungarian lilac is the absence of a tendency to grow and suppress neighboring plants. The shrub looks very neat, which allows it to easily become the center of almost any landscape composition.
The height of an adult bush is about 5 meters. The branches of young lilac - brown or dark green, have short hairs and glisten in the sun. The branches of one-year-old lilac become red-gray, in the future they acquire a resistant gray color.
The leaves are oblong-elliptical in shape, sometimes elongated-ovate, with a dark green shade on the upper side, smooth to the touch, with short cilia along the edges. The lower part of the leaves is pale, naked, has a bluish tint and solid edges. The length of the petioles is of the order of 1-1.5 cm. The buds have the shape of a tetrahedron, elongated, their length is of the order of 1 cm.
Speaking of Hungarian lilac, it is impossible not to betray the description of its flowers, which are located crowded, as a rule, have a light purple hue and a pleasant fragrant aroma. The flowers form buds, the length of which sometimes reaches 10-22 cm.
Petals of flowers have an ovoid shape, slightly directed to the sides or raised upwards. Seeds have a red-brown color. The fruit is a bare cylindrical box with a length of 1 cm. The flowering period lasts 20-25 days, usually in June. Lilac fruiting in August.
Popular forms and types
Lilac has many different species:
- Common lilac—medium shrub that can sometimes reach 7 meters. Blossoms large (up to 25 cm) tassels with a strong aroma, light lilac or white.
- Lilac meier—shrub whose height does not exceed 1.5 m. Its inflorescences consist of fairly small flowers, usually painted in a light lilac-pink shade. Length of inflorescences — up to 10 cm
- Shaggy lilac—shrub medium in size, with quite large (up to 15 cm) leaves of the inflorescence within 20-25 cm, consist of medium sizes of pink-purple flowers.
- Persian lilac— the height of this lilac is about 3.5 m. It has flowers of a light purple shade, medium size. It has an unusual flavor.
- Drooping lilac— medium shrub whose height does not exceed 3 m. The flowers of this species are remarkable in that they are two-colored — on the outside pinkish with a red tint and almost white inside.
As for the Hungarian lilac, then in gardening there are two common forms of this type:
- Pale (Syringa josikaea palida), which has flowers of pale purple hue.
- Red (Syringa josikaea rubra)which differs reddish flowers.
Necessary conditions for growing
The simplicity of this shrub worthy of admiration. In principle, it is able to tolerate both drought and humidity, can cope with a lack of light and with excessive gas pollution of the air, can withstand temperatures down to -40 ° C.
However, the newly planted shrub, alas, will require a special approach in choosing the place of cultivation.
Location and lighting
The ideal place would be a sufficiently illuminated area, closed from a strong wind. Low, swampy and flooded places in the autumn and early spring will not be suitable for planting young lilacs, since even a short stagnation of water can cause the dying off of the roots of young shrubs.
The soil must be moderately moist, have a high fertility index, be well drained and have a high content of humus.
A big plus will be the planting of this shrub in slightly acidic or neutral soil with a low standing of groundwater, which will allow your plant to develop in all its glory.
Planting lilac is not much different from planting any other shrub, but there are several features that are worth paying special attention to.
The best period for planting Hungarian lilac will be the period from the second half of July to the beginning of September. This is due primarily to the fact that the biological characteristics of the plant suggest the intensification of growth processes during this period.
If the planting is done in late autumn or spring, then, most likely, the bushes will not give any increase at all in the first year due to the fact that they will be forced to fight against adverse environmental conditions.
Hungarian lilac care
After planting, it is worthwhile to produce abundant watering, and the soil around it should be mulched with the help of fallen leaves, peat or humus in a layer 6-8 cm thick. 6-10 cm
In the first year, the young plant will not require special feedings, but starting from the second, it will be necessary to apply nitrogenous fertilizers at the rate of 55 g of urea per planting during one calendar year.
Fertilizing with organic fertilizers is also possible. Ideal for any manure - a few buckets on one bush for the summer season should be enough. In the autumn period, it is possible to apply complex phosphate fertilizer.
During the flowering period, watering should be done as often as possible, especially during hot periods of the year. Trimming during the first few years after planting is optional. But, after it will be necessary to form a "skeleton" of the future bush - 5-10 of the most successfully located branches. The rest must be pruned.
Sanitary pruning and thinning are mainly performed in early spring, but if you see this as a necessity, this manipulation is allowed throughout the growing season.
As noted earlier, the Hungarian lilac - the plant is quite cold-resistant and is able to transfer the temperature drop to -40 ° C. But if young saplings do not prepare properly for wintering, the next year you may well lose your bushes.
Before the onset of the first frost they should be covered with a layer of peat or fallen leaves up to 10 cm thick.
Other breeding methods
Reproduction of Hungarian lilacs is possible by cuttings, grafting or with the help of seeds. The last way often reproduces wild lilac. Высев посевного материала производится, как правило, осенью либо весной после стратификации семян при температуре 2-5°С, длящейся до 2 месяцев.
Что касается размножения прививкой, то подвоем для венгерской сирени может послужить сирень обыкновенная, бирючина обыкновенная либо любой другой вид сирени. Прививку выполняют методом спящей почки либо черенком.
Lilac is an excellent plant for anyone who wants to start landscaping or already has enough experience in this business. If you plant this bush in the current season, then in the next one it will start to delight you with the first color. And therefore do not delay this matter indefinitely.
Description of the Hungarian lilac
The name of the Hungarian lilac was not accidental. This compact shrub is introduced into garden culture in practically unchanged “wild” form, almost did not succumb to selection and cannot boast of a good varietal palette. In nature, it is as easy to recognize among other plants as in the collection of garden shrubs. In the wild, Hungarian lilacs are mainly distributed in the Carpathian regions, in the north of the Balkan Peninsula and in the territory of Hungary. It is considered a relict plant and protected, legally protected species. This species of lilac was introduced into culture earlier than other unpopular species - from 1830. And since then Hungarian lilac is considered one of the most reliable types of lilac for regions with harsh winters and one of the best candidates for urban gardening, decorating small gardens or using in flower beds of any size.
In the whole family Lilac (Syringa) it is difficult to find a plant more compact than Hungarian lilac (Syringa josikaea). This plant is limited to a maximum 3-4 m even in the natural environment. The diameter of the crown is always less than the height, because of which the lilac seems slim and elegant. At the same time, the shrub develops fairly quickly, but, having reached its optimal size, it is then characterized by a remarkable stability of the crown and practically does not change. Hungarian lilac seems to be a constant, unchanging and stable island in the company of its relatives. The crown is most often neat, strictly rounded by nature, not needing to be formed. The shoots of this lilac are erect, beautifully and densely branched, directed upwards, creating an openwork and quite attractive even in winter crown. The color of the bark of old shoots is indistinguishable from other lilacs, but the young purple-purple twigs bring a pleasant revival to the spring garden. This type of lilac does not give root offspring, which somewhat complicates reproduction, but it opens up new prospects for use in the design of the garden.
Hungarian lilac is most easily identified by leaves. In shape, they are very similar to other types of lilac, but here the pubescence of the lower side (along the midrib) and the ciliary edge makes it easy to identify this species. No other species of lilac leaves retain this characteristic. The length of leaves in adult shrubs comes to 13 cm. Depending on the characteristics of the soil and growing conditions in Hungarian lilac, the leaves can be either broadly elliptical or more lanceolate. But they are almost always brightly show depressed veins. Changing the color of the leaves of the Hungarian lilac is not the most spectacular, but still serves as a garden decoration. The dark green color of the summer crown is replaced with purple spots in the autumn, and the fancy purple-lilac color of the upper side of the leaf plates is combined with the yellowish-golden tone of the pubescent lower side.
The flowering of Hungarian lilacs by its spectacularity and massiveness, of course, will give way to popular garden species. But here in its openwork, it surpasses them at times. Loose whisks produce an exceptionally elegant impression, they contain only non-double, fairly small, but pleasantly fragrant, long tubular flowers. In the inflorescences, the tier structure and the narrowed form are more clearly visible (it is the tiering that makes it easy to distinguish this type of lilac from its relatives). The diameter of the Hungarian lilac flowers never exceeds 1 cm, but the length of the magnificent panicles can reach up to 30 cm. After flowering, cylindrical red fruit boxes ripen, which ripen in mid-autumn, but can remain on the bush until spring.
Hungarian lilacs in the Botanical Garden of Moscow State University. © Kor! An
One of the main advantages of the Hungarian is the large variability of the color palette. The color of the flowers on the plant depends not only on the age of the tree, but even on the weather, the composition and characteristics of the soil, it can vary from season to season and differ from previous years. In this case, we are not talking about a cardinal color change, but only about the difference in color saturation, tone intensity.
The flowering of the Hungarian lilac usually begins two to three weeks after the common lilac. The first flowers bloom in panicles at the end of May, the main flowering always occurs at the beginning of June. In general, the flowering of Hungarian lilac lasts just over 3 weeks (from 20 to 25 days).
Forms and varieties of Hungarian lilac
Unlike common lilac, Hungarian can not boast of enviable varietal diversity or a large number of species. In the garden culture introduced only the base plant and several forms of Hungarian lilac. Of particular popularity among them in regions with severe winters deserved:
- Hungarian lilac pale form (Syringa josikaea f. pallida) with a soft lilac, seemingly faded color,
- spectacular red flowers form (Syringa josikaea f. rubra), in which the color of purple with a reddish tinge rather dark panicles seems surprisingly noble,
- white flowered form (Syringa josikaea f. monstrosa),
- pink, with pastel, with a lilac shade of flowers (Syringa josikaea f. rosea)
The use of Hungarian lilac in the design of the garden
Hungarian lilac is often perceived only as a good candidate for the stock of other lilac species and experiments with breeding new varieties. But in fact, as a stock, this species shows not the best results, because over time, plants often reject the grafted "tip." But as a decorative shrub Hungarian lilac deserves much more attention. And it's not just that with its help you can stretch the blooming of lilacs and arrange a baton with other species.
Hungarian lilac is irreplaceable as decoration of decorative compositions with other flowering shrubs or perennials. As a plant that cannot grow strongly and seize the soil, release undesirable growth, which disrupts the structure of the ensembles, it really does not know its equal. Unlike other types of lilac, it looks great even in regular compositions, it is predictable, quite strict, elegant and smart. Hungarian lilac is not afraid of close proximity and allows you to enter high accents not only in groups, but also on flower beds.
Hungarian lilac can be used in the design:
- hedges (not only landscape, but also strict)
- in groups with shrubs and woody,
- in serengarias (plantings from species and varietal lilacs, matched to the flowering time and palette),
- in arrays,
- on beds of any size and "composition",
- in mixborders and shrub rabatkah,
- for the introduction of vertical accents in flowering compositions, etc.
The best partners for the Hungarian lilac are: ornamental viburnum, hydrangea, astilbe, tree peony, spirea, phlox, lupins, sage, catnip, veronica, any other decorative-deciduous and flowering shrubs and herbaceous perennials. This lilac blends well with evergreen and deciduous decorative woody trees both in hedges and in groups (spectacular, for example, duets with maple, spruces, junipers).
Hungarian White Lilac
Conditions required Hungarian lilac
This type of lilac is able to put up with shading, and, although it prefers bright lighting, it can be used in gardening of partial shade areas, in compositions with large trees or shrubs from shady sides.
Due to its endurance and undemanding, the Hungarian is one of the best lilacs for urban and polluted conditions. It perfectly makes the neighborhood even with the main highways, does not suffer from any pollution and feels good in gardening at the carriageways. It is considered more wind resistant than other types of lilacs.
The unconditional advantages of this type of lilac include its undemanding nature of the soil. Hungarian lilac can settle on any cultivated, sufficiently well-developed soil, regardless of the degree of its fertility and even the degree of humidity - this lilac feels good in damp (but not swampy), and in dry soil. Of course, drained, fertile, loamy, fresh soil is preferable and has a positive effect on the growth rate and flowering abundance, but Hungarian lilac can be satisfied with even worse conditions.
The planting of the Hungarian lilac is carried out in the same time as for any other lilac. Planting at the end of summer or early autumn is preferable, rather than in early spring or late autumn (in this case, in the first year, the plant grows very slowly). Planting pits should be deep, organic and mineral fertilizers are welcome, but not necessary. After planting on seedlings, it is better to shorten the shoots by 2-3 buds, abundant watering and mulching.
Unlike other types of lilacs, Hungarian perfectly tolerates transplants even in adulthood. It is believed that the plant can be transplanted at any time, even at the height of the growing season in spring, but it is better to choose the same terms that are recommended for transplantation.
Care for the Hungarian lilac
Drought resistance of this type of lilac greatly simplifies garden care and allows using a flowering accent, significantly freeing the spring work schedule, eliminating the need to provide additional watering to the plants even during drought. This plant will not need not only watering, but also top dressing (if you can add traditional early spring dressing with full mineral fertilizer, then it will only have a beneficial effect on the abundance of flowering).
Pruning Hungarian lilac is carried out according to the general rules. In early spring on adult bushes, it is desirable to thin the crown, avoiding too intense thickening of the bushes inside. Panicle inflorescences pruned immediately after flowering. The Hungarian lilac by nature seems to be a formed shrub, it develops compactly and creates a rather strict crown. But if you want to get another silhouette from it or to make the crown even more dense or strict, then feel free to resort to forming scraps. Usually it is enough just to set the “vector”: this lilac so well holds the silhouette given to it, that it does not need constant haircuts and correction.
Wintering Hungarian Lilac
This is one of the most winter-hardy species of lilac, recommended for the northern regions of Russia. Hungarian lilac does not need any shelter and rarely suffers even in the most unfortunate seasons. It is perfectly restored, its shoots have time to mature before the onset of frost, and the shrub does not need additional preparation for winter, even at a very young age, in the first year of planting.
Hungarian Lilac (Syringa josikaea)