Cutting is one of the reliable, affordable and common methods of reproduction of grapes at home in the autumn. Suitable for summer residents who do not have a certain experience of using chubukov for reproduction. Chubukas are grape cuttings prepared and cut for 2–5 buds. Preparation for propagation of grapes by cuttings in the autumn at home is carried out two weeks after the grapes have dropped off the foliage and before the arrival of the first strong frosts.
Planting material is selected qualitatively, paying attention to the following points:
- Use only fruiting and ripened shoots.
- The bark should have a light brown or dark brown color.
- The absence of defects and diseases of the cortex.
Many winegrowers wonder why reproduction of grapes with chubuki in the fall is the most effective? The answer is quite simple - it is the possibility of obtaining high-quality seedlings. Using this method of reproduction, many unknowingly lose a year or two. But there are several options for how to avoid this:
- The possibility of grafting of the seedlings obtained to the adult bush (often to wild grapes). Such grafting is considered the most favorable way to update the range and test new grape varieties.
- Growing young seedlings at home.
Planting grapes cuttings
At the time when the grapes form the roots, it must be carefully planted in cardboard or plastic cups. Before this, fill the container with 4 cm of soil, insert a cutting, add earth and pour abundantly. During irrigation use warm water. If there is only one eye on the handle, it means that the cutting does not contain enough nutrients, and it must be placed in a pot with the soil diluted with fertilizers, covered with a plastic bag and left in a warm, well-lit place. South windows are the best option for placing cups.
Plants are watered once a week with warm water, after the appearance of four leaves, fertilizing is carried out with complex fertilizers containing trace elements. One plant must contain no more than two shoots, the rest must be removed. Planting seedlings occurs in early summer. A week before planting, the plant is hardened and stably ventilated. The crop on the stem after cutting grapes appears after three years, and with experienced care - after two.
Planting grape-cubs in the fall directly into the ground. A simpler option in order to propagate the grapes in the fall is to plant cuttings after selection into the ground.
To use this method, you must:
- select healthy cuttings, leaving oblique cuts on the edges of the vine,
- place the cutting in the prepared hole at an angle of 45 at a depth of 60 cm,
- leave no more than one peephole on the surface,
- bury the planting material with fertile soil and water,
- regularly water the chubukas before the onset of frost,
- wrap with straw or sacking for wintering,
- in the spring, take shelter and wait for green shoots to appear.
Selection of breeding material
Pruning grapes is one of the best moments to grape cuttings in the fall. Mature shoots up to 11 mm in diameter are chosen for this, since the choice of thicker shoots complicates the process of engraftment.
Indicators of quality cuttings:
- diameter not less than 5 mm
- tight, you hear a crack during flexion,
- bark without spots,
- green color of the vine when cut (dark colors indicate the death of the shoot),
- without any mechanical damage.
Ideal storage conditions
In order for the cuttings of grapes prepared in the fall, successfully preserved, and there was no dying off of the kidneys, it is necessary to observe the conditions for the proper storage of planting material. Most suitable storage locations:
- Land. This method is indispensable for harvesting a large number of cuttings and in the absence of suitable conditions in the cellar or basement. Be sure to choose the right place that is not flooded in the spring, mostly mounds and elevated areas.
- Cellar or basement. Cuttings are signed, folded into bags, pre-filled with wet sawdust. Packages must be carefully tied up, but with the condition that there is access to air. Periodically monitor the condition of sawdust, if necessary, moisten.
- Fridge. In the case of living in an apartment or in the absence of a basement or cellar, cuttings can be stored in the refrigerator. Wrap the cuttings in a clean, damp, natural fabric, then fold them into a plastic bag and leave on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator. From time to time, moisten the cloth with water and also create an opportunity for air to enter the bag. If you feel a peculiar smell from the cloth, replace it with a new one.
Storage cuttings in the winter. Grapes have many phases of life, which correspond to the seasons (phases of awakening, development, preparation for rest and biological rest). Since cuttings for planting material are harvested during the penultimate phase, it is imperative that you save the last phase, that is, give the bush time to rest.
For proper storage of cuttings, you must use the following tips:
- keep it dry
- avoid freezing,
- Do not allow kidneys to melt.
The temperature for storing the cuttings should not be below 0, but not higher than 6 degrees. The room to provide sufficient moisture. Before choosing an appropriate storage method, you must make sure that the cuttings are viable, especially if someone else’s grapes are used:
- A clear sign of a ripe vine is a crunch during a slight bending of the cutting.
- Presence of green wood after easy bark removal.
- Green shade of the vine with a cross-section. In the presence of a whitish shade the vine is dead and unfit for use.
- A longitudinal section of the eyelet makes it possible to see the rudiments of leaves. They should also be green. Brown leaves indicate that these cuttings must be boldly rejected.
Harvesting cuttings during pruning grapes is the most efficient way to grow grapes in the fall. With proper care and storage, the chubuk lands in a permanent place of growth in the spring. The cuttings prepared in autumn are stronger and healthier. Under certain conditions, the root system of grapes begins the process of active development not only on the green pieces of the vine, but also on the ripened ones.
Following all the technologies, after just a year, you can enjoy the berries from the new grape bushes. And also use the opportunity to get new bushes in a budget way.
Procurement of cuttings
Proper preparation of cuttings is half, if not more, success in the undertaking.
Conventionally, the preparation of cuttings can be divided into 3 important processes:
- cutting cuttings
- storage of planting material
- preparation for rooting.
Cutting cuttings is best done in the fall, after the leaves fall from the vine all the leaves, but before the onset of frost. The best time is considered the second half of November and the beginning of December - during this period the vine is ready for winter dormancy, therefore the nutrients in the cut cuttings are better stored and they tolerate low temperatures better.
It is better to use fruit branches for harvesting chubukov - in this case, the chances for the final successful result will be much higher. For cuttings you need to take straight (or at least relatively straight) sections of the vine. The cuttings should be long enough: the recommendations are reduced to the length of a chubuk in 50-70 cm, but experienced growers recommend cutting the chubuki with a length of 120-140 cm.
Piglet is better to harvest from the middle of the fruit-bearing vine. At least three live kidneys and 6-8 internodes should remain on each chip. It is not necessary to bother yourself with the preparation of too thick or too thick cuttings - and those and others are poorly rooted. Chubuki from 0.75 to 1 cm thick are considered optimal.
In addition to the timing of harvesting, the length and thickness of the cuttings, of great importance is the correct choice of uterine hives. Shrubs affected by diseases or pests, with damaged or deformed vines for harvesting grape cuttings are not suitable.
Before laying the cuttings for storage, they should be disinfected for half an hour in a 5% solution of copper sulfate or potassium permanganate. Then the cuttings are tied into small bundles - 8-10 each. If the cuttings are cut from different varieties, then the name of the variety is attached to each such bundle. Then each bundle is wrapped with a damp cloth, then with plastic wrap and sent for winter storage.
For a small amount of cuttings, a refrigerator (but not a freezer) would be an ideal storage place. If you plan to plant a large vineyard, then harvested cuttings are best kept in the cellar, prikopav them in wet sand, but you need to constantly monitor the humidity of the sand, occasionally moistening it. Some gardeners prefer to keep cuttings, dropping them for the winter in the ground.
When stored in the refrigerator and cellar, it is necessary to periodically check their condition and, if necessary, adjust the humidity or lower the temperature of their storage. Otherwise, the buds on the cuttings may dry out or develop in advance, and in both cases all the work on the harvesting and storage of the chubukov will go down the drain.
Spring preparation for rooting
Depending on the weather, at the end of winter or at the beginning of spring, harvested cuttings awaken from hibernation. First, the removed cuttings are checked “for freshness”: they cut off both edges of the cutting by 1-3 cm with a secateur.
If the wood in the place of the fresh cut is light green and a drop of water protrudes on it, then the cutting is well preserved and can be planted for rooting.
If the cut point remains light brown in color, and no signs of moisture are visible, then the cutting is more likely to die. You can try to re-cut, departing from the edge of 5-8 cm, but its result is rarely encouraging. If, even without a new incision, water protrudes at the end of the cutting, and black spots are visible on the surface of the fresh cut, then the cutting is rotten.
Safely transferred storage cuttings first soaked for 2 days in warm water, periodically, 1-2 times a day, changing it. Best for soaking use melt water, you can take water from the well. Tap water is not suitable for soaking, since chlorine-containing agents are used to clean it.
In the water for greater efficiency, you can add a little honey or aloe juice from the calculation: a tablespoon in a bucket of water. After soaking, the roots are placed for another 12-18 hours in special stimulants that promote the rapid formation of roots, for example, roots.
In order to make the effect of the root-stimulating drugs more effective, at the lower end of the cutting (the volume that will be directly in the stimulator), 3-4 shallow incisions 1.5-2 cm in length are made with a sharp knife.
Sprouting in cups
Three small holes are made in the bottom of a large plastic cup with the aid of an awl or knife tip. At the perforated bottom pour 2-2.5 cm of a mixture of leaf humus and sod land.
The mixture is prepared in a ratio of 1: 1. Then take a smaller plastic cup, cut off the bottom of it and put it in the center of a large cup. The space between the walls of the glasses is filled with earth, it is compacted and watered, after which the space inside the smaller cup is washed with river sand. The entire structure is again watered with water, and then the smaller glass is removed.
In the center of the sand with a wooden stick a 4-5 cm hole is made and the lower end of the grape cutting is inserted into it, and again it is poured over with water. On top of the planted stalk put on a plastic bottle with a cropped bottom. The sand must be kept wet until 4-5 leaves appear on the handle. After that, the bottle can be removed from the cutting.
Sprouting at home in a plastic bottle
In the bottom of a two-liter plastic bottle, several holes are made, and the neck is completely cut off. A small drainage layer is poured at the bottom, and 5-6 cm of the soil mixture on top. In this mixture stick the bottom edge of the cutting.
It is necessary to do this jewelry: the upper eye on the handle should be on the same level with the cut of the bottle. The remaining space in the bottle is filled with steamed sawdust and a plastic cup is put on top of the bottle. When the upper shoot develops so that it becomes difficult to fit in a plastic cup, it is removed.
In both cases, use a drip for watering: water is poured into it and for 15-20 minutes they put a container on it with a stem planted. The secret of successful germination is to provide the part of the cutting that needs to be rooted, more warm and comfortable conditions than the part where the buds will develop.
To propagate grapes by cuttings is really easy if you know exactly what to do and how. But at the same time, it requires attention and care at every stage.
To do this, it is better to germinate a plant with planted cuttings on a window sill, but it is imperative that the upper eye “look” in the direction opposite to the window. The germination procedure usually takes about 3 weeks.
Planting cuttings in open ground
The final step in growing grapes from cuttings is planting rooted cuttings in open ground. They disembark in the second half of May, when the threat of severe night frost is over.
First, for each cutting digging planting hole. At its bottom, a wooden stake or iron scrap makes a recess with a diameter of 10-12 cm into the ground. The root system of the cutting is installed in this hole, covered with earth, compacted and watered abundantly, consuming about 20 liters of water for one pit.
When the water is fully absorbed, the earth is poured into the landing pit just below the level of the developed upper eye. At the same time, it should be borne in mind that this eye should be in the planting hole 5-7 cm below the ground level. At the same time, a wooden or metal stake is driven into the bottom of the landing pit, which will serve as a support for the developing grape bush.
Reproduction green cuttings
Breeding of grapes with green cuttings is best done in mid-June. For reproduction, 2 or 3 ocellar cuttings are cut. They are harvested from stepchildren or young shoots. At the bottom, the cutting is cut 4-5 cm below the knot, at the top - 1.5-2 cm above the peephole.
Chopped cuttings are placed in a bowl of water (rain or well, but not water). While the cuttings are soaked, several holes are made in the bottom of a 5 l plastic bottle, and its top is completely cut off.
For planting preparing a mixture of deciduous compost and sod land, mixed in equal proportions. To make the mixture more loose and “airy”, it is better to take the earth for the mixture from molehills as far as possible.
The prepared jar is filled with soil mixture. The mixture is poured abundantly and thoroughly compacted, for which the bottle is gently shaken and tapped with a bottom on a hard surface several times.
Important point: at the top of the jar you need to first strengthen the wooden frame, deepening a few rails in the bottle and fixing them. Then preparing to plant a green stalk. A double-leaf cutting is removed from the lower leaf, and the upper leaf is left. In the three-eyes, the bottom sheet is also removed, and also half of the middle and top sheets are cut to reduce the area of evaporation of moisture.
3-4 cuttings are planted in one bottle, deepening them into the soil by 5-6 cm. After that, a cellophane bag is put on the pre-installed frame and firmly fixed on the top of the bottle. The constructed structure with planted cuttings is placed on the window sill of the south window, and it remains to the ladies until rooting.
If everything is done correctly, then in the first 10-12 days no additional action is required. Then need regular - once a week - watering and ventilation. Rooting lasts 5-6 weeks, after which the rooted green cuttings are planted in open ground using the same technology as the stiffened ones, and by October have time to grow to 40 cm in length.
To propagate grapes by cuttings is really easy if you know exactly what and how to do in each process of their rooting. But at the same time, you need to understand that any error at any of the stages can cause failure. Therefore, it is necessary to approach each stage responsibly and never to hope “at random”.
The main methods of propagation of grapes
One of the time-tested methods of propagation of a crop is the powder of a vine with earth. If it is still green, then the procedure is carried out at the end of June, if it is already lignified - in the spring. Sprinkled in such a way that the top remained above the ground. In the fall, each of the sprouts is separated from the neighbors, placed in markets and cleaned in a special room until spring. Для северных регионов такой вариант практически не пригоден, поскольку корни будут образовываться в точке роста побега, а такие корни часто гибнут от морозов.
The ground powder has an original modified version, in which at the end of June a package with a special soil mixture of soil and peat is attached to the base of the shoot. By the fall, roots are formed in this place and a full grape sapling can be used for its intended purpose. However, this variant also has the same drawback - young roots will be sensitive to negative temperatures.
To obtain high-quality material in significant quantities, you can use the method of cuttings:
- horizontal - receiving seedlings for transplanting to a new place, groove up to 20 cm deep,
- deep - the replacement of old (uterine) bushes, a groove with a hole in the place of the supposed escape of a depth of up to 50 cm.
In the cold northern regions, the most common method of propagating grapes cuttings. The material is harvested from autumn and stored in a box with wet sand to protect it from drying out. In March, proceed to germination in glass jars, and after the appearance of the first roots are planted in packages with soil. May is the time for planting young saplings to a permanent place.
Variants of sprouting cuttings
A couple of weeks before planting in the ground for germination, in early February, the cuttings need to get, check their freshness, pushing the cross-section with shears. If a few drops of water came out, it means that the cutting was well preserved, no drops appeared - the sprig was dry, the moisture was dripping from the branch without pressing - the cutting was rotten. Make a fresh cross-section and pay attention to its color: it should be light green, there should not be any black inclusions.
In order to reproduce the grapes successfully, it is necessary to soak those cuttings that are best preserved during the winter in warm water. Soaking lasts two days with a daily change of water, after which it is recommended to place the branches for a day in the root stimulator.
Before propagating the grapes by cuttings, it is necessary to germinate them at home in plastic cups or bottles.
In order to reproduce the grapes successfully, it is necessary to soak those cuttings that are best preserved during the winter in warm water.
Option 1. Germination in glasses:
- prepare large plastic cups, making three holes in the bottom with an awl,
- put the ground mixed with leaf humus, a layer of 2 cm, on the bottom of the glasses
- on top of the ground, install a smaller cup without a bottom, fill the gap between the walls of the glasses with earth, compact and pour the earth,
- pour the washed river sand into the inner cup, pour it and clean the cup,
- in the very center of the sand, make a recess with a wand 4 cm, insert a cutting there and pour the sand,
- put sand on top, cover the glass with a plastic bottle without a bottom and without a lid.
Every day or once in two days you will need to water the seedlings with warm water. And when the roots will be visible at the walls of the glass, and 4 leaves will grow on the branch, the bottle can be removed.
Option 2. Germination in a bottle:
- make a few holes in the bottom in a plastic bottle with a neck cut,
- fill the drainage layer
- Pour 7 spoons of soil mixture over the drain,
- in the soil mix stick a cutting under the slope so that the upper soil or the eye is at the level of the top of the bottle,
- top with steamed old sawdust,
- cover the stalk with a plastic cup.
Bottle with a handle peep from the window. The glass can be removed when the escape no longer fits in it. Watering should be through the bottom through the pan, pouring some water into it and putting a bottle of seedlings there for 15 minutes.
How grapes propagated by green cuttings
You can germinate and green cuttingscut at the very beginning of flowering. For this you will need shoots, which are obtained by staving and spring fragments of branches. Cut off the shoots immediately put in a bucket filled with clean water. Take out each shoot, cut it into cuttings with two buds and put them back into the water.
You can germinate and green cuttings, cut at the very beginning of flowering
For cuttings, the lower cut should be made oblique under the lower node. Cutting the tip above the knot, leave the stump in 2-3 cm. Ready-made green cuttings are planted in a box or in individual plastic cups. It is necessary to create a small darkening for them, which is removed after the cuttings noticeably began to grow.Video about the reproduction of grapes with green cuttings
All summer cuttings will grow, and in the fall they will need to be placed in a cellar for storage. In the spring, transplant the seedlings into the soil and grow them in a bucket during the summer. In the vineyard obtained from cuttings seedlings planted in mid-September.
Reproduction by layering
Layers are called rooted lower shoots, which are placed in a special way in the ground without detaching from the parent bush until the seedling is ripe. Depending on the age of escape and the nuances of laying otvodkov grooves distinguish the following ways:
- katavlak and others
The chronology of actions during the reproduction of grapes by layering is subject to the following algorithm:
- The formation of the groove width of 15 cm and a depth of 20 cm in the right direction from the parent bush. This procedure should be carried out before the appearance of buds on the vine.
- Filling the groove with ¾ soil mixture with humus.
- Laying the vine along the groove with pinning it to the ground using wire, slingshots and other fixtures for fixing the position.
- Backfilling of the laid vines with soil mixture and thorough watering with water with the addition of manganese.
- Covering the layers with a film until the first leaflets appear above the ground. This technique allows you to create an optimal microclimate.
- Regular watering and tying young shoots to pegs made of wood or metal.
- Pinching young shoots at the end of the summer will lead to their maturation.
- With the onset of autumn, the cuttings are dug, divided into parts, the roots of each seedling are dipped into the clay solution and sent to storage.
Did you know that no more than two layers are formed from one bush, and a layer can be made in the middle of summer, if the leaves are removed from the shoot before laying in the trench.
How to propagate girlish grapes
The maiden (wild) species is a liana widely used in decorating country buildings: a gazebo, fence, house wall, etc. For its reproduction apply several ways:
- Cuttings. For the preparation of planting material last year's shoots are divided into sections of approximately 15 cm in length. They are buried to the first internode in the peat-clay mixture, regularly watered and protected from drafts. Planted in a permanent place in the spring of next year.
- Layering. An escape with a length of at least 3 meters is laid in a furrow 5 cm deep, pinning in the nodes. The lash is covered with earth, leaving green leaves on the surface of the soil. Carefully watered and waiting rooting.
A curious fact: it may take two seasons for high-quality rooting.
- Seeds. In the fall, they are soaked in water for a day and buried by 2 cm in the soil. In the spring, soaking is not required, it is enough stratification to keep it in the refrigerator.
Regardless of the chosen method of breeding maiden grapes, you should take care of soil preparation in advance:
- At the intended landing site dig a hole with a width of 60 cm and a depth of at least 50 cm.
- The 2/5 pit is filled with broken bricks or large gravel, providing drainage.
- From above they are covered with soil mixture from two parts of the earth, two parts of peat and one part of sand.
When planting seedlings observe one meter distance between two adjacent specimens.
How is planting the crop in open ground
First, choose the location of the future vineyard, taking into account the following recommendations:
- south or west side
- the lack of nearby tall trees
- protection from strong winds and low temperatures in the form of a building wall.
The order of planting depends on the properties of the soil in which the grapes will grow. So, for chernozem and clay adhere to the following technology:
- Dig a hole 80x80 cm with the same depth.
- At ¼ fill the pit with a mixture of soil with humus and tamped.
- 300 g of superphosphate and potash fertilizer are mixed with 3 liters of ash, added to the soil and form another layer, two times thinner than the previous one.
- The third layer of 5 cm is represented only by the ground.
- After all the manipulations, the pit is half full.
- A small mound is formed in the center, a seedling is placed on it vertically (with a length of over 25 cm it should be placed under a slope) and the roots are evenly straightened.
- Grapes are poured with soil to the level of growth, carefully tamping the ground and pour 2-3 buckets of water.
- The top layer (up to 10 cm) is loosened, watering is repeated twice in two weeks, accompanying it with loosening and mulching.
- To support the seedling, they install a peg to which they tie it, leaving one shoot.
If the soil is sandy, the pit is deepened to 1 meter, forming the first layer of 20 cm of clay soil. Watering also will have more and more abundant - once a week for 4 buckets of water.
If the seedlings have a woody trunk, then they will be transplanted taking into account the weather conditions at the end of April. Green vegetative specimens should be planted in June. When choosing the autumn period (from October to frosts), young plants should be carefully covered with peat, needles or sawdust.
Harvesting grape cuttings
At first glance, reproduction of grapes by cuttings should not cause difficulties. But this is not the case, since there are many secrets in this business that many experienced gardeners do not know about. It is better to learn about them in advance.
In order for reproduction to be successful, you need to properly prepare the planting material. From how well this work will be carried out, the survival rate of the breeding material in a new place further depends.
To receive new vines from cuttings you need to prepare them in the fall. Towards mid-autumn, enough nutrients accumulate in the vine for its safe wintering.
When preparing the material, you must adhere to the following rules:
- Cuttings can be done only after all the leaves fall off the trees.
- For cutting use only those vines from which a good harvest of berries was taken this year.
- When cutting should be used the most direct sections of the vine.
- The longer the cutting, the greater the chances of successful rooting.
Cutting should be carried out before the beginning of the first serious frosts. Depending on the region of our country, this period may fall both in the middle of autumn and in the beginning of winter.
After trimming the planting material, it must be properly processed:
- With a cut branch you need to remove all the leaves and shoots.
- One stalk should contain no more than 4 buds.
- The upper cut should be angular and be 2 centimeters above the upper bud.
- The bottom cut is straight.
- All processed grape cuttings need sort by grades, merge into bundles and mark.
- To increase the humidity, they should be placed in water for a day, and then, after drying, treated with 5% solution of copper sulphate.
This treatment will allow the grapes cuttings to safely winter.
In the last days of winter, the preparation of cuttings begins. In the spring, they must be fully prepared for germination.
Before placing the cuttings in the soil, they must be made more active: remove the cuttings from where they were stored, and ensure their viability. This can be done with the help of a regular pruner: incise the bark of the cutting 2 mm above the lower end. If moisture appears at the cut point, it means that the stalk has tolerated good wintering. If there is no moisture, it is dry.
Pay attention to the color of the slice. Such a stalk is suitable for breeding, in which under the bark of the fabric they have a light green color.
Next, you need to put the cuttings in warm water for 2 days. In this case, the water in the tank should be changed at least once every 24 hours.
Water from the tap for this procedure is not suitable. It must be recruited from a natural source or in extreme cases well.
Upon completion of soaking planting material should be put in a container with a root stimulator.
Before planting the cuttings, it is recommended to conduct wicking.
The main reason for the death of cuttings after planting - early ripening shoots. They ripen much faster growing roots. You can avoid this problem by using wicking. There are several types of this procedure:
- In the soil pit. Cuttings are installed in a cold pit upside down. As a result, the buds are in cooler conditions, while the lower part of the cutting remains in the light and warm. Kidney development slows down. The roots are developing faster.
- In room. You need to choose a room, the temperature in which does not exceed 7 ° C and prepare a heating mat. It will perform the role of local heating. On it should subsequently be placed the lower part of the cuttings with roots.
- In the bed at xirrigate sunny light. A bed is selected on the north side of the plot. The shaft is made on it. The buds are placed in the ground, while the lower part of the cutting remains on the surface and is covered with a film. This creates a greenhouse effect.
- Using stimulants. We are talking about mineral preparations that accelerate germination.
By the way, none of the above methods guarantee 100% rooting.
This is the final stage of breeding grapes cuttings. It consists of the following actions:
- After the appearance of the first leaves and increasing the height of the seedling is dug out of the temporary planting capacity. This can be done no earlier than the first days of May.
- Before planting in the open field, a hole of the required depth is dug.
- Pre-prepared fertilizers are poured at the bottom of the planting hole.
- For planting in the spring, only intact cuttings with good roots are allowed.
- In one hole you can put two seedlings at once, but then after rooting you have to get rid of one. It is always the weakest sapling.
- A soil mixture is poured into the hole, in which a dimple is made with a diameter of not more than 12 cm.. It is placed stalk and covered with earth.
After landing, you must carefully observe the water regime. Without this, seedlings will not take root. To comply with the water regime, at least 2 buckets of water should be poured onto each transplanted stalk. After that, you need to wait for the subsidence of the soil and spud the plant so that it has a mound at its base. In this case, the first kidney should be 5 cm below the surface of the hill.
In order for a sapling to grow properly, it must be given support. Her role can perform a dry twig.
Reproduction of grapes shortened cuttings
This method is mainly used when you need to get new varieties of this berry.
The first step is harvested pieces of mature vine length from 1 to 1.5 m with healthy buds. Moreover, they are cut in the spring two days before the intended landing.
After that, planting material is cut from harvested pieces. As a rule, from one segment is obtained up to 7 shortened chubukov. Each of them has an average of 16 cm in length. The diameter of one Chubuk different varieties. So, in tall varieties, it can reach 12 mm, while in medium growth it does not exceed 9 mm.
At the stage of preparation of the planting material, it is necessary to stratify it. To do this, it is placed in a container with warm water for 2 days. Then they pull it out and shift it to plastic bags. The latter should be placed in a cool and dark place. Once a week, cuttings need to get out of polyethylene and moisten with water. The maximum period of stratification is 2 weeks.
The landing of shortened cuttings is carried out according to the following scheme:
- Preparing the soil at the landing site. The necessary mineral fertilizers are added to it.
- Marked seats. Beds with a width of 1.6 m are formed, between them a free space of 50 cm should be left.
- Landing holes are dug. The distance between them in the same bed should be at least 20 cm.
- Cropped Chubuk should be planted in an upright position. A strong bias is not allowed. Chubuk covered with earth before the first peephole.
- Planting ends with abundant watering. He should pay special attention because it directly affects the appearance of the first shoots.
Reproduction by lignified cuttings
Such cuttings are prepared in the fall. They are cut from the middle part of the fruit arrow or shoot. The cut is carried out at the substitute bitch level.
Cutting is carried out as follows:
- From the selected fruit arrow, all stepchildren, antennae and underexposed apex are removed.
- From the middle part of the arrow cuttings are cut. Each should have 4 buds.
- Chopped planting material is collected in bunches by grades and soaked for 24 hours in clear water.
- After soaking the jugs are dried and sent to storage in the cellar.
In the spring, cuttings are removed from the cellar and pass sanitary selection. The rotted and dried chubuki are thrown away. For further germination in plastic cups, only healthy ones are selected.
It is possible to transplant seedlings into the open ground only after the first shoot with full-fledged leaves grows from the upper eye of a chubuk.
The process of planting seedlings obtained from woody cuttings is no different from the landing of ordinary chubukov.
Существуют и другие способы размножения виноградной лозы, но они или слишком трудоемки, или подходят только для селекционных работ. Обычному садоводу о них знать ни к чему.
Размножать виноград черенками проще всего. This method allows you to get a large amount of planting material without much effort. Moreover, it will be possible to harvest the first crop already 3 years after its disembarkation.
Pros in growing cuttings
Efficient, comfortable and sooooo fast. When you need to lose 3-4 pounds per week. Read more here.
A stalk is part of a stalk with several buds. For breeding at home, taken woody twigs from a mature vine. Their other name - cuttings or Chubuk.
Emaciated Stepanenko: I weighed 108, and now 65. At night she drank warm. Read more here.
Any gardener, even a beginner, can plant grapes by cuttings. This method has many advantages:
- the possibility of obtaining a large number of seedlings,
- seedlings are easy to transport, mail and store,
- ease of handling pests and diseases,
- low cost of seedlings.
Lignified cuttings are planted in open ground (autumn or spring), but at the end of winter or spring home rooting is done.
Growing grapes from cuttings at home provides a good opportunity to get full-fledged seedlings in regions where sheltered viticulture is widely used (Urals, Siberia, Moscow region).
I was able to get rid of ARTHROSIS AND OSTEOCHONDROSIS PER MONTH! Operations are not needed. Read more here.
The advantages of growing from cuttings at home:
- controlled by the process of development and acceleration,
- no negative weather factors,
- occupies a small space
- good running in time, which will increase the planting bushes in the current season.
Preparation of material for landing
For germination in the winter-spring period, cuttings are selected from the matured (brown, crackling when bent, lignified) annual vine. Their harvesting occurs when pruning vines (approximate term - October, before the onset of the first frost). In non-roofed areas, chubuki for reproduction is pruned at the end of November and in winter - from the vine, without any symptoms of draining or freezing.
Breeding material is best obtained from the most healthy and productive bushes that have typical varietal characteristics. These are bushes with smooth branches, free of defects and stains. For cutting, the middle part of the shoots that sprouted from the central buds of two-year branches is selected.
The normal thickness of the cuttings is from 0.5 to 1 centimeter (for a variety with a thin vine, this rate may be less). Fatting and thick stems have loose wood, so they are not suitable for reproduction.
Sizes and cuttings
The length of the cutting is not measured in centimeters, but in the number of eyes (buds) on it.
Most commonly used are two-eyed and three-eyed, although single-eye and four-eyed are also suitable. When cutting twigs, stepchildren, antennae and foliage are cut off. It happens that long vines (50-100-170 cm) are stored in winter, and cutting is carried out before rooting.
The upper cut is straight, the height above the upper kidney is 2-4 centimeters. The lower cut is made oblique under the lower kidney, while the indentation should be small. At the beginning, novice gardeners cannot determine where the top and where the bottom is. It is by the method of cutting that one can deal with this question.
The cubs are tied up in bundles and tied up in two places. Attached to the bundles are tags indicating the name of the variety. After that, the bundles should be stored for several months. Before this, they are processed.
Preparation of cuttings for storage
- soak in water for 12 hours, while laying horizontally so that the water completely covers them with a small layer,
- disinfect: immerse in a solution of copper sulphate (400 grams per 10 liters of water) or iron sulphate (300 grams per 10 liters of water) for 15 seconds. After treatment with iron sulfate, the vine will turn black - this is a normal reaction,
- dry for a few hours on fabric or paper
- paraffin cuts (tips). Dip in paraffin, which is melted in a water bath and slightly cooled (not all gardeners use the method),
- Wrap in plastic wrap or plastic bag before storing it.
With all these steps, the cuttings will be well preserved.
Watch the video! Harvesting and storage of grapes
Preservation of cuttings before planting
For storage ideal conditions consider:
- air humidity - from 80 to 95%,
- temperature - from 1 to 4 degrees (but not higher than +8).
Material for planting should be stored in the refrigerator or basement, as well as outdoors - in a trench or in a snowdrift.
Storage locations for cuttings:
- Snowdrift. An ideal storage place for snowy areas. It is necessary to store in loose snow (optimum humidity and temperature) at a depth of at least 50 centimeters. Before the snow falls, the cut vine is wrapped in wet sackcloth and is contained on the ground in the garden. When the first frost appears, it is transferred to the basement or a room with a low positive temperature. Chubuki are laid in a snowdrift in the open or packed (in cut plastic bottles or bags of sugar),
- Trench. The trench depth is 50-100 centimeters. The bottom of the trench is filled with a small layer of sand, on which the tufts of the vine are set vertically. After this, the trench is covered with sand and earth and covered with boards, slate or film. Often, the vine is packed in a bag of sugar and instilled into the half-meter depth. The disadvantage of this method is that in the spring it is very difficult to get chubuk,
- In the cellar or refrigerator. Seedlings are placed in a sugar bag or plastic bag. The package is placed in the refrigerator (in the department for vegetables) or lowered into the cellar. Pre-vine (bottom cut) wrapped in a moistened newspaper. For humidification and ventilation, a newspaper is opened in early January. Bundles are placed in two cut bottles, and the joint is wrapped with adhesive tape.
Processing before rooting
Before rooting, it is necessary to check the condition of materials for planting: good - prepare for germination, poor - throw out. If traces of mold appear on the seedlings, they should be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate.
- Looking over the bark: healthy - without blackening and wrinkles,
- A transverse stitch is made. All wood and cambium under the bark should have a light green tint. Brown, white or black shade is an indicator of death,
- When pressing on the cut should be a little moisture. If not, or a lot, the rooting process will be low.
After checking for diseases of the vine, the cubes are placed in a container with water for a period of 12 hours to 2 days. It is necessary to soak both dried and normal chubukov. The room temperature is about +20 degrees. Water changes every 12 hours. There are cases when honey is added to water (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
The long vine is cut into chubuki with 2-3 buds. If pruning was done in the fall, then lower sections are updated before rooting. They are made under the lowest nodes - on the wedge or diagonally. The work is carried out with a sharp knife to avoid squeezing the tissue. Cut branches immediately put in a container with water at the bottom.
The best place for the formation of roots is a place where the callus flows to the wound surfaces. Such a phenomenon can be provoked manually. The lower part of the cuttings is scratched with a knife, making several longitudinal grooves. It is necessary to go deep into wood or cambium. The scratch length is about 3-6 centimeters.
The lower part of the cuttings is soaked in one of the liquid stimulants of root formation (solution of Zircon, Heteroauxin, Humate of potassium - according to the instructions) or is treated with Kornevin.
After processing, you need to put the chubukas in the water for 3 - 4 centimeters until the time for planting approaches.
After two weeks, the upper bud begins to bloom, and the seedling - to absorb water, so it needs to be added.
After 10 days, as the first bud blossomed, the first roots will appear. With the development of the root system chubukov planted in a container with a special substrate. At the bottom of the tank is placed a special drainage, and then the grape substrate. The seedling is filled to the top so that the upper bud remains on the surface. After rooting, the seedling is watered and placed on the sunny side for productive growth. For survival, some gardeners lure young grapes. Grapes are grown from cuttings only with the rooting process.
Watch the video! How to root a grape
Growing grapes in spring
In the spring of grapes from seedlings grown easier, but not everyone can do it because of the weather conditions. When growing, a special technique is observed:
- Cut off the stiff and healthy shoots. They must be even and have swollen buds. Finished cuts infused in water
- Shoots are cut and distributed into Chubuk with 2-3 buds. The lower sections make skew,
- Each Chubuk landed in a jar or cup. Growing should be carried out in a warm, darkened place, until the seedling begins to develop its root system and take root,
- This cultivation of seedlings occurs all summer, and in the fall they are sent to save,
- The following spring is landing at a temporary place, and in the fall - at a permanent place.
Grapes - this is a berry with a special taste, which can be grown using cuttings. Compliance with all rules and recommendations will allow any gardener to achieve the desired result. This method of planting grapes will end up with a healthy plant with high yields. Everyone knows that when buying seedlings you can get defective and unsuitable for a particular area. Therefore, the cultivation by cuttings allows you to avoid such problems, and to grow the variety that is needed. The training video in our article will show how to grow grapes properly.
Watch the video! Growing seedlings from cuttings
Reproduction of grapes cuttings: a method available to a beginner
The most commonly used method of reproduction of grapes is harvesting woody cuttings and rooting. It is so simple that it can be recommended for a beginner. True, simply - it does not mean “self”, it is necessary to work hard, and quite a lot. It is necessary to start somewhere to get or buy cuttings of the variety you like and start this interesting process.
Cuttings are usually harvested during the autumn pruning of grapes or a little earlier - when the leaves are no longer pure green, that is, the growing season is nearing completion, and the shoots have matured and woody as far as they could. It is impossible to leave preparation of cuttings in the spring: it is not known what will happen to the weather in winter, how well the bushes will survive the frost.
When sending the cuttings for storage, you need to remember to sign
The best-quality cuttings are obtained from the middle part of the vine: the tip is usually not quite ripe, and in the lower part there are few strong buds. Fully matured vine with some bending cracks, but does not break. Cuttings are cut “with a margin”, that is, with 5–6 eyes, despite the fact that they will be twice as short as growing directly in spring. It is better if their diameter is not less than 5 mm, and the shoot, from which they are cut, has grown over the summer to at least a meter and a half.
In most cases, cuttings will be needed only at the end of winter, and until that time they must be properly preserved. You can keep them in the refrigerator, if there is space, but more convenient in the cellar. The best temperature is about +1 o C. Before being sent to the cellar, the cuttings are soaked for 1–2 hours in a 1% solution of ferrous sulfate and 24 hours in clear water. Store in plastic bags, leaving only the top outside. In winter, the integrity is checked and, if necessary, washed or only wiped from the mold found. In the case of drying - soak.
Planting cuttings immediately in open ground
In the warmest regions, it is possible to plant lignified cuttings directly into the garden bed. Sometimes they are planted even immediately after autumn harvesting, only slightly warming them with dry leaves or fir branches. If you plant the cuttings in good soil, they root easily and begin to grow with the onset of spring heat. For this, cuttings with 3–4 buds in autumn are almost completely buried in the ground, leaving only one kidney above the ground. But until spring, this kidney is covered with earth. Often, to preserve heat and moisture, the resulting mound is covered with plastic wrap, and in the spring it makes an opening for the growth of a young shoot. When it becomes warm and the stalk will throw out the leaves and begin to grow, the film is removed and the mound is raked.
Most planting cuttings in the bed carried out in the spring. In the central regions, the probability of success of such breeding is small, and in the south in March, when the earth warms to 10–12 ° C, cuttings are planted just as they did in the autumn, but after serious preparation. First, the cuttings taken out of the cellar are disinfected, then they are cut off both ends and soaked in clean water for several days.
Then, in the lower part, an oblique cut is made just below the kidney, and the tip is cut straight, 2–3 cm above the upper kidney. Put them in a jar, pour water 4–5 cm high and keep in a warm place until the roots are full. Water is periodically changed and poured to the level remained constant. If the water temperature in the jar is from 25 to 30 ° C, and in the zone of the tips of the cuttings 5–7 degrees lower, in three weeks, white hillocks will appear on the cuttings near the surface of the water.
Grow roots do not give, and if the weather permits, cuttings with root buds are deeply planted in the garden. In this embodiment, it makes no sense to make the cuttings short: you can plant with 6 buds, the roots will be stronger. With an inclined planting in the spring, two buds are left above the ground. Well watered and keep the soil moist. If frosts are still possible, cover with non-woven materials.
In the garden it is better to plant cuttings with small roots
First, the cuttings will build up the roots, but the leaves will bloom almost immediately. And by the onset of quite warm weather, the shoots (one or two, no more leave, even if they appear), will quickly grow. By the fall of the cuttings grow a good seedling. If the cutting was planted immediately into place, in well-fertilized soil and a previously dug planting hole, you can leave the plant here. But usually it is transplanted to a permanent place, having prepared a hole in advance according to all the rules.
Growing seedlings from cuttings at home
As a rule, especially in the climatic conditions of the middle zone, grapes from cuttings begin to grow at home. They do this in different substrates, and very often wet sawdust is used instead of garden soil. Generally speaking, a lot of options for growing seedlings from cuttings, everyone chooses for himself the most, in his opinion, simple. Works begin in February. The cuttings are unpacked, disinfected, washed and checked if they overwinter well.
On the handle slightly scraped bark. If he is alive and can give life to a new plant, there will be green fabric under the bark. Other coloring does not guarantee success: the stalk did not overwinter.
Chubuki are cut from good cuttings: cuttings with three buds are traditionally called. We will not introduce unnecessary terms, let them remain as cuttings, especially since in the case of good buds for reproduction, two will suffice. If you leave the kidneys more than three, at home you have to put the whole bucket, this is not necessary.
As mentioned above, the upper and lower sections are made: the lower one is oblique, the upper one is straight and the cuttings are placed for 2-3 days in a bath with water (preferably snow). Well-watered cuttings, in principle, can be immediately planted in prepared containers with the substrate. They will probably germinate there. But for safety net more often act differently:
- Several shallow longitudinal scratches “for seeding” are applied around the lower kidney.
You can scratch with any sharp tool.
Roots will appear on the border of water / air
The most convenient as pots are plastic one and a half liter bottles with a cut off narrowed tip. Only in the bottom you need to make a few holes to remove excess water and put the drainage of small pebbles or coarse sand. The best soil is considered to be a mixture of river sand and good garden soil (1: 1), but some amateurs manage with sawdust, only they must first be doused with boiling water. Continuing work looks like this:
- The substrate is poured into bottles so that the stem, placed on it by the roots, rises above the capacity of one bud.
- Carefully fill the substrate, without breaking the still very gentle roots. If there are three kidneys, the average is left at the ground / air interface. If two, the top should be above the surface at about 1 cm.
- If the leaves have not yet dismissed, cover the landing with plastic bags.
- Put the containers on the illuminated windowsill at room temperature.
- Periodically watered, but moderately: waterlogging does more harm than temporary overdrying of the soil.
- A few days later, when the leaves are clearly going to grow, put a jar of water at their level and gradually train the cuttings to be without a package.
- If the window is north, after unfolding the leaves add lighting: arrange a fluorescent or phytolamp over the grapes.
- A month later, the cuttings are fed with Novofert or Azofos according to the instructions.
- Closer to the summer spend hardening, bringing future seedlings on the balcony. С середины мая их уже можно совсем поселить на балконе.
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It is worth saying that the first part of the works described (germination in water before cutting is formed) is not mandatory, many amateurs plant the cuttings in a container with a substrate and without roots, growing them already there. On the one hand, this option is simpler, on the other it is more difficult: it is necessary to monitor the humidity, light and temperature conditions more strictly. In addition, there are varieties of grapes badly giving roots, and for them such a number will not work.
Reproduction of grapes with green cuttings
Growing seedlings from green cuttings is possible for most shrub plants, it is also used for grapes. On the one hand, this is a simpler procedure: it is performed in the summer, and there is no need to start a house with banks, and to keep the cuttings in the cellar in the winter is also not required. On the other hand, it is possible to grow a sapling from a green cutting only if you have a good greenhouse, in which you will have to maintain a high and constant humidity for a long time. Therefore, such reproduction is more suitable for industrial nursery farms, where there is special equipment for creating artificial fog in a closed space. The action algorithm is as follows:
- Prepare a bed in a greenhouse. A layer of clean sand 4–6 cm thick is piled on top of well-fertilized soil.
- A fogging plant with a sprayer is placed above the bed for intermittent supply of fine water.
- In early summer, during flowering, in the morning hours, cuttings of young green shoots are cut. The best cuttings - with two nodes (they are still difficult to call the kidneys), from the central part of the shoot.
- Cuttings are placed in containers with water. If it is not possible to land immediately, keep in a cool place.
- Make straight sections with a sharp razor, respectively, above and below the nodes.
- The bottom sheet is cut off completely, the top - half. Soak the cuttings in water for some time.
The stalk should be with two internodes, but only one leaf.
Thus, the essence of this technique is that the planted cuttings are constantly in high humidity (about 80%, and in the heat - up to 100%) and air temperature from 20 to 30 o C. Then after a month and a half they good roots and shoots grow up to 30 cm long, after which the cuttings are hardened, and then transplanted into the shkolka. Obviously, on ordinary summer cottages, reproduction of grapes with green cuttings is extremely difficult, but enthusiasts are trying, and some succeed.
Grape reproduction by adding grapes
Many shrubs are propagated by layering, that is, dropping branches (shoots) in one way or another. This option is possible in the case of grapes, and with a successful outcome in one summer so you can get a few new grape plants. In this way, usually trying to propagate difficult rooting varieties. Since the future seedlings, in fact, feed from the roots of the mother bush, they develop well and form a powerful own root system.
Addition of lignified shoot
This is usually done in early spring, before the growing season. Choose conveniently located last year's powerful shoots. In the right place they dig a rather deep, up to half a meter, ditch extending from the bush to the place where they are going to prikopat vine. Naturally, directly at the bush, it should not be deep, so as not to damage the roots. In the ditch, at the very bottom, pour the soil well-fertilized with humus and superphosphate and lay an escape. It is necessary to bend it gently so as not to break it, and you can attach it to the bottom of the ditch with a piece of bent thick wire or simply press it down with a heavy stone.
It is not difficult to spread the vine, but you need to do it carefully so as not to break
Where there will be a new bush, the vine is gently bent, taken out and tied to a stake. Remove all eyes located from the mother bush down to the place of this bend. Many specialists at the very beginning of the shoot, near the mother bush, drag it with hard wire, so that in the coming year it would be easier to separate the new plant. The ditch is gradually covered with soil and well watered. As a rule, good roots grow in a prikopanny place in a year, and next spring a new plant is separated from the parent one.
Adding green shoots
In the summer, in June or July, you can prikopat strongly grown green shoots of this year. Do this in a similar way, bringing to the surface the top of the shoot with two or three leaves. If the shoot is very long, it can be prikopat "sine wave", bringing to the surface several times. All parts remaining underground should be attached to the bottom of the ditch with studs.
If in the summer to prevent the soil from drying out, for well-rooted varieties, by next spring one can even get some new bushes in this way.
Execution of "Chinese" layouts
Chinese call the layering performed by full laying lignified escape into the ground. This is done in the case of the most poorly rooted varieties. For laying in early spring, choose a long shoot, located at the very base of the bush. They are dropping it all the length into a ditch no more than 20 cm deep. Also in fertilized soil, also pinning it to the bottom of the ditch. But the ditch is not completely filled up: first, a layer of soil over the vine is made no more than 5 cm. And only as new shoots appear from the buds and their growth gradually the soil is added to the ditch. All the while keep prikop wet.
Usually new shoots grow from each prikopannoy buds, carefully dig up the vine in the fall and cut it into several new plants. However, in order to do this, you have to sacrifice a part of the crop and reduce the load on the mother bush. It is necessary to break out in the summer not only extra clusters, but also all stepchildren and some young shoots.
Grape propagation by grafting
Like most fruit trees, grapes can be grafted. Grafting is no more difficult than, for example, in the case of an apple tree, but not all varieties are compatible, and success in each particular case is not guaranteed. Therefore, it is advisable to study literature before the operation, look for what adult bushes can be planted in one or another variety. If you do not find such information, it remains only to experiment.
Grafting a grape is as common as grafting a fruit tree.
In the case of grapes, all known methods of grafting are used (in splitting, copulating, budding, etc.), but the number of variants is even greater. Inoculate both last year's cuttings and sliced from the shoots of the current year. As in shtamb or last year's escape, and in the escape of the current year. Therefore, the terminology used is appropriate: “black to black”, “black to green”, etc. There is even a desktop, winter vaccination.
For example, the “black to black” vaccination is performed in spring, when active vegetation has not yet begun. Privoem are cuttings, cut in the fall and kept in the cold. For such a vaccination, the buds on the cuttings should be slightly swollen. It is performed by copulation methods. Pick up cuttings that are suitable in thickness for sprouting the stock, soak, perform oblique cuts on the handle and stock, connect and firmly tie the vaccination site. When new shoots on the cuttings grow to 25-30 cm, they pinch.
In the case of grafting “black to green”, last year’s cuttings with waking up buds are grafted onto young, powerful green shoots of the current year. Such an inoculation is usually performed in a “split” manner. It is possible during the whole growing season, while it is possible to preserve lignified cuttings prepared in autumn in the cellar.
It is also possible to inoculate in the shtamb of the old bush, when in early spring they dig up the top layer of soil, inoculate the cuttings under the ground, usually with a “splinter” technique. Make it at a depth of about 15 cm. The shank is completely buried with earth.
Video: grape grafting in shtamb
Budding, that is, a kidney inoculation, is carried out on a green vine in June or July. Like on fruit trees, it is possible to implant a kidney into an escape behind the bark by making various cuts: T-shaped, longitudinal, into the slit, etc. The place of grafting is very well wrapped with film, and after a month the kidney is well taken root.
A detailed description of the methods of grafting grapes is beyond the scope of this article, but it is quite accessible. After reading and practicing a little, any gardener who has minimal skills in caring for trees and shrubs can plant grapes.
Grapes are liana, but, in fact, it is very similar to many fruit bushes, and its breeding methods are generally the same as, for example, currants. The goal - getting a new seedling - can be achieved by known methods: sprouting cuttings, layering, grafting. Perform all these operations in one way or another is available even to a beginner, and if at first scary, you just have to try.