Currant - one of the most unpretentious fruit plants for the middle band. It develops very quickly, fruits bring tasty and abundant.
However, after a few years of the sapling's life, fruiting can be reduced - if it has never been pruned. The fact is that the old branches of the plant, growing, begin to interfere with the formation of fruit-bearing shoots and take away the useful substances from them. In addition, with high thickening it is very difficult to notice the branches affected by pests or fungus — in the presence of diseases, the development of currants also slows down.
Annual pruning in the fall allows novice gardeners to:
- remove from the currant all the sick and dead branches,
- to cut off the old shoots, freeing up space and resources for the development of new ones,
- to form a beautiful and easy-to-care bush,
- facilitate the process of picking fruits from the blackcurrant bush;
- contribute to abundant fruiting and increase the size of the berries.
The life cycle of currants with good care and regular pruning in the fall is extended 5 - 6 times. For about 15 years, novice gardeners may not think about planting new fruit bushes.
The procedure is carried out in the autumn rather late - in late October or even early November, when the vegetative processes of currants almost stop. In cold weather, pruning currants injured less. In addition, it already completely resets the foliage, therefore, it is much easier to evaluate the condition of the branches and determine which of them should be removed.
Pruning in the fall makes it easier for currants to cope with the winter cold. In spring, the plant will not have to spend time on recuperation - the currant will immediately begin to actively produce new shoots.
Currant pruning scheme in the fall for beginners
The procedure looks quite simple. She also takes a little time. But for beginners it will be easier to break it into several stages - this will allow not to miss the important points. It is also useful to see what currant pruning looks like in the video for beginners in the autumn - this will help to understand the nuances.
- At the 1st stage, the most important part of the procedure is performed - sanitary pruning. In the course of it, all dry and dead branches on the currant are removed, all undisturbed shoots, which still die during the winter. Sick, twisted and densely intertwined branches also need to be removed so that they do not disrupt the growth of the entire bush.
- At the 2nd stage, the anti-aging pruning is carried out, that is, the branches older than 8 years are completely removed for the red currant and older than 5 years - for the black currant. At the same time, annual shoots are slightly shortened - by about a third.
- At the 3rd stage pruning for beginners is recommended to pay attention to the formation of the bush. Currants can grow very thickly - so much so that it will become difficult to harvest from it, and the shoots in the center of the bush almost cease to receive sunlight. Therefore, with excessive bush density, shoots thin out in the center, leaving only the youngest branches.
It is important to remember that even autumn pruning to a certain extent injures currants. In particular, at the 3rd stage, one should not thin out the bush too much, otherwise the plant may die.
To carry out the procedure, it is necessary to equip with garden shears, a knife and pruner - and use tools depending on the thickness of the branches. Cutting tools must be sharp - only neat cuts are harmless to the health of currants. Rough and uneven places of saw cuts can lead to the decay of shoots.
Crop for beginners is held annually, and for the first time it is carried out shortly after planting the seedling - before the onset of the first winter in its life. At the very first pruning, it is customary to remove all leaves and young shoots from the currant, leaving only the buds located low near the surface of the earth. In the next few years, the procedure is carried out slightly differently, because it has different goals.
One year after landing
In the second year of life, the currant seedling needs to be slightly shortened and pinched - this is what pruning is done for. As a rule, leave only strong, strong shoots in the amount of 3 - 4 pieces, and the rest of the growth is removed, as excessive. The tops of the left shoots can pinch.
Before starting pruning for beginners, it is necessary to assess the condition of the currant seedling. If a young bush is very weak, then it is better to cut the entire growth by 2 - 3 buds, if the plant develops moderately - only 1 - 2 young shoots can be left.
Pruning for beginners a year after planting helps to form the correct shape of the currant bush and has a positive effect on the speed of plant development.
2 years after landing
For the third year of life of the currant seedling, work continues on the formation of a bush. Trimming for beginners is as follows:
- last year's branches either do not touch, or slightly cut into 2 - 3 buds for more uniform crown formation.
- root shoots completely eliminated
- also remove all new shoots growing towards the main trunk and all interlocking branches.
Leave when pruning in the fall for beginners only need 2 - 3 of the strongest and most promising young shoots.
3 years after landing
As a rule, in the fourth year of life, the currant bush still continues to form, therefore the trimming procedure for beginners differs little from the previous year. The following activities are required:
- completely eliminate root shoots, to avoid the growth and thickening of the bush,
- remove low-quality young shoots growing inward direction, and leave only those that grow in the direction from the trunk,
- leave the shoots of past years, but with a weak growth to shorten them at the ends, so that these branches do not delay useful substances.
With proper pruning for beginners in the 4th year of life, currants should be a neat bush with a spherical crown, consisting of approximately 10 shoots of different years.
By the fifth year, the currant bush reaches its best period and bears the most abundant fruit. However, the oldest shoots begin to woody and gradually complete their life cycle. If left to them and not eliminated, they will begin to take away resources from the whole plant.
Therefore, in the fifth year of currant life and in all subsequent years, pruning in the fall for beginners is carried out mainly with anti-aging goals. Old and dry branches are systematically removed, freeing up opportunities for new growth. At the same time, beginners need to remember that cutting off all old wood in one year is impossible - this will be a great stress for currants. Pruning should be done in parts, year after year.
Together with the old branches be sure to remove the twisted and diseased shoots - as well as all the young shoots, or the so-called tops. Only strong, healthy, fruiting branches should remain.
As for the pruning pruning in the fall for beginners, the shoots from 2 to 4 years old are pruned to the 4th bud, and the young annuals to the 2nd.
What is different pruning red and black currants
Beginners should be aware that pruning for different types of currants is slightly different. This is due to the fact that the life cycles of currants with red and black fruits are not the same, and if they are pruned in the fall for beginners in the same way, it is possible to damage the plants.
- First of all, red currants bear fruit for several years longer than black ones - and it develops more slowly. Therefore, shoots that have reached 7 or 8 years old are considered old - only after this period does it have to be pruned in the fall for the healthy development of young branches. At 5 years of age, as when working with black currants, they should not be touched.
- Also, when caring for red currants, beginners should not shorten 2-3 summer shoots and pinch the top of last year's branches.
- Red currant forms young shoots in smaller quantities than black. Therefore, every year when pruning in the fall, it is recommended to leave part of them - new branches will contribute to the rejuvenation of the plant.
But the sanitary pruning in the fall for black and red currants is exactly the same. Every year, beginners are advised to completely remove all diseased, curved, inward or damaged branches of the plant. It is necessary to eliminate the growth that is parallel to the ground.
Care after trimming
After pruning in the fall, the currant leaves for wintering, and care for it is minimized. However, before the onset of cold weather, it is necessary to carry out several more procedures.
- It is recommended to fertilize currant bush immediately after pruning. For this, the ground around the roots is slightly loosened, supplements containing potassium or superphosphate are added, and fresh organic matter is laid out around the bushes. But in the autumn it is better not to feed the currants with nitrogen - it may untimely grow.
- To protect the plant from diseases and parasites, currants sprayed with special compounds - for example, karbofos, colloidal sulfur, Bordeaux liquid.
Before winter itself, beginners need to take care of hiding the roots of the plant. It is customary to mulch the ground around the currant with any heat-insulating material, such as sawdust or peat. The layer should be about 10 cm, then the earth will not freeze, and the roots of the plant will not be damaged.
Pruning currants in the fall for beginners is a mandatory procedure. There is nothing particularly difficult in it - you need to remember only a few basic rules. Proper pruning in the fall will help to significantly increase the yield of the plant and extend its life cycle.
The purpose of pruning black currant
A pruning may have several different purposes; different techniques provide different results, for example:
- give the bush the necessary shape,
- clean the shrub from damaged or dry branches,
- create conditions for normal nutrition of skeletal branches,
- rejuvenate the adult bush.
Rejuvenation make, if necessary, increase the productivity of the old bush without replacing it.
In addition, spend sanitary trimming - remove damaged branches, which contributes to the healing and yield of the shrub.
It is worth remembering: the bush is formed the first few years of growth. Proper pruning in these years will ensure further development and growth, which will inevitably affect the yield.
Mistakes made during pruning lead to different results, these can be:
- one-sided development of shrubs,
- low fruiting
- various diseases.
To carry out the procedure of trimming currants, use different seasons, even in winter they cut off the bushes if necessary. The time for cutting the currants does not depend on the gardener's whim or convenience, the vegetative development of the plant plays the role.
This is the time when the fruit shrub is still asleep, vegetative growth has not begun, there is no movement of the sap in the tissues, which is ideal for shrub trimming.
When choosing the time should pay attention to the ambient temperature. Pruning is recommended to be carried out only after establishing a positive temperature around the clock.. If the temperature is expected to fall to frosts in the coming days, the cropping behavior should be delayed.
For carrying out spring procedures at the gardener time is limited. The pruning period ends after buds begin to blossom..
If tightened with circumcision, then:
- there will be juice on slices, healing will be delayed,
- increases the likelihood of disease,
- delaying the mass of leaves is delayed,
- late onset of inflorescence formation.
In the spring, you can carry out any target pruning, than to increase the yield of the next season and increase the possibility of a good harvest next year.
Sanitary pruning is carried out in any climatic conditions, while not only broken branches are removed, but also cracked, frozen in winter, touched by diseases.
The northern areas use spring pruning to rejuvenate and form a bush, in the middle belt and to the south, it is better to do this in the fall.
Spring pruning has its advantages:
- the size of the berry and the amount of the harvest increase,
- simultaneous ripening of berries on all branches and tassels,
- decreases the likelihood of the spread of disease
- develop new shoots for the next season.
Pruning currant bushes in the spring, the gardener increases the crop this year and lays the foundation for the future
Spring inspection of shrubs does not always make it possible to accurately determine the state of all the shoots and branches. But after all the buds were bloomed, in early June, all the damaged and diseased branches are clearly visible.
In the summer, dried shoots are cut out and pinch green growths. The branches that were left without tops, will develop additional shoots from the sides. Black currant reacts interestingly to pinching: it begins to increase the number of flower buds, which is not observed in other types of currants.
Experienced gardeners practice summer thinning of bushes with the purpose of molding. This method is applied after harvesting in August.
- dried out
- older than five years
- deformed and underdeveloped,
- sick and weak.
Summer cleaning allows improve the lighting and ventilation of the bush, and after pinching, the growth of young shoots improves. The plant is gaining strength, becoming healthier and stronger.
Although it is worth doing summer processing consciously: a wet wound after pruning contributes to easy penetration of diseases, the early winter can catch a currant bush with underexposed wood, the new growth will probably not ripen and will suffer from frost in the winter.
Autumn pruning is carried out after the plant releases the bulk of the foliage. Preparing for hibernation, the plant slows down the movement of juice. It is worth paying attention to this: if a drop of juice appeared on the cut, then cut the bush early.
In any case, pruning must be completed. fifteen or twenty days before the cold. In two or three weeks the wounds will heal.
In the northern areas, autumn pruning is not recommended; early colds spoil the results. The edges of the branches are frozen, and they again have to be cut in the spring.
In other areas, autumn work is considered more convenient and practical. In the fall:
- a longer period of time for garden work,
- preparing the bush for the winter,
- nutrition of young shoots increases,
- stimulates the formation of young shoots in the spring,
- bush decontaminated in the spring,
- good conditions have been created for the harvest of the next season.
I delete the damaged branches, it is possible to form and rejuvenate a plant.
Winter pruning has one very important limitation: currant bush must be strong and healthy.
This pruning done on the gap from November to February. Weather conditions, frost or cold weather, provide safety from infection and pests.
The only thing that can prevent preventive pruning in the winter is snow. Currant itself in any season has nothing against cleaning the bush.
It is necessary to clean the bushes annually. Autumn works are considered the most convenient, and in the spring they carry out sanitary cleaning of the wintering effects.
Pruning seedlings before planting
In the one-year black currant bush usually 2-4 shoots. When planting, each branch must be cut off, leaving 2–3 buds on the shoot. If you be careful and leave the upper bud from the outside, then it will give the opportunity to form a wide bush.
The three-year bush forms from five to seven branches. Of these, leave three or five strong and strong branches. The remaining shoots cut the top of several buds. It promotes good branching.
In the fourth year of growth, the fruit shrub is considered fully formed. Further care of him - carrying out the annual supporting pruning, to preserve the shape.
When planting a one-year sapling of red or white currant pruned vershoks in all shoots, leaving three to four buds. So increase the growth of young shoots for the next season.
The second year of growth is accompanied by the removal of all unnecessary branches, choosing three or four equally developed and strong. It is advisable to leave the branches evenly distributed in different directions.
Further care of the bush is the control of uneven-aged branches, it is recommended to leave two or three branches each year, but not older than eight years.
Rejuvenation of old bushes
Rejuvenation of currant bushes is carried out, as a rule, in the autumn period. Black currants must be rejuvenated from the fifth year of life, and red and white after eight years of growth.
Regular rejuvenating procedures can prolong the active life of the plant, which will bring good yields all this time, to twenty years. The rejuvenating pruning of old branches stimulates the laying of new flower buds.
Gardeners use several ways to trim currant bushes:
The first way is on the ring. It is used when it is necessary to completely remove the old branches. Shoots cut at the very base. Крупные срезы рекомендуют обработать антисептиками, садовым варом или глиной.
На почку – это когда укорачивают побеги на несколько почек, таким образом, стимулируют будущее ветвление. Leaving the extreme bud inside or outside the sprout, you can control the density of the bush.
By reducing the density of the plant, we provide uniform access of light and oxygen.
When it is necessary to increase the yield or to stimulate the growth of new shoots, it is applied nip. Thus, the number of peduncles and young shoots increases.
A more complex way to rejuvenate white and red currants is to remove a damaged shoot after branching, with the translation to the second healthy branch. Old pruning bushes need such pruning.
Strongly neglected bushes are pruned gradually, stretching the necessary care for two to three years. Old bushes do not tolerate the loss of the main vegetative mass and can die. Large, unproductive branches are cut out gradually, one per year, for the same reason.
Michurinskaya - productive
This is a pruning method used on large black currant plantations for skipping bushes of berries grown for sale.
The first five years of growth, the bushes do not cut at all, but simply harvest. After the fifth year, half of the plantation is carved at the root and give good feeding. The next season leaves 20% of young shoots, delete the rest. Young growth will last another two or three years.
From next season, repeat the procedure with the remaining plantation.
The technology that allows to get a harvest from the black currant plantations is one third more than usual. Shrubs remain useful for about ten years.
When creating a trunk, it is necessary to choose a currant variety, in which there is a minimum growth of young shoots at the bottom of the bush.
Shtamb formation instructions:
- It is necessary to cut the side branches at a height of twenty to forty centimeters from the ground.
- At the central shoot, 2-3 apical buds are left.
- Young shoots of the first year of growth pinch, leaving the three lower buds.
- Crown small tree form summer pinch.
- In the second year of growth, parts of the branches longer than ten centimeters are cut off from the trunk.
- In the process of further growth, leave twenty centimeters of branches, the rest is removed.
- It is necessary to maintain the shtamb by regular cleaning.
This form of the bush allows it to bear fruit for up to fifteen years. Beautiful bush shapes adorn the garden or cage. In red currant, thanks to this, the berry brush is formed longer, which increases the yield.
The first stage - sanitary pruning
The very first thing they do - they clean the bush of excess. It can be dry and broken branches, sprouts, in which the wood has not ripened. And also remove the deformed branches, intertwined with neighboring shoots and growing in the center of the bush.
It should be removed and then burned, diseased and affected branches. Also cut off branches lying on the ground or grown far from the center of the bush.
The second stage - rejuvenation
Having finished to carry out sanitary cleaning, they begin to remove old branches. Conducting pruning, it should be remembered: the main crop bring two and three-year sprouts, and the mass of berries is formed by a bush in the central part of the branches.
Given these factors, experienced gardeners remove branches older than five years. If a well-shaped bush has more than eight shoots that are two years old, they are not thinned. Begin to remove branches older than three years. Reducing the number of barren branches stimulates the development of fruitful ones. Annual plants are shortened by one third of their length, it stimulates branching and an increase in flowering buds, which will inevitably affect the increase in yield.
Stage Three - Maintenance
For black currant, as well as for any other plant, it is important to air the bush and the amount of sunlight.
This is another reason why it is necessary to clean the fruit bushes. The bush should be rather thin and frequent, if necessary, clarification, gardeners remove even fruitful branches from the center.
With a sufficient number of fruitful branches, the young shoots of the last season can be cut out completely.
Adult bushes suffer pruning much worse. This is due to the regeneration process, in such bushes it passes much slower. To facilitate the recovery process, it is necessary to resort to top dressing.
Depending on the season of pruning, the bush needs different trace elements. After spring cleaning, currants need phosphorus and potassium in approximately the same proportions. The amount of nitrogen fertilizers in spring should be increased. Each gardener is able to prepare such feeding himself, having bought everything he needs in a specialized store.
In the autumn period, there is no need for a large amount of nitrogen fertilizer, at this time phosphorus and potassium are needed, these elements contribute to the ripening of wood.
An important role in the nutrition of currants plays organic fertilizer, or rotted manure. In the spring it needs to be embedded in the soil, so it will release a lot of nitrogen compounds. In the fall, manure can be mulched, gradually decomposing, it will feed the bush for a long time.
Properly chosen fertilizer contributes not only to improve the development and yield of currants, but also accelerates wound healing after pruning.
Remember: making an annual pruning currant, grower facilitates the growth conditions of the plant, helps him in development, improves the quality and quantity of the crop.
The use of pruning currant bushes
Regular cutting of currant bushes contributes to their abundant yield. Therefore, if you want plants to develop with full dedication, do not run them. Experts explain that with regular removal of the sick, frozen, too old, dried, fungal or harmful insect branches, the continuous process of formation of root shoots starts and, accordingly, the bush forks.
Only young shoots are prone to abundant fruiting, although occasionally berries may appear on old ones.
When to prune currants
The removal of all unnecessary branches in the berry is recommended to be carried out in the initial stages of the growing season. In early spring, before the buds begin to open, you need to carefully examine the bushes and cut off all unnecessary.
At the same time, it is important not to miss the deadlines, because blackcurrant begins to bloom early, and this process lasts a short time. You can not cut a blooming bush, it is fraught with its exhaustion and the vain loss of nutrient resources. If you do not have time to complete the trimming, do not forget to continue the work begun in the fall.
Set of garden tools for work
For cutting currant bushes, it is important to acquire the necessary equipment. For professionals, an elementary garden set consists of a pruner (conventional or bypass), a brush cutter, a delimber, a hacksaw, and a pair of scissors.
All tools must be sharp. Also, when choosing them, pay attention to the ends.
It is desirable that they were narrow and allowed to effortlessly make their way to the bases of the sprouts without injuring the neighboring ones. Also it is necessary to take into account the weight and safety of the inventory, the convenience of its handle. Experts strongly recommend starting pruning with disinfectant measures on the blades of the instruments involved. They are implemented using a weak solution of potassium permanganate or alcohol. The same procedure ends haircut in the berry.
Pruning currant bushes depending on age
Before undertaking a pruner, every gardener must understand that his main task is to develop a bush from 15 basic branches that are not more than 5 years old. All that is older, ruthlessly removed. Such sprouts only waste the nutritive resources from the root system.
Let us consider in more detail the main nuances of currant pruning in the spring at all stages of its development with visual schemes and photos.
Pruning seedlings when planting
The first shearing of the bushes is made immediately after planting and consists in the removal of all shoots. The cut accounts for just over 3 buds. And do not worry that the plant can be unwell after such a radical haircut. On the contrary, it will contribute to the correct formation of the crown. And by the next spring 5–6 young twigs will grow.
Pruning bushes second year
On biennial plants, zero shoots and some skeletal ones are subject to removal. This is a very important moment, because the further fruiting of the bush depends on it.
In order not to be mistaken, always leave at least 3, but not more than 5 central branches that do not compete with each other and form the skeleton of a plant. Choose healthy and powerful sprouts, as frail and lifeless will bring little use. They only hinder the full development of the bush.
Formative pruning bushes 3-4 years
In the 3rd and 4th year of life, currant bushes are pruned in the same way as biennial specimens. The main principle of the gardener is to eliminate all unnecessary sprouts that thicken the crown and compete with each other.
It is important to leave up to 6 central shoots. Do not allow the development of branches growing from the inside. They must be removed as they shade the fertile growth, interfering with their growing season.
The second rule of haircut says about shortening the upper zones of skeletal and last year's branches. Ensure that each branch has no more than 2 buds. If you do it right, by the 5th year of life the plant will form the correct spherical crown.
Pruning currants 5 and more years
Starting at 5 years of age, the plant forms aging, woody branches. Therefore, he needs a rejuvenating haircut, which is to remove dry, frozen, broken and non-viable, drooping and old branches.
Consider that all the old is eliminated along with the new shoots, called spinners. Do not regret cutting off the creeping shoots.
They, like the sick areas, interfere with good ventilation, lighting and circulation of juice. Harvest from them is also not worth it. The trimming scheme on the 5th and subsequent years of currants is the same as in 4-year-old bushes. Here are just branches, which are from 2 to 4 years old, need to be shortened to the 4th kidney, and last year’s - to the 2nd kidney. It is also important to remove new shoots, leaving only the skeletal.
Features trimming running bushes
If you have a currant berry, but you have never done anything like it before, in order to improve the fruiting of the bushes, it is recommended to start forming pruning with thinning the crown. First of all, on old bushes, remove broken, wilted and poorly developed branches. Also, all cropless and inward-facing sprouts are subject to removal.
Then inspect the plant, select from among all its annual shoots 3 of the most powerful, and cut off the rest.
Further haircut on running plants depends on their yield. In cases when the bush sits for a long time without increments or only slightly increases them, it will be necessary to eliminate several old skeletal branches, as well as shortening the apical zones of the remaining shoots.
Why prune currants?
Any gardener knows perfectly well how important it is to get a fruitful shrub full of berries grown by our own efforts. One enthusiasm in this process is not enough, so you should arm yourself with concrete knowledge to get a noticeable result.
Pruning a currant in some way resembles a coniferous forest - the farther away the trees are from each other, the more luxurious, more beautiful and massive they are.
The freer the black or red currant feels, the more likely it is that its yield will increase with proper care.
If the correctly cut material is not disposed of, then new currant bushes can be grown from it, which is reasonable and truly justified if the site is sufficiently large. Because of this, the question becomes more relevant - when to cut currants and how to properly observe all the technology of work.
When and how best to cut currant bushes?
To determine the time of work, it is necessary to initially understand what purpose you are using such measures. This aspect plays the most important role, because the autumn pruning is focused primarily on increasing the yield of the bush.
Here it is important to preserve the golden mean - branches of different ages should be cut, but the main concept of the formation of a bush should not suffer from this.
The same applies to the molding trim - it is also better to do it in the fall, after a period of fruiting. This allows you to make the bush not only rich in berries, but also aesthetically attractive, which for many gardeners is considered even more priority than the number of berries collected.
If we are talking about eliminating dead branches, then removing them is best in the spring. It was during this period, when the active movement of the juices had not yet begun, that dry and twisted shoots, which certainly would not bear fruit, are best seen.
The correct scheme of trimming currants in this case is quite simple - it is necessary to remove all the clumsy shoots or growing from under the ground near the main bush. This will add to his strength and significantly increase the yield.
If you want to get more flowering bushes, you can also perform summer pruning, which improves the branching of the bush and increases the yield. There are more extreme ways to grow currants (the same method of the Institute of Michurin), but not all gardeners like it because of excessive alternativeness and radical cutting of bushes at different stages of cultivation.
Winter pruning is also used in some cases. If you have the opportunity to get to the site at this time of year, it is advisable to cut the currant bush from the end of November to mid-February.
It will positively affect the plant:
- Currants will not be infected with diseases and pests.
- Resistance to negative factors will increase.
- After winter, the currant will actively move in growth and give a good harvest.
However, it should be borne in mind that the removal of branches in the winter is used only for healthy and strong plants, while the cuts are carried out on the frozen shoots. If you form a weak shrub affected by the disease, it is less likely to survive the cold after the resulting stress.
Its main goal is to remove dry, frozen over the winter and other types of defective shoots that will not give the crop.
Excessively thick bushes are also thinned out, so that stronger plants get more nutrients from the earth and sunlight.
It is recommended to use only sharp tools for work, in no case can you break the branches with your hands or leave hemp after removing the shoots, as there is a high risk of a rotting bush.
In addition to trimming dry and broken parts of the currant bush, you also need:
- Remove all branches with untreated wood (they will be damaged by low temperature with the onset of frost).
- Crop shoots that grow far from the center of the bush or lying on the ground.
- Remove the branches that shade the center of the currant (growing to the middle) or intertwined.
- Shoots infected with pests or fungal diseases are pruned and then burned to prevent the spread of diseases to healthy bushes.
It allows you to create a specific concept of the bush, in which shoots of different ages will bear fruit equally effectively, and the appearance of the plant will be as attractive as possible.
Thus, all unnecessary branches are removed, the shoots that have thickened the shrub over the summer, especially on young currants, which allows to achieve:
- Proper development of shrubs.
- Even with the onset of old age currant will bear fruit.
- The structure of the bush will contribute to the same light on all branches and airing.
- The plant will look aesthetically pleasing.
Anti-aging pruning currant bushes
Its main purpose is to remove outdated shoots that pull on themselves juices and at the same time do not bear fruit due to a more “respectable” age. They should be cut in a timely manner, because it can significantly affect the overall level of yield.
The trimming scheme is different for black, white and red currants:
- The bulk of the black currant berries is formed on the shoots, whose age is 3 years, so all branches older than 5 years are subject to removal. To stimulate the growth of one-year branches, they are cut to 1/3 of the length, while if the bush has many shoots at the age of 2 years (more than 8), three-year-olds are also subject to full pruning.
- The fruiting period of red and white currants is longer - the branches of five and eight years old yield the greatest harvest. Thus, all shoots that grow more than 8 years are pruned, and on the optimally formed bush, it is necessary to leave no more than 12 branches.
This is a simple removal of the tops of the shoots, which in many respects is similar to the shaping pruning, but at the same time acts by analogy with anti-aging and even sanitary.
It is used only for black currants, since white and red berries are formed on the upper branches - the pinching procedure can significantly reduce the future harvest.
Pinching is performed as follows:
- 1-2 buds are removed from the branches (from the skeletal and root shoots), while the length of the trimmed part is about 2-5 centimeters.
- Удаляется верхушка, состоящая с листов и стебля.
- Для работ рекомендуется использовать острый секатор или ножницы.
All these methods of improving yields are effective only in cases where they are used without fanaticism, because excessive illiterate pruning can cause fungal and other diseases that can completely destroy the blackcurrant bush.
If one's own knowledge and confidence in the actions performed is not enough, then it is better to entrust such scrupulous work to the specialists - it is not that expensive, but the result will be pleasantly surprised in the end.
Starting pruning, should be aware of the purpose of this procedure. Technique pruning, depending on the task will vary.
Pruning currants carried out to:
- to form the correct shape of the bush,
- clean the shrub from damaged and diseased branches,
- to power each branch create the best conditions
- rejuvenate the old bush.
Sanitary pruning - removal of branches damaged by infections and pests will help to improve the currants and increase yields.
Anti-Aging Trimming Procedure allows you to save an adult plant, increase its productivity.
Mistakes made with any type of pruning can lead to diseases of a different nature, one-sided development of the bush and poor fruiting.
Currant pruning is carried out to form the correct shape of the bush, clean the damaged and diseased branches, rejuvenate the old bush
During a year allocate several periods for trimming currants. The procedure can be performed in spring, summer, autumn and even in winter.
The timing of trimming should be based. not on the convenience of the gardener, but on the period of vegetative development of the plant.
Is it necessary to trim in the spring?
In early spring, fruit bushes are at rest. Vegetation has not yet begun, there is no active sap flow in the tissues. This is the best time to trim a bush in spring.
The gardener has little time for the procedure in the spring. As soon as the buds begin to bloom en masse - the period of spring pruning is over.
If you do not follow this rule:
- slices will liberally secrete juice, which will not allow wounds to drag on quickly,
- the risk of infection with fungal and bacterial infections increases,
- the bush will be sick for a long time, instead of increasing the leaf mass and forming fruit inflorescences.
In the spring, any type of pruning can be done. Opportunities limit different climatic zones.
Spring pruning of currants allows you to increase the yield of the current season and lay the foundation for next year
Sanitary pruning should be carried out in any type of climate. All broken and cracked branches are cut off. Partially removed shoots that are damaged by frost, sun, disease.
Shaping and rejuvenating trim held in this period only in the northern regions. In all others - these procedures are better to postpone to autumn.
Advantages of spring pruning:
- the strength of the plant is directed to more promising branches, the amount of harvest increases, the size of the berries increases,
- lighting is evenly distributed over the vegetative mass, the ripening of the berries in the hands takes place almost simultaneously,
- diseases of the bush are prevented,
- growth of shoots is stimulated, which will bear fruit next year.
Spring pruning allows you to increase the yield of the current season and lay the foundation for the next year.
How to prune berry bushes in spring:
Is it possible to prune branches in summer?
At the very beginning of summer, especially if the spring was long and cold, you can re-sanitary pruning currant bushes. At this time, all the damaged branches are clearly visible.
In the spring, when sleeping buds, it is not always possible to determine which escape survived the winter well and which did not.
In the summer you need to cut dried shoots, as well as do nip green increments. On the branches that were left without tops, side shoots will begin to develop.
Some gardeners in the summer spend thinning and molding currants. Such pruning is applied as soon as all the berries are picked in August.
Cutting the bush after harvest:
- removing branches older than five years
- pruning of deformed, underdeveloped shoots,
- destruction of sick and weak branches.
These actions do not have a unique assessment.. On the one hand, the illumination and ventilation of fruit branches are improved.
There is a place for the free development of annual shoots. Young growth in a timely manner protected from infections and pests.
On the other - increases the load on the bush. Pruning stimulates the formation of young shoots., at the same time, when the currant spends all the forces on the aging of wood and preparing for winter.
Juice movement during this period is still active, wounds can stay wet for a long time. This is a gateway for infections of a different nature.
The shoots that will only begin to grow during this period will hardly have time to mature before the onset of cold weather. Damage in winter is inevitable.
Cutting in the fall - what is needed?
In the fall to pruning after the currant will shed the bulk of the leaves. The plant is preparing for winter, the movement of juices slows down. The selection of drops of juice on the cut suggests that autumn pruning start early.
In areas with a harsh climate, it is recommended to prune shrubs in spring. Autumn frosts can spoil the results of work: the tips of the branches will freeze, in the spring they will have to be removed.
Advantages of autumn pruning:
- longer production period
- preparing the plant for winter,
- help young shoots in nutrition and active development,
- the incentive to form a large number of replacement shoots next spring,
- bushes get rid of diseases and pests
- conditions are created for good fruiting next year.
In the autumn in the central regions carrying out the forming, rejuvenating scrap. At the same time, branches damaged by summer work with bushes are cut off.
Pruning of black currant bushes in autumn:
Some gardeners do winter pruning from November to mid February. This is possible under the condition of year-round access to the site. Sections are carried out on frozen branches.
It is impossible to say for sure when it is better to cut currants, in spring or autumn. Unlike the gooseberry, which buds start to bloom early, and complicate the spring pruning, the currant later enters the growing season.
If it is impossible to get to the site while it is snowing, all pruning work with gooseberries has to be done in the fall. Currants gives you the opportunity to find time for pruning in each season.
Currant pruning should be done annually.. The main work is convenient to do in the fall. In the spring it will be necessary to carry out sanitary pruning, which will correct the consequences of hibernating the winter.
Currant pruning should be carried out annually, always in autumn and spring.
The one-year currant bush has 2–4 ramifications. When planting each branch should be cut strongly: two – three buds are left on the shoot. It is desirable to cut branches on the outer bud, then next year a wide bush will be formed.
By the fourth year of life fruit shrub will be fully formed. In the future, to maintain the form he will need only supporting pruning.
Red and white
In the first year of life in white and red currants, three to four buds are left on each shoot. This allows you to increase the number of increments in the next season.
In the second year 3-4 strong branches are left, the rest are removed. You should pay attention to the uniform distribution of branches relative to each other.
In the future, carry out pruning in such a way so that two – three branches of each age are left on the bush. Pruning seedlings before planting should be carried out in accordance with the age of the plant.
Red and white currants are cut a little differently than black: this is due to differences in the formation of bushes
When to do rejuvenation of old shrubs
Anti-Aging Treatments Required black currant, starting from the fifth year of growth, and red and white - from the eighth. Work better in the fall.
There are four ways currant trimming: on the ring, on the kidney, with translation and nip.
Ring trimming used with complete removal of branches. In the procedure of rejuvenation in this way old, thick branches are cut. The escape is cut off at the base. Large wounds from such a cut should be treated with antimicrobials and covered with garden pitch.
Pruning on kidney allows not only shorten shoots, but also to control the development of branching. The method is used for partial pruning of the branches. By trimming the kidney, facing the center of the bush, you can stimulate its density.
The cut made on the outer bud, on the contrary, will form shoots from the center. The second option improves the access of light to each kidney and provides currant airing.
Anti-aging treatments are necessary for black currants, starting from the fifth year of growth, and red and white - from the eighth
Pinch stimulate the growth of new shoots, regulate the amount of the crop.
One of the main methods of anti-aging treatments for red and white species - currant pruning with translation to strong branching. This is necessary on the old, but still fruitful branches. Also, the method is used if part of the branch is damaged.
They find a strong side layer, with good potential for fruiting. The entire branch after branching is removed. This method can be used for partial rejuvenation of the bush.
If the shrub is very running, rejuvenating pruning at a time should not be. Loss of a large percentage of the vegetative mass of the old bush can not survive.
Large unproductive branches should be cut in stages at intervals of one year.
Pruning old and neglected currant bush:
Michurinskaya - for a good harvest
Some gardeners adhere to the principles of trimming “according to Michurin”, especially when growing berries for sale. This method is used on large plantations of skoroplodny varieties of black currant.
- all bushes grow and bear fruit without pruning for the first five years,
- half of the bushes in the planting at the age of 5 - 6 years cut down at the root and feed well,
- after a year about 20 are left from the grown shoots, the rest are removed,
- a year later, the process is repeated with the remaining 50% bushes,
- after mowing the bushes uprooted completely in two or three years, their place is taken by young plants.
This is a technology of intensive cultivation, allowing get a third more crop.
The principle of pruning currants "Michurin" is used on large areas for skoroplodnyh varieties
What is the autumn pruning currant?
Unpretentious at first glance, the currant bush begins to develop intensively after the landing of the young shoots, delighting the gardener with its growth and gathering power. After several seasons, a decrease in yield begins to be observed, since The bush of the plant becomes shapeless and bulky. In this regard, the pruning of currants in the fall is a necessity, because the old dried branches become an obstacle to the formation of crown and new fruit-bearing shoots. Planned pruning will extend the life cycle of the bush 4-6 times. It is necessary in order to:
- remove pest or fungus branches,
- increase the number and size of berries,
- optimize the feeding process so that weak or old shoots do not attract valuable substances to themselves,
- form a bush.
Some experienced gardeners use not only autumn, but also summer pruning. They, as a rule, motivate their actions with the following advantages:
- Excess sunlight has a positive effect on the process of photosynthesis of young shoots.
- The risks of plant damage by various fungal infections are reduced almost to zero.
- The intensity of growth of the internal branches of the currant is equal to the indices of the lateral processes, due to which a truly beautiful form is formed.
Standard forms: how to shape currants in fashion?
Hobby garden design reflected on the fruit bushes. Currant is no exception: its standard forms come into fashion.
Not all varieties of currants are suitable for creating a trunk. The main criterion in the selection of varieties - the minimum formation of shoots from the bottom of the bush.
Shtamba formation technology step by step:
- Immediately after landing, a stem is formed, side branches are cut at a height of 20-40 cm from the ground,
- two to three apical buds are left on the central shoot,
- in the process of development of the crown, a small tree is formed by summer nip,
- in the first year, shoots pinch, leaving two – three lower buds,
- in the second year, you need to cut that part of each branch that is longer than 10 cm,
- in the future annually cut the branches at a distance of 20 cm from the stem,
- shtamb regularly cleaned.
Stage One: Sanitary
Before cutting any currant, you need to clean the bush:
- get rid of all broken and dry branches,
- they cut out shoots whose wood did not have time to mature: if such shoots are not removed, in winter they will be damaged by frost,
- cut off all the deformed shoots
- remove the branches that are intertwined or grow to the center of the bush,
- destroy diseased branches: shoots affected by infection or pests should be burned,
- if a branch has grown far from the center or lies on the ground, it must also be removed.
When cleaning is completed, go to remove the old branches of black currant. When pruning should be remembered that shoots are the biggest crop at the age of two and three years, the bulk of the berries is formed on the central buds.
Based on this:
- on the black currant should cut branches over 5 years old,
- if the bush is well formed and has more than 8 biennial shoots, you can prune branches older than three years,
- third shoots are cut from one-year shoots.
Removing old low-yielding branches contributes to the better development of fruitful ones. Partial pruning promotes branching and an increase in flowering buds next season.
Red and white
Red and white currants have a longer fruiting period. At the age of five to eight years, the yield of branches is high. Flower buds are massively formed on the tops of these types of currants.
Based on this:
- you need to cut at the ground level all branches older than 8 years,
- on a well-formed bush leave no more than 12 shoots,
- the tops are removed only if there is damage.
How to care after
Pruning for currants is stressful for the plant. Especially for adult bushes, in which the regeneration process is weaker. After pruning currant needs feeding.
After spring pruning the shrub should be fertilized. comprehensively. Mineral supplements should contain trace elements of phosphorus, potassium, in equal quantities.
The proportion of nitrogen in the spring feeding increased. Experienced gardeners prepare fertilizers themselves using superphosphate, potassium chloride, ammophoska, urea.
After spring pruning, currants should be fertilized using superphosphate, potassium chloride, ammophoska, urea
In the fall a lot of nitrogen does not need currants, for better aging of wood requires more phosphorus and potassium.
In addition to minerals, currant needs organic. Black currant reacts especially well to bio-fertilizers. When using manure it is necessary that it be rotted.
Organics will productively serve fruit bushes, if it is not just put in the root zone, but embedded in the soil. Cover the ground. When decomposing manure and humus emit a lot of nitrogen, so they should be made in the spring.
Properly chosen fertilizer contributes to the rapid healing of wounds from pruning.
Correct pruning - This is an understanding of the nature of the plant and help in its development. A thorough approach to pruning is a guarantee of a healthy, high-quality and big harvest.
Which branches should be removed
Pruning in autumn is performed before the onset of the first frost. At this time there is no snow yet. The best time to solve this problem is the end of October and the beginning of November. Plants in this period of the year are the least sick and tolerate all sorts of interventions. In this case, remember that the shoots of zero order are processes that grew out of the ground itself - they are called so during the first year of life. They grow branches of the first, second order, etc. In the autumn, you must delete:
- weak and thin twigs,
- non-bearing branches,
- contaminated and affected by pests,
- shrunken branches,
- young shoots, shading the plant.
To get rid of unnecessary processes, especially those that are affected by pests, you will need a set of necessary sharp tools. To give way to healthy branches and form a healthy shrub that will bear fruit well, you will need:
- Secateurs. Used for branches of various ages and sizes. Single or double sided pruners can be used.
- Hacksaws Thicker branches perfectly cut, but their teeth should be relatively small.
- Brush cutters. Used for cutting patients and thin twigs. In addition, they are used to give the shrub the desired shape.
- Gardening scissors. With their help, you can cut the branches as smoothly as possible.
- Loppers Equipped with long handles, thanks to which pruning can be done in hard to reach places.
Инструкции для начинающих
Вне зависимости от сорта обрезка смородины на зиму должна производиться каждый год. Autumn procedure is good because it has a number of advantages. During this period, the plant does not react so painfully to the pruning procedure, since there is no sap flow, i.e. the plant does not produce juice. Additionally, the procedure acts as a sanitizing treatment for insects and diseases. Scheme of the autumn procedure:
- It is necessary to remove from the base all those branches that are already more than 5 years old.
- Cut off young twigs that are not yet one year old.
- Remove shoots for grafting - they tend to root well before winter.
- Remove all transverse and lateral branches, otherwise sunlight will not reach the main shoots.
- In the main branches of the top cut is not worth it. You can remove them only if they were hit by ticks, aphids, anthracnose.
Armed with sharp shears and other tools, cut the tops of each process before planting. At the same time on each branch, leave about 2-3 buds. After the first season, the currant bush will acquire an average of five new branches. Consider that it is necessary to plant currant approximately in 3 weeks before frost comes. From this point on, pay due attention to the care of the plant, which will have a positive effect on its formation.
Each stage of caring for a currant bush requires a thorough approach. If you are looking for unusual ways to trim it, then pay attention to the Michurin way. It is often recommended for beginners. Thanks to him, you can ensure a good harvest on large plantations. The scheme of this method is relatively simple:
- After the currant seedlings are planted, they should not be pruned for 5 years.
- After 5 years it is necessary to cut about half of the bush under the root - in the future they should be carefully fed.
- After a year from the grown sprouts need to leave about 20, the rest will have to be removed.
- A year later, similar actions should be carried out with the second half of currant bushes.
- After the uprooting of old plants, the land should be planted with new ones.
When pruning bushes, as a rule, cut the damaged and diseased branches, unnecessary shoots. Currant bushes grown without due attention in the new season will produce very small berries. It also happens that a still not very old plant suddenly begins to bear fruit an order of magnitude smaller than normal. In such a situation, it is advisable to use the radical method of pruning. Its essence lies in the fact that the owner of the site needs to remove all pagons from the plant, not reaching the base of 3 cm. Then the root system needs to be richly enriched with fertilizers, and the stump should be covered with soil.
Pruning in the fall
Due to the correct and competent removal of the branches, the crown of the bush is formed healthy and well fruiting. To do the job correctly, you need to follow a certain sequence. To begin, you will need sanitary pruning, then rejuvenation of the bush and its further maintenance. General scheme:
- During landing, remove all the tops, leaving about 3-4 buds. At the end of the year in their place will be more than 5 shoots.
- In the second year of the plant’s life, all young plants should be removed, leaving no more than 6 strong branches. Do not leave eating or affected processes of various diseases.
- In the third and fourth years of life, remove the young shoots again and those that were affected by insects and infections. Leave no more than 5-6 strong shoots, the main thing is the presence of 3-4 buds on the shoots.
- In the fifth and sixth years of life, cut off all the old shoots. Such a rejuvenating procedure will help increase the fertility of the currant bush.
Such a process is relatively simple. First you need to clean the currant bush from dry leaves and branches, and then remove all those shoots that did not have time to ripen - if this is not done, they will still freeze in the winter. Be sure to get rid of the intertwining branches that grow from the center and lie on the surface of the earth. Do not forget to remove the deformed and affected processes.
To rejuvenate the currant bush in order to increase its fruiting, first cut off all branches older than 5 years, if it is black and over 8 years old - if it is red and white. Find annual shoots and be sure to shorten them by about a third. In addition, on an already well-formed currant bush can cut off three-year shoots (pagon). This process of rejuvenation of the plant is completed.
This stage is no less important than the previous two. It is performed in most cases with excessive plant density. To do this, remove the central branches to lighten the bush. If the number of fruit-bearing pagons is sufficient, then you can remove all those processes that have grown this season. A heavily started bush that has not previously undergone treatment should not be heavily thinned. Otherwise, he may not cope with the loss of a large number of shoots.
How to cut currants in autumn: red and white
Black, red and white currants, though they are close relatives, but the bush with red and white berries requires a somewhat different journey. Pruning red currants in autumn requires less strength, but at the same time it has a less restrained growth. In this regard, excessive pruning in this case is not worth it. Otherwise, the yield of the plant will decrease significantly or the fruits will be absent for some time. In addition, keep in mind that fruit buds are laid on the tops of growths. The technology of cutting red and white currant:
- Before planting, prune the shrub like blackcurrant pruning.
- In autumn, leave the plant with the 3-4 strongest sprout of the zero order. If the bush grows poorly (weak branching is observed), then shorten the root part (growth) by a third of the length.
- Each branch of red currant is able to bear fruit up to 8-10 years, so the twigs of the plant must have a different age. The optimal number of shoots - about 15-20 pieces.
In addition, it should not be cut in red and white currant strong shoots. If the branches grow much, then shorten them by about half. When pruning red and white currants, which can bear fruit for about 15-20 years, do not neglect the following recommendations:
- when planting, cut off the first time shoots
- young branches pruning is not recommended,
- cut off the twigs that have a dark color, because they will not bear fruit as before
- branches older than 7 years must be removed
- remove all transverse processes,
- use a garden pitch for smearing cuts,
- make sure that the plant is not too thick.
Peculiarities of care
If we talk about the features of pruning red and white currants, then the most appropriate time for carrying out this procedure is considered to be early spring or summer, i.e. after the end of fruiting. Regarding the formation of the bush, the rules remain the same, i.e. the same as for black currant, but you should not pinch the tops of last year's sprouts. In addition, the shortening of twigs of 2-3 years of age will not be required. Excess young shoots, old and affected by pests, are subject to treatment. After the procedure, about 6-8 skeletal branches should remain.
How to tidy up an old and neglected bush
Without carrying out timely trimming of currant bushes they will cease to bear fruit, and the branches will grow and grow old. Bring running and old plant in a normal state at a time does not work. Waiting for the harvest to be suffered for about 3 years. Throughout this time, you will need to pruning (best in the fall). Useful recommendations:
- About what shoots are sick or too old, you will be told by the root part of the plant - with it and start pruning. Remove all branches affected by fungus and glass-case, eaten by harmful insects.
- Cut off the old and thick twigs of currant bush at ground level, i.e. near the ground itself. Leave as a result a stump of 3 centimeters, otherwise there will be a tops-branches that will begin to grow inside the plant.
- As a result, you should have no more than 20 young branches at the age of 2-3.5 years. Every year shorten them, leaving about 3-4 buds.
Increase the ability of the bush to form new shoots
To increase the plant's ability to form new shoots, you will need to trim the tops. Shorten each branch with a pair of garden shears by about half its length or a third. The cut should be 2-3 mm above the kidney. The peculiarity of this process is that it will be necessary to choose a bud that is directed outward of the currant bush, and not inside it. Such a relatively simple procedure will stimulate the growth of new branches, which will positively affect the yield of currants.
How and when to cut currants of different varieties
Sometimes each specific variety requires an individual approach, since general rules of care are not always optimal. In general, when caring for currants, it is very important not to overdo it with the removal of pagons. Improper processing is not only not bring results, but also capable of destroying the plant. It is especially important to cut off the old shoots that are already 6-7 years old. It is necessary to remove them due to the fact that they will no longer bear fruit. Possessing low productivity, these shoots take all the nutrients from the young shoots.
Fruiting in Altai varieties occurs, as a rule, in the middle and upper parts of the shoots. In this regard, if you cut them, then the total yield can fall dramatically. Experienced gardeners recommend cutting only old branches that are well ugly. As for the remaining healthy branches, they should not be shortened. Do not forget to remove all those processes that were susceptible to harmful insects and various diseases.
Bushes with active shoot formation
If we talk about the plant, related to varieties with active fruiting, then zero shoots are formed in large numbers almost every year. They grow, as a rule, from the radical part of the plant. Branches of these shoots are relatively weak, so many gardeners simply cut them. If the young shoot reaches a length of 30 cm, then it can be shortened by cutting off all weak buds.
With passive shoot-formation
As for the varieties with passive shoot formation, their young shoots do not grow very well. Cultivate plants of such varieties slowly. If you decide to prune, then note that in this case, the young branches are not cut off or cut off a little. Removing branches 6 years of age or cutting the tops, you will give young shoots the opportunity to get more nutrients. This approach will help in the future to get a good collection of currants from passive spawn formation.