Pepper in my family is used not only in cooking, but also for conservation. On this occasion, I plant a lot of peppers in my country house. My harvest directly depends on how well the planting has gone.
Subsequent care does not take much time and effort, but you need to prepare for landing. In this article I will tell you more about the possible schemes and the process of planting pepper on your site.
Bulgarian pepper and bitter gardeners of our country prefer to plant using seedlings, as this method has several advantages. Despite its simplicity, as it seems at the beginning, the process of growing peppers from seedlings has its own nuances. You need to know all the rules of such a planting, because it is from her that the end result and the harvest as a whole will be veiled.
Pepper is a very thermophilic culture, so its landing in the soil in our country should be done when the soil warms up to 15 degrees Celsius and the likelihood of frost returning will pass. In different latitudes of our country such conditions come at different times. Planting dates usually vary from late spring to near mid-summer.
Seedlings can be transplanted into the open ground when its age reaches 60 days. Perederzhivat young plants can not, in this case, they begin to produce flowers and outgrow. Transplantation will provide the plant with stress, in which it will drop all the flowers that could eventually become fruits.
In such a situation, you will lose some of the crop, but this can not be allowed. If such a situation occurs at the time of planting, then it is better to cut off the existing buds on your own. This method stimulates the growth of foliage, which will have a positive effect on the development of inflorescences and subsequent fruiting.
Choose a piece of land for planting pepper responsible work. Culture responds positively to a large amount of light and heat.
The harvest will depend on how much sunlight the plant received during its growth. Therefore, only the most open and lighted area will fit under the planting of pepper. It is not necessary to plant a crop near trees and buildings.
Pepper does not tolerate cold, so winds and even drafts are not allowed for it. Pepper beds better to break nearby buildings or fences that will save him from drafts. The soil on the site should be particularly nutritious, light and loose.
Air and water should penetrate the ground well. Peppers prefer neutral or weak acidity of the soil.
Do not forget what cultures grew in the selected area earlier. Allow to plant peppers after pumpkin, garlic, onions or cabbage.
But planting after tomatoes or eggplant is unacceptable. Such plants are subject to the same diseases and suck out all nutrients from the soil, like peppers. Growing peppers on the same plot is only allowed for 1 year, re-planting is possible only after 3 years.
If you plan to grow not only sweet peppers, but also bitter varieties, it is better to divide the beds of these plants, as far as possible from each other. This is done so that the flowers of plants do not pollinate each other and do not mix varieties.
The soil for pepper is prepared from autumn or early spring, a few weeks before planting. Dig the area and remove the roots of excess plants, select weeds. During digging add mineral and organic fertilizer to the soil.
Pepper is ideal loam and sandy loam. If your site has a completely different soil, then you need to bring it to mind, namely:
- In the fall, organic and mineral fertilizers can be added to the soil, add peat additionally,
- If the soil is too clogged with clay, it can be diluted with sawdust, sand or peat,
- During digging in the autumn period, if the acidity of the soil is greater than it should be, a lime mortar is added to it.
The distance between the peppers is selected due to the variety you have chosen. Usually on the package of seeds indicated the necessary distance at which the seeds are planted.
But there is a standard scheme that can be trusted. Between plants you need to keep a space of 40 cm, but between rows you need 60 cm of space. This scheme is suitable for standard and large-fruited varieties.
Low-growing varieties fit a slightly different scheme. The distance between the plants is enough to 30 cm, and leave between the rows 40 cm. Not only stunted, but medium varieties will grow well with such planting. This option has its advantages, thickened planting will not allow the sun to leave burns on the foliage of young plants.
More details about landing:
Transplanting seedlings on the permanent beds is carried out in the early morning or evening. A few hours before transplanting seedlings watered abundantly. These seedlings will easily transfer transplant, and it will be easier for you to carry out work to care for them. Wet soil better keeps the roots, and the plant is easier to get out of the soil.
On the garden bed, mark and dig the holes according to the scheme you chose. After that, moisten the soil well. Place the plant in the well and distribute the roots. Fill the empty space with earth and compact it. After this, light irrigation of your plantings is required.
If possible, the landing can be zamulchirovat. Seedlings of normal size are left in this state, but the overgrown one needs to be tied to supports.
When are peppers planted in open ground? Approximate dates
Even if pepper seedlings outgrow, do not rush her to plant in open ground. This is a heat-loving culture, so it can only be disembarked when the threat of frost is over, and the temperature of the air at night will not fall below 13-15 degrees.
Age of seedlings ready to move to open ground, 60-65 days. Usually the first bud appears on every bush.
All buds formed before transplanting are recommended to be removed. This usually happens in overgrown, older than 65 days, seedlings.
Such a procedure is necessary to stimulate new flowering and the formation of fruits. The fact is that the peculiarity of this culture is wavy fruit bearing. By tying the first fruits, the plant stops flowering until they grow to marketable sizes.
Only after that new flowers begin to appear. If you do not remove the first buds, the development of fruit formation will slow down..
Removing the first few buds will result in abundant leaf formation, which is favorable for pepper. Unlike tomatoes, a large number of leaves only benefit him, as this increases the yield.
Site selection and preparation
When choosing a landing site, please note that heat-loving and very demanding to light culture. If he does not get enough sunlight the maximum time during the day, you will not wait for a good harvest. Therefore, any areas that fall in the shade of buildings or trees during the day should be immediately excluded.
The best predecessors of pepper are cucumber, cabbage, carrots, onions, zucchini. You can not plant it in those areas where tomatoes, eggplants or potatoes grew in the previous season. In no case can he be put on the same place for two years in a row.
This is due to the fact that during the development of each culture consumes certain minerals, pulling them out of the soil.
And planting the same culture in one place will lead to the fact that each subsequent generation will receive less of the elements for nutrition, which means it will be bad to grow.
For growing peppers plots with light soil of low acidity. If the acidity is increased, it is recommended to produce it in autumn. High beds are prepared for planting so that the root system is warm. The direction of the ridges make the west-east. When digging the soil in spring, it is necessary to add humus, compost and superphosphate.
Effective for growing peppers use a “warm bed” on biofuels. To prepare it, a trench is dug 40-50 cm deep. Manure mixed with chopped straw or compost must be laid on the bottom. Over this mixture pour a layer of soil.
A few hours before the pepper is planted, the bed is watered with hot water, and the biofuel begins to generate heat. Pepper roots on such a bed will be warm and will not suffer even from a cold snap. In addition, the lower layer will serve as additional nutrition for plants. Different varieties in the same garden.
That sweet pepper does not become bitter
Pepper is a self-pollinated plant, and this must be taken into account when planting. If you plan to grow a bitter, sweet and sharp variety, you need to plant them in different places.. When planting them close to each other, pereocirculation will occur, and the taste qualities of each class will change. Sweet will taste bitter or spicy.
How to prepare seedlings?
Do not immediately take out the boxes with pepper and plant peppers in the garden. If the seedlings were in the home, it will not suffer a sharp change of conditions and will die.
Before planting pepper in open ground seedlings need to harden.
Preparations for the landing begin two to three weeks before the expected date. Seedlings need to take out a few hours a day on the street and set in a shady place. In the first days of the walk should be short, only 3-4 hours from noon and up to 16 hours.
Gradually increase the time. At night, be sure to bring seedlings into the house. In the last two or three days before disembarking, leave the boxes at night for the whole day.
In addition to hardening, it is necessary to provide the seedlings with protection against fungal diseases in advance. 7 days before landing must be treated with systemic fungicide (Bordeaux liquid, Blue sulphate, Oxy).
The day before removing the soil from the box must be thoroughly watered.
How to plant seedlings of pepper in the ground?
Planting pepper in open ground: planting scheme and recommendations.
- For planting pepper prepare beds of 80-100 cm wide.
- Holes with a depth of 15-20 cm are made at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other, 50-60 cm between rows.
- At the bottom of each hole you need to pour a handful of well-rotted humus and pour at least 2 liters of water.
If each instance was grown in a separate tank, disembarkation is performed by the method of transshipment. Removing the plant with a lump of earth, you need to try so that it does not fall apart. With this method of transplanting the roots of the pepper will not be affected, therefore, the plant will quickly take root.
When growing seedlings in boxes, the roots of individual bushes can be intertwined. Removing these plants from the ground, you are sure to damage the roots.
To protect plants as much as possible from damage to the root system, longitudinal and transverse cuts are made to the full depth before planting in the drawer with a sharp knife.
The stem of each bush is buried in the soil at the same level at which it was in a box or pot. Put it deeper can not be for two reasons:
- When planting deep, the roots will fall into cold soil and will also lack oxygen.
- The stem of the pepper does not form additional roots, like a tomato. Therefore, part of it, which turned out to be in the ground, may begin to rot.
Plant with a lump of earth is placed in the hole. The soil is tamped. If the bushes are already high, you need to put pegs next to them for tying. As long as the stem is not thick enough, it can easily break when the wind gusts.
After planting, the plants are thoroughly watered, the soil around the stem is carefully mulched to prevent it from drying out. As a mulch you can use humus or peat. The next watering is best done in 1-3 daysso that the roots could settle down and not begin to rot.
The landing should be carried out in the evening hours.so that the sun does not burn the plants. With the same purpose in the first days after planting it is desirable to plant plants.
How to prevent overcooling of plants?
It is impossible to delay the landing of pepper in the open ground until the onset of stable warm days. There are two reasons for this:
- In the heat of the planted plants will take root poorly and may even burn.
- Overgrown bushes, which have already started to form buds, will drop them. And you will lose part of the harvest.
Therefore, the landing has to be carried out when night temperatures are not ideal for pepper. Yes, and the threat of return frost exists almost until the end of June. Temporary shelters for planted peppers will help solve the problem.
For their preparation, arches are placed over the bed and covered with a film or nonwoven covering material. This method, in addition to heat, also provides the opportunity to protect seedlings from the scorching rays of the daytime sun during the first days after planting.
Shelter, thrown on the arc, at the bottom is fixed with heavy objects or sprinkled with earth. During the day, you need to open such a mini-greenhouse from one end.
A few days after the transplanting of pepper into the soil, when the plants take root, you can remove the covering material for the day. At night, it must be re-cast over the arcs, since night temperatures in June are not yet comfortable enough for pepper. When hot weather is established, the temporary greenhouse can be dismantled and continue to grow peppers in the open field.
Plant care in the first days after disembarkation
Finally bushes will take root only 13-15 days after disembarkationtherefore, in the first days you need to give them maximum attention. To ensure that the seedlings of the pepper are well rooted you can help her with the following actions:
- Loosen the ground regularly around the pepper. This technique improves the aeration of the roots and prevents their rotting.
- Water the pepper every other day. and after watering, be sure to mulch the soil.
- Sure to shade the bushes in the midday heat. If the weather is hot and dry, conduct surface watering with warm water.
Compliance with all the rules of planting peppers in open ground and caring for them will contribute to the rapid rooting of seedlings, and, consequently, obtaining a large crop.
Before embarking on the direct cultivation of seeds and planting pepper in open ground, it is necessary to prepare the ground for planting. In those regions where the climate is considered milder, sweet peppers will grow well in open ground conditions.
The main thing that the site was well protected from the windand was well lit with direct sunlightbecause pepper is a very thermophilic culture.
These requirements will best fit the site, located near the southern wall of your house. If wind protection was not provided, you can try to build a rocker protection, which consists of plants or create a fence in the form of a fence for wind protection.
It is also worth noting that the cultivation of peppers can be made only 3 years after harvesting from the plot of solanaceous crops (potatoes, eggplants, tomatoes, etc.). Through the soil can be transmitted a very large number of various diseases from these plants. It is possible to grow cucumbers, zucchini, cabbage and other pumpkin or leguminous crops and table roots before planting pepper.
The soil on the plot for planting pepper must be fertile, drained, and it is good to retain moisture. To prepare the site in which you will plant a crop, you need to start in the fall. After the previous harvest has been successfully removed, it is necessary to completely remove plant residues from the site for planting and thoroughly dig the entire soil.
It should be noted that 30-50 grams of superphosphates, 5-10 kg of manure or humus and 80 grams of high-quality wood ash are recommended for one square meter. At the same time, I would like to focus on the fact that planting peppers on the ground where fresh manure has just been placed is strongly not recommended. The fact is that an excess of soluble nitrogen adversely affects the ripening of the fruit and even the preservation of ovaries.
In the autumn, you need to carefully dig up the area for planting seedlings. In the spring we loosen the soil and add to it fertilizers in quantity:
- 30-40 grams of phosphate,
- 20-30 grams of nitrogen,
- 30-40 grams of potash.
To get a really good harvest, planting of seedlings must be carried out according to a certain scheme.
To plant seedlings of pepper can be in the last days of May. The risk of frost at this time of year is minimized, so May is considered the best month for landing.
Planting of seedlings is made according to the scheme of 20-30 cm x 60-70 cm. Before you start planting plants, you need to water the entire seedlings abundantly so that when we start planting our pepper, it does not look faded, it could grow faster and adapt better to difficult conditions .
When planting peppers in the hot season, it is best to choose the other half for, so that the plant could get better at night. When clouds appear in the sky, landing can be made at any time of the day.
It is recommended to pour plenty of water on the prepared wells for each well, 1-2 liters of water. It is best to apply heated water to the sun or other heat sources. Carefully pull the seedlings out of the pots and place them in the prepared wells in an upright position; plant the pepper a little deeper than it grew in pots.This is important to do in order to provide the root system of the plant with additional nourishment, in which the adventitious roots, which appear on the stems covered with earth from above, will help.
What does care include?
To grow the best yield of pepper in the open field, you should take proper care of the plant. This includes care in the garter plants, timely feeding, regular weeding, abundant watering and other actions.
Growing culture in the open field, the optimum temperature will be 20-25 ° C.
If the temperature drops below 13 ° C at night, it is necessary to cover the seedlings for the cold time of the day with a dense agrofiber or transparent film. If you notice lilac shades on the fruits, this will indicate that the optimum temperature has been violated.
Water for irrigation is best to use rain, which is well settled. The most suitable temperature for watering pepper is 24-26 ° C. Before the beginning of the flowering period, it is recommended to water the plants once a week, and on particularly hot days, increase the number of waterings to two per week. The rate of water for irrigation is equal to twelve liters per square meter of area with peppers. During the flowering or fruiting pepper must be watered 2-3 times for 1 week. The rate of watering at the same time rises to 14 liters.
The first feeding of pepper should be carried out as soon as 1-2 young leaves appear on the seedlings. It is necessary to mix in 1 liter of water 3 grams of superphosphates, 0.5 grams of ammonium nitrate and 1 gram of any potash fertilizer. After a couple of weeks, your pepper will need to be re-feeding. The dose of mineral fertilizers should be doubled.
The soil under the plant is recommended to constantly loosen. Loosening is performed at a not very great depth (up to 5 cm), since the roots of the pepper are located in the upper layers of the substrate. In addition, you need to constantly weed and spud young plants.
The shoots of the peppers are quite fragile, they break very easily, so they need to be tied up with pegs. In a circle of beds, it is best to plant high crops that will create natural protection for your plants from strong winds.
Once you have planted the plants, you will need to take care of protecting the pepper from frost. Tents from:
- wooden sticks
- other materials at hand.
Pepper with such tents should be covered in the evening, and with the first rays of the sun, in the morning, open again. If the cold dragged on, the best solution would be to use a temporary portable film cover, which is convenient to use and made of inexpensive materials.
Another means to protect the pepper from frost is by smoking and sprinkling. This method has been used since time immemorial. It is best to select a material for burning such that it can provide very thick smoke. The sprinkler, in turn, provides a fine spray of water so that the smoke temperature does not exceed the recommended. This method is considered extremely effective.
Fight against diseases and pests
Peppers may be subject to the same diseases as other vegetable cropsmembers of the nightshade family. Pathogens can serve as fungi, bacteria and various viruses. The most well-known disease of peppers is the "black leg", in which the stem withers at the base. "Black leg" occurs due to the defeat of the seedlings of pepper. For the treatment of this disease, it is necessary to adjust the air humidity and temperature.
Withering is most often subjected to adult culture. The change in the color of the leaf plates is the first sign of the defeat of the plant by the black leg. Pepper begins to drop leaves, and a brown shade appears on the stems. In the end, these symptoms lead to the death of the plant.
Preventive measures and combat disease in the first place are:
- purchase of quality seeds or seedlings
- timely elimination of weeds and pests,
- removal of plants that have been affected by the disease,
- crop rotation
The most common pests that have a negative effect on pepper are ticks, aphids and slugs. To combat insects, you can use folk remedies that have repeatedly proven their effectiveness. The solution can be overcome by aphids: 200-250 grams of high-quality wood ash dissolves in a bucket of warm water, the temperature of which should not be below 50 ° C. To protect the crop from spider mites, apply a solution of minced garlic or onions (200 grams), dandelion leaves (200 grams) and one bucket of warm water.
The above solutions should be infused for at least a day in a room with room temperature. Before use, they must be mixed and filtered well. To increase the effectiveness of any of the solutions, you can add a small amount of liquid soap: from 30 to 40 grams. It is well rescued from slugs by the constant loosening of the soil and its thorough processing with crushed red pepper (1 tsp per square meter) or dry mustard (1-2 tsp per square meter). Straw mulch can also provide additional insect resistance.
Top dressing and fertilizers
After the young seedlings of pepper have been planted in open ground, it is recommended to provide the plant with drip irrigation with the addition of fertilizers to the water, because in this form they will be absorbed much more efficiently.
For fertilizing, you can use water-soluble fertilizers, and to prevent the appearance of different types of rot, calcium nitrate is used at the rate of 1 kg of fertilizer per 10 acres. From 5 to 7 of such procedures are recommended throughout the growing season.
The first feeding of pepper, which was planted in open ground, should be carried out no earlier than 10 days after planting the seedlings.
The dose of nitrogen fertilizers should be gradually increased until the first buds appear. Then, during the period of fruit formation, potash and phosphate fertilizers should be introduced more often. Nitrogen fertilizers must be used again during the laying and development of fruits, because they ensure their rapid growth and better development.
Throughout the growing season, the culture needs different trace elements. When growing peppers, you can use complex supplements, such as "Health", which will help provide the plants with essential nutrients.
Here is nutrient listthat pepper needs:
- Magnesium - lack of substance can lead to yellowing of the leaves.
- Potassium - enhances the growth of leaves and a positive effect on their color. It also improves the strength of tissues and their cellular structure. Increases the content of carotene and almost all vitamins.
- Phosphorus - contributes to the development of the root system, increases the precocity of the fetus.
- Nitrogen - Increases the number of ovaries and contributes to more rapid growth of the fruit. An excess of nitrogen can lead to a decrease in the immune system of the plant, increases the risk of plant disease, delays the ripening of fruits.
Organic fertilizers are not applied during planting. Use them best under the culture of the predecessor.
Mineral fertilizers can be applied in different periods. Phosphorus or potash, for example, are partially or fully applied for autumn plowing, and nitrogenous are best introduced during the growing season, together with top-dressings or the entire standard at once.
As you can see, growing a high-quality pepper crop on your site will not be difficult. The only thing that is necessary is to follow the recommended requirements for the care of the plant and closely monitor the appearance of pests.
Preparation of pepper seedlings for planting in open ground
When grown on the windowsill, pepper plants need additional lighting.
About a week before the planned landing, you should start “walking” the pepper seedlings, carrying the plants to fresh air. First, walks should be short, only 15-20 minutes, but each time their duration should be increased by 50%. At a temperature not lower than +14. 15 degrees plants will be perfectly tempered and they will better transfer the transplant to an open bed.
How to choose a place for pepper
If there is no room in the garden, then the peppers can be grown in bags filled with nutritious soil.
Bed under the pepper is placed on the site with a moderately fertile, light soil with a neutral or slightly acid reaction. This culture grows poorly in places with close groundwater storage - then it is better for it to take a high warm bed. How to make it can be read in this article.
Pepper just hates the shadow. Therefore, the plants must be under the sun all day, otherwise their development will slow down and the harvest will be very miserable.
Another important condition when choosing a site for this crop: it must be reliably protected from the wind.
To do this, at some distance from the bed, you can make a partition or arrange a fence from any available materials. Alternatively, around the landings, at a distance of 70-100 centimeters, you can arrange 1-2 rows of rocker plants - beans, corn, sunflower, Jerusalem artichoke, chard. Moreover, they must sown or planted seedlings in advance, 2-3 weeks before the landing of the pepper. If you plan to keep the beds under the film for the whole season, then there is no need for additional protective barriers.
Bean crops, onions, beans, pumpkin, squash, zucchini, root vegetables and cabbage - here is the list the most successful predecessors for pepper. I do not recommend planting peppers after any solanaceous, for example, potatoes, tomato, eggplant, and after any types of pepper (you need to wait 3-4 years before placing the pepper in such a place).
Cooking beds for pepper
It is better to remove the first (corona) flower in a pepper seedling. This significantly strengthens the branching of the bush.
In principle, any soil can be improved and made suitable for planting pepper by adding various organic materials to it:
- in the case of medium loamy soil, this is peat and well decomposed manure (one bucket per square meter of bed), as well as half a bucket of old sawdust per square meter,
- in the case of clayey, heavy soil, this is peat (well-decomposed manure) at the rate of a bucket per square meter plus coarse sand (or semi-rotted sawdust) at the rate of 1 bucket per square meter,
- in the case of peat soil - it is humus and sod (or clay) land, one bucket of each type of soil per square meter,
- in the case of sandy soil, these are 2 buckets of humus (garden compost), 2 buckets of peat and clay soil each, and 1 bucket of rotted sawdust,
- In all cases, one tablespoon of superphosphate and potassium sulfate can be put into the soil (this should be done in the fall), as well as one teaspoon of urea or nitroammofoski (spring) per square meter of bed (for convenience, mineral water can be mixed with organic ),
- if you don’t use mineral fertilizers at all on the plot, then just add wood ash to the soil at a rate of 1 cup per square meter of bed (this is best done in spring)
By the way, to determine the mechanical composition of the soil in your area, you can conduct a simple test. You will find its description in this article.
When preparing the soil should also be borne in mind the following:
- It is advisable to fertilize the soil for pepper from autumn, but it is permissible to postpone this work until spring,
- if you have a light loam on the site, then you only need to fill the soil in the garden under the pepper with compost or humus at the rate of 1 bucket per square meter of its area,
- the bed for this crop cannot be filled with fresh manure, otherwise the plants will give a lot of greenery, but few fruits.
Sour soil is subject to limingby contributing 300-500 grams of lime per square meter of land (to determine the exact dosage, I advise you to read the article - "9 ways to determine the acidity of garden soil").
Planting pepper on the garden
Remember - the freer you plant peppers, the bigger their fruits will be
In central Russia, pepper is planted in open ground not earlier than the last decade of May, and this work is generally transferred to the beginning of summer by a long spring.
By the time of planting, the seedlings of pepper should have 7-9 well-developed leaves, short, strong internodes and several formed (early-ripe varieties can be planted even with ovary).
On the eve of the landing on a permanent place, hardened pepper bushes are watered abundantly so that they are not lethargic (otherwise they will lag behind in growth and throw off the first buds).
Planting of sweet pepper in open ground is carried out as follows:
- The soil in the garden carefully loosened and align. When growing peppers in two rows, its width should be 90-100 meters, and with a three-row planting, the width of the beds increases to 120 centimeters. It is also highly desirable that the bed be extended in the direction from north to south.
- Between the rows leave a distance of 50 to 60 centimeters, between the individual landing pits - 40-45 centimeters (it is better to locate the pits in a checkerboard pattern). More dense landing on 20-25 x 50 centimeters leads to a decrease in the size of the fruit, but significantly increases their number.
- The wells are filled with 200-300 grams of biohumus (humus, compost), add 1 tablespoon of ash and the same crushed eggshell, and pour 1-2 liters of light-pink solution of potassium permanganate.
- Arcs are set above the bed, and so that the film does not sag, a string is pulled between the arcs on both sides.
- Planting seedlings carried out in the afternoon or in cloudy weather at any time of the day.
- Pepper bushes are planted at the same level at which they grew in pots (permissible depth - no more than two centimeters). In this case, tall varieties are placed in the central row, and undersized and dwarf - on the edge of the bed.
- When planting, pegs are attached to each plant with a height of 50-60 centimeters for further garters. After that, the roots of plants fall asleep and squeeze their hands around the stems for better contact with the ground.
- The soil in a garden with planted seedlings is mulched with peat or dry earth (an optional, but highly desirable technique).
- They throw a film over the arcs (if the weather is cool, then they additionally warm the landings with lutrasil or any other non-wrap).
To reduce the need for irrigation, weeding and loosening, you can use drop-out of pepper seedlings directly into black film or nonwoven covering material. For this, the soil in the garden is fertilized, moistened, mulched with peat and covered with foil or non-wrap. Pepper plants are planted according to the scheme 40-45 x 50-60 centimeters in the cross-shaped holes made in the selected material.
How to plant seedlings of pepper in open ground, very well shown and told in the video. I advise you to look.
Pepper care after landing in the ground
This pepper obviously does not want to be eaten))).
Pepper slowly takes root in the new place, so the plants need help to acclimatize. To do this, the first one and a half - two weeks they are watered every 2-3 days under the spine, using 1-2 liters per plant. In dry and hot periods, watering is generally carried out on a daily basis. During this period, it is necessary to loosen the soil between the rows, but with great care, to a depth of no more than 3-5 centimeters, in order to avoid any damage to the roots of the plants until they finally take root.
While the temperature at night does not exceed the mark of +16 degrees, the peppers should be under the film cover. In the daytime, if the air under the film warms up above +28 degrees, it is surely opened or even completely removed.
On the other hand, if, according to the forecast, return frosts are expected (this sometimes happens at the beginning of June), then the soil in the garden with transplanted seedlings should be spilled with water at a temperature of + 35-38 degrees and thrown over a dense non-wrap (in addition to the film).
One of the most common problems that a novice gardener has to face when growing peppers is when the plants start dropping the ovary in large quantities. The main reason for this trouble is flaws in care and weather surprises, whose influence is especially strong in the open field. In order to more fully understand what exactly caused the fall of the ovary exactly in your situation, I suggest reading this article.
How to grow peppers? Features
The homeland of the bell pepper is: Guatemala and Mexico. It follows that culture is necessary:
- Light day in the amount of 8 hours,
- Moisture in moderation
- Light and fertile ground,
- The mode of applying an increased dose of fertilizer with potassium.
Pepper enough capricious culture. And some varieties can be planted only in the greenhouse. Gardeners who live in areas with cold and short summers should pay attention to varieties of early ripeness and short stature. In such varieties, the fruits are small, but very fleshy.
On a note! It has already been proven in practice that early ripening varieties have a great yield, unlike late ripening ones.
Planting seedlings in the ground
Если вы решили вырастить на огороде перец болгарский и в этом случае используется рассада, тогда необходимо использовать правильное выращивание и уход для того, чтобы уже в скором времени собрать свой урожай. Итак, рассада перца уже давно выросла. Теперь важно проследить другие этапы выращивания.
Выбираем место для будущей посадки.
Самое важное правило выращивания перца — это удачно выбранное место на огороде. Therefore, at this point you should be very careful. Pepper seedlings are not recommended to be planted in the places where solanaceous crops were grown in the previous year. The point here is this. It turns out that tomatoes and potatoes have similar diseases and pests. At the same time pests can easily winter in the ground.
Also, pepper needs a short light day. In this case, the plot should be shaded. In a very sunny area it will be difficult to get a great harvest. Peppers must be protected from strong winds. Therefore, it is planted along the planting of shrubs or fruit trees. These plants will cover the pepper from the sun and protect it from the wind. If you are going to plant some pepper, then for this purpose you can use the space between the seedlings of tomatoes.
On a note! In no case is it recommended to plant seedlings of peppers in low-lying areas where constant stagnation of moisture is observed. The culture is drought resistant. Therefore, the soil does not overmoisture.
Prepare the ground.
Peppers that grow in the open field require special cultivation and meticulous care. With the landing site is to decide in advance. In addition, it is important to prepare the ground. For planting pepper, you can prefer a light loamy soil, which has a neutral reaction. If on your garden plot the black earth, then special preparation is not required. A humus bucket on 1 square. the meter is brought in if the soil is developed and has not rested for a long time. At the same time, it is worth making a well-swollen humus.
- In a heavy clay soil make a 1 square meter of land for digging a bucket of sand, peat and humus. You can also make half a bucket of sawdust, which are well repositioned
- In the peat soil contribute 1 bucket of humus and a bucket of sod land. Events are held immediately before planting seedlings.
- In a soil rich in sand, make a bucket of peat, a bucket of clay soil and a bucket of rotted sawdust. And bring in 2 buckets of humus per 1 square. meter.
On a note! The above described fertilizing data should be used only if no fertilizer has been applied to the soil. If, on the contrary, you apply fertilizer regularly, then the numbers should be reduced. In addition, the soil for planting pepper is best prepared in the fall. You can do this in the spring time. But all feeding activities are held 6 weeks before the pepper is planted.
Let's talk about the timing of landing.
Want to know when to plant peppers in open ground in the 2018 season, then remember that you need to plant seedlings in a well-heated soil. Its temperature should be 15-16 degrees. Peppers are also planted after the threat of freezing has passed. Not sure about the temperature? Then land the seedlings a few days later. It is not recommended to plant peppers in cold soil. In this case, the seedlings may simply die. Therefore, this point should always be remembered.
Rooted pepper freely maintains temperature drop to -1 degree. But at a temperature of +15, it stops growing and developing. Considering this moment and taking into account the fact that the temperature is constantly dropping, it is necessary to put high-strength arcs over the beds with pepper. At threat of a freezing cover beds with a cover or a film. In this case, the material must be laid directly on the arc themselves. When the cold temperature is maintained, the cover is removed from the bed during the day, and at night it is covered again with arcs.
On a note! It is recommended to make arcs from a wire conscientiously. In the future, they will be required in order to cover the pepper from the sun.
when to plant pepper in the ground in 2018
Now you know about when to plant Bulgarian pepper in open ground. Of course, it’s worth doing when it’s warm outside. Now it is worth saying that the landing is also important to carry out very competently. In this case, keep the distance between the seedlings. At the time of planting, remember that excessive sun can damage the bell pepper. Therefore, if you plant pepper close to each other, the leaves of neighboring plants will cover each other. But too frequent planting can affect the loosening and weeding of the soil. It will not be convenient to do this. And the fruits themselves can grow small. And in this way, stem rot can be provoked.
Each pepper hybrid usually has its own nutritional area. Therefore, during the landing, it is necessary to take into account the information given on the bags of seeds. In this article, we will provide general tips, which are worth using when planting pepper seedlings.
So, the distance between the seedlings of pepper should be 35-40 cm. The distance between the rows should be 70 cm. 1 or 2 plants are planted in the nest.
Bulgarian pepper is convenient to plant in two lines. In this case, two closest rows are at a distance of 30 cm from each other, and a distance of 20-25 cm is observed between the plants. The other pair from the plants is 70 cm from the first pair. If you use such a planting, then plant one root of pepper in each well.
On a note! For tall varieties of pepper during planting, increase the distance between the rows and the seedlings themselves.
How to plant seedlings.
As you can see, the cultivation of bell pepper in the open field requires some skills. But if you know certain information, then everything will turn out. Pepper seedlings are planted on a cloudy day or in the evening. On a hot day, this is not worth it. Before planting in the ground, the seedlings are well shed. In the garden the holes of the necessary size are dug out so that the clod of earth with the root of the pepper can fit there freely.
Potash fertilizer in the amount of one tablespoon is poured into each planting well. You can use a special fertilizer for pepper. In this case, follow the instructions during use. In order to protect the plant from pests and diseases, potash fertilizer is replaced with a handful of crushed chicken shells or a handful of ash. If you could not add humus to digging the soil, you can throw it directly into the hole. The amount of humus 1-2 handfuls. He rushes right under the root.
It’s worth starting the planting of pepper after you fill the hole with water and it can be absorbed. From the container seedlings goes very carefully. The clod of the earth must not be disturbed. When planting seedlings, it is not buried. It should be planted as she grew up in a pot.
The soil around the pepper after planting should be properly sealed. Tall varieties are immediately tied to the pegs. Landing immediately, if possible, should be mulched peat. This will save the ground from drying out and prevent the growth of weeds.
Covering the ground with pepper seedlings with a covering material is recommended for gardeners who live in an area with a cold climate.
Care for seedlings after planting
After the seedlings are planted in the ground it is necessary to start caring for the pepper. Culture is very demanding for irrigation and nutrition. If you sprinkled fertilizer into the ground when planting in the hole, then in the next two weeks the seedlings will not be fed anything. It is important to monitor proper watering and avoid mistakes.
Not all pepper seedlings will be able to settle down in the ground after planting. Therefore, you need to leave a certain number of instances of plants for replacement. Vegetable seedlings die for various reasons. However, the most common - is the bear. Dropped peppers are definitely worth replacing. If this is not done, the yield will drop significantly. Yes, and shading, which you achieved can disappear. And this is fraught with sunburn of the ovaries and fruits.
Peppers can die as a result of wilt on sandy soil, which is subject to winds and long droughts. This happens quite often in the regions of the south and with sprouting sprouts.
All about watering
The importance of irrigation when growing peppers is very high. However, it is difficult to say how and when to properly water the plant. In particular, in Kuban pepper is watered extremely often. But in regions where rainfall often peppers are grown freely and without watering.
Restorative abilities of pepper are inferior to tomatoes. And it can take a long time to root this culture. The delay of a plant and even its death can occur even with a minimum deviation from the temperature regime. This can occur also in violation of the irrigation regime. In particular, the very first watering occurs immediately after planting. With the next watering rush is not recommended. This should not be done even when the plants have faded from the sun's rays. And if in the early morning the leaves look up, then watering is also early. To determine the date of the next watering it is necessary to follow the plant and the level of soil moisture.
On a note! Pepper leaflets can be omitted not only from a lack of moisture, but also from its overabundance.
Determining soil moisture is easy. In this case, a handful of earth is firmly pressed into the hand. If a:
- The soil is dry and the earth pours through your fingers, then it is worth watering.
- The soil is too humid, water should flow through your fingers.
- If the earth in your hand remains a lump, then it is thrown on the ground. If the lump does not crumble, then watering is postponed for several days. If a clod of earth has broken, then the peppers need watering in this case.
In general, a second watering is done after the pepper has taken root. Rooting pepper can signal some signs. First, the upper leaves darken on the plant, and then the lower leaves. And if there was an increase, the pepper is accustomed. The restoration of the roots usually takes about 10 days.
On a note! Peppers that are grown on quick-drying soils must be given a lot of attention. If the soil during compression in whom signals a lack of moisture, then it is necessary to produce a second watering, which should be scarce. This is done after the first watering in a few days.
At the initial stage of the growing season, watering is extremely rare. It is recommended to make it considering the amount of precipitation, as well as the composition of the soil. Understand that light sand soils should be irrigated more often. The amount of watering increases when the fruits of the pepper begin to ripen.
Pepper should not soak at any stage of its development. As a result of soaking the leaves turn yellow. And the ovaries are sprinkled with flowers. But on the heavy soil, and especially after the overflow, the pepper cannot recover. As a result, he dies.
Weeding and loosening
Loosening is an important event for bell peppers. As a result, it is possible to destroy not only weeds, but also to retain moisture in the soil. Loosening is done after each watering. As a result, you reduce evaporation and achieve a reduction in watering. It is recommended to loosen sandy soils by 5-6 cm. And clay soil is loosened by 10 cm.
On a note! Loosening is not carried out between the first two irrigations. This event can damage the roots of the plant and delay the period of its engraftment.
When loosening the soil is carefully processed. It is worth doing because pepper has superficial roots that can recover badly.
With whom is the pepper good, and with whom it is not so
In this article we talked about many points. Now we will sort out the question that put next to the pepper. In the garden space is not very much. And to allocate for each culture a huge piece of land does not make sense. In this case, it is wiser to choose “neighbors” for Bulgarian pepper, with whom he will be comfortable. So culture will grow well with:
- basil and spinach,
- Tomatoes and Coriander.
Peppers are not planted next to fennel, beans, or to the place where beets grew last year.
On a note! If your garden is growing bitter and sweet peppers, then plant them next to not worth it. Such a neighborhood of sweet pepper can become bitter.
It is easy to plant seedlings of pepper in open ground. It is important to adhere to all the rules in order for the harvest to be not only rich but also tasty.