What fern is edible? Does it have useful properties, and how to cook such a product at home? Answers to all these questions can be found in the materials of this article.
Edible fern: species
In the world there are about 10 thousand different types of ferns. Such plants can be found anywhere, including in swampy places and even deserts. But most often they grow in the forest zone.
Different habitats of ferns directly contributed to their diversity. They can vary considerably not only in their external shape and size, but also in their internal structure, as well as in chemical and physiological characteristics.
What edible fern do you know? The most popular plant that is used to prepare various dishes is the bracken. Also used in food osmunds Asian and ostrich.
Features and collection of plants
So that after cooking, the edible fern is tasty and tender, its shoots are harvested at a young age, until they become tough.
The season of gathering such plants is early spring, when leaves start to bloom in the trees and juicy grass appears. Edible fern should be immediately used for the preparation of various dishes or processed to a semi-finished product that will be stored for a long time. To semi-finished products include three types of plants: frozen fern, salted and dried. The first option - the easiest and most common among housewives. However, it is not used on an industrial scale.
Now you know which fern is edible. Where does this plant grow? Orlyak, Osmund Asiatic and Ostrich are widespread throughout the globe, except for the steppes, arctic regions and deserts.
In Russia, such plants can be found in the European part, in the Far East, in Siberia and in the Urals. They also grow in Europe, Asia and North America.
The edible bracken fern, Osmunda Asiatic and Ostrich are very often found in forest zones, on open elevations and in thickets of bushes.
Useful properties and composition
What is remarkable fern? The beneficial properties of this product are little known. Moreover, most housewives do not even suspect that the plant in question can be eaten.
According to experts, the rhizomes of such a product contain starch, saponins, alkaloids, tannic and hydrocyanic acids, as well as essential oils, fat, flavonoids and tannins. As for the young shoots, they are very rich in tocopherol, vitamins, riboflavin, nicotinic acid and carotene.
Of the trace elements mentioned plants well accumulate in iodine, calcium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, sodium, copper, sulfur, nickel and phosphorus.
The proteins contained in the edible fern are very similar in their properties to the proteins of cereals. They are also easily absorbed by the human body.
Long since such plant is eaten by residents of the Far East, as well as citizens of Japan and Korea. They believe that this product favorably affects their growth, helps to form a strong skeleton and metabolism. In addition, lovers of this plant claim that it has a good effect on the activity of the nervous system, improves the overall condition of the endocrine system, increases efficiency and removes radionuclides from the body.
What else is useful fern, a photo of which is presented in this article? For medical purposes, this product has been used for a long time. Inside they use not only young shoots of a fern, but also its rhizomes. For example, a decoction of the roots of this plant is actively taken in diseases of the intestine and spleen. In addition, it effectively helps with aching joints, jaundice, diarrhea, chest and headache, as well as with noise in the ears and head, dry pleurisy.
A decoction made from edible fern is often used as a diuretic, laxative, anthelmintic, and painkiller. Also, this plant relieves stress and stimulates metabolism.
Outwardly, a decoction of the rhizomes of the product in question is used for eczema, wounds, boils, and scrofula. As for the infusion, it can be used for rheumatism (in the form of baths) and ulcers.
Despite the fact that all these types of ferns are edible, include them in your diet should be with extreme caution. This is due to the fact that the adult plant is very poisonous. It may contain bitter cyanide glycosides, tannins, hydrocyanic acid and carcinogenic compounds. The concentration of these substances increases gradually as the plant grows and grows.
It should also be noted that it is strictly prohibited to use fern during pregnancy and during breastfeeding.
Overdose of this product can lead to vomiting, convulsions, nausea, lowering blood pressure, headache, respiratory depression, dizziness, weakening of cardiac performance, and even death.
Fern of edible species is actively used in cooking. Of the young leaves are often prepared various salads. In addition, peculiar "snails" are fried, boiled, salted and pickled for the winter, and also used as a special seasoning for meat.
The most popular among culinary edible ferns is the bracken. It received its unusual name due to its similarity with the wing of a bird of prey.
Such a plant is quite common throughout Russia, and it is not difficult to find it.
Young shoots, which are used to prepare various dishes, are formed in May. At first they resemble a kind of "snail", and in the process of development they turn around and become like a hook.
The stalk of edible leaf is called rachis. It tastes very much like white mushrooms. Raw rachis are poisonous, therefore it is necessary to subject them to heat treatment.
Edible fern: how to cook?
As mentioned above, a fresh plant can not be stored. This is due to the fact that it hardens very quickly, with the result that it is simply impossible to eat it. Therefore, the newly collected shoots of fern should be immediately salted or boiled in salted water, and then dried.
If you decide to use the last cooking option, then fresh leaves should be thoroughly washed and put into a pot of boiling salted water. In this form, the plant should be cooked no more than 5 minutes. After that, it is required to fold to a colander and shake vigorously.
As for salting, this process is carried out as follows: fresh and thoroughly washed greens are placed in enameled container, poured with ordinary table salt (250 g of spices per 1 kg of plant), covered with a wooden lid, smaller in diameter, and then pressed with a yoke. In this case, the weight of the latter must necessarily be equal to the weight of the product used. In this form, salted greens are left for 7-8 days.
After the pickle begins to cover the wooden cover, it is slowly poured. Together with him will go and all the bitterness inherent in the young shoots.
The product prepared in this way can be extinguished. It is first fried with onions, and then poured with fresh sour cream and cooked in this form for several minutes. To the table ready stew is served with greens and roasted tomatoes.
Also, salted fern can be deep-fried, after dipping it into pancake dough.
If none of the presented methods are suitable for you, then the salted product can be simply chopped and added to salads, pizza, soup, etc.
In Slavic mythology, fern flowers have always been endowed with magical properties, although these plants do not bloom. On the night of Ivan Kupala, couples in love are actively looking for this mythical flower, believing that it will surely bring them eternal happiness (according to legend, such a flower only disperses for a moment).
In nature, the fern is found from 1 to 30 meters in diameter and large size. This species is a perennial plant, not blooming. It has a variety of interesting and beautiful leaves, which consist of a cutting and a plate. These shoots, as they are also called, are covered with hairs and scales, they differ in structure, shape, and size, and the leaves have their own chemical and physiological composition. In nature, these leaves are called “Vayyami”, in everyday life and in literature there is another name for them - these are shoots.
Useful properties of edible fern
Sculpt or as it is also called “shoots” of a fern is rich in starch, tannins, flavonoids which play a major role in the metabolism of fern, and also essential oils are present.
Contains a very large amount of protein that is absorbed well and affects the growth of the plant, has vitamins - this is E and B2. Possesses the most tremendous, valuable chemical substance.
Very good and beneficial effect on the human nervous system. But in nature, unfortunately, there are only two types of edible fern.
- Ostrich bird
Orlyak is a perennial herb, can grow in height of 150 cm, and in the mountains on the slopes where the edible fern grows, size ranges from 3 to 100 cm. This fern differs from other species, its leaves grow alone, thus not forming large bushes. The leaves are the outer organ of the plant, the main function of photosynthesis, transpiration and gas exchange. This edible fern leaves twice - thrice pinnate, dense and hard, on fleshy long petioles (rachis), look like triangular.
The leaves are oblong, lanceolate (stabbing), and sometimes lobed at the base and blunt at the end.
The smell of these leaves is not very pleasant, peculiar and specific. Segments of these leaves are wrapped on the edge. Its main feature is a powerful root system, which has a horizontal and vertical rhizome, black in color, it grows and is located very deep underground.
The name of this fern "Orlyak" he received, due to the fact that the cross-section looks like a state eagle. In nature, it grows in almost the entire globe, it often grows in places of forests, unlike other species. He can not grow in the desert and steppes, and does not grow where there is constant cold and frost.
It is often found in countries such as Russia, the Urals, Siberia and the Far East. In these places they often sprout on sandy soil in pine forests, they are often found on forest edges in open and elevated places, on thickets of bushes, and sometimes they can grow on limestone.
This type of edible fern is used in the food industry. For example, as in China, Japan, Korea and Russia, as well as in some countries of South Africa, these unopened leaves and shoots are used in cooking, they very much replace spring vegetables in taste. This edible fern is also used in folk medicine, and its leaves are used to make decoctions that help with various diseases.
The ostrich and what else it is called the “ostrich feather” is a perennial fern, one of the beautiful garden plants. Slightly similar to the fern - shields, unlike other species are very powerful, can grow up to half a meter in height, and even reach two meters in damp places. A distinctive feature is this kind of bush shape, similar to a vase. His shoots are arranged in a circle rhizome similar to the bulb.
Its leaves are emerald green, and inside the funnel the feathers are small brown in color, which grow simultaneously in a circle. Ostrich's very folded feathers unfold slowly while forming a huge funnel, with an emptiness inside. It blooms plants closer to the end of June, and die in the fall.
The ostrich grows quickly, suppresses other plants, it needs a lot of territory, as it forms whole thickets. Therefore, it is well in demand in landscape designs. It looks good when make out the banks of reservoirs, underground paths. The plants are used to decorate front gardens, are used in the compilation of winter bouquets, and are also used for a variety of floristic compositions. For growing at home it is unsuitable.
It grows in nature in damp forests, in countries such as Russia, the Caucasus in Siberia. But Eurasia is considered its birthplace in a temperate zone.
Ostrich can be of two types:
The common fern is the most common, it grows very quickly, endures the winter cold, but unfortunately, it requires special care for itself. It is also called "raznostomnik" and sometimes "black fern" because of the black color. Feathers of his feathery are very beautiful and wide light green color.
The eastern ostrich is growing up to one and a half meters in height, the leaves are very large, but smaller in number than other types of fern, they are collected in bundles of seemingly leaves pinnate, folded, and also narrow. And its petioles are covered with brown film. In nature, it grows well, grows and is in harmony with such plant species as for example: tulip, narcissus and with such plant species as hazel grouse.
In conclusion, it can be emphasized that the plant can adapt, grow and grow in different climatic zones, it is indispensable in landscape design, is used in the food industry, as well as in traditional medicine.
How to find bracken fern in Leningrad region and how to pickle it?
Mushrooms, berries, birch sap ... Here, perhaps, are all the gifts of the forest, for which, according to tradition, the inhabitants of the Russian northwest hunt from year to year.
I don’t know for what reasons such a valuable product like the bracken fern is not at all popular in our area. While, for example, residents of Japan, China, and Korea consider it a delicacy and buy from us for big money.
Fern as food
For the first time, I found out about the fitness for food of a fern in Altai, where the whole color of Soviet science used to come every fall. Engineers from various research institutes, candidates and even doctors of science. They all went together in the direction of the small village of Shulginka, not to clash at a conference in scientific battles, but to earn money from collecting sea-buckthorn.
For one kilogram of berries collected and handed over there they paid 1 ruble. On the day, one person, depending on skills, could procure from 40 to 100 kg of sea buckthorn. During the vacation, it was possible to earn an amount in excess of the semi-annual income of the average Soviet scientist.
In the same place, I learned that in addition to sea buckthorn and pine nut in Altai, one can also earn extra money in spring in collecting the Orlyak fern, which Japan and China buy in large quantities from us.
It turns out that the bracken fern is not just edible, after salting it has an exquisite taste, resembling mushrooms and asparagus at the same time.
In addition, the use of fern has a beneficial effect on growth processes, contributes to the development of the skeleton, improves metabolism, the nervous system, improves performance, improves the condition of the endocrine system, promotes the withdrawal of radionuclides and other dangerous substances from the body.
The proteins of the eagle fern are similar in properties and composition to that of cereal crops, and therefore easily digested.
No wonder in our markets one kilogram of salted fern now costs 1000 rubles.
Bracken fern in the Leningrad region
Immediately, a reasonable question arises, does the Orlyak fern grow in the North-West region, in particular, in the Leningrad region? I hasten to please readers of the site, the bracken fern is one of the three most common ferns in our area, and finding it in the forest is not a problem.
But first a bit of theory.
Only young shoots of bracken fern, no more than 20 -35 cm high, are suitable for food. When its leaves have not yet dismissed, they form a squiggle characteristic of ferns.
This crucial moment in the Leningrad region usually begins in mid-May and lasts until the beginning of June. A little earlier, a little later - depending on the weather.
It is at this time that the fern must be harvested. An additional sign of the nutritional condition of the fern is the characteristic crunch when the stalk breaks.
The fern is never cut with a knife, but is always broken by hand near the ground. An edible plant always breaks easily with a characteristic click. If the stem does not break, but bends and springs, it means that the fern has already outgrown. Collecting such plants already makes no sense. They will be coarse-fibered.
The collection process is as follows. You walk through the woods where ferns were seen in the summer, find its sprouts, pluck them, nadlamlyya stem with a hand near the ground, and form a beam of this size, which is convenient to hold in your hand. After that, drag the bunch with a rubber band and put it in a bucket or basket.
How to distinguish the bracken from other types of fern
Here we come to the most important question of the article, how to distinguish Orlyak from other types of fern, among which are inedible.
Как я уже говорил, чаще всего в Ленобласти можно встретить папоротники трех видов – орляк, страусник и щитовник. Причем, последний, ко всему прочему, еще и ядовит.
However, I hasten to please you, the fern Orlyak has a very characteristic sprout, which is difficult to confuse with other types of ferns.
1. The sprouts of the bracken fern protrude from the earth one by one at a distance of 10 cm or more from each other, and the ostrich and fender from one point.
2. The sprouts of the bracken fern are smooth and clean, and the ostrich and shizmoth are covered with dark scales and small leaves.
That is, it turns out that the eagle in the forest is quite simple to recognize. But to distinguish edible ostrich from poisonous moths in the spring is much more difficult. Their shoots are very similar. But such a task, fortunately, is not in front of us.
An additional guideline to help determine the type of fern, can serve as old, overwintered leaves of the plant, which is usually missing around young stalks. They can consider the geometry of the leaves, which is specific to each species. In the bracken fern, the leaves are more rounded, while in the silvian and ostrich hunger, they are more cut up and more decorative.
By the way, the easiest way to find fern growing places in these springy leaves is in the spring forest.
How to cook a fern
Immediately I must say that in raw form, any fern - including bracken - is inedible. For eating it must be prepared in a certain way.
After returning home from the forest, you should immediately begin processing the fern. The fact is that the plucked sprouts very quickly wither and lumber. This process begins from the bottom, from the place of fracture. Therefore, it makes sense to cut 10-15 mm lower part of the stem.
In the network you can find many ways of salting fern. Everyone gets out as they can. But there was one most reliable recipe, prescribed in the Soviet GOST. The salting of ferns, sent for export to Japan and Korea, was carried out precisely by it. Therefore, it will be reasonable and stick to it.
In accordance with GOST, salting takes place in three stages.
1st stage salting.
Fern bundles are placed in a saucepan or barrel in layers, sprinkling each layer with a large amount of salt. It is believed that salt by weight should be at least 30% by weight of fern. But, as they say, you cannot spoil the porridge with butter.
A flat lid is placed on top of the last layer, and a load is placed on it, the weight of which should be equal to (or slightly larger) the weight of the fern.
Capacity with fern is placed in a cool place for three weeks.
2nd stage salting.
After three weeks, the brine is drained from the tank (without removing the load), after which the load is removed to swap the lower layers of the fern with the top. If you first remove the load, and then drain the brine, the fern will involve some of the harmful substances. What we absolutely do not need.
When changing layers, the fern is again poured with salt, but in a smaller amount (15% of the initial weight of the fern). And again put under pressure. The weight of the load at this stage can be reduced by half. After a day, when the fern allocates juice, you need to see if all the stems are covered with liquid. If the liquid level is not sufficient, a salt solution of ten percent concentration is added to the tank (100 g salt per liter of water). Do not allow the fern to contact when pickling air. The duration of the second stage of salting is also three weeks.
3rd stage salting.
All the liquid from the tank with fern is drained. Then 25% brine is prepared: for 10 liters of water - 2.5 kg of salt. The fern is transferred to glass or plastic containers in which it will be stored. And it is poured with brine in such a way that the whole product is covered with liquid. The containers are closed with lids and stored. In this form, the fern should stand for another three weeks. After which it can be eaten.
That is, the whole process of salting lasts 9 weeks.
Salt fern has a shelf life of two to three years.
Before cooking salty bracken fern is soaked, getting rid of excess salt. It takes from 6 to 24 hours. The result is tested for taste.
Recipes dishes that use bracken fern, I do not cite. They are easy to find on many culinary sites. Here are just a short list of them: braised fern with tomatoes, fern in dough, fern with eggs, fern in sour cream with new potatoes, stew of fern, fern cutlets, pizza with fern.
In conclusion, the good news. The first shoots of the bracken fern appeared on the Karelian Isthmus on May 18th. It's time to start its preparation.
Where do ferns grow in nature?
Flower growers today with great success and pleasure grow all kinds of ferns at home. Some water species even decorate aquariums.
But where does the fern grow today in natural conditions? Many species became extinct many years ago along with dinosaurs due to climate change, so the remaining ones are only part of the rich kingdom that once inhabited the earth.
Modern ferns grow in shady forests, near streams, because they are very fond of moisture. Plants take root in meadows, in marshes, and sometimes on rocks (these ferns, on the contrary, prefer drought).
If you take the geography of the growth of ferns, then it is easier to say where they do not grow - in deserts and in Antarctica. In other places, even in Siberia, you can meet representatives of the family.
Where does the fern grow in Russia?
It can be said that ferns grow everywhere in Russia, but their greatest diversity is found in the Caucasus and the Far East. Although in the nature of the Moscow region found 19 species of this amazing plant.
They are most common in sparse forests, especially in pine. An ordinary bracken grows there, the leaves of which look like an open umbrella. Shishkin portrayed him in his picture “Ferns in the forest. Siverskaya. This fern grows in all climatic zones, except for tundra and steppes.
Other types of ferns are found in shady spruce, mossy mixed forests, ravines, damp birch forests, along rivers.
Fern (Filicineae), 1) botanical, a group of vascular spore plants, enclosing several families and two subclasses: water ferns (Hydropterclasseae) and true fernies. In the former, disputes of a twofold kind are large and small, in the latter, of the same kind, producing monoecious growths. Most of the grass, few trees (up to 26 meters in height), almost all ferns are perennial, only a few annual plants.
The leaves are very diverse and beautiful, almost always consist of a cutting and a plate, with a characteristic branching (nerve) of the veins, which serves as a good sign for distinguishing between genera and species, especially fossilized ferns. Spores develop in receptacles called sporangia (sporoplodies), spores are small, unicellular, round or reniform.
Ferns - up to 4,000 species, distributed throughout the globe, especially in the tropics. Most ferns of the Russian flora belong to the family of Polypodiaceae. 2) The medical, fresh rhizome of a fern (Aspclassium filix mas) is used to prepare a specifically active anthelmintic agent.
Ferns - relict plants, preserved from the time of dinosaurs. Partially this statement is true. Fern plants appeared more than 350 million years ago, becoming the forerunners of seed species. But those ferns that are growing now are only remnants of the rich kingdom that inhabited our planet millions of years ago. Most of these beautiful ancient plants became extinct due to climate change along with dinosaurs.
Fern grows near water. Indeed, these plants are very fond of moisture and prefer to grow in shady forests and near streams. But the presence of a reservoir nearby is completely unnecessary, and ferns take root anywhere: in swamps, forests, on meadows and even on rocks. At the same time, rock ferns do not tolerate a large amount of water and prefer dryness.
Ferns do not grow where it is cold. This statement is not quite true, and although most ferns really like a humid and warm climate, they are common all over the world, with the exception of deserts and Antarctica. Many ferns are winter-hardy and are found in Siberia, on subarctic islands and glaciers of the Arctic Ocean.
The fern is a small herb. In fact, ferns are different, and their family includes more than 10,000 species. These are herbs familiar to us, small bushes, lianas, and epiphytes (mosses and lichens) growing on tree trunks and rotten stumps, and even fern trees themselves found only in tropical forests.
All ferns are very similar to each other. We think that all the ferns look like we know the bred, common in central Russia, or bracken, with leaves similar to palm. In fact, the appearance of ferns is very different! For example, Marsilia fern grows in water and has four petals. The leaves of the groomer have a bluish tinge, and the shape of an ostrich bird resembles a snail. The small-leaved azolla covers the pond with a green carpet, and the deer fern grows on the trees, collecting organic residues as a fertilizer into a basket of leaves.
Fern flower endowed with magical properties. According to the ancient beliefs of the Slavs, plucked a fern flower on the night of Ivan Kupala (supposedly only then they bloom) will be able to understand the language of animals. But in fact, these plants never bloom, so the magic fern flower just does not happen in nature.
Fern breeds spores. Not only. In many ferns, reproduction occurs when the main shoots are divided into small shoots, or, like the nephrolepis fern, the beginning of the whisker processes comes from the underground rhizome. Some species of ferns breed brood buds that are formed on the leaves.
Fern - inedible plant. Although in our gardens these plants are planted more like ornamental, many types of ferns are eaten. Their fresh leaves are very fond of in Tokyo and are eaten with pleasure on the island of Java, in New Zealand and in the Philippines, boiled, fried and baked in Mexico and Brazil. And the Indians of America from the roots of fern bake bread. Often fern leaves are added to salads.
Breeding spores are formed on fern leaves. And here there are exceptions. There are ferns in which spore-bearing not all leaves, but only individual shoots, called sporophylls. For example, in ferns of the species uzovnik leaves are barren, and spores develop in the spike on the legs.
Fern protects against mosquitoes. Folk remedy to combat mosquitoes: hang around the room fresh shoots of bracken fern. It is believed that insects do not tolerate its smell and are in a hurry trying to leave the premises. In fact, the fern is effective in fighting only flies and gadflies, and mosquitoes do not react to its elusive smell and certainly do not fly away. Do not believe - check!
Grow a fern at home is impossible! Perhaps it is problematic to collect spores from the leaves, sow and germinate them independently, but meanwhile the ferns are grown in apartments and greenhouses, and there are no particular difficulties. There are types of ferns that breed self-seeding and are quite unpretentious. There are those that can be simply divided into processes and transplanted.
Where does the fern grow?
Ferns - the most ancient group of plants, numbering about 300 genera and about 10,000 species. Today they are distributed throughout the world and are found in a wide variety of places. The homeland of the fern is tropical America, tropical Africa and tropical Australia.
Useful properties of fern
Fern is a rare plant with no seeds. However, sori are located on the lower part of the plant. Due to such a dispute is the reproduction of fern. The leaves of this ancient plant are complex because they have a pinnately-dissected appearance. Such a herbaceous perennial grows from 30 to 90 cm in height.
Since this plant breeds spores, then it does not tend to bloom. Spore ripening is somewhat like flowering. Some types of plants throw out elongated leaves that look like flower brushes when they open in hot weather. The fern has thick brown rhizomes with a large number of adventitious roots. For use in traditional medicine roots collected in mid-September. Such a delightful plant is found in Central Asia, Mexico, Finland and Norway, as well as in Russia. It prefers various woodlands.
The main medicinal purpose of the fern can be called the fight against all kinds of intestinal parasites. The chemical composition of the plant includes various acids and derivatives of phloroglucin. Since such substances are considered poisons, they cause a certain paralysis of the muscles in numerous parasites. For the treatment of rheumatism topically applied water extract of rhizomes. In addition, such a wonderful tool is effective for ulcers, convulsions and purulent wounds.
For the treatment of various ailments apply not only the roots, but also the aerial parts of the plant. The high content of alkaloids and various kinds of acids in the rhizomes makes them a very effective means for relieving pain in the gastrointestinal tract. Decoction of herbs is indicated for the treatment of cough and various pain in the joints. The powder of the roots has strong antihelminthic properties, due to which it is used not only in the fight against parasites, but also relieves stagnation in the spleen and intestines.
It should be noted that such a miraculous decoction will help get rid of diarrhea and tinnitus, and is also prescribed to treat jaundice, colds, eczema and boils. With the help of this plant you can quickly stop hemorrhoidal bleeding and restore the psyche in case of serious nervous disorders. In addition, the fern can easily cope with malaria. For the preparation of decoction of rhizomes will need 10 grams of well-dried raw materials and 200 grams of boiling water. After a long boil, you can take the product with a small addition of honey and 1 teaspoon.
In order to prepare an external medicinal product, we take 50 grams of dry rhizomes of fern for 3 liters of water, boil them for at least two hours, after which you can treat the affected skin or take a bath with such decoction.
Such wonderful means help to cure varicose veins, relieve the inflammatory process of the sciatic nerve, help get rid of rheumatism and cramps of the calf muscles. Depending on the course of the disease, the duration of treatment may be up to three weeks.
The presented plant is covered with a huge amount of scaly leaves. From an unusual top of a rhizome there are quite large leaves of pinocomplex type. They are wrapped in a snail-like way. In early autumn, amazing sporangia with spores develop on the underside of each leaf. At full maturity, spores get enough sleep, due to which fern breeding occurs.
The beneficial properties of the fern root can surprise even modern doctors, since it is in this part of the plant that unique healing components accumulate. Fern roots are an excellent means for removing toxins and toxins due to its cleansing effect. With the help of plant roots, you can successfully treat a wide variety of ailments. These include eczema, ulcers, extensive wounds, rheumatism, chronic constipation, as well as headaches and much more. Moreover, unusually healing rhizomes even tend to quickly restore the full functioning of the cardiovascular system.
In nature, there are various types of plants represented.
The fern is room. Room ferns attract attention due to their interesting carved leaves. For decoration and beauty, they have no equal among other indoor plants. In the room nephrolepis there are feathery leaves, reaching a length of 70 cm. The elegant appearance of the asplenium is distinguished by delicate segmented leaves and goblet rhizomes. At home, ferns require frequent spraying with plain water. They do not like direct sunlight and temperatures below 16 degrees Celsius. Watering ferns requires moderate, without drying out the soil.
Thai fern. Thai fern is a magnificent aquarium plant with long thin rhizomes and lanceolate bright green leaves of complex shape. As a rule, such a plant does not grow more than 30 cm. For normal development of plants, it is necessary to heat the aquarium in winter and cool it in a hot period. No need to change water frequently. With sufficient lighting, Thai fern is covered with large leaves of a rich green color. As a rule, one powerful incandescent lamp is enough for this, which will illuminate the aquarium for at least 12 hours.
Папоротник мужской. Папоротник мужской является травянистым многолетником, который вырастает до 100 см высотой. Он имеет мощное корневище и крупные листья, собранные пучком. Пластина каждого листа обладает удлиненной формой с отходящими заостренными рассечениями. Спорангии с многочисленными спорами располагаются на нижней стороне вдоль жилкования двумя рядами. Sporonosit male fern from July to August. This species grows beautifully in shady damp places in pine forests and among shrubs. From the fresh roots of such a plant get a great extract.
Indian fern. Indian fern is common in tropical areas around the globe. It is one of the most popular aquarium plants. Its beautiful small-cut leaves have a delicate green tint. As a rule, this species grows no more than 50 cm. Indian fern is optimal for small aquariums. When the temperature drops below 20 degrees Celsius, plant growth slows down significantly, and the leaves become very small. Protect the Indian fern from direct sunlight, but at the same time provide bright artificial light for a long time.
Fern red. The red fern is distinguished by young leaves that have a special reddish color. They have a longer and wider shape. The height of the red fern reaches no more than 30 cm with a width of about 15 cm. Ideal conditions for keeping this kind of species include temperatures ranging from 20 to 30 degrees Celsius, the average level of water hardness and a spacious aquarium. Keep in mind that such a fern grows very slowly, but does not require special care.
Fern tropical. This type of fern reaches 20 cm in height and has solid adventitious roots. In some plants, such adventitious roots form a kind of "skirt" around a powerful trunk. Tropical ferns in the form of vines rise high through the trees, where there is a lot of sunlight. Mossy tropical ferns live in small damp pits. With their lace leaves they absorb moisture. Various tropical plant species also settle in shady forests with high humidity.
Tree fern. The tree fern easily adapts to unusual conditions, but it does not like cold weather and strong winds. This plant prefers a warm climate. As a rule, it is found in many wet forests, sometimes it chooses lakes and swamps. Especially good tree fern feels in subtropical forests. A complex system of branches and pre-leaves forms long, peaked leaves. Leaf plates do not combine, creating dense thickets. Such a species, like other ferns, reproduces with the help of spores.
Fern water Water fern is widespread in Northern Australia and Southeast Asia. Small plant populations are found in Central America and in Tanzania. In modern aquarists such a plant is very popular due to its long, finely divided leaves of bright green color. In favorable conditions, the water fern can reach 50 cm. The optimum temperature for this type is about 25 degrees Celsius, the lighting can be an artificial source of light. This type of fern propagates through the formation of small daughter plants on the maternal old leaves.
Forest fern. To the group of forest fern species, such varieties as ostrich canyon, hedgehog, moth, multilander, leaflet, and bracken can be attributed.
They are distinguished by beautiful funnel-shaped rosettes of leaves, a rich shade and ease of care. The forest fern ostrich grows well on waterlogged soils and fairly open places. At the height of summer, forest ferns look like gorgeous green fountains. The ladder is represented by spreading bunches of leaves with short scales. It is a winter-hardy species, which is quite adapted to the Russian climate. Forest fern species prefer moist nutrient soils. The leaves of many species have a powerful bactericidal action.
Good for aquarium
Purifies water, absorbs beneficial and harmful substances. For a better water purification, place the fern in the center of the aquarium.
The floating view fits perfectly in any conditions, as well as a fern planted in the ground. Quite simple in content. Enough to follow a few simple rules.
Content in an aquarium
Priming. The fern has a delicate root system, you need to pick up soft soil. Suitable peat, pebbles and fine sand. For a medium-sized plant, the thickness should be 4 centimeters or more.
Water parameters. The temperature at which the plant will grow best is 24-28 degrees. The plant tolerates cold water, but it is not recommended. Water hardness should be up to 6 degrees. In running water, the plant will die, so it must be defended.
Aquarium Sizes. The size is chosen based on how large the plant is planned to grow.
Lighting. The fern can be pritenit, however good light will promote normal growth of a plant. Both artificial and natural light will do.
Aeration and filtration. Indian fern itself perfectly filters the water in the aquarium. Although additional oxygen is not prohibited.
Disease, treatment and prevention
This fern species does not have certain diseases. The reason for the deterioration and death of the plant can be improper care.
With the right care, this plant will make new shoots again and again.
You can buy in the markets, pet stores, where there are departments for the care of fish and aquariums. The cost of one bush is about 300 rubles.
In Oriental cuisine (Japanese, Korean, Chinese) fern is a very common product. It is often used in a variety of salads, soups, main dishes, used for baking bread. The fashion for Asian cuisine led to the distribution of the product, and resourceful Russians, in particular, residents of the Far East and Siberia, began to actively collect fern for export, as well as for personal consumption.
In the central and central regions of Russia, the fashion for fern harvesting has not yet reached a wide scale, but questions have already arisen. In industrial quantities, the plant is harvested in the Far Eastern regions and in Altai, is exported for Korean, Japanese consumers.
IMPORTANT! DANGEROUS PARASITES!
7 out of 10 people are infected with parasites of varying degrees of severity. Many live and suffer for years, leading a not fulfilling life and depriving themselves of pleasures and do not even suspect that they breed within themselves these terrible worms and larvae destroying internal organs. A simple tool will help get rid of parasites - you just need to drink on an empty stomach.
Of all the species diversity of these plants, the bracken fern is the most famous. That he goes on sale in retail chains. The ostrich can be eaten, but it is less common (in many countries and regions it is listed in the Red Book).
The bracken fern is a grassy low plant, the height usually ranges from 35 cm to 1 m. The leaves are dense, rigid, elongate-oval, dissected, located on the petioles, have a pronounced peculiar smell. The roots are strongly branched, due to which the plants can grow in large spaces. Breeding fern fern may also dispute, but they happen not every year, they ripen in the second half of summer.
The nutritional value
Orlyak is a low-calorie product, which makes it attractive for use in the diet menu.
There is a huge amount of biologically active substances, the richest set of micro and macro elements, vitamins. The protein composition is similar to cereals. The use of fern as food has a beneficial effect on growth, metabolism, mucous membranes and skin, and helps the proper functioning of the nervous system.
The most important unique feature of fern is the ability to remove toxic, toxic substances from the human body (including radiation). This is the first time noted by the people of Japan.
Medicine is also actively using the beneficial properties of fern, there are many popular medical recipes using bracken.
How to determine the collection time?
Fern sprouts, called rachises, are collected for food purposes. There is no definite collection time, it is necessary to “catch” the moment. Fern shoots begin to break out of the ground with the appearance of the first spring flowers. Professionals argue that the best time to collect - this is the period of flowering lilies. It was during this period that the sprouts reach their optimal size, but the leaf plates have not yet turned. If you start collecting early (and this is possible), the harvest will be significantly less. Depending on the growing area and weather conditions, the time for collection will fluctuate during the first or second decade of May.
Rachis have an unusual appearance: on the top of the shoots there is a funny squiggle that looks like a snail. The seedlings are pulled out, the nodule unfolds, and fern leaves appear. All this happens quickly, the process takes less than a week. During this period, and collect the fern for food. Taking into account the fact that sprouts do not appear at the same time, the collection continues no more than 20-25 days. The last for the shoots are sent to the ravines and other shady places. Later harvesting can not be done, as the plant will become hard, inedible, bitter and even dangerous to health.
Rachis are thick stalks of greenish color of different shades. They are covered with the finest down. The growth process of rachises is divided into 5 stages:
- the first is a shoot (he is a ring), a scape appears, rolled into a ring, like a snail,
- the second - undergrowth, elongation of the stalk, "snail" rises above the ground,
- the third - the disappearance of the bend, the sprout is stretched, straightened, but there is a roundness in the form of an unfolding "snail",
- the fourth is awl, the stalk is completely upright, the upper part is also unfolded,
- the fifth is a triple, the first leaves appear.
Begin collecting raw materials in 3 stages, when the rachises are drawn up. The optimal length is 20-25-30 cm. At this moment, the petioles are juicy, but they have not become coarse, fibrous, and have not accumulated harmful substances. It is best to collect sprouts when most of the shoots are in the last two stages. At this point, the rachises are stronger, less trampled and damaged during harvest, which will contribute to a stable harvest in subsequent seasons. On the site of cut sprouts new stems do not grow. The plant should form new buds on the rhizome, consuming a significant supply of nutrients. Therefore, it is recommended to leave a certain percentage of sprouts for reproduction.
Before collecting the raw materials, you need to make sure that the shoots are elastic, juicy, crunch when pressed. At this moment, all the sap of the plant is concentrated in the stem, and when the eagle leaves the leaves, the stem becomes dry, fibrous. Young rachises break well; it is better to tear them off, leaving “punechki” 4–5 cm high. It is desirable to sort the harvested crop by length, color, and bundle it (diameter no more than 10 cm). Align the beams on the tops, the lower part is exactly cut with a knife, secured with an elastic band. The tips of the rachises align immediately before use, cooking. Single sprouts are rarely found, most often they appear in 3-4 pieces. and sometimes with whole families.
Harvested raw materials are not subject to long-term storage. Before transportation to the destination, brace bundles are laid out freely in shady places, you can sprinkle with cold water, in no case are placed in a pile (fern starts to deteriorate due to overheating). Picked rachis cannot be stored for a long time without treatment, they darken, lose useful properties and become rough, unsuitable for food. Therefore, we must try to quickly deliver them to the place of processing. Before transporting the beams of bracken are placed in containers with a solid bottom, they must not be exposed to the rays of the sun, the container must be with holes for ventilation. Transportation is carried out quickly enough, since the shelf life of plants before processing should not exceed 9-10 hours. If the tips of the shoots began to darken and harden, they must be cut off. It is best if the product is recycled 3-4 hours after collection.
When harvesting on an industrial scale, the collected beams of bracken are salted in barrels at the place of harvesting. Salt put quite a lot (25% by weight of raw materials). The procurement process has its own subtleties and technological features. Drying of fern sprouts is also widely used, it is possible to use frozen semi-finished product.
It can be concluded that the fern is available for harvesting in many regions of Russia. The main thing is to correctly determine the time of collection, taking into account the territorial and weather conditions.
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What are ferns
Biologists secrete ferns into a whole department, which includes higher vascular perennials. Unlike ferns to other plants so that able to multiply spores .
On the reverse side of a fern leaf brown growths are formed, in which the spores grow to a certain period. The scalls are arranged in such a way that a pattern of an intricate pattern is formed on the sheet.
Fern to get a continuation of its kind, throws ripe disputes in the surrounding space. If the dispute gets to a growth-friendly soil, it will germinate, forming a tiny sprout.
The first generation, which comes, after germination of the spores received the name gametophyte. This generation looks almost in all species of ferns, as a small heart, consisting of two lobes.
The unusual breeding fern is that this miniature process there are sex cells called antheridia and archegonia. When between these cells merge occurs, the fern grows into the second generation, which has received the name - sporophyte.
The second generation is fully consistent with the idea that everyone used to remember when the word "fern".
It is this plant that sows its disputes in order to continue breeding ferns on all surfaces, where it is possible for such an unpretentious creation of nature.
Orlyak ordinary in folk medicine
The main use of this plant in folk medicine as anthelmintic. From the rhizome of a fern make a decoction, which is taken to get rid of the parasites that live in the intestines. But even the ancient doctors noted a positive effect from taking a decoction of young shoots:
- Stress relief.
- Normalization of metabolism.
- Increase performance.
- Growth process.
- Elimination of pain.
- Recharge iodine balance.
- Removal of radionuclides.
- Elimination of fever.
- Helps the body to properly form the skeleton.
From the decoction of the roots, you can prepare a tool that will help remove aching joints. Also help stop diarrhea. With the diagnosis of rickets, decoction can be taken to leave the disease forever.
For the manufacture of solutions and decoctions, it is better to contact specialists in traditional medicine in order to do no harm to yourself.
Common bracken fern can become a necessary plant both for preparing an exotic Japanese dish and for medical purposes. The main thing is to know what it looks like so as not to harm the body when it is collected.
- Author: Maya Sergeyevna Levina
The process of reproduction is that buds form on the surface of the leaves. To do this, divide the rhizome, so that 2-3 pieces remain on each part. The kidney will rise to the surface itself after the appearance of the new root system. The plant can be left to float or plant in the ground.
Difficulty in content
It is quite simple in content, which makes this species one of the most popular aquarium ferns.
Priming. For this type of soil is not a necessity. But almost any environment will do, even large stones. For better growth of the plant, mineral dressing should be carried out 1-2 times per month.
Water parameters. Comfortable water temperature not lower than 24 degrees, maximum - 28 degrees. Does not like muddy water. Soft water with hardness up to 6 is suitable. In old water, growth is noticeably slowed down, but there is no need for frequent cleaning. Enough only 2 times a month 1/5 of the volume of the aquarium.
Aquarium Sizes. It is equally easy to take root in aquariums of any size. But it would be best to look deep.
Lighting. For normal growth fit any lighting. But it is better to protect from direct sunlight.
Aeration and filtration. Feed oxygen is not necessary, however, it will have a positive effect.
Не терпит, когда часто беспокоят и пересаживают. Не сможет существовать с рыбами, которые роют грунт.
Чрезмерная забота о растении может негативно повлиять на его состояние. Strong filtration and other similar factors will only cause harm.
Subject to all conditions of habitat will long please their appearance.
Average price and where to buy
You can buy in the markets and pet stores, where there are departments for the care of fish and aquariums. The cost of a fern is about 100 rubles.
It reproduces in a way characteristic of its kind: vegetative. There is a division of rhizomes or transplanted young plant, which are detached from the leaves of the old.
Life expectancy will depend on whether the rules for plant care are followed.
You can buy in the markets and pet stores. The cost is 100 rubles.
Ferns are propagated by spores, which look like brown powder. In a humid environment at a temperature of 24-27 degrees, the plant gives young shoots very quickly.
- fern got its name due to external similarity with horns
- despite its ease of care, can reach 50 cm in length
There are general guidelines for the care of all kinds of aquarium ferns for the prevention of diseases:
- Do not overfill the plant and adhere to the desired water temperature.
- So that the disease does not pass from one plant to another, keep a distance when planting.
- Fight against weeds, as they take away mineral substances.
How and when to collect fern
For many, the fern is associated only with a beautiful legend, which tells about its blooming on the night of Ivan Kupala. Or bred it at home as an ornamental plant with large sweeping carved leaves.
Perhaps this knowledge of many of this plant and ends.
But the fern is quite an edible plant, the taste of which, when properly prepared, can be appreciated by even the most captious gourmet.
But the preparation of fern begins long before this action. After all, the taste depends on how well the preparation was carried out.
Where does the fern grow
There are a lot of fern species, but eat only two types - eagle and ostrich
Fern is a valuable culture that is used by the population for preparing snacks, main dishes, canning or pickling. Fern is also exported to Japan, Korea and other Asian countries, where fern dishes are in great demand.