Traditionally, farmers have planted potatoes in the hole, but at the moment another method of planting potatoes is gaining popularity. This - planting tubers in the ridges. And this method has not just become so popular. The fact is that potatoes can be planted with this method much earlier than in the wells, since there is no need to wait until the earth warms up, because only the top layer of sod is used. As well as the ridges quickly warmed in the sun, which improves the harvest.
Planting potatoes in combs by hand
This method is very good in that it facilitates the procedure of landing manually. Land can be prepared immediately before the procedure. Fill the ashes to the next bed and carefully dig up so that the fertilizer mixes evenly.
Combs must be located at a distance 40 centimeters. Thus, on a bed of 120 cm fit three rows. They are long mounds of earth, in which you need to put the tubers of potatoes, placing them at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other.
If weeds can simply be pulled out, then the situation with pests is more complicated. If there are pests on your site, such as a catfish and a wireworm, then it is necessary to pour it along with the fertilizer on the garden bed and poison for the pests and dig it up.
If there are pests on the site, the soil is processed and dug.
Proper cutting before planting
When the ground is fertilized and there are no weeds, it is necessary to cut the crests Location on. This is easy to do with an ordinary hoe.
On the loosened earth, make furrows, placing them at a distance of 40-50 cm. They will be paths between the ridges. Then form a mound in such a way that the ridges rise above the ground.
The higher the ridge, the better. Do not dig up the track, thereby forming it. It is necessary to rake the top layer into the embankment, as it is already heated and suitable for planting tubers.
Tubers, before planting this method, it is necessary carefully select. Potatoes should be without cracks and medium size.
The ideal, for planting ridge method, is potato the size of a chicken egg. Tubers should be left in a dark place so that they sprout a little. Strongly germinated tubers are not suitable for planting by this method.
Seed potatoes must be subjected to preplant preparation in the form of treatment with prophylactic and stimulating solutions, as well as gardening and germination. High-quality seed should have strong green shoots, no longer than 1.5-2 cm. For pre-treatment of potato tubers, it is desirable to use the drug Celeste Top at a dose of 0.4 l / t. It is possible to carry out treatment with a contact fungicidal agent of preventive action. "Maksim" to protect against a wide range of diseases, including rhizoctoniosis, silver scab, fusarium and fomoz.
Planting is carried out after warming up the soil to 8-10 ° C at a depth of half of the spade bayonet. Also, the timing of planting is determined by the readiness of the soil for high-quality processing. Immediately before planting seed tubers, a relatively deep digging of the soil to the depth of the arable layer should be carried out. If the site is prepared in the fall, you can make manure, humus or compost. Tubers grown on well-fertilized soil have optimal culinary qualities and are better preserved during the winter period.
After digging, it is necessary to make even furrows, the depth of which should not exceed 8-10 cm. СThe standard distance between rows of planted potatoes should be 65-70 cm. Organic or mineral fertilizers can be applied to prepared furrows before planting seed potatoes and sprinkled with fertile soil, 2-3 cm in height. In this case, the depth of the furrows should be about 5 cm longer. more than 3 l / ha, which will protect the potato from rhizoctoniosis, located in the soil.
Germinated and processed potato tubers are laid in the furrows at a distance of 25-30 cm from each other and sprinkled with soil on both sides, which allows forming a relatively high ridge. Standard height and width of the ridge are approximately 10x20 cm. Such ridges will be the best protection for tubers in late spring frosts.
It should be noted that for the correct formation of a tuberous nest above the bottom of the row spacings, seed potatoes are deepened by 6-8 cm, taking into account the distance from the top of the ridge to the surface of the planting material. The average planting density of potatoes using this method is about 60 thousand seed tubers per 1 ha.
Advantages of combed potato planting
The essence of the method lies in the fact that potatoes are grown in crests, formed by hand or with the help of motorcycles. If the land is clayey and wet, it is difficult to achieve a good harvest by planting "under the shovel." Dense soil prevents tubers from developing normally. The kidney, from which the tuber is formed, dies in solid and moist soil. There is a blight that ruins the crop. Planting in the ridges will help avoid these problems.
The ridge method is well suited for clay and wet soils.
Combs warm faster, there is no excess moisture, and the earth is saturated with air. In such conditions, the root system is developing intensively. Formed a large number of stolons - embryos of future tubers. The advantages of using the ridge method compared with landing in the ridge "under the shovel":
- 1.5 times increase in yield on heavy soils
- planting potatoes earlier,
- reduction of labor intensity due to the combination of planting and hilling,
- the ability to loosen the soil and remove weeds before germination.
This method cannot be applied on loose soil. It is difficult to form ridges out of it, because the ground will constantly crumble and erode.
The ridge method is not suitable for the southern regions, as the soil dries out very quickly, and constant watering is needed.
Potato seed technology
A field for planting potatoes is dug up in the autumn, weeds are removed, and fertilizers are added. In spring, the soil does not require deep digging. They dig up the earth by about 12–15 cm, then loosen the soil and level it. Potatoes reach for germination for 1–1.5 months before planting.
To speed up the germination of tubers, they are sprayed with a solution of mineral fertilizers, micronutrients, wood ash or growth stimulant. For the prevention of disease, the tubers are treated with copper sulfate solution (1 teaspoon to 3 liters of water).
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Tubers are first germinated indoors until eyes appear. In the case of manual cutting of the crests, the seeds can be sprinkled with earth to form roots in the seedlings.
Manual planting of tubers
Landing is carried out in one day with plowing the ground. Combs are located from north to south, so the plants will receive more light. There are three techniques of planting potatoes in the ridges:
- Prepare grooves in which the potatoes are laid out to a depth of 4 cm. Tubers are poured with earth from the rows.
- On the pegs pull the rope, outlining the ridge. Potatoes laid out right on the ground along the tags. Tubers covered with earth, forming a ridge.
- The crest is formed with a sapka, the potatoes are laid out in the upper part of the crest to a depth of 6–8 cm.
Tubers should be at a distance of 20-30 cm from each other. The aisle is left from 65 to 80 cm. The ridges are raised to a height of 8–10 cm, the width of the base of the ridge should be 30–35 cm. You cannot form a ridge with a triangle, because the shoots will go to the sides, not up. This is wrong - the yield of potatoes will be less.
When planting potatoes in the ridges, it is important to observe distances
Two weeks later, until the shoots appeared, you need to manually or using mechanisms to loosen the rows and form a comb in the form of a trapezoid 23–25 cm high. The width at the bottom of the ridge is 75 cm, at the top - 15–17 cm. The width between the rows allows you to care for potatoes, without trampling the foundation comb, where potatoes grow.
Mechanized landing methods
Fitting into the ridges is easy to mechanize: for this purpose they use motor-cultivators with special nozzles. Plant tubers using one of the devices:
- double row hiller
- potato planter.
When choosing a device for planting potatoes, one should take into account the pros and cons of nozzles used for this type of work.
How to plant potatoes
Planting potatoes in the ridges is divided into several stages:
- Soil preparation and fertilizer.
- Preparation of tubers.
- The formation of the ridges.
- Planting potatoes.
When the bed is already formed, you can proceed directly to the landing. To do this, on the top of the ridge it is necessary to lay the tubers at a distance of 30-35 cm apart and sprinkle with earth using hands. If the ground is dry, then you can water after the procedure.
Caring for garden beds should be carried out in the same way as with the usual method, i.e. pull weeds and loosen. And also, when shoots appear (20-25 days after planting) at 7-10 centimeters, the beds must be treated with a solution of potassium permanganate, taking 2 grams of the substance per bucket. At the same time, you can fertilize the ridges with any liquid fertilizer.
In dry weather, ridges must be watered. Basically, they are watered once a month in moderate weather and twice per month with arid.
Watering is carried out 1-2 times a month.
And also, as soon as potato sprouts appear, it is necessary to loosen the beds and sprinkle them with earth with the help of chopper. After the rain, they must be restored with a hoe, returning them to their original appearance.
Harvest must be collected in the spring (end of August - beginning of September), previously removing the tops from the beds 2 weeks before harvest. This will help ripen tubers.
Harvested potatoes need to be stored before storage. dry and get rid of lumps of earth. Keep the crop must be in a dark and cool place. Traditionally, potatoes are stored in the cellar.
After harvesting, it is necessary to take care of fertilizing the land for the next year. So, between the crests, grass and leaves are laid. And also often needles are laid on them. During the winter the grass rot, thus fertilizing the ground.
After harvesting it must be thoroughly dried.
Landing on the Dutch technology
This method gives a richer crop than the traditional. Its peculiarity lies in the fact that after planting the potatoes are removed from the ridges when it has sprouted and re-selected.
The first planting for the germination of tubers held very thick. Potatoes must be planted very close to each other.
Sprouted potatoes taken and re-planted in the ridges, having the tubers at a distance of 30-35 cm from each other, sprinkling with earth. Combs must be up to 30 cm high.
Pros and cons of the method
The method of landing in the ridges has both its advantages and disadvantages.
- High yield, compared with the traditional method of planting tubers.
- The land is less depleted, because every year you can alternate between the location of ridges and tracks.
- Combs are well warmed, thereby improving yields.
- Such a method makes it possible for oxygen to penetrate to the root system, thus development is faster.
- There is no need to pile up the beds often.
- With a large amount of precipitation, the roots of potatoes do not rot, as excess moisture rolls along the ridge, and with a lack of moisture, the ridges restrain the necessary amount of water for the development of the root system.
- Thanks to the ridges, snow retention is improved in winter, which gives good soil moisture in spring.
- Accelerated drying of the soil, which leads to a constant watering and considerable expenditure on water.
- Not suitable for light soils., as in windy weather, they crumble, exposing the tuber. Such land quickly becomes poorer and requires constant feeding in the form of fertilizer. Loose land quickly gives rise to weeds and pests, which affects the yield of potatoes.
Is it possible to plant not manually
So, with the help of a motorblock form crests. To do this, the walker must go through the beds, where the wheels pass, paths are formed, and between them themselves crests. Potatoes, after this method of forming ridges, planted manually.
After planting potatoes, along the beds, the walker is again being walked by a walk-behind tractor, in order to fill the tubers with soil.
And also often used hiller, because planting with this unit is less costly and easy.
For the formation of ridges, you can use the walker.
The package of equipment includes items such as:
- Burs - to form furrows,
- Conveyor - to feed tubers,
- Distributor - forms the time segments of the filing of potatoes,
- Hiller - for sleep tubers land.
Basically, auxiliary equipment is used for a large area.
This method of planting potatoes has become very popular, thanks to its simplicity and ease. Many farmers have long used the Dutch method, mainly to increase the yield. Of course, as in any method, it has its pros and cons. But he has much more advantages than disadvantages.
Features planting potatoes in the ridges
The essence of the ridge method is that the potatoes are planted in the ridges, towering above the ground. This is done to ensure that the soil does not prevent the tubers from growing, since it is the pressure of dense earth that prevents their growth. Combs are prepared both manually and by machine. Row landing has its advantages and disadvantages.
Benefits of Combs
The first and main advantage of this method is an increase in yield. The loose and soft earth, which the crests consist of, does not press on the roots and tubers. Therefore, potatoes without interference grows deep into. At the roots continuously formed new tubers, and the harvest, as a result, increases. Harvesting is also easier - the ridges are dug up even by hand, and the potatoes are cleaned easily and without problems.
The second advantage is that during manual landing there is no need for deep digging. It is enough to loosen the top layer of soil, which with the help of sap or hoe is poured on tubers laid out on the ground. Therefore, only the top layer of soil is fertilized. Combs planting potatoes used on heavy and wet soils that are difficult to process. Phytophtorosis develops in a similar land in solanaceous crops. Crests are better heated by sunlight, which also benefits plants.
The drawback landing
The main disadvantage of the method is accelerated drying of the soil. In a climate in which summer is hot and rain does not happen often, watering potatoes becomes a separate problem. It is necessary to constantly pour out considerable volumes of water on the beds so that they do not dry out and die. Therefore, bedding planting is used either in cold and wet areas, or where it is possible to constantly water the site. Those who grow potatoes on an industrial scale are advised to purchase automatic watering systems.
Ridge method of growing potatoes is not suitable for light soils. Combs collected from such land are weathered and dried in the sun, which degrades the quality of the soil and makes it impossible to get a harvest. The land becomes poorer and requires additional fertilizer. Even in loose crests, weeds and pests feel at ease, which are not easy to fight.
Site preparation for planting potatoes in the ridges
In order to successfully plant potatoes using the combed method, it is necessary to prepare a plot before this. This preparation consists of the whole complex of works - loosening of the soil, fertilizer, destruction of weeds and pests. Everything must be done according to the rules and on time, only this way it will be possible to collect a really good harvest. A gardener must also remember that planting solanaceous crops in the same place can be no more than once every three or four years.
Tillage for row planting potatoes
It all starts with loosening the top layer of soil. Evenly digs the entire area to a depth of two-thirds of the length of the spade bayonet. Then the soil is carefully loosened and leveled. Where potatoes will grow, they plant legumes before that. Beans, peas, soybeans or lentils will enrich the soil with substances that accelerate the growth of potatoes. White mustard, phacelia, and buckwheat are planted before this solanaceous crop - these siderats are also useful for the future harvest.
Even in order to get a crop, the soil should be fertilized. Both mineral and organic fertilizers are used. But it should be remembered that an excess of organic matter in the soil will make it a favorable environment for phytophtoras. But it is not recommended to overdo it with mineral fertilizers, otherwise they will burn the roots of the plants. Potatoes and phosphorus are required for development of potatoes, and the soil must be enriched with those substances that contain these elements. Here is a list of the necessary fertilizers:
- Wood ash
- Bone flour
- Potassium nitrate
Борьба с вредителями и подготовка клубней для посадки
In order to get a crop, it is necessary to get rid of pests and diseases, in particular, from late blight. There are two ways to deal with these plagues. The first is the treatment of the site with pesticides and fungicides. They will help get rid of everything that spoils the potatoes, but if used improperly, the soil will be contaminated with unwanted chemicals. The second method is the use of technology of effective microorganisms. But what the gardeners themselves say about this method:
“EM technology is a useful thing, no one will argue with that. But they must be applied wisely. View educational videos, read the necessary articles. Otherwise, one mistake - and all the work down the drain. Crop will not be "
Tubers for planting are selected clean, without flaws, not rotten and without cracks. In size, they are compared to a chicken egg - this is exactly the size of tubers suitable for planting. They must be elastic and not yet germinated. Chooses the best varieties of potatoes, because it gives the highest yields. Failure to comply with at least one of the items will reduce the harvest and make the whole preparation useless.
Dutch potato planting method
Planting potatoes in the ridges produced in two ways. The first of them - on the Dutch technology. It differs in high complexity, but brings the worthy harvest. This method requires compliance with the terms of planting and harvesting potatoes. And still it is necessary to carry out all complex of works on preparation for landing in time.
Combs landing - the essence of the method
The technology of mechanized cultivation of potatoes on the ridges came from Holland and received a binding to local realities. The method of growing potatoes on the ridges has long been used on heavy soils with a close groundwater table. Manually digging furrows, and on the tops of the ridges shallow planted tubers.
The bush was formed raised above the general level of the beds: excess moisture quickly left, the side surface of the ridge warmed up well.
Pros and cons of technology
The method of planting in the ridges in the North-Western region has been used since the time of Peter I and allows to get high yields under conditions that correspond little to potato culture:
- Growing on the crests of potatoes of local varieties allows you to double the yield, compared with the traditional method of planting under a shovel.
- The soil on raised ridges warms much faster than the level surface of a traditional garden bed, which allows planting work to begin much earlier.
- For growing potatoes suitable areas with heavy clay soils and closely located groundwater levels - excess moisture from the soil raised to the ridge quickly goes into the soil or disappears.
- The use of small-scale mechanization makes it possible to process potato planting much faster.
- In the process of vegetation, the potato bush is aerated and illuminated from all sides: the risk of late blight and other fungal diseases is reduced. The yield increases, the collected tubers with no signs of disease are stored much better.
The drawback of the ridge method is one and significant: the soil in the ridges dries very quickly.
In the southern regions, it is impossible to grow potatoes on the ridges without regular watering. For the same reason, it is impossible to apply the method in areas with loose sandy soils: through the sand the water leaves instantly, and the loose ridge does not hold the shape.
An automatic or other irrigation system significantly increases the cost of grown tubers, therefore the method is used only on areas with wet soil.
Pre-plant preparation site
Before cutting the ridges in the area for a potato bed, it is necessary to prepare the soil. All work should be done in time, so as not to be late with the planting of potatoes.
- Loosening the top layer of soil to a depth of 10-12 cm (1/3 of the spade bayonet), followed by leveling the surface of the bed.
- Fertilization, mineral or organic, in reasonable measures, so as not to burn the roots of plants and not cause outbreaks of late blight from excess nitrogen in the soil. The main focus should be on phosphorus and potassium - these elements regulate fruit formation and resistance to adverse factors. Potassium nitrate, double superphosphate, bone meal and wood ash are most commonly used.
- Removal of weeds and plant debris.
- Pest control. Soil cultivation from wireworms, bears, and larvae of the cockchafer should be carried out strictly according to the instructions, not exceeding the specified concentration.
How to prepare tubers for planting in the ridge mode
Seed material, planting potatoes, should be purchased only from sellers with a proven reputation or to harvest themselves. Of the entire range should be selected only zoned varieties. There is a great risk that the imported variety of southern potatoes with high yields will not have time to ripen and will show very mediocre results.
It’s safest to take an elite variety for landing: they barely get sick, they are less spoiled by pests. The elite surpasses the usual varieties in taste.
"Adretta", "Naiad", "Pushkin", "Zhukovsky Early", "Impala" and other varieties of early term produce a high crop of tubers in the North-West region.
For planting choose tubers the size of a chicken egg. Approximately 1 month before the estimated planting date, potatoes are brought into a warm room for vernalization. Sprouting tubers accelerates the emergence of shoots for at least 1 week.
In the process of vernalization, it is necessary to prevent rot and fungal diseases: treat with a weak solution of copper sulphate (1 teaspoon per 1 liter of hot water) with an ordinary sprayer.
When the sprouts reach a size of 5-10 mm, the tubers are ready for planting. It is advisable to treat the tubers with a growth stimulator the day before. Available and very effective drug that has a universal purpose - succinic acid. Application, according to the instructions on the packaging, accelerates metabolism: enhances the growth of the aerial parts and the development of the root system.
Tubers are better planted with short processes, long roots worse, the root system is formed slowly.
We form crests correctly
To obtain a rich crop of tubers it is necessary to form a ridge of a certain shape. Its cross-section should be an isosceles trapezoid with a height of 15-17 cm, a base of 75 cm lower and 25 cm upper.
This configuration is given either manually (hoe, hoe), or special devices and mechanisms.
- Before cutting the ridges in the garden, they loosen and harrow.
- Produce cutting ridges with spacing of 70-80 cm and a height of 12-15 cm on light soils, 20 cm - on clay.
- 2-3 days ridges warm up.
- Sprouted tubers are laid out manually in the furrows.
- They plant potatoes on the ground and form ridges.
It is more convenient and faster to plant potatoes in the ridges using a mini-tractor with a mounted potato planter. This is a universal unit that performs operations in 1 pass:
- cuts ridges
- puts the tubers,
- sleeps their soil.
Some models also fertilize at the same time. The height of the ridges is easily adjustable: just change the angle of attachment of the threaded discs.
Motorblocks with interchangeable nozzles are used not only during the planting of potatoes, but also for processing between rows: the cultivator does not just loosen the ground - it is an effective replacement for weeding.
Preparation of planting material (tubers)
Plant only need selected tubers. It is necessary to choose small copies without flaws. The size of a chicken egg can be considered the best.
Before planting, the tubers are kept in the dark so that they grow slightly. Do not delay the process, because too germinated tubers are not suitable for planting.
Important! Before planting, the seed material is treated with seedlings.
Experienced gardeners will not experience great difficulties in growing potatoes. As usual, weeds are removed regularly, periodic loosening is performed. After about a month, the seedlings will reach sizes of about 8-10 cm. At this time, treatment with potassium permanganate solution is necessary. On a bucket of water put 2 g of the substance. At the same time a good liquid fertilizer is added.
If it rains rarely, it is impossible to do without watering. It is necessary to water every month even in moderate weather. In dry times, watering is done twice a month.
When the first shoots appear, it is necessary to loosen the beds and sprinkle them with earth. Chopper is well suited for this purpose. After precipitation, the beds are restored with a hoe.
The use of the Dutch method increases the yield. It lies in the fact that the potatoes after planting and germination are removed from the ridges and re-selected.
The first planting for germination is usually made very thick. Tubers are planted at a very short distance from each other.
After selection, the plant is returned back to the ridge, seated at a distance of 30 cm, powdered with earth. The height of the ridge should be no more than 30 cm.
Advantages and disadvantages of the method
The advantages of the method include:
- Higher yields
- Careful attitude to the soil, which preserves fertility, due to the alternation of the places of paths and beds every season,
- The best heating of the roots
- Enhanced plant development due to the access of oxygen,
- Rarer hilling,
- Abundant rainfall does not cause rotting of plants
- Sufficient moisture in the absence of rain
- Combs provide effective snow retention in winter, which gives good soil moisture in spring.
There are disadvantages of the technique:
- Intensive drying out of the soil requires more frequent irrigation,
- For light soil, the technique is not applicable, because the wind blows the soil, reveals the root system. The soil in this case is rapidly becoming poorer, needs regular feeding, fertilizer. On loose soil, weeds grow faster and better, pests are bred, which reduces the yield.
The use of technology
Even this simple method can be implemented with the involvement of the means of mechanization of labor. Planting potatoes by walking tractors facilitates the process.
For the formation of ridges, you can use the walker. With its passage at the place of movement of the wheels formed tracks, ridges are located between them. Then, planting potatoes is done manually. Potato planting depth ordinary. Seed potatoes are buried by 6-8 cm, given the distance from the top of the ridge to the surface of the earth.
Tubers sprinkled with soil as a result of another passage of the tiller. The okuchnik can be used. This unit is less expensive and easier to use.
The technique is usually presented in the following configuration:
- The furrow is used to perform furrows,
- The transporter serves tubers,
- The distributor forms certain time intervals in the supply of tubers,
- Okuchnik serves for sleeping soil.
It is advisable to use auxiliary mechanisms for large areas.
The presented method is popular, it is appreciated for its undemanding and simplicity. Often, farmers prefer the Dutch method, which guarantees increased yields. In the presence of positive and negative sides of the technique, the advantages are more often outweighed. More details on how what potatoes to plantcan be viewed in the video below.
Watch the video! Planting potatoes for walking tractors and small tips
Ridge landing using Dutch technology
After preparing the site, carried out according to the described method, the gardener prepares planting material. To do this, on the site, on the prepared soil, planted tubers selected for the production of this material. Planting is carried out thickly, so that 30-35 bushes grow on one square meter. Then they are dug up and collected potatoes for germination. On the tubers should be 5-7 eyes, or more.
Selected tubers before planting or germinated or kept warm, so that one way or another to activate the growth process. Landing is made at a depth of 3-4 centimeters. The distance between planting tubers in a row is 30-35 centimeters, and between rows - from 0.8 to 1 meter. After planting, trenches are dug in the middle between rows, manually or with the help of machines, and the earth is carefully poured from the trenches into tubers. As a result, germinated potatoes are at a depth of 20-30 cm under the ground. When forming the ridges, care must be taken not to damage the planting material.
Garden care and harvesting potatoes
Careful preparation for planting and selection of tubers for planting are carried out with one goal - to reduce the number of actions for the care of the bed. According to the Dutch technology of planting potatoes, weeds do not require weeding, spraying with insecticides and fungicides. The gardener only needs to water the site on time.
In order to avoid crop losses due to late blight, the harvest of potatoes planted in this way is carried out earlier than usual. 12-14 days before harvesting, the entire tops are removed, and the tubers remain in the soil. So they strengthen the skin, and completes the process of maturation.
After that, the potatoes are harvested, and the ridges are broken and leveled at the site. It is important to remember that sowing potatoes with the Dutch method is allowed no more than once every four years, in the same place.
Classic potato planting
This method is used by those gardeners whose site is located on dense and wet soils, in particular, loams. In such conditions, the potato is vulnerable to late blight, which is able to destroy the future harvest in one week. This method differs from the Dutch technology, although both are combed. It is designed for those who can not afford to machine the site.
Planting potatoes by the ridge method
This procedure begins with the preparation of rows. On the plot for planting stretched stretches of twine, which indicate the middle of future rows. The distance between these segments is 1-1.2 meters. After that, planting tubers are laid along the rope. The distance between them is 0.25-0.3 meters for early varieties and 0.35 meters for later ones. After that, with a hoe or sap, crests form.
The earth is piled on top of the potato, without deepening it into the soil. The height of the ridge is about a quarter of a meter, and the width at the base is 60-75 cm. In the future, the ridges are watered and restored as needed. Restoration is done by the same soda, in upward movements, scooping up the showered soil.
Potato harvesting and tillage field harvesting
Potatoes are removed manually - the top layer of the earth is shifted, and the tubers are harvested. The crests are being dug up, and the stems of cut siderats, grass and leaves are laid on them. You can not leave the harvested potatoes, it attracts pests. In order to quickly fertilize the soil, cutting of green manure stalks is carried out. After that, they are laid on the remaining ridges, where they perepryvat over the winter.
In small areas, potatoes are planted between rows in the next year, and the ground from last year's crests is poured over the seed material. But this is done only if it is not possible to leave the land under steam. It is desirable to give the soil a rest for one year, or sow it with legumes or plants with honey plants. This is done to restore fertility.
The method is good because it does not require significant time and effort. Using technology allows you to process the bed quickly and efficiently:
- When planning to plant potatoes on a specific date, 4 weeks before this, potatoes should be brought from the cellar for germination. The first 2 weeks should be kept warm (15-18 ° C). After the sprouts appear, the tubers must be removed to a cool place (8-10 ° C) for hardening.
- When the weather conditions allow, the plot for potatoes must be shallowly digged 10-12 cm (1 / 3-1 / 2 bayonet spade) and mark the rows in the direction "north - south", so the plants will get maximum illumination. Rows mark up with stretched twine - the distance between rows is 80-100 cm.
- The stretched rope is the middle of the future crest. Sprouted tubers are laid out along it at a distance of 30 cm from each other.
- A common hoe forms a comb about 10 cm high with a base width of 30-35 cm over potatoes laid in a row.
- After the emergence of seedlings (after about 2 weeks), the crest is formed in such a way that a trapezoid about 25 cm high is cut in the section, the lower base is 75 cm, the upper one is 15-17 cm.
A wide aisle allows an adult to move around the site with the tools and take care of potato bushes.
All further care for the bed consists of watering as needed and restoring the shape of the ridges with a hoe.
Planting potatoes in the ridges. Features of the procedure
However, before you start planting, you need to make sure that you carefully studied all the details of the upcoming events. Failure to comply with the slightest rules would entail unpleasant consequences, up to a complete loss of the harvest. Therefore, first understand the principle and all sorts of "pitfalls" of this technique.
The selected material is necessarily processed with all sorts of preparations. It is necessary for prophylactic and stimulating agents that promote rapid gardening and germination. Учитывайте такой момент, что картофель для посадки в гребни должна располагать крепкими зелеными ростками, длиной 1,5-2 сантиметра. Клубни предварительно помещаются в раствор «Селест-топа» при дозировке 0,4 л/т.Contact fungicides, such as "Maxim", provide comprehensive protection against all kinds of diseases, among which:
You can start planting potatoes if the soil temperature reaches 10 degrees Celsius, burying the planting material to a depth of half a spade bayonet. The exact date of the landing depends on the state of the ground and on the successful implementation of the preparatory activities. Before the action it is necessary to carry out a deep digging of the soil to the depth of the arable layer. When preparing the site for the autumn period, you can begin to apply organic fertilizers, such as manure, humus or compost.
If the tubers are grown on well-fertilized soil, their taste properties will be simply amazing. In addition, vegetables can be perfectly preserved for a long period.
After careful treatment of the soil, it is necessary to equip smooth furrows, a depth of 8-10 centimeters. It is important to keep the distance between the rows of 65-70 centimeters, making appropriate dressings in the prepared furrows. It is important to cover the pits with fertile soil, which was amenable to treatment with “Quadris” at a calculation of 3 liters per hectare. Such a drug perfectly protects the culture from the effects of rhizoctoniosis capable of living in the ground.
Proper formation of the tuberous nest above the bottom of the aisles is possible when the seed potatoes are deepened by 6-8 centimeters, taking into account the distance from the top to the landing surface. The average density should be 60 thousand units per 1 ha.
To make the procedure as successful as possible, it is important to prepare the ground in advance, respecting all the features of such an event. They are as follows:
- hard soil loosening,
- cleaning the beds from weeds and pests,
- making feedings
It is important to have time to hold such events according to the rules and on time. Otherwise, you will not see a good harvest. In addition, you should not forget that planting potatoes in one place after other solanaceous crops should not be, if you do not observe the interval in 3-4 years.
The first stage of soil preparation is to thoroughly loosen the top layer. Here you need to evenly dig up the entire landing area, plunging a shovel two-thirds of the length of the bayonet. Then it is necessary to loosen and level the upper layers. Many gardeners recommend planting peas, soybeans or lentils in front of potatoes. It is known that these legumes positively affect the quality of the land, enriching it with priceless vitamins. Also, landing after white mustard, phacelia and buckwheat shows itself well.
Then you need to properly and abundantly feed the soil, using mineral or organic means. At this stage, you need to be careful, knowing that the excess organic matter is bad for yields. For example, if you use nitrogen fertilizers for a long time, it can improve the development of green mass, but adversely affect the growth of fruits. In addition, if the earth is too overfed with organic matter, it creates comfortable conditions for the rapid formation of a dangerous fungal infection - late blight. However, with mineral dressing you need to be careful. An excess of drugs of mineral origin leads to roasting of the roots, and sometimes to the complete destruction of the culture.
For normal functioning and good yield, potatoes are sufficiently potash and phosphate fertilizers, which are made in accordance with established schedules. Among essential fertilizers:
- Wood ash,
- Bone flour,
- Potassium nitrate,
Dealing with problems and handling planting material
In order for the work to give you excellent results, take care cleaning the planting area from all sorts of pests and insects, including dangerous phytophthora. Today, summer residents use two pest control techniques.
The first is processing with pesticides and fungicidesthat contribute to the rapid prevention of fungal manifestations.
Such funds get rid of the dangerous inhabitants of the soil and effectively protect the culture. If chemicals are used incorrectly, this can only aggravate the situation and cause burning of the planting material.
The second technique is more modern. It is the use of effective microorganisms "EM". However, according to gardeners, this option requires special skills and knowledge. We'll have to study all the features of the procedure and follow the instructions in absolute precision. Otherwise, any mistakes can cause the death of the crop or the loss of the crop.
When selecting tubers for planting in the soil using clean planting material, on which there are no flaws, putrid formations and cracks. Their optimal size should be comparable to a chicken egg. It is important that the tubers remain elastic and not very sprouted. For planting it is better to use proven varieties with excellent yield. If one of the established points is not respected, the harvest can be completely forgotten, and the preparation will have to be called unsuccessful.
Features comb planting potatoes
If you are going to plant potatoes in the ridges, pay attention to two ways. The first is called Dutch and requires certain skills.
Important here take into account varietal characteristics of planting material and precisely observe the time of planting and harvesting. In addition, it is necessary to implement preparatory measures in time, otherwise everything will be in vain.
After a thorough preparation of the territory, which is carried out in accordance with the established requirements, it remains to start preparing the tubers. At this stage, suitable specimens are planted in the prepared substrate, adhering to a density of 30-35 bushes per square meter. The distance between the rows should be between 0.8-1 meters. After planting between the rows, small trenches should be dug, piling the obtained earth directly on the tubers. As a result, sprouted planting material will be at a depth of 20-30 centimeters under the ground. At the stage of the formation of ridges need to be careful not to damage the tubers.
Features of harvesting
When the outflow of nutritious juices from the green part of the bush to the potato tubers begins, the tops begin to turn yellow and dry out, starting from the top of the bush. At this time, the upper part of the bush must be cut and removed from the site. After 2 weeks, the tubers are fully prepared for harvesting: the skin has fully hardened.
You can harvest without tools, shifting the upper part of the ridge with your hand. Physical effort is required. Tuber rind remains intact, which contributes to the long-term storage of potatoes without the appearance of rot.
Autumn soil preparation
The highly efficient method of growing potatoes in the ridges depletes the soil. After harvesting, you need to take measures to restore the balance of nutrients in one of 2 ways:
- Under plowing make humus at the rate of 5-10 kg per 1 square. m
- Sow the site with green manure (mustard, oilseed radish, legumes).
Siderats not only enrich the earth with nitrogen, they improve the structure of the soil layer, they feed the soil microorganisms, which has a beneficial effect on fertility.