Brussels sprouts - a biennial plant of an unusual type (there is something exotic in it, resembling a palm tree) with a growth period of about six months in the first summer forms coaches used in cooking along the thick stem, and in the second it works for seeds. This vegetable crop is demanding of light, loves moisture, and tolerates lower temperatures. It continues to grow during cold spells up to 5-8 C and even short frosts.
The article describes the characteristics of the plant, describes the cultivation of Brussels sprouts in the open field, gives the main agrotechnical techniques.
Brussels Sprouts: Growing and Leaving Climate-dependent
The climate of our country is rather complicated for the cultivation of certain crops. In contrast to Europe with the Gulf Stream and mild winters extending the growing season of many vegetables, cultivation of Brussels sprouts in the Urals limited to seasonal frames and serious temperature changes. Too early transshipment to the ground is not justified, because under the influence of strong return frosts killed the most seasoned Brussels sprouts. Her growing in Siberia relevant only through seedlings planted at nearly two months in the first 15 days of May.
Brussels sprouts growing and care photo
Growing brussels sprouts in the suburbs It has its own characteristics: it is necessary to choose early or early-medium varieties, which have time to give the harvest for the season, and the gradual collection of coaches to coincide with mid-October. For example, the well-known variety “Hercules 1342” is Brussels sprouts regionalized for this area. Its cultivation and care in the suburbs are engaged in genuine gardening enthusiasts, seeking to place in the dacha most of the famous garden plants.
Varieties of Brussels sprouts
A little more than a dozen varieties of this vegetable are listed in the State Register of Russia. To understand which variety is better to plant, you should examine the proposed range.
Cabbage Brussels Hercules cultivation
Cabbage Brussels Hercules. The cultivation of a well-known domestic variety is due to its external and taste characteristics. Late-ripening variety with a cone-shaped stalk, on which oval coaches are strung, does not go beyond the limits of average height. Small cabbage heads are great for cooking, home-made products (pickling, freezing, canning with other vegetables). However, it is less popular compared to the “Hercules 1342” variant, which yields a higher yield and is immune to cabbage diseases.
Cabbage Brussels Rosella cultivation
Cabbage Brussels Rosella. Cultivation of a medium-early variety bred by German breeders, capable of almost completely giving up the crop at the same time, makes it indispensable for gardeners who do not “live” on beds and are content with rare arrivals. Like any other Brussels sprouts, Rosella, according to the rules of agrotechnics, is useful for growing and caring for adult plants, it contains a fair amount of vitamin C and folic acid. In case of violation of agrotechnical techniques - excessive fertilizing with nitrogen-containing fertilizers - it is capable of accumulating harmful nitrates.
Cabbage brussels sprouts growing
Cabbage Brussels Sapphire. Growing on a summer cottage of a late variety, requiring more than 200 days to ripen the crop, is possible only in areas with early spring and long autumn. However, its stunning taste compensates for the labor costs of gardeners to transfer plants to greenhouses to grow with the onset of a steady cooling. And if you want to try the roaches with excellent taste, it can be planted in the middle lane.
Brussels sprouts Casio cultivation
Cabbage Brussels Casio. Growing an average growth and maturity of a variety decorated with a blue-green tip guarantees a large number of good chandeliers on each plant. A bountiful harvest is an excellent way to plant exactly this sort of Czech selection, which is tasty both fresh and thermally processed. This variety has a light nutty note, which adds interesting shades when cooking green salads.
You saw Brussels sprouts in the photo: we will see the cultivation of different varieties below (in principle, the same for all varieties of agricultural technology).
Cultivation of Brussels sprouts from sowing to harvest
If you previously planted a beautiful white-haired beauty in your garden, then you can cope with Brussels. In addition to new experience in planting an interesting plant to collect a decent harvest, and not to waste time on fighting cabbage diseases and pests, it is worth learning a few simple rules. One of them is the mandatory observance of the process of crop rotation (planting shifts). Return any kind of cabbage to where it grew in 4-5 years. The annual use of one corner of the garden for cabbage crops will lead to depletion of the soil, the accumulation of pathogenic bacteria and viruses, and as a result - the outbreak of diseases, poor plant growth, low yields.
- Sow seeds need at the end of March, can be in containers on the windowsill or in the greenhouse.
- Agrotechnika growing seedlings is simple: rare abundant watering, protection from pests (it is necessary to process in a timely manner, as the cruciferous flea can destroy all shoots within 24 hours). It is best to pererahovatsya, patting the seeds before sowing with a special compound (for example, "Prestige" - 1 cube per half liter of water). Next, simply weed the plants, so that they do not stretch out. No picking required!
- Planted in the ground can be at a height of 10 cm seedlings. She will already have 4-5 true leaves, by this time the roots are quite developed.
Popular and simple about Brussels sprouts, its cultivation and care on video:
How to hit the neighbors in the cottage with a good harvest of Brussels sprouts? Agrotechnical cultivation of this species is similar to the white one:
- A well-drained, deeply cultivated land is needed, the best option is loam types.
- When planting, it is necessary to exclude not rotten organic fertilizers, and then - irrigate with fermented herbal extract, because with direct ingress of fresh organic cabbage is able to accumulate a large amount of nitrates.
- During the growing season, if the soil was well prepared in advance, you can do without extra dressing, or arrange “nutritional days”. A decade after transplanting, nitrogen fertilizers should be applied, and when setting up kochanchik, it is necessary to focus on the phosphorus and potassium required during this period. Experts recommend using only mineral fertilizers.
Brussels sprouts growing from seed when planted
Brussels sprouts cultivation and care in the open field
The longest ripening cabbage is Brussels sprout. Growing seedlings from seeds is the only way to get results in our weather conditions.
- You can sow at the end of Marchas soon as the ground ripens, the cabbage is not afraid of frosts and is well undergoing a cold snap, frosts down to -3 ° C.
- A depth of 1 cm is enough. The distance between the rows is 10-12 cm.
- Water plentifully and cover with foil. Shoots appear after about 7-10 days.
- It is important to protect the seeds by dressing them from a cruciferous flea or spilling the preparation directly in rows.
- Further, the care is quite simple: water once a week, and weed weeds.
- As soon as the seedlings rise a little, tear through the thick crops, leaving 1 plant of 5 cm each.
Brussels sprouts sow in rows to seedlings
With a plant height of 10-15 cm, they are planted in the holes in a permanent place. Before disembarking the hole, it is desirable to shed water and pour a couple of guests of loose humus.
Growing seedlings of Brussels sprouts at home
Since it takes almost half a year from planting, the emergence of the first shoots to ripening and the moment of harvesting, this variety of cabbage is sown with seeds and grown through seedlings. To get a strong, strong seedling material you must:
- choose the best variety that meets the gardener's preferences for the parameters: ripening time, taste, size range, color palette of leaves (this criterion is important when creating a decorative garden)
- mix the soil substrate from acidic peat, humus, earth, sand and wood ash (it is necessary to sift it). Garden soil is less suitable for seedlings of Brussels sprouts. Its cultivation in garden soil without additional disinfection (calcination) can lead to rotten seedlings, the spread of disease among transplants, and then to yield loss.
- follow the general rules of planting all cabbage species, observe the necessary distances (5 cm per sapling in diameter) and planting depth (1 cm).
- to provide the desired mode of irrigation and light: if the temperature in the apartment is sufficient for the development of cabbage, then the light must be ensured to the maximum. Daylight should be at least 12 hours, and the illumination is intense. Therefore, choose window sills on the sunny side. We water rarely, but plentifully. Do not forget about the drainage: in the bottom of our container must have holes.
- Maintain the required temperature: keep the seedlings warm on the windowsill during the daytime, send the beauty to the glazed loggia for the night. So the necessary mode will be observed, and the plants will be hardened.
- fertilize with fertilizer solution. It is better to use liquid fertilizer, diluted with water in proportion, intended for seedlings. This information is usually indicated on packages.
Brussels sprouts are very easy to grow at home.
How do moon phases influence the Brussels cabbage planting when grown from seed? When to plant seeds for seedlings? Any vegetables with ground edible part is recommended to be planted on the "growing" moon. The optimal period is the end of March, the first decade of April. In a separate peat containers lay out a light, loose substrate. The earth is slightly compacted, 3-4 seeds are planted into the hole at a short distance, sprinkled with a layer of earth up to 2 cm. When the sprouts appear, you should observe their development, then cut off or pinch off the surface of the earth less successful, leaving one for further growth. It is not necessary to pull the stalks out of the soil - the root system of the selected specimen is damaged.
Brussels sprouts: cultivation and care. Photos of plants in different periods of the growing season
Planted Brussels sprouts in rows at a distance of 40-50 cm in a row, 60-70 cm between rows
Growing seedlings of Brussels sprouts at home provides for maintaining low temperature conditions, which is problematic in a warm apartment. Moreover, it is difficult to ensure a significant decrease in temperature at night. Experts recommend placing racks with boxes on glazed loggias, where the air is optimally cool. If necessary, it is convenient to throw nonwoven fabric on rigid structures in order not to “freeze” tender shoots. The best temperature for Brussels sprouts, its seedlings when grown - from 12-15 in the afternoon to 8-10 at night.
But the planted seedlings of Brussels sprouts grew a little
Plants prepared for planting at the age of 30-45 days (when they release 4-7 true leaves) are determined into the soil. When transferring seedlings, it is necessary to compact the soil at the plant stems in order to prevent it from turning out of the ground.
Brussels sprouts, its cultivation in the open field is a garden experiment, when there is a desire to try something different, and not be content with traditional white cabbage. It is suitable for gardeners who are not going to cultivate vegetables on an industrial scale.
Growing Brussels sprouts from sowing to harvest is no different from growing white cabbage
In a small area it is easy to maintain cleanliness, remove weeds, irrigate, feed if necessary, and spray pests with infusions of bitter pepper, garlic, tomato tops. In order to preserve the moisture and looseness of the earth, a layer of mulching materials should be laid out under the plants (mowed dried grass, large leaves, broken side leaves of the cabbage itself can be laid). At the initial stages of the development of cabbage, it is permissible to treat with strong preparations that will have time to go through a period of decomposition before ripening.
Brussels sprouts: the secrets of growing simple
See the lesson on growing Brussels sprouts in the open field on the video:
Brussels Sprouts: Secrets to Growing
This favorite of European cooks, a culture that has a prolonged period of return of the crop, allows you to prepare dishes from freshly-removed vegetables for several months. To get a result that can be proud of, the cultivation of Brussels sprouts at home should be carried out with the knowledge of some subtleties:
- This species has a strong, voluminous root system, and therefore requires enough space around it. When compacted beds, shading gives a much smaller crop, develops worse. Therefore, it will be better to withstand a step of 60-70 cm between copies if you have enough land. If a small area is set aside for this type of cabbage, it is better to plant several plants selected for varietal characteristics and get a decent result than trying to fit two dozen sprouts on one meter that will be suitable only for composting.
- It develops successfully after root crops (carrots, potatoes), loves in its predecessors siderata, onions, legumes.
- You should not plant Brussels sprouts where any cruciferous family grew last summer.
- The soil must be deeply dug up in autumn with the obligatory addition of fertilizers, ash and lime, and then easily processed in spring. Spending liming is worth it, because the “Brussels guest” loves calcium, and the process itself deoxidizes the soil, increases the percentage of potassium and phosphorus assimilation, increases the effect of fertilizers.
- Vegetable does not need hilling. The maximum that may be required is a slight loosening of the soil, since even at the base of the stem small cabbage heads are poured.
- In late varieties, after calculating the 30-day period before harvesting, they pinch the growing points and cut the top leaves to speed up ripening.
Features of the cultivation of Brussels sprouts, its collection and storage:
- advanced gardeners, especially in areas with constant winds, install supports to prevent the vegetable from collapsing
- if the leaves framing the place of attachment of the buds begin to turn yellowish, and the fruits themselves are covered with a pronounced wax coating - you can celebrate the victory, it's time to harvest.
- the crop is selectively removed, starting with the largest lower coaches, ensuring further growth and nourishment of the upper shoots
- you shouldn’t delay the harvest much, wait for the coaches to become too large - the bitterness that appears will reduce the pleasure of taste
- At the end of the season, remove the apical leaves, cutting down the stalks of the Brussels sprouts. They can be stored without picking up coaches wrapped in plastic wrap at a temperature of about 1 ° C for a couple more months.
- plants dug out together with the roots can be transplanted in the fall for growing into a greenhouse, because successfully vegetates at low temperatures. In this way, it is easy to extend the fruiting period and get healthy cabbage for a few more weeks.
We offer to learn the tricks and secrets of growing brussels sprouts from the video review:
To grow strong and healthy cabbage plants, you need to take care of the seeds first. For the prevention of disease by mucous or vascular bacteriosis, seeds are kept in water at t 50 ° C for 20-30 minutes, followed by rapid cooling with running water.
Immunocytophyte can be used in personal household farms for presowing treatment of cabbage seeds. 0.3-0.45 g of the drug take 10-15 ml of water. This solution can be treated with 5 g of seeds.
Pay attention: in no case can you handle the seeds with several preparations at once, you need to choose one, otherwise the sowing qualities of the seeds will decrease.
If you are going to sow a dozen two cabbage seeds, it is better to “splurge” on high-quality hybrid seeds. They are disinfected from fungal infections by manufacturers, they are sown without disinfection, warming and soaking.
But even the most high-quality seeds, which give strong, amicable shoots, are only the first successes that need to be consolidated with the proper agricultural technology. Although Brussels sprouts grow quite well in the Urals and Siberia, since our climate is not particularly hot. But she loves good care.
Soil for seedlings
For sowing cabbage seedlings, planting mixture is prepared from 1 part of good garden land (it is taken where the cruciferous vegetables did not grow in the last few years - all types of cabbage, radishes, radish, daikon) and 2 parts of compost.
Можно приготовить посевную смесь из 3 частей перегноя, 1 части почвы и 1 части песка. Такую смесь нужно обязательно обеззаразить пропариванием или промораживанием.
После обеззараживания почвенная смесь должна недели две «вылежаться», чтобы восстановились микробиологические процессы. Хорошо бы заселить её почвенными микроорганизмами, добавив перед посевом биогумус, Байкал ЭМ-1, Агровит.
It is possible to sow seeds without special efforts in a special soil for growing seedlings, for example, “Agrobalt”, “Living Earth”. It has the necessary acidity, it is light, free from weed seeds and pathogens, loose, nourishing.
Sowing and caring for seedlings
Seeds for seedlings are usually sown in boxes with a depth of at least 7 cm. The containers must be washed with hot water, disinfected with soda (10 g per liter of warm water) and dried. Only after that they pour in the soil mixture. A few days before sowing, the soil in the boxes is moistened, and on the sowing day they are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate. You can use herbal medicine.
Seeds are placed in the grooves after 1-1.5 cm, to a depth of 1-1.5 cm. Rows are arranged after 3-4 cm. They are sprinkled with earth. After sowing, the surface is lightly compacted with a plate, moistened with warm water from a spray bottle and covered with a film to maintain moisture.
At a temperature of 20 degrees, cabbage sprouts already on the 3-5th day. As soon as the first loops seem, the film needs to be urgently removed and the container transferred to the light window-sill. Emerging seedlings, so that the seedlings do not stretch, it is desirable to pre-light.
Light day cabbage seedlings are extended to 16-18 hours. If it is not possible to provide additional coverage, it is recommended to sow the seeds later - in the second decade of February.
Appeared shoots during the week, the temperature is lowered to 6-10 degrees. You can take out the seedlings on the glazed loggia or put them overnight, on the bottom shelf of the refrigerator.
But for more adult seedlings, the temperature should be limited: no more than 14–18 ° C in the sun, 12–16 ° C on cloudy days, no less than 8–10 degrees at night. A higher temperature contributes to the fact that the seedlings are drawn out, they are ill longer after transplantation, they suffer from lower temperatures after disembarking on the bed.
Especially negatively affects the quality of seedlings high temperature, combined with low light.
Seedlings with one real leaflet dive into cups (6 × 6 cm), filled with the same nutrient mixture as for sowing seeds. Before transplanting, seedlings are watered with a weak solution of potassium permanganate, gently take the leaves of the seedbed, and are planted one per cup. It is important that the roots do not curl during planting (long ones can be pinched). Deepen the seedlings to cotyledon leaves.
After that, the seedlings for three days pritenyat, the air around them are trying to make more humid. To do this, periodically spray the seedlings with water.
Brussels sprouts in cassettes
Watering and feeding seedlings
The cabbage is moisture-loving, but this does not mean that the seedlings need to be poured "with the head." Cabbage grows well only when its roots "breathe", it does not tolerate stagnant water. In wet soil plants
roots rot, it is affected by the black leg and dies. But the lack of moisture is negative for plants: it delays their growth.
The wicked seedlings are watered after the soil in the pots dries. Better to do it in the morning.
Water for irrigation should not be cold. Sharply cooling the soil, butt water reduces the activity of the roots. The leaves at this time continue to evaporate moisture as well as before watering (for them nothing has changed). It turns out that after watering with cold water moisture to the leaves begins to flow less. As a result, seedlings weaken, grow worse, become vulnerable to disease.
For the same reason, cold watering is also undesirable for adult plants. A week before planting, seedlings are stopped to be watered.
When 2-3 true leaves appear, seedlings are fed: 1-2 g Kemira-lux (or dissolved) per liter of water. For 4-5 plants, 1 cup of solution is sufficient. Feed carefully, making sure that the nutrient solution does not get on the leaves.
The second time the seedlings are fed up in a week and a half before transplantation into open ground. 2 tsp. urea, potassium sulfate, at the tip of the knife of copper sulfate and boric acid dissolved in a bucket of water. Pre-copper sulphate and boric acid is diluted in hot water.
Two weeks before transferring to a permanent place, cabbage seedlings begin to adapt to the conditions of the open air, reducing the temperature to +5 +6 degrees and increasing the illumination intensity. The easiest way to meet these conditions, "resettled" seedlings on the balcony, loggia, veranda, in the greenhouse. The first time, so that the seedlings do not suffer from the sun's rays, they cover it with thin lutrasil.
Ready to plant seedlings
Prevention of "black legs"
The main thing in the prevention of this seedling disease is not to thicken the crops, not to water the plants with cold water and not to overwet the soil.
Seedlings affected by the black leg should be removed from the nursery box immediately, and to prevent the rest of the plants from killing the plant, temporarily stop watering - let the soil dry out, then shed it with a solution of alirin B (5 l tablet) and potassium permanganate, pour it into the stalks of seedlings sand, ash or chalk disinfected by calcination.
The key to a healthy harvest is to respect crop rotation.
The best precursors for cabbage are cucumbers, legumes, onions, and root vegetables.
Growing cabbage in the same place is desirable not earlier than in 5-6 years. The area set aside for cabbage should be well lit and be away from the trees. If the light is low, the plants are stretched, weakened and become vulnerable to disease.
In order to prevent the development of bacteriosis and fungal diseases, avoid the use of nitrogen fertilizers in the second half of the summer.
Brussels sprouts grow better on rich loamy soils. Under it make compost. On poor sandy or heavy soils, this cabbage forms sick and overgrown cabbages. Also negatively affects the yield and fresh manure.
The optimum temperature for the development of Brussels sprouts is 15-18 degrees. At 25 degrees and above, the formation of coaches is delayed, their quality decreases. In order for the cabbage to develop as long as possible without heat, 40-50-day-old seedlings should be planted in the early stages - along with the early varieties of white cabbage. With later planting periods, the yield of Brussels sprouts decreases, the quality deteriorates.
When planting seedlings maintain the distance between the rows - 70cm, 60 cm - between adjacent plants.
Brussels sprouts grow for a long time - you can sow lettuce with it, flowers for seedlings (here tsinii)
Brussels sprouts love urea and potassium chloride. It is better to conduct foliar top dressings with boric acid, molybdenum and potassium permanganate.
At the very beginning of the formation of kochanchikov cabbage feed infusion of bird droppings (1:15), adding a glass of ash per 10 liters of solution.
Mineral fertilizers make:
- in the outlet phase - 2 g of urea, 20 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride per 10 liters of water, spending 0.5 liters per plant,
- during intensive formation of coaches - 4 g of urea, 30 g of superphosphate and potassium chloride, or 20 g of dissolved, agricola per 10 liters of water (per liter per plant). Magnesium fertilizers are additionally applied on sandy soils - 5 g per 10 l of water.
In order to accelerate the maturation of the coaches, to increase their weight, at the end of the growing season they pinch the tops of the shoots approximately when the stem grows to 60-70 cm. A month before harvesting, the rosette leaves can be trimmed.
Brussels sprouts, unlike white cabbage and others, slightly roll up so that the bottom cabins do not rot.
Preventive measures to protect the cabbage from pests are to destroy overwhelming pests. Given that most of them overwinter in the upper layer of the soil and the pathogens of many diseases remain on plant debris and in the soil. A deep digging of the soil in the fall will make it possible to repeatedly reduce the infectious stock and destroy the bulk of hibernating pests.
In the spring, first of all, get rid of the cruciferous weeds (colza, yarushka, shepherd's bag, etc.), on which cruciferous fleas, bugs, and other insects feed on waking after wintering.
You can reduce the harmfulness of cabbage fly:
- after planting seedlings early
- if the soil within a radius of 4-5 cm from the plant is sprinkled with a mixture of tobacco dust with freshly sour lime or ash (1: 1).
To limit the number of aphids, caterpillars, whiteflies are capable of various insect-entomophages (ladybirds, gold-eyed, horsemen, etc.). To attract entomophages on the site it is useful to sow the nectar beetle: anise, fennel, dill, phacelia.
It is useful when carrots and onions are blooming on the plot. Caterpillars scoops pupate in shelters near cabbage beds, so small bundles of dry grass can be laid out between rows, with which caterpillars willingly climb. Periodically, ligaments are collected and burned.
We must not forget that plants resistant to diseases are less damaged by pests when they are provided with good care, regular watering, additional feeding, weeds are destroyed in a timely manner, etc.
You can harvest
In September-October, when the leaves on the plants begin to turn yellow and fall off, and the cabbage leaves acquire a specific luster, the crop can be harvested.
- The stalk is cut down at ground level, the leaves are torn off and sent to storage in a cool place.
- Brussels sprouts harvested with a stem, if packaged in plastic bags, can be stored for about two months.
- Kochanchiki cut from the stem, quickly fade.
- Frozen Brussels sprouts are stored for 3-4 months.
If you pull out the cabbage from the bed, keeping the root system, and then prikopat in a non-frozen room in wet soil, you can lengthen the use of Brussels sprouts: at + 3-5 degrees due to nutrient reserves in the stem and leaves grow new coaches.
When the Brussels sprouts form coaches, it can withstand frosts to minus 7 degrees. So with the harvest of this culture in the autumn can not be in a hurry.
The following varieties gained particular popularity and popularity among modern summer residents:
Yielding mid-season variety, grows up to 50 coaches on a single plant. The plant is high - coaches are large, fairly dense, good taste. Together ripen.
Medium late productive hybrid with high resistance to keel.
Also middle-ripening and high-yielding variety - up to 60 coaches per specimen.
Late-ripe, disease-resistant common domestic variety. Not very dense average coaches elongated.
Mid-season hybrid of domestic selection. With a bright purple color and delicious kochanchiki, the plant grows up to 40 pieces with a total weight of 500 grams.
Variety Garnet Bracelet
I wish you success in the cultivation of Brussels sprouts!
What is Brussels sprouts
The plant is two years old, it is distinguished by a thick stalk reaching a height of one meter. It is located long-leaf foliage, having a multi-colored blistering surface. The top of the stem is crowned with a leaf rosette.
By the autumn season begin to form small fluffy or dense kochanchiki, resembling a fork of cabbage. Their diameter is two to five centimeters, grows on one stalk from 30 to 70 pieces.
The plant is unpretentious, resistant to frost, the vegetative period is 4-6 months, so that it is recommended to grow crops by seedlings.
On each stalk grows 30-70 coaches Brussels sprouts
History of origin
Culture is considered variety of white cabbage, in the wild in nature does not come across. Its predecessor is kale, which grows in the Mediterranean. The Brussels vegetable was derived by the Belgian selection specialists, which was the reason for this name.
Over time, the vegetable began to grow in Western Europe, and to the east it fell in the middle of the nineteenth century, but did not catch on because of the difficult climate. But Canadians, Americans and Westerners began to plant culture in industrial quantities.
This cabbage variety contains:
- folic acid,
- vitamins of various groups
- phosphorus, potash, magnesium, iodine, sodium salts,
- amino acids.
Cabbage is recommended for diets prescribed for children and the elderly. It helps with diseases of the cardiovascular system.
Cabbage juice has a diuretic, choleretic, hematopoietic, anticancer, anti-toxic, anti-inflammatory effect, stabilizes the performance of the pancreas, is recommended for diabetics. Cabbage helps with wound healing after surgery.
Vegetable count gourmet food. It is used in the preparation of salads, first courses, side dishes, can marinate and even freeze.
The most popular varieties for growing
The most famous include:
- Garnet bracelet. Excellent against cold weather, yields quite good yields, ripens four months after transplanting seedlings. The stem grows to seventy centimeters, forms about forty rodents of delicate taste,
- Dolmic. Hybrid Dutch breeders, grows to fifty centimeters. Heads of yellow-green, their weight is about twenty grams. After cooking, become delicate taste,
- Boxer. The high-yielding hybrid plant, perfectly resists to diseases and harmful parasites. Heads of rounded shapes, green tint, quite tasty,
- Funny company. Sredneroslaya culture, heads of cabbage dense and very tasty, purple hue,
- Curl. The best and most productive variety bred in the Czech Republic. The height of the stem reaches ninety centimeters, forms a large number of five-centimeter heads.
After three - five days, the first shoots appear. At this time it is necessary to remove the plastic film from the boxes, rearrange them to more illuminated places. To seedlings do not stretch, it is recommended to organize doshodyvanie.
Brussels sprouts seedlings
Cabbage Saplings need abundant watering, but do not get carried away to the roots did not begin to rot. Soil should be constantly loosento provide oxygen access to the root system.
Feed sprouts should be in the phase of the second - third leaves, using Kemira-Lux. It is necessary to ensure that the composition does not fall on the leaves. The second feeding is done a couple of weeks before transplanting. Urea, copper sulfate, potassium sulfate, and boric acid are used for this.
It is performed for seedlings that form one true leaf. Picking scheme - "Six by six" centimeters. Before transplantation, seedlings are spilled with a weak manganese solution, then carefully arranged in cups.
Seedling deepened up to a cotyledon leaf. The containers are placed in a shade for a few days, the air should be humid.
Planting Brussels sprouts in open ground
Replant seedlings should be after that when the shoots appear fourth - fifth leaves. As a rule, this moment falls on mid May - mid summer season.
The soil should be fertile, loamy. Preparation of beds should be done in the fall - dig, add lime if necessary. In spring, the place should be fertilized by adding a bucket of compost or humus to the square of the plot.
For planting seedlings, wells are prepared, in each of which a small spoon of urea is laid, two canteens - superphosphate, a pair of glasses of wood ash.
Landing scheme is "Sixty to sixty" centimeters. Sprout rolls over with a lump of earth, powdered, compacted and watered.
Cabbage should be fertilized urea and potassium chloride. Feed boric acid, molybdenum and a solution of manganese should be foliar. During the beginning of the formation of the ovary infused bird droppings with the addition of ash in it.
Vegetable should be fertilized with urea and potassium chloride.
To accelerate the ripening of fruits and increase their weight at the end of the vegetative period, it is recommended to pinch the apical parts of the shoots. One month before harvest, rosette leaves are pruned.
Spud the plant should be careful that the lower head did not begin to rot. At the same time weeds should be removed. These are the basic rules for care.
Harvesting and Storage
In autumn, when the leaves turn yellow and fall off, kochanchiki begin to shine characteristically. This suggests that you can start harvesting.
The stem is cut down at the surface of the earth, the remaining leaves are removed. If such a stem with heads are wrapped in a bag, it can be stored in a cool place for about two months. Frozen cabbage lasts up to four months.
It turns out that there is nothing difficult in the cultivation of Brussels sprouts. It remains only to choose the most suitable climate for your region, and you can start planting, plant this amazing and tasty plant, which will also look unusual.
Cultivation and care
As for the description, it mentions that the culture belongs to the Cruciferous (Cabbage) family and is one of the many varieties of white cabbage. To meet her in the wild is impossible, because view fully cultivated. It is believed that the history of this cabbage began several centuries ago, and its ancestor was a leaf variety that grew freely in the Mediterranean. Окультуренный сорт был представлен в Бельгии, в честь чего он и получил своё название. За короткое время им стали интересоваться огородники и ботаники многих других стран Западной Европы, включая:
Восточная Европа I saw this vegetable only in the middle of the 19th century, but because of the unsuitable climatic conditions and the presence of many difficulties in growing in such an environment, the culture was not widely spread here.
However, residents of Canada, the United States and many European countries praised the variety and began to grow it in their backyards. Until now, the plant is planted on an industrial scale and is considered a very popular direction of agriculture.
Description of the species
Bred by Brussels breeders cabbage belongs to the group high-yielding biennial plants, which can grow in a very unusual way: a thick stem grows from 30 to 100 centimeters in height and becomes home to long-leaf leaves with a bubbly multi-colored surface. At the top, the leaves create a rosette, and by the autumn period small heads of cabbages appear in their axils, resembling plugs of the representatives of the white variety.
True, their diameter rarely exceeds 2-5 centimeters, and the location is very unpredictable. For example, sometimes tiny cabbages cover the whole stemand sometimes there are only single instances.
In the second year of the life cycle, the cabbage begins to form stalks, a flower arrow and fruits, presented in the form of small brown seeds. Seed germination persists for 5 years.
Domestic gardeners appreciated this type of cabbage at the expense of unpretentious and frost resistant character It is known that this variety of white cabbage freely withstands severe frosts, down to -10 degrees Celsius, so the leaves are able to maintain freshness until late autumn. In addition, it is considered a very long spicy variety, with a growing season of up to 180 days or more. Based on this feature, experienced gardeners prefer growing through seedlings.
In this article we will deal with aboutprinciples of cultivationlet's talk about how it differs from other varieties, and what the care of the crop looks like in the open field.
Growing from seed
Wondering about when it is better to start sowing seedlings, pay attention to the time period from mid-March to early April.
It is important to understand that the normal development of the culture is noticed at the optimum night temperature in a radius of 5-6 degrees Celsius, and daily - 16-18 degrees.
For this reason, it is better to place crops on the glazed balcony, loggia or in a heated greenhouse.
It is important that the humidity indicators are kept at around 70%. Before sowing, the planting material is thoroughly heated by placing in warm 50-degree water for 15 minutes. After that, the seeds are immersed in cold water for about one minute, and then kept for 12 hours in a solution prepared from microelements.
The next stage of seed preparation is to move them to the vegetable section of the refrigerator. After thorough drying, the finished product can be used for planting in pots for seedlings.
When sowing seeds, it is recommended to dredge them 1-1.5 centimeters into potted soil, represented by a good fertile composition, which is prepared from:
- sod land
- and peat in equal quantities,
It is advisable to pre-feed the substrate with mineral fertilizers and wood ash, and just before planting, shed the soil with a manganese solution, which has a disinfectant effect.
If you have always grown a crop in large containers, consider such a feature that the seeds need to be kept at a short distance. 3-4 centimeters from each other. With proper care and storage under the influence of the temperature range of 18-20 degrees, the crops will begin to germinate after 4-5 days. As soon as the green shoots seem out of the ground, they need to be stripped of cover and protected from temperature shocks.
Ready seedlings require careful loosening and moistening of the substrate. The main thing is not to overdo it, because too high humidity contributes to the development of fungal formations and dangerous diseases, including the black leg. During the first two weeks, watering should not be carried out. In the future, the intensity of such work will depend on the state of the soil.
Pickling seedlings start at the stage of development of cotyledonary leaves. Immediately before the event, the soil is carefully fertilized with a solution of potassium permanganate, and then the ready seedling is removed from the ground and transplanted into another container. Sometimes it is necessary to shorten the root. After picking works at the development stage of 2-3 true leaves, culture is carefully fertilized 40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium sulfate, and 20 g of ammonium nitrate.
The above ingredients are diluted in a ten-liter bucket of water.
Second feeding held 14 days after the first. It includes 60 grams of superphosphate, 20 grams of potassium sulfate, and 30 grams of ammonium nitrate. The volume of water is similar. After carrying out additional feeding actions, the soil needs to be watered with settled water at room temperature for preventive purposes and better absorption of beneficial substances.
Approximately two weeks before planting in open ground, seedlings begin to harden, by daily moving tanks to an open terrace or balcony. It is important to regularly increase the length of time the seedlings stay in the open air, which will be a good stimulus for the development of a strong immune system. If young saplings can be stored in the open air for more than a day, they can be considered ready for planting.
Features of landing in an open ground
Grow crops at home much easier than it might seem at first glance. You can start planting seedlings in the presence of 4-5 true leaves. This most often happens between mid-May and the first days of June. When choosing a seat, preference should be given to southern or southeastern areas with good sunlight. Experts recommend growing the crop after other garden plants, including:
However, plant it after other varieties of cabbage, turnip or radish earlier than after 4 years, it is impossible.
Approximately seven days before the landing, watering should be stopped, and just before planting, it is better to thoroughly moisten the soil.
This culture reacts particularly well to growth in fertile loamy soils with an average acidity pH of 6.7-7-4. Preparation of a suitable place begins in the autumn, in the process of which the soil is carefully dug up, keeping to the depth of the spade bayonet. If the soil is too acidic, it can be thoroughly chipped in autumn.
When spring comes, a bucket of compost or humus is poured into every square meter of territory. At the same time in each well spread a teaspoon of urea, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and two glasses of ash.
Planted better in cloudy weather or in the evening, after the sun hides behind the horizon. When planting should be guided by the scheme 60x60 centimeters. The wells should have a slightly larger size than the root system itself.
Proper care of the culture
Special differences between the cultivation of ordinary white and Brussels practically absent. To to protect young and vulnerable seedlings from the effects of a dangerous pest - cruciferous flea, the area should be carefully treated with wood ash. Hilling often causes rotting of the lower coaches, so it is not recommended to perform such an action. About 21-25 days before harvesting, the top of each stem should be pinched off, and rosette leaves should be cut off. With this treatment, the coaches will be able to gain an impressive amount.
Further care is in regular and abundant irrigation, zealous weeding, loosening the soil, top dressing and disease prevention.
Brussels sprouts can be called a moisture-loving culture, so at the vegetation stage it needs to be watered abundantly in a special way. Approximately 8-10 times using 35-40 liters of water per square meter. When the active development of heads begins, the volume of fluid used is increased to 50 liters. If the weather is rainy and overcast, watering is optional.
If the cultivation of Brussels sprouts is carried out on infertile soil composition, it is impossible to do without the use of highly effective top dressings based on mineral fertilizers. The first dressing is carried out a week after the seedlings are planted, during which a teaspoon of Nitrophoska is consumed for 2 plants. The second feeding will be useful at the stage of forming kochanchikov. It is enough to dissolve 25 grams of potassium sulfate and superphosphate in 10 liters of water. Also, it does not hurt to add a teaspoon of Nitroammofoski to the solution. During processing, for each instance 1.5 liters of the mixture is poured. If there are no complaints about the composition of the soil, it is not necessary to use top dressing.
What pests and diseases threaten Brussels sprouts
Brussels sprouts have a strong immune system and are exposed only to those pests and diseases that the rest of the cruciferous family also suffer from. For this reason, after some crops it is strictly prohibited to grow it. The most dangerous pest is the cruciferous flea, although there are other inhabitants that can lead to loss of yield and sometimes to the death of the crop. Among them: babanukha, sprouting fly, wavy and black flea, cabbage bedclothes, ognevka, aphid and moth. The culture is also attacked by a bear, a scoop and a wireworm.
The fight against dangerous pests begins with some preventive measures. After all, it is much more effective to provide culture with strong immunity, rather than to treat the symptoms of serious diseases.
Good prevention is in compliance with the rules of crop rotation and the successful implementation of all agrotechnical rules. You also need to process the seeds and soil for sowing or planting. It is impossible to ignore the mandatory need to clean the area from plant residues.
If you are unable to definitively protect the plant from unexpected guests, try to deal with them only with organic preparations and folk remedies. Only if the problem progresses very much, and the methods proven by experienced gardeners do not work, use chemical preparations. Among them, it is better to use harmless bacterial insecticides.
By following this guide, you can grow a truly healthy and prolific Brussels sprouts in your garden.
Adding an article to a new collection
Growing Brussels sprouts is a process available to any gardener. If you have already mastered the treatment of the rest of the crucifers, and, for example, white cabbage grows well in your area, then there should be no problems with its "large" relative.
This extraordinarily useful culture, containing huge reserves of vitamin C, protein and minerals, has one important feature - it is extremely slow. It takes almost half a year from sowing to harvesting, so if you want to include cabbage in your diet in the summer, it's better to choose kale, broccoli or cauliflower.
How to sow Brussels sprouts
Bearing in mind that from sowing to ripening in different varieties of Brussels sprouts it takes from 130 to 180 days, and taking into account the climate of your region, you need to choose the dates of sowing of seeds. For example, if you live in the middle lane and purchased late Brussels sprouts, then seedlings should be dealt with in early April.
Brussels sprouts like cool weather and do not tie up coaches in the heat, so choose the sowing time so that the ripening period falls on a period with an average daily temperature not higher than 18-20 ° C.
Sowing Brussels sprouts for seedlings
Sowing Brussels sprouts should be made in separate pots with a mixture of turf land, peat and sand (in equal proportions). Before sowing, add 3-4 st.l. wood ash and 0.5 tbsp. superphosphate to 1 kg of the mixture. If planting is performed in large containers, then the distance between the seeds should be at least 4 cm.
The seeds are buried by 1.5 cm, moistened, and then the container with them is carried out to the balcony. For the best quality of the seedlings, the air temperature during the day should be no higher than 16-18 ° C, and at night around 5-6 ° C, in addition, the room should be sufficiently humid (about 70%).
The first 2 weeks the seedlings are not watered, and then begin to ensure that the soil was always slightly wet, not pouring, but not overdrying it. In the development phase of cotyledon leaves, cabbage must be dived into separate containers, if necessary, pruning the main root. This should be done by pre-watering the seedlings, and together with a clod of earth.
How to feed the seedlings of Brussels sprouts
The seedlings of the Brussels sprout are fed twice during the cultivation, and after each feeding they are watered abundantly. The first time they do this is when 2 true leaves develop on the seedlings. To prepare the mixture in 10 liters of water dissolve 40 g of superphosphate, 20 g of ammonium nitrate and 10 g of potassium sulfate. The second time (after 2 weeks) the solution is changed. Now for 10 liters of water you need to make 60 g of superphosphate, 30 g of ammonium nitrate and 20 g of potassium sulfate.
When and how to feed Brussels sprouts
Fertilizers applied under Brussels sprouts increase your chances not only for a good harvest, but also for healthy plants, so you should not skip feeding. In total, during the cultivation on the ridges, this culture needs 2 mineral dressings, however, if you grow it on fertile soil, you can get by with just one.
How to water Brussels sprouts
This culture is moisture-loving and responsive to irrigation. They need to be carried out every week, consuming 30-35 liters of water per 1 square meter before the appearance of kochanchik, and 40-45 liters after they begin to form.
After watering the cabbage must be plowed and rid of weeds. During periods of rain or high humidity, the frequency of irrigation should be reduced and to prevent stagnation of water in the root zone of plants.
Pests and diseases of Brussels sprouts
In this, Brussels sprouts are also similar to all other crucifers - they suffer from the same diseases and are afraid of the same pests. Of insects on landings, it is most often possible to find a cruciferous flea, cabbage leaf beetle, cabbage and sprout fly, wavy and black flea beetles, cabbage blanket, ognevka, aphid and moth, cabbage and rapeseed bug, bear, scoop, wireworm and rape bloom
Brussels sprouts after invasion of cabbage leaf beetle
The most common diseases of Brussels sprouts are kila, white and dry rot, black leg, black and ring blotch, downy mildew, vascular and slimy bacterioses and mosaic.
How to protect brussels sprouts
Prevention of diseases and the invasion of insects is always cheaper than the fight against them. Therefore, in order to protect your Brussels sprouts, do not forget about a number of measures:
- observe crop rotation, do not plant crucifers on the same ridge for several years in a row,
- remove all plant residues from the ridges,
- do not put diseased plants in compost, but take out or burn,
- regularly remove weeds from the ridges,
- Do not skip mineral supplements and do not replace them with organic ones,
- at the first signs of disease, remove the affected plant, and spill the soil under it with a pink solution of potassium permanganate,
- regularly pollinate plants and ridges with wood ash or its mixture with tobacco dust,
- for massive attacks of pests, use insecticides Ambush, Decis, Karate, Rovikurt, Corsair, etc.,
- if there are signs of fungal diseases, treat the plantings with fungicides Quadris, Fundazol, Skor, Topaz according to the instructions.
Cleaning and storage of Brussels sprouts
The first kochanchiki on Brussels sprouts ripen in 3 months after its landing in the ground, but this is not a reason to rush to harvest. Negative temperatures only benefit the taste of cabbage, moreover, they do not affect the content of vitamins and nutrients in it, so the harvest can be safely postponed until the cold weather.
For 3-3.5 weeks before harvesting the cabbage cut the top of it and remove all the leaves so that the forces go to the ripening of the fruits. Gradually remove the lower fruits, leaving the top the opportunity to "reach." Wait until the thermometer's mark drops below –6 ° C, but it does not reach –10 ° C - at this time the cabins are most suitable for collecting for storage.
For different periods and storage options to cut the Brussels sprouts need differently:
- for long-term storage in the subfield, dig up the cabbage with the root, cut off the leaves and dig in the boxes with the earth, tightly moving the plants to each other,
- for storage in hanging form or on shelves, cut the stem above the ground, cut the leaves and the top, and dry the stalks with rooks and take them to a permanent place,
- Also kochanchiki on the stem can be wrapped in film and stored in the refrigerator for up to 1.5 months,
- the longest cut Kochanchik is stored in the freeze after pre-blanching or without it.
The best varieties of Brussels sprouts
If you do not know which sort of Brussels sprouts to choose, focus primarily on the climate of your region and such an indicator as the ripening period. Если лето у вас короткое, выбирайте скороспелые сорта, если же до холодов достаточный запас времени, можете поэкспериментировать со средне- и позднеспелыми.
Раннеспелые сорта брюссельской капусты (срок созревания до 130 дней): Гранатовый браслет, Долмик, Изабелла, Касио, Командор, Розелла, Руднеф, Франклин.
Среднеспелые сорта брюссельской капусты (срок созревания от 130 до 150 дней): Бриллиант, Боксер, Веселая компания, Гранат, Геркулес, Дауэр Ризен, Перфекшн.
Late maturing varieties of brussels sprouts (ripening period from 150 to 180 days): Grüniger, Curl.
Now that you know everything about growing Brussels sprouts, you just have to buy seeds and be patient. Perhaps already this season you will have a new favorite among vegetables.
Planting and care for Brussels sprouts (in short)
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in the second half of March. Planting seedlings in the ground - from mid-May to early June.
- Lighting: bright sunshine.
- The soil: fertile, loamy with a pH of 6.7-7.4.
- Watering: 8-10 times during the growing season. Before the beginning of the formation of kochanchik water consumption is 35-40 liters for each m², and then - 40-50 liters.
- Top dressing: 1st — a week after planting seedlings into the ground with a solution of Nitrophoska, 2nd — during the period of the formation of a cabbage solution with a solution of complete mineral fertilizer at the rate of 1.5 liters per plant. When grown in fertile soil, top dressing is not needed.
- Breeding: seed.
- Pests: Babanukha, spring cabbage and sprout flies, wavy and black fleas, cabbage bedworm, fowl, aphid and moth, cabbage and rape bugs, root covertly, red bear, scoops - winter, cabbage and garden, wireworm, rape blooming.
- Diseases: keel, white and dry rot, bleaching, black leg, black and ring spots, downy mildew, mosaic, vascular and mucous bacterioses.
Brussels Sprouts Description
Brussels sprouts is a biennial plant. How to grow brussels sprouts? Growing Brussels sprouts is truly unusual: on a thick stem with a height of 30 to 100 cm or more, there are long-leafed Brussels sprouts with a bubbly surface of different shades of green and even green with a purple tint. At the top of the stem leaves form a rosette. By the autumn, small loose or dense coaches form very similar to white cabbage forks, only a diameter of 2 to 5 cm in diameter are formed in the axils of the leaves, and they can be located rarely and can literally stick around the stem - they can vary from 30 to 70 pieces. In the second year, the plant forms stalks, blooms and forms fruits in the form of small brown seeds, enclosed in pods. Brussels sprouts seeds remain viable for 5 years.
Brussels sprouts are one of the most unpretentious and cold-resistant subspecies of white cabbage, able to withstand frosts down to -10 ºC. It is one of the longest-seasoning varieties - its growing season, depending on the variety, lasts from 120 to 180 days or more, so the cultivation of Brussels sprouts is carried out mainly through seedlings. In this article we will tell you what Brussels sprouts and how they differ from other cabbage varieties, how to sow Brussels sprouts for seedlings, how Brussels sprouts grow and care for them in the open field, what kinds of Brussels sprouts for open ground are most popular. as well as the benefits of Brussels sprouts and to whom it may be harmful.
When sowing Brussels sprouts for seedlings.
The optimal time for sowing seeds of Brussels sprouts for seedlings is from mid-March to early April. The problem is that seedlings need to ensure that at night the temperature is no higher than 5-6 ºC, and during the daytime - 16-18. Therefore, it is better to locate crops on the glazed balcony, loggia or in a heated greenhouse. The humidity of the air in the room should be within 70%. Before sowing, the seeds of Brussels sprouts are heated for 50 minutes in water at a temperature of 50 º C, then immersed for 1 minute in cold water, then kept for 12 hours in a solution of microelements, washed in clean water and placed in a vegetable box of the refrigerator for a day. Then the seeds are dried so that they do not stick to the fingers.
Growing seedlings of Brussels sprouts.
Sow the seeds of Brussels sprouts to a depth of 1-1.5 cm in separate pots with well-hydrated fertile soil, consisting in equal parts of turfy ground, sand and peat with the addition of mineral fertilizers and wood ash. Before planting, spill the ground for disinfection with a solution of potassium permanganate. If you are used to growing seedlings in large containers, keep in mind that the seeds of Brussels sprouts should be planted at a distance of 3-4 cm from each other. If crops are kept under glass or film at a temperature of 18–20 ºC, seedlings may appear already after 4–5 days, but immediately after they appear, it is necessary to remove the cover and set the temperature mode, which was described in the previous section. Sprouting Brussels sprouts before planting in open ground needs loosening and moistening - the substrate in the tank should always be in a slightly wet state, but in no case can it be over-moistened so as not to cause the danger of seedling seedlings. The first two weeks to water the crops do not need, and subsequently the substrate is moistened as needed.
Pick Brussels sprouts.
Pickling seedlings of Brussels sprouts, if it grows in a total capacity, is carried out in the development phase of cotyledon leaves. Before picking the soil is watered with potassium permanganate solution, after which the seedling is carefully removed from the substrate along with a clod of earth and transplanted into a separate pot, shortening the central root if necessary. After the picking, in the developmental stage of seedlings of 2-3 true leaves, they are fed with a solution of 40 g of superphosphate, 10 g of potassium sulfate and 20 g of ammonium nitrate in 10 l of water. Two weeks later, a second feeding is carried out, consisting of 60 g of superphosphate, 20 g of potassium sulfate and 30 g of ammonium nitrate, dissolved in 10 l of water. After each feeding should be watered substrate water at room temperature.
Two weeks before transplanting into open ground, it begins to harden, bringing containers with seedlings to an open terrace or balcony every day, and each time increasing the duration of their stay in the open air. When the seedlings can be on the street during the day, it will be possible to plant it in the open ground.
When to plant Brussels sprouts in the ground.
When to plant Brussels sprouts on the garden bed? When seedlings will get 4-5 true leaves. This can occur in the time period from mid-May to early June. For Brussels sprouts choose southern or southeastern slopes, brightly illuminated by the sun. It is good, if siderats, potatoes, carrots, cucumbers, legumes, cereals or onions were growing on this site before Brussels sprout, but after such vegetables as all types of cabbage, turnips, turnips, radishes, radish, daikon, tomatoes and beets, Brussels sprouts cabbage can be grown on this site only after 4 years.
A week before planting Brussels sprouts on the garden bed, it is no longer watered, and just before planting, the soil in the pots is abundantly moisturized.
Ground for Brussels sprouts.
Mostly Brussels sprouts love fertile loamy soil with a pH of 6.7-7.4. It is necessary to prepare a plot for Brussels sprouts in the fall: the ground is dug up by shovels to the depth of the bayonet and lime is added if necessary. In the spring the soil is fertilized - a bucket of compost or humus should fall on each m², and a teaspoon of urea, 2 tablespoons of superphosphate and 2 cups of wood ash should be put into each well.
How to plant Brussels sprouts.
Planting of Brussels sprouts is carried out on an overcast day or in the evening after sunset. How to plant Brussels sprouts in open ground? The location of the holes is 60x60 cm. Dig holes a little larger than the root system of seedlings, place fertilizers mixed with earth in them, put them in a hole from a pot or from a container seedling with an earthy clod, place it in the hole, fill the holes with soil, lightly compact it and pour it.
Care for Brussels Sprouts.
Cultivation of Brussels sprouts in the open field is not much different from the cultivation of white cabbage. To protect the seedlings from the main pest of the family - the cruciferous flea - the area is sprinkled with wood ash. Brussels sprouts do not need hilling, especially since the lower coaches can rot. 3–3.5 weeks before harvesting, Brussels sprouts are decapitated — the top of each stem is pinched and the rosette leaves are cut. This is done in order to Kochanchik gained more volume.
The rest of the Brussels sprouts care is carried out as usual: regular and sufficient watering, weeding and loosening the plot, feeding and protection from pests and diseases, if necessary.
Watering brussels sprouts.
Brussels sprouts are moisture-loving. During the growing season, watering is carried out 8-10 times, spending about 35-40 liters of water per m² before the beginning of the formation of coaches and 40-50 liters from the moment of their formation. Of course, if the weather is rainy, the frequency of irrigation and the amount of water consumed per m² must be adjusted.
Top dressing of Brussels sprouts.
Brussels sprouts in the open field, if you grow it in barren soil, needs fertilizing with mineral fertilizers. The first time Brussels sprouts are fertilized one week after planting seedlings on a bed, using a solution of 1 tsp of Nitrophoska for 2 plants. The second dressing is made at the beginning of the formation of coaches on the stems - 25 g of potassium sulfate and superphosphate are dissolved in a bucket of water, 1 teaspoon of Nitroammophos is added and 1.5 liters of this solution are spent for each specimen. If your Brussels sprouts grow in fertile and well-fertilized soil, then it may not need additional feeding.
Pests of Brussels sprouts.
All cruciferous pests and diseases are common, which is why we so often remind you that you should not grow one plant of the family after another on the same plot. Of the pests most dangerous for representatives of the cabbage cruciferous flea, but there are other insects that can adversely affect the quantity and quality of the crop of Brussels sprouts. For example: babanukha, spring cabbage and sprout flies, wavy and black fleas, cabbage bedworm, ognevka, aphids and moths, cabbage and rape bugs, root covertly rootbirds, bearfish, shovels - winter, cabbage and garden, wireworms, rapeseed flowers and others.
Insect control should begin with preventive measures, because it is easier to prevent the appearance of pests than to waste time and energy on fighting them. What methods of protection will help you prevent harmful insects from appearing at the site or at least reduce the risk of their occupation of Brussels sprouts to a minimum?
Firstly, the observance of crop rotation, secondly, the implementation of agrotechnical culture, thirdly, pre-sowing seed treatment and preparation of the site for sowing or planting the crop, fourthly, strict observance of the rules for the care of plants and the last - cleaning the site of plant residues crops and deep digging of the soil after harvest.
If, despite all your work, the pests still appeared, try to cope with them with non-toxic drugs - best of all folk remedies. If time is missed and insects have proliferated, it will be necessary to resort to chemical preparations, among which it is better to prefer bacterial insecticides harmless to plants.
Diseases of Brussels sprouts.
Brussels sprouts in the garden often suffer from diseases such as keel, white and dry rot, bleach, black leg, black and ring spots, downy mildew, vascular and slimy bacterioses and mosaic.
The best way to protect Brussels sprouts from any infections is to carry out the prevention measures described in the section on crop pests. If the disease still struck the Brussels sprouts, and folk remedies against fungi did not work, use the treatment of plants with fungicides, for example, Fundazol or Maxim, whose toxicity to the human body is greatly exaggerated. As for bacterial or viral diseases, they are unlikely to be cured, so the affected specimens need to be removed from the site and burned.
Types and varieties of Brussels sprouts
Varieties of Brussels sprouts delight their diversity. Despite the fact that the Brussels sprouts is a crop with a long growing season, that is, late-ripening, among its varieties there are early ripening with a ripening period of about 130 days, medium-ripening, ripening for 130-150 days, and late ones that need 150-170 and more days.
Early Brussels Sprouts.
The most famous early varieties of Brussels sprouts are:
- – Garnet bracelet - this fruitful cold-resistant hybrid, which withstands frosts down to -7 ºC, ripens 120 days after transplanting into the ground. The height of the stem is 60-70 cm, the number of kochanchik on one plant is from 30 to 40. Coins are rounded, medium-sized, purple-red, dense, after heat treatment they acquire an excellent delicate taste,
- – Casio - cold-resistant high-yielding variety of Czech breeding with a stem height of up to 1 m with large, weighing up to 15 g, rounded and dense pancakes of green color and excellent taste, which can be up to 70 pieces per plant,
- – Dolmic - Dutch hybrid with a stem height up to 50 cm. Yellow-green cabbages weighing up to 20 g acquire a delicate taste after cooking,
- – Rosella - a high-yielding variety of German selection, the average weight of the coaches is 13 g, the main value of the variety is the almost simultaneous formation and maturation of the coaches,
- – Franklin - a fruitful hybrid with rounded green coaches of excellent taste.
In addition to the described, early-maturing varieties include Rudnef, Isabella, Commodore and Explorer hybrids, Frigate, Oliver.
Mid-season Brussels sprouts.
The most popular varieties of Brussels sprouts can be considered:
- – Diamond - a highly productive and disease-resistant hybrid variety with coaches up to 3 cm in diameter, dark green in color and pleasant taste,
- – Garnet - hybrid cold-resistant variety with a stem up to 70 cm high, on which from 30 to 40 rounded maroon roaches are rooted,
- – Funny company - sredneroslaya, tasty Brussels sprouts with dense green kochanchikami with purple tint. The weight of each fruit is 10-12 g,
- – Boxer - high-yielding cold-resistant hybrid variety, resistant to diseases and pests, with rounded kochanchiki green color and excellent taste,
- – Perfection - a productive variety of the Russian selection, the best Brussels sprouts for the Urals, Siberia and Moscow region. Cots of green color of excellent taste.
Mid-ripe varieties Hercules, Dower Riesen and the hybrid Maximus are also well known in the culture.
Late Brussels sprouts.
This category of Brussels sprouts is represented by varieties:
- – Gruniger - cold-resistant variety with a greenish-orange cabbage weighing up to 18 g and with a diameter of 4 cm. From staying on a light frost the taste of fruits improves,
- – Curl - one of the best and high-yielding varieties of Brussels sprouts of Czech selection with a stem height of under 90 cm, with a number of roaches with an average weight of 15 g and a diameter of 5 cm.
Brussels sprouts - contraindications.
Brussels sprouts are contraindicated in people with impaired pancreatic function, as they may develop hypothyroidism. Goitrogens contained in Brussels sprouts suppress the production of hormones by the thyroid gland, and the indoles do not allow the gland to iodine uptake.
In people with Crohn's syndrome, gastrointestinal diseases, Brussels sprouts can cause bloating due to increased gas formation caused by fructose residues - fructans.
The harm of Brussels sprouts for gout sufferers is the high content of purines in it.
People with high acidity of gastric juice should treat Brussels sprouts with caution, eat it infrequently and do not overeat.
Planting Brussels sprouts for seedlings
Culture is a plant with a long growing season. Even the earliest hybrids can begin to form a 1.5 cm coach not earlier than 100–120 days from sowing. Therefore, it is recommended to grow Brussels sprouts through seedlings, especially in Siberia, the Moscow region, the middle belt or the northern regions of the country.
As a rule, planting seeds in seedlings begins in mid-April. You can grow it at home, greenhouses or special nurseries.
Seedlings of Brussels sprouts are grown at home, greenhouses or special seedlings
For seedlings fit loose moisture-absorbing substrate with a neutral reaction. Harvest it preferably from the fall. The best option would be turf land (you can take the soil from under the deciduous trees). Sand, high-moor peat, and also perlite or vermiculite are added to the soil, by means of which the moisture in the soil will be maintained for a longer time.
The soil with the addition of vermiculite will keep moisture longer
The soil in the open ground begin to prepare in the autumn. For the cultivation of Brussels sprouts is better to allocate open, sunny places. If this is not possible, it can also grow on acidic soils, since it is rarely affected by the kilo.
Так как культура является требовательной к плодородию почвы, то при её обработке следует внести удобрения (из расчёта на 1 м 2 ):
- 60–90 г фосфорных удобрений ,
- 90–120 г азотных удобрений,
- 60–90 г калийных удобрений.
При осенней перекопке необходимо внести 2/3 от рекомендуемого количества, а азотные подкормки можно заменить перепревшим навозом. Остальная часть вносится весной при посадке рассады непосредственно в лунки.
Подготовка и посев семян
To select the best planting material, a saline solution is prepared, dissolving 50 g of salt in 1 liter of water. Seeds are poured into it and mixed well. After 5 minutes, the seeds that settle to the bottom can be used for planting, after rinsing them under running cold water.
It is also desirable to carry out disinfection, warming the seeds in water at a temperature of 50 ° C for 20 minutes. To do this, you can use a thermos in which the water will remain hot long enough. This event helps to avoid keels and fungal diseases during the growing season of the culture. After that, the seeds are cooled in water and planted in the ground.
Since all types of cabbage do not tolerate transplantation, it is necessary to grow seedlings in separate cups or special 200 ml cartridges. When sowing, 2–3 pieces should be placed in each compartment, to a depth of 1–1.5 cm. When growing seedlings followed by picking a seedling, 100 ml of soil is sufficient.
Seedling cassettes are light, compact and have drainage holes.
The author of these lines grows plants in seedlings. To do this, you need to make grooves along the ruler, pushing them to a depth of 10 mm, moisten with warm water, sow the seeds, placing them at a distance of 0.5–1 cm from each other. Then sprinkle with earth and slightly compacted.
To get quick and even shoots, seed containers should be placed in a warm place, covered with glass or plastic film.
Direct sowing of seeds in the ground
Sowing seeds directly in open ground can be done when the earth warms to 10–15 o C. In this case, early and middle late varieties with a growing season no longer than 120 days will be needed.
Usually seeds are sown in rows. But we land in a breeding way. After sprouting the plants are thinned. In this case, we leave only the strong, characteristic of this type of plant. The distance between the remaining bushes should be 50 cm.
Terms of collection and storage methods of Brussels sprouts
Cabbage of early varieties is removed all at once, when the diameter of the coaches will be more than 1.8 cm. Heads of medium-late and late varieties are plucked from the plants and allowed to be processed, repeating the process 3-4 times.
A kochanchik is considered fully ripe if the leaf under it has turned yellow or has fallen off.
However, modern hybrids are characterized by simultaneous maturation of kochanchik, without the dominance of the lower heads. Therefore, such plants can be uprooted and, if necessary, stored in a cellar, prikopopov roots in wet sand or sawdust. This allows you to extend the period of ripening of the crop and contributes to the accumulation of sugars in the coaches.
Harvest Brussels sprouts can be harvested in several stages