It is better to equip the beds on the sunny side of the site, where the wind does not blow. It is necessary to plant curly and bush cucumbers in the summer when there is no risk of frost returning (the first of June). Such a culture does not tolerate excessive exposure to moisture, so they do not recommend planting cucumber shoots in open areas with shallow groundwater levels. Such conditions have a negative impact, since the appearance of female ovaries can be significantly delayed.
If the question of how to properly grow cucumbers in open ground is decided, first prepare a bed that is done before planting the seeds. The garden is prepared from autumn: they dig up, fertilize with manure. Planting material grows more intensively after predecessors of a certain type: some roots, onions, legumes, and tomatoes are also included here. It is important to change the landing area. Disease resistant varieties are suitable for outdoor use. One of the dangers - this culture is difficult to tolerate the transplant process.
Ways to grow cucumbers
Plant culture can be several methods, they are all characterized by their nuances:
The first option is implemented in acceptable conditions: the prepared seed is laid in the summer (early June), when the cold has completely receded and the temperature does not exceed the limit below +15 degrees. The technology of planting cucumber seedlings is implemented in two stages: the laying of seeds in the spring in a pot (beginning-mid-May), after a month the young plants are transferred to a predetermined place.
Growing cucumbers in the open ground is implemented by other methods of planting material laying:
The peculiarity of the first option is the need to prepare a support structure (trellis). The minimum area is used, because only two rows of plants are enough, and the distance between them is 1-2 m. When the problem is solved, how to grow cucumbers in the open ground using the spreading method, it is necessary to allocate a large area for this purpose. It is impossible to shift and move the stems, because the orientation of the leaf plates is disturbed, and the harvest will be later.
Agrotechnics cultivation of cucumbers in open ground
High yields can be obtained only with an unmistakably implemented planting technology, if we take care of the plants, feed and water them in a timely manner. The temperature regime of air and soil, the intensity of moisture, growth conditions are taken into account. Of all these stages is agronomy. If you miss one of them, cultivation will give bad results: bitter fruits instead of juicy, sweet and fragrant.
Some of the above varieties can be planted both in open areas and under film. The soil should be warm (at least 17 degrees) and prepared, for which a trench is dug in spring, dredging is carried out with further processing (potassium salt in the amount of 10 g, superphosphate up to 20 g, humus within 5 kg, wood ash not more than 1 l). The seeds are laid on average no deeper than 3 cm, it is better to plant cucumbers closer to the surface (1-2 cm). The minimum area of the open area (1 sq. M) accounts for 6-7 bushes.
Fertilizer for cucumbers
Top dressing is given up to 6 times throughout the entire cycle of plant development. The first portion of nutrients is added at the initial stage of the formation of flower buds. Then feed cucumbers should be every 14 days during the period when the plants bear fruit. Cultivation is carried out by processing with organic / mineral fertilizers. Mullein is popular (1 share per 10 fractions of water).
How to form cucumbers in the open field
The pinching method promotes the growth of lateral shoots. The scheme depends on the variety: the stepchildren are removed from a 3-4 leaf central stem, the formation of varietal cucumbers is done by pinching after 6-7 leaf. This technology is differently called pasynkovanie. It is recommended not to apply to all plants, but to medium and late ripening varieties.
How to water cucumbers in the open ground
It is impossible to direct a direct stream of water to the cucumber bushes. The preferred option - drip irrigation. It is not always possible to organize it, so more often carefully pour the water into the hole. This should be done on time, so often that the soil does not dry out and is constantly moist. Watering is carried out in the morning before the onset of heat or in the evening, for this is taken warm water.
Secrets of growing cucumbers in the open field
There are many subtleties of growing technology that facilitate the care of shoots throughout the entire cycle of their growth. The main mistake is loosening the soil. Theoretically, such a measure will enrich the soil with oxygen, but in practice it will lead to a violation of the root system, which grows closer to the soil surface. It is better to use mulching, which is especially effective when leaving, if the Mittlider method is used (narrow beds).
How to grow cucumbers without disease
The main secret is the right choice of variety, another feature is the maintenance performed before planting. Actions step by step:
- at the end of the harvest season, the remaining stems must be removed,
- remove the soil layer to 10 cm,
- in cases where it is impossible to remove the surface soil, this area is impregnated with copper sulphate (10 liters of liquid, not more than 50 g of substance),
- They dig up the soil, then it is already possible to be engaged in cultivation.
How to grow a good crop of cucumbers in the open field
Healthy seedlings grow in a nutrient-rich substrate, for which it is desirable to buy ready-made mixture. Without fertilizers, growing cucumbers in the open field will give modest results. In addition to the main portion of feeding, the plants are additionally sprayed with the same formulations every 14 days. To do this, the active substances are taken in half a smaller volume. It is important to promote the formation of female flowers of cucumbers, well recommended such measures:
- reducing the number of male ovaries by pinching,
- reduction of watering intensity at the budding stage,
- cultivation begins with warming the seed before planting on an open area.
1. Cucumber - heat-loving culture
It is necessary to sow cucumbers on a bed heated by the sun, after the threat of return frost has passed, and the top layer of soil warms up to + 13-15 ° С. If you sow the seeds in the cold earth - they simply will not grow. However, high temperatures also dislike this vegetable, no matter how fond of cucumber is heat, its best growth is observed at rates ranging from +24 to + 28 ° С. If the thermometer rises higher - there is a stop in development. Therefore, it is advisable to sow culture on open beds from mid-late May (depending on the climatic zone) to the middle of the first decade of June.
It is necessary to close up cucumber seeds to a depth of about 2 cm, taking into account the planting density - 5-7 bushes per square meter. Thicken this culture is not worth it, because it must receive enough light and well ventilated.
2. Cucumber loves to eat well
Place for growing cucumbers must be prepared in advance, fertilizing the land with rotted manure (under its predecessor), mullein or chicken droppings (directly under the crop). In this way, the bed will receive sufficient nutrients, will be decontaminated from a number of pathogens and enriched with carbon dioxide, and cucumbers will be provided with good nutrition.
3. Cucumber - culture with shallow root system
Like any vegetable crop with a shallow root system, cucumber loves structured soil, good access to oxygen roots and sufficient moisture. But, it is this feature of the structure of its underground part that brings the greatest damage to the plant due to illiterate human intervention.
The root system of cucumber represents 1.5% of the total mass of the plant and extends in depth (mostly) up to 40 cm. Its largest part lies only 5 cm from the soil surface and barely reaches 25 cm, therefore it is impossible to loosen the bed around the plant. Every time the top layer of the earth is processed next to the cucumber stem, its roots are injured and it takes the plant more than a week to recover and recover. On this basis, the air permeability of the bed should be ensured not by constant weeding and loosening, but by a good predecessor, early introduction of organic matter and mulching.
The best predecessors for cucumbers are: lettuce, early cabbage, cauliflower, peas, and green manure. Permissible: potatoes and tomatoes. Beans, carrots, zucchini and other melons as precursors for cucumber are not suitable, as they have in common with the culture of the disease.
4. Cucumber - moisture-loving culture
Based on the characteristics of the structure of the root system, the cucumber needs a constant moisture regime for normal growth and development. The lack of moisture causes darkening and fragility of the foliage of the plant, puts it in a state of stress. Excessive moisture - reduces the amount of oxygen in the soil, makes the leaves of cucumbers pale green, inhibits the growth of lashes and the formation of greenberries. Constant jumps in moistening, in combination with temperature jumps, provoke the formation of bitterness in fruits.
Not useful this culture and watering with cold water. This is due to the fact that the cooled soil impairs the ability of the root system to absorb. Therefore, the temperature of the irrigation water should not be below + 18 ° C.
The optimal soil moisture for cucumber is 80%, the fading threshold is 30%.
5. Cucumber - short day culture
Based on the fact that cucumber is a short day plant, the best time to grow it is the beginning and end of summer. This fact, with a competent approach, makes it possible not just to get high yields of culture, but to use the useful area of the vegetable garden with maximum benefit, filling the beds that were empty after the early vegetables with summer (June) crops of cucumber.
It is also worth knowing that this plant, despite the love of the sun and heat, needs only 10-12 hours of photoperiod and is perfectly successful not only in open areas, but also in light shade.
Ovary of the fruit on the cucumber. © Cristina
Peculiarities of growing cucumbers
So, based on the characteristics of this crop, setting a goal to grow a good crop of cucumbers, it is necessary to tune in not only for regular watering, but also regular fertilizing, regular mulching, regular fruit harvesting, since it is the constancy in the care of this vegetable that plays a key role for success.
Preparing the soil for planting cucumbers
Planting cucumber begins with the selection of the site and the preparation of the soil. This is important because this culture loves the light and responds well to fertility. Therefore, if there is a possibility, the beds should be organized from north to south, and organic should be added under the predecessor, or the soil should be filled with fertilizers just before planting the vegetable.
Cow manure is considered the best fertilizer for cucumber. Under the predecessor, it should be brought in a reversed form, at the rate of 4-6 kg per square meter, and immediately before sowing - as a mullein tincture (1 part fresh manure per 5 parts water). If there is no manure, it can be replaced with chicken manure (diluted with 1x20 water) or with any available complex mineral fertilizer.
Warm beds, not less than 25 cm high, are the most successful option for growing cucumber. Having an organic cushion inside, they not only provide plants with essential nutrients, but also saturate the roots with carbon dioxide and produce a warming effect.
Regular high-quality watering is a fundamental factor in the cultivation of a decent crop of cucumbers. It should be carried out in the holes between the rows and often enough to maintain the soil in a constantly wet state. It is better to water cucumbers in the evening or at the same time in the morning, preferably before the start of the heat, with warm water (from +18 to + 25 ° С), without moisture getting on the leaves. Before flowering, watering should be moderate, and abundant during the fruiting period.
If the soil is not filled with a sufficient amount of organic matter under the predecessor or in the pre-sowing preparation of the beds, cucumbers should be regularly fed. Begin feeding after the formation of 2-3 true leaves and continue throughout the period of fruiting.
The most responsive cucumbers to nitrogen, but for the full development they need and phosphorus, and potassium. Therefore, more often experienced gardeners alternate the application of mineral fertilizers with organic matter. The best choice in this matter would be ammofosk (10-15 g per 1 square meter) and a mullein solution, or chicken manure. But if the weather is cold, the dressing is useless.
Shaping, or pinching
A separate component of the care of cucumbers is the formation of plants. It is necessary in order to provoke the development of lateral shoots, which produce more female flowers. Formed by pinching the center stalk of cucumber over 5-6 leaf. At the same time early ripening varieties can not be formed, but the development of late and mid-ripening varieties can be adjusted.
Methods of increasing the yield of cucumbers
Based on the peculiarities of the crop, vegetable growers have long ago found that quality care and pinching of the lashes are far from all the tricks in terms of increasing the yield of cucumbers. There are other ways to enhance the formation of female flowers. One of them is the temporary cessation of watering just before the beginning of flowering of the crop. Such a technique makes the plants “think” that they may die soon and provokes intensely to form fruits.
Another option to increase the yield is mixing in the plantings of different varieties and hybrids of the crop, - this increases the pollination of cucumbers.
Ringing of the stems can also be done - make a shallow circular cut under the first pair of leaves of the plant (the procedure is performed only in dry weather), which makes it difficult for the roots to drain nutrients and contribute to the formation of a larger number of ovaries.
At the time of the decline in the formation of greens, it is possible to produce foliar feeding of cucumbers with urea (at the rate of 20 g per 10 l of water), but only in a wet evening, or in cloudy weather.
Increases productivity and removal of the first ovary. This technique allows the plant to strengthen the root system and gain strength to form a large number of fruits. You can also try to attract bees to your site - either by planting honey plants, or by placing poilochki with aromatic syrup.
A separate word must be said about supports. Since the cucumber plant is climbing, the best way to grow it is to arrange it vertically. Supports can be of different options: inclined, vertical, arranged along the beds or round - then who needs it. The main thing is that the plants on them will not touch the ground, will be better ventilated, it will be easier to harvest from them, which means they will hurt less and produce more fruit.
Cucumber. © jenniferworthen
Caring for cucumbers during fruiting
Peak fruiting cucumbers begins in July. It is important to continue watering and harvest in time. It is better to produce the collection every other day, maximum after two, in the early morning hours, as cucumbers harvested in the evening wither faster and are worse stored. It is necessary to clean everything, including twisted and ugly fruits, as each cucumber left on the plant delays the laying of new ovaries. In this case, cucumbers can not be pulled or unscrewed, but neatly cut with garden shears, or pinch with nails, as the injured rods are sick and form a crop worse.
At the same time with greenhouses, at every inspection of the beds, it is good to remove the yellowed and diseased leaves - this will keep the plants strong and healthy, and prolong their fruiting.
Propagation of favorite varieties
If the variety of cucumbers purchased this year really pleased you with the harvest, then it is advisable to collect seeds from it. To do this, on several plants it is necessary to leave a certain number of large healthy fruits (no more than three for one shrub) and let them mature. However, it makes sense to do this if it is indeed a variety, since the hybrid does not repeat the mother plant from the seeds, therefore, it is useless to leave it for reproduction.
How to grow cucumbers in the open field
The secrets of growing cucumbers in the open field of each gardener their own. Some grow them on the usual ridge, others prefer the method of warm beds. It should be noted the main advantage of the second method - a high concentration of carbon dioxide in the air layers bordering the ground.
The more of it, the plants grow faster. Apply methods of growing cucumbers of two types: seedlings, seeds in the ground. The first method allows you to bring the collection of cucumbers, the second simplifies the cultivation and care of soil cucumbers.
The technology of growing cucumbers in open ground seeds tied to the weather. Нужно помнить, что посадка огурцов в холодную землю даст отрицательный результат. Семена огурцов всходят, если почва прогрелась до 14 °C.
Заморозки убивают молодые огуречные всходы, длительное понижение температуры до 8 °C снижает всхожесть наклюнувшихся семян.
Сильная огуречная рассада — формула успеха
Сильная рассада огурцов, выращенная дома — залог высокого урожая. До высадки в грунт ее растят 25 дней. Not all novice gardeners know how to properly grow cucumbers through seedlings. Sowing cucumbers on seedlings begins with the preparation of the soil. The easiest way to buy ready-made soil. A more complicated way is to prepare the soil yourself.
For the germination of cucumber seeds suitable mixture:
- humus (1 part),
- lowland peat (1 part),
- 1 tbsp. l mineral fertilizer ("Akvarin"),
- 0.5 liters of ash in a bucket of the mixture.
Cucumbers pickle poorly tolerated, so they plant seeds in separate containers (glasses) with a diameter of 7 cm. Before this, planting material must be disinfected. The usual option is 1 g of potassium permanganate and 100 ml of water. Before sowing, Epin-extra is used to stimulate seed germination. Take 100 ml of warm boiled water, drip the product (2 drops). After that, from 2 to 4 days, the seeds are kept in a damp cloth at a temperature of 25 - 28 ° C. Seeds are planted in cups when the spine is extended by 5 mm.
The soil in the cups is spilled with warm water, after 30 minutes the seeds are laid out in them and covered with a layer of soil, the sowing depth is 2 cm. The glasses are covered with foil, removed after cucumber shoots appear. Care for cucumber shoots standard:
- water the seedlings every other day
- illuminate cucumbers in cloudy weather,
- feed the seedlings twice
- A week before transplanting into the soil, seedlings temper by lowering the night temperature to 12 ° C.
Warm beds - paradise cucumbers
Growing cucumbers in the open ground with the help of warm ridges is very popular. The site for the construction of the ridge should be fenced off from the north wind with tall vegetables or a structure. This facilitates the creation of the desired microclimate cucumbers.
To refuel a warm ridge, you can use manure or plant residues (weeds, tops). To disinfect the plant mass can be heated: fall asleep in an iron barrel, pour water, heat it on the fire. Pour hot mass into a trench dug in advance: trench depth - 35 cm, width - 1 m.
In the trench can be laid small branches, paper. To pour layers with lime-fluff, on top of everything to pour the dug out earth. In the spring to conduct the final cultivation of soil: dig, make humus, ash, nitroammofosku.
Starting from spring, the remnants, rotting, emit heat and create a microclimate in the surface layer. A high concentration of carbon dioxide stimulates the appearance of female flowers, which has a positive effect on the volume of the crop.
Transplanting in the soil of cucumber seedlings
You need to know some subtleties about how to grow cucumbers in a seedling way. In early June (late May), seedlings can be transplanted into the garden. Before that, in about ten days, start to warm up the soil: pour it with hot water, cover with foil.
Planted seedlings in rows. Leave a distance of 50 cm between rows, 30-40 cm in the rows between the holes. When planting, protect the roots from damage. The wells pour pink water with potassium permanganate. Set plastic arches over the ridge, stretch the film.
In the daytime, with the air temperature of 25 ° C, on one side, slightly open the film to a height of 25 cm. Further growth of cucumbers and planting care is reduced to watering, fertilizing, keeping the ridges clean, preventing diseases.
About the features of care in the open field
When caring for cultivated plants, you need not only to water them. It is equally important to clean in a timely manner the fruits grown to normal size. It is necessary to collect green leaves in the morning time, they retain their elasticity longer.
In order not to damage the whip, the fruit is not torn off, but cut with scissors or a garden knife. Scourge once again not to turn, the leaves should look up. Fruit picking is carried out every 2 days.
Secrets of the proper irrigation of soil cucumbers
When growing cucumbers in the open field in the country there may be difficulties with irrigation due to rare visits. Hope for rain is not worth it, it does not always help out. It is necessary to remember about the benefits of rainwater - it is better than well or tap water, it has more oxygen and useful substances.
Cucumbers need frequent watering, but there are growing features associated with weather conditions. On cooler days, with excessive soil moisture, root rot appears in the plants. Proper care for cucumbers - avoiding irrigation at daytime temperatures below 15 ° C. In this weather, in a country house, in the open field, dry irrigation is carried out - they loosen the ground between the rows.
Water for irrigation of ground cucumbers should be warm (22 - 25 ° C). Inexperienced summer residents, watering the beds with cold water, may encounter problems:
- plants grow slowly
- there are few ovaries on cucumbers,
- cucumber ovaries are showered.
A gardener in his rules of cultivation need to register two more conditions for a good harvest, associated with watering. The first condition - watering in the grooves, located in between the rows. From the watering at the root should be abandoned. Cucumber roots are shallow and can become bare. The second condition - do not water after 19 hours.
Fertilizers or how to care for cucumbers in open ground
Regular dressings help to grow soil cucumbers properly. During the summer you need to feed the plants at least 3 - 4 times. With the right approach, root dressings alternate with foliar. During the peak of cucumber fruiting, their immunity is increased by ash. To powder 1 square. m cucumber ridge, take a glass of ash.
For a cucumber in open ground, soil fertility is important, improve it with the help of fertilizers (organic, mineral). For the first time, gardeners prefer to feed cucumbers with mullein infusion. It is easy to prepare the solution: pour 1 manure bucket into 2 buckets of water, stir, put for 5 days to ferment. Healthy cucumbers in a bucket add 0.5 liters of liquid fertilizer.
Sick and weakened plants increase the concentration of the solution to 1 l per bucket. You can add to the working solution 1 tbsp. l urea or ammonium nitrate.
When the buds and the first flowers appear on the cucumber lashes, repeat the plant nutrition. During this period, add fertilizers containing phosphorus and potassium to the solution. The plant is especially in need of fertilizer during fruiting. During this period, feed cucumbers every 10 days, add a mullein infusion to the infusion (per 10 liter 1 tbsp.).
To avoid clumsy greens, consider the proportions when applying fertilizers:% nitrogen is more than phosphorus,% potassium is more than nitrogen.
Good results are achieved by gardeners foliar top dressing of cucumbers in open ground. For the active growth of green mass at the beginning of the growing season, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of urea. For processing the ridge with a width of 1 m and a length of 10 m diluted in 10 liters of water 1 tsp. fertilizer. Processing cucumbers hold before the flowers appear. In June, sprinkle cucumber bushes with soda solution (per 10 liters 1 tbsp), the leaves will not turn yellow.
Formation of cucumber bush
The formation of cucumber bushes facilitates the cottagers care for them. More and more gardeners use trellis in their gardens. Tied cucumber bushes are less sick. Varieties and hybrids in open ground form in different ways.
Varietal cucumbers pinch over 4 - 5 leaves to grow more side lashes. Hybrids should be kept in one stalk, pulling out all the lower shoots to a height of 0.5 m. In the gap between the cucumber stalk from 0.5 to 1 m, leave one leaf in the axils, higher - 2 leaves each, even higher - 3-4.
Growing cucumbers in the country in the open field is not so easy. Diseases trap the plant in the open field during the whole season: immediately after planting, during the fruiting period.
Infection in open ground can be transmitted through the air. The most common diseases of ground cucumbers:
- powdery mildew,
- root rot,
The first signs of powdery mildew often appear on cucumbers in cool (20 ° C) weather with high humidity. In the early stages, it is white on the leaves, similar to flour. At later stages, the leaves on the cucumbers begin to turn yellow and dry.
Fruiting cucumber bushes can be sprayed from powdery mildew with an infusion prepared from water (10 parts) and mullein (1 part). Strongly affected cucumber leaves should be sprayed with a solution of ferrous sulfate (5%).
Root rot can leave no crop. The first signs can be seen immediately after the landing of the seedlings on the ridge. When the temperature increases daily, the leaves on the plants wither, and with the onset of twilight they restore the elasticity of the leaves. At the bottom of the stem in such plants, the color becomes brown. Care at this time:
- apply a biopreparation to the soil (“Baktofit”) or a fungicide (“Xom”),
- spud stem to stimulate the growth of new roots
- to enhance immunity, treat with Effekton.
Anthracnose affects not only lashes and leaves of soil plants, fruits suffer. Yellow spots grow on the leaves, pink ulcers form on the greens, the stems dry out, the fruits become unsuitable for consumption. The life of a cucumber bush depends on how quickly the plant will be helped. For processing of cucumber leaves Bordeaux liquid take 1%.
Pests on the bed with cucumbers
Often with the onset of hot July days, care in the open field complicates aphid. A small insect can cause great harm to plants in open ground. It is easy to find out damaged ground cucumbers:
- sluggish leaves
- spoiled buds and ovaries,
- yellow spots on the surface of the leaves.
The insect reproduces rapidly, colonies of aphids can destroy the whole ridge in 10 days. If an insect is found, prepare a soap-ash solution. Take a liter of water, add to it diluted in hot water soap 72% (2 tablespoons) and ash (2 tablespoons).
The resulting soap and ash water to wash the leaves and stalks of cucumbers. Treatment of plants open ground in the morning. To avoid leaf burn, cover the plants with a covering at noon. After 5 days, reprocessing in open ground. The ground under the cucumber bushes should be powdered with ash to repel pests and feed weakened plants.
Simple protection of soil cucumbers from Medvedka
Medvedka causes great damage to young ground cucumbers. A simple plastic bottle protects soil cucumbers from pests. In a 1.5 liter bottle, you need to cut off the lower and upper parts, you get a cylinder. Cut the cylinder into 3 equal parts.
Press the resulting rings into the bed, above the surface you must leave a sticking rim - 0.5 cm high. In each ring, plant 3 cucumber seeds, sprinkle them with soil.
The cucumber ridge should be covered with cellophane before germination. Rings will protect the seedlings from the bear and will not interfere with the development of the plant, will facilitate its cultivation.
Selection of varieties for cultivation in the open field
For open ground, it is necessary to choose bee-pollinated varieties.. The main advantages varieties for open ground: cold resistance, resistance to temperature fluctuations. A review of the three topical hybrids for open ground will help pick cucumber seeds for the next season.
Cucumber Crunch F1
The bee-pollinating hybrid differs in long-term fructification in an open ground. Cucumbers are harvested 48 days after germination. Flowering female type. Fruits are collected in bunches of 2 - 3 pieces. Zelentsy practically do not outgrow, are not inclined to yellowing.
The pulp of cucumbers is dense, there are no voids. Fruits are one-dimensional, the average weight of greens is 90-100 g. It is difficult to spoil a salad with a tasty cucumber, Zelentsy are good in slightly salted and pickled form. Valuable qualities of a hybrid for open ground: resistance to root rot, cladosporia, powdery mildew (false, real).
Cucumber Appetizing F1
An early hybrid for open ground (maturation occurs after 45 days), bee-pollinating, productive (14 kg / m²). Fruiting uniform, long lasting. The hybrid is resistant to a complex of diseases, perfectly adapts to any conditions when grown. Type of flowering female. In nodes forms 2 - 3 ovaries. Cucumbers grow beautiful, not long, aligned. The form of green leaves is cylindrical, weight is from 80 to 100 g. Fruits can be used in blanks, fresh.
Cucumber Baby F1
Early hybrid, bee-pollinated, can be planted in open ground. Zelentsy begin to sing on 47 - 50 day. Fruiting soil hybrid lasts a long time, greens are formed on the central stem and on the side shoots. The length of Zelentsy 7 - 10 cm, the shape is beautiful. Cucumber with white pubescence. The pulp of cucumbers is dense, juicy, crispy. Zelentsy used for barrel salting, pickled cucumbers do not lose elasticity.
How easy it is to increase the yield of cucumbers in the open field
Sometimes tips from experienced gardeners help grow a lot of cucumbers in the open field. Here is one of these tips: a special irrigation of cucumbers using apple cider vinegar. Pour rainwater or tap water into a barrel. When the water warms up, add apple cider vinegar to it. At 200 liters is enough 1.5 cups. This sour little water to water cucumbers all summer. Cultivated soil cucumbers can be harvested by 15% more than with ordinary watering.
The seed cucumber is an annual plant of the dicotyledon class of the pumpkin family. Its country of origin is India, where it grows wild and is still at the foot of the Himalayas.
- “Rough” stem with antennae can be stretched to a length of two meters or more.
- It has five-pointed sheets heart-shaped.
- Green multi-seeded fruits of different shades are very fragrant and juicy. Their shape is oblong and is defined in the botanical reference books as "pumpkin".
- Elongated and flat seeds are usually whitish in color.
- This vegetable improves intestinal function, digestion and is dietary.
- Stimulates the functioning of the kidneys and heart muscle.
- Freshly made juice cleans the joints well and heals external ulcers. In addition, it is useful for gums and teeth, as well as cleans and whitens the skin.
The main conditions for growth
To grow cucumbers in the open field you need to comply with certain terms, conditions and methods of growing this vegetable:
- The planting dates should exclude the “meeting” of planted cucumbers with frosts.
- If this crop clings along the trellis, the harvest will be higher.
- Solar illumination will contribute to a good raising of cucumbers in the garden.
- Landing is not desirable to carry out in the wind.
Cucumbers will grow better on those beds where in the previous season tomatoes or cabbage (cauliflower, light-colored) ripened. Potatoes, carrots, peppers, and onions are also considered good predecessors.
It is not recommended to re-grow cucumbers in the old place, as well as in the places where other pumpkin plants (watermelon or melon) used to grow.
Preparing seeds and planting material
High-quality preparation of planting material is the key to a good harvest. Therefore, the selection of seeds, their germination and preparation of seedlings for soil should be carried out properly.
Seed growing technology
When choosing seeds, consider the following:
Terms of their ripening, as they are early maturing, mid-season or late.
The possibility of growing in open ground.
Hybrid varieties, because hybrids are less susceptible to diseases, but their fruits are almost unsuitable for gathering "under the seeds."
The objectives of growing cucumbers based on the form in which you want to use the final product: salted or fresh. Therefore, initially you need to choose the appropriate varieties.
A very important point is the zoning under a certain area, where cucumbers will be grown.
The shelf life of cucumber seeds for about 6 years in a dry room at a temperature of 2−25 degrees.
We sprout at home
To grow cucumbers in open beds you need to properly prepare the seeds for sowing or seedlings at home.
We choose large seeds, which are usually the strongest. Dip them in saline (3%), shake and incubate for about 15 minutes.
Floated seeds are discarded, and the rest are washed, placed in a solution of manganese (1%) for half an hour. Then they need to be washed and placed for 5−6 hours in a special solution of wood ash, then dry well.
You can warm the seeds on the stove or battery for about a day or place it in hot water (about 60 degrees) for several hours.
Seeds are preferably germinated in fabric bags or cloths in a solution of nitrophoska (teaspoon per liter of warm water). Then they need to be washed and put on a damp cloth or wet sawdust, and cover the top. The temperature should not be below 23 degrees.
Seeds should swell and then roll, but without germination.
When the root appears extends into half the seed - you can start planting in pots for seedlings or open ground.
For faster cultivation of cucumbers in the beds it is recommended to use seedlings, which can be prepared at home, giving it a solar illumination about 12 hours a day.
First, a container of the required dimensions is prepared: 12/12 or 10/10 cm from paper milk bags or plastic.
Then they are filled with a mixture of earth with peat or humus.
Seeds are sown to a depth of no more than 3 cm.
You need to grow about a month.
Before planting in open ground, cucumber seedlings should have 3-4 complete leaves and roots.
Seedlings also need to make a few hours in the shade of the street for her "hardening."
Soil preparation for planting
It is desirable to prepare the open ground for planting in the fall. Для этого делаем следующее:
Повышенную кислотность почвы снижаем гашёной известью, измельчённым мелом, препаратами раскислителями, дровяной или торфяной золой.
Для этого подойдёт перегной, компост, торф или навоз. На метр площади потребуется 7−8 килограмм для каждого вида.
Potassium sulfate (mineral fertilizer) is poured at the rate of 60 grams per ten-meter area.
Superphosphate is added to sandy soil.
After the soil dries out (spring), we form a high bed for cucumbers. We make organic fertilizers or make a complete line of manure. We introduce ammonium nitrate, as well as thirty grams of superphosphate per square meter of land.
To do this, we close the ridge with a transparent film, and when it begins to “soar”, we plant cucumbers.
Sowing and planting
In open soil, cucumbers are planted with seeds or seedlings.
The distance between the bushes when disembarking should be at least twenty centimeters, and the row spacing from one meter. Along the ridge after planting, pegs are fitted on which the fishing line or rope is pulled. Then cucumbers are tied to them. Thus, a support is created for the cultivation of cucumber lashes.
For sowing cucumbers with seeds, it is necessary that the earth and the air be warmed to 12 and 15 degrees, respectively. You can plant nests or rows:
Rows have lines of 70–90 centimeters, the distance between the holes should be 12–20 centimeters, the depth of landing is 3–4 centimeters. Sowing is desirable to orient to the edge of the ridge and sow two seeds in the recess. In the future, you can thin out.
Nests are usually made 60/60 centimeters and 4-5 cucumber seeds are sown in each.
To prevent the cucumbers from freezing, for the first few weeks and when the air temperature drops below 15 degrees, the beds cover overnight.
- The soil must be protected from the appearance of a crust.
- Quickly remove weeds.
- Immediately tie up the cucumbers.
- Loosen the beds immediately after watering.
- In the course of the week, feed more than once.
On the main cucumber stalk there are flowers of a male type. The ovaries of the female "class" are located on the lateral branches of the second and third levels. Non-expressed female flowers are stimulated by pinching the top of a cucumber shoot over the fifth or seventh leaf.
Do not forget about phosphate and potash additives. Next to the cucumber you can lay out a fresh mullein.
If cucumbers have both types of flowers on the main stem (male and female), then pinching them is not necessary.
Issues associated with watering cucumbers, are quite an important aspect. Overdrying or pouring bushes is absolutely not recommended.
With a lack of moisture, the plant sheds flowers and ovaries, and the fruits begin to taste bitter. In case of its excess, root rot can form.
The peculiar requirements of cucumbers to soil moisture are due to some features of the plant:
The root cucumber system is rather superficial, therefore it dries quickly.
The growing number of large leaves evaporates a lot of moisture.
During cultivation, it is advisable to water the plants in the morning, so that the soil under the cucumbers is already dry by night. Water procedures should be carried out already with partial drying of the soil and watered at the root, without affecting the foliage. Although in strong heat, a slight spraying of the sheet cover will not be superfluous. Water should be around 25 degrees.
The rate of water may depend on the type of soil, weather, the plant itself, but on average it is about 30 liters per square meter. During flowering or fruiting, the vegetable root system especially needs moisture.
Excess or lack of water is determined by the leaves, which become pale with an excess of moisture or acquire a dark green shade, as well as fragility, if it is not enough.
The first feeding of cucumbers is done when there are several full sheets. The second (increased 2 times) - after two weeks.
You can fertilize directly in the wells, but without falling on the cucumber greens. Feeding options:
The tank is filled with cow dung by one third, the rest is filled with water and mixed. After 7–14 fermentation, add ash and add water before fertilizing.
In a ten-liter bucket of water you need to pour 10 grams of superphosphate, potassium salt and ammonium nitrate. You can add sand if the ground is heavy.
Cucumbers are sprayed with a solution of urea on the leaves (5 grams of fertilizer per 1 liter of water). In sunny weather, such a procedure is strictly not recommended, in order to avoid burns on the sheets.
If the cucumber becomes pear-shaped - potassium is added. In the case when the end of the cucumber sharpens, bends and brightens - you need to add nitrogen.
When growing cucumbers need to be initially ready to fight pests.
The best and most effective ways are routine prophylaxis and proper care. For this you need:
- To disinfect the seeds by heating and potassium permanganate.
- Observe the spatial isolation of plants.
- Reasonable alternate landing.
- Ensure the correct moisture regime.
- Timely remove weeds, as well as diseased cucumber specimens.
Problems of fungal diseases
One of the main problems in the cultivation of cucumbers is their infection with fungal diseases. These include:
The appearance of spots that capture the entire sheet, acquiring powdery powder. In this case, the diseased leaves later die off. If you do not remove the weeds and the remains of diseased plants, then next year the young shoots will suffer the same infection. Especially this disease develops in the hot period.
To protect the drug is used NAT (fifty grams of the drug in a bucket of water). It is necessary to spray at the very beginning of this cucumber "disease". For the prevention of using whey.
The occurrence of brown or yellow spots on the leaves. The whole plant is infected along with the fruits on which ulcers appear and they begin to rot. This disease contributes to increased humidity. For treatment using a one-percent solution of Bordeaux mixture.
Occurrence of a gray-brown spot. In diseased places, part of the leaf falls out, and ulcers appear on young cucumbers. Low temperature and wet season contribute to the development of this disease. The treatment is similar to the previous one.
The plant stalks are moistened, the leaves sag and the vegetable dies. Appears like a cotton wool, white plaque. Fruits become decrepit. Disease is accompanied by a cool dry summer.
The affected parts need to be cut and burned, and the “wounds” should be missed with crushed coal or lime.
Most fungal diseases are effectively treated with blue vitriol. The affected parts are cut off and burned, and the planting is sprayed.
Disease resistant varieties can be planted. These include:
Collection of grown cucumbers
New young cucumbers are desirable to collect every few days, although it is possible more often. At the time of the ripped fruit is very fragrant, crunchy and juicy, with a thin crust. After harvesting, new healthy ovaries begin to be created, from which new cucumbers will grow in the near future. Fresh fruit will begin to appear more and more.
And if the fruits are removed out of time, they become rough, large and overripe. Accordingly, this affects their taste, and on top of that, the process of growing new and healthy cucumbers slows down.
Depending on the purpose and purpose, cucumbers are taken in different sizes:
- For food “straight from the garden,” they try to pluck small and juicy fruits about ten centimeters in size or more with “pimples”.
- For canning, from three to eighteen centimeters are collected depending on the recipe.
- The length and shape of the fruit is influenced by the appropriate variety, type of soil, regularity of irrigation and methods of growing cucumbers.
Harvesting cucumbers is best done in the morning or in the evening.
It is recommended to cut off fruits with scissors or a knife, and then to protect them from hit of direct sunshine.
Properly grown and harvested cucumbers can be stored until deep frost until overdried. And when, on a winter day, a jar with fragrant blanks or freshly frozen cucumbers will appear on the table, you will involuntarily recall the bright sunny days of summer. And you will only be glad that at your summer cottage you had a place and time to grow such a wonderful vegetable as cucumber.
The specifics of growing vegetables in the open field: the pros and cons
When growing cucumbers in the open field, you need to know that this pumpkin crop is very demanding of moisture, light and heat. It needs protection from winds, shelter from unforeseen frosts, regular watering. It is not always possible to grow a great crop, since it often depends on weather conditions. The process from seed to fruit is very time consuming. In addition, it requires the necessary knowledge of some of the features and secrets of growing capricious plants.
The advantages of growing cucumbers in the open field:
- small costs
- the ability to clear the field of weeds before sowing (as they carry out late sowing),
- a huge market,
- demanding to heat
- need for regular watering,
- weather dependence
- hand picking
Growing in breed
With this method, cucumbers are grown on ridges. The scourge of cucumbers are evenly distributed on them and receive enough sunlight to grow the whole plant. But the downside is that changing the position of the lashes, without which it is impossible to do while caring for them, leads to the oppression of the leaves and delays the ripening of the fruit in the future.
This is a two-line method of planting cucumbers on a support. It is more laborious, but it has many advantages: it saves space, free access of air, good lighting and convenient care for plants, long-term fruiting and better quality of fruits, less subject to disease.
With this method, a tapestry or slats are installed on metal supports that are driven into the ground to a depth of 30–40 cm. They form bushes and make a garter at a trellis height of 1 m. If the trellis is low, cucumber stems are thrown onto the other side without forming and are not tied up. Shpaler way is considered to be more productive than growing in style.
Growing in barrels
Metal barrels filled with rotted plant residues, compost, the last layer - the usual nutrient soil. The substrate is well spilled with water and for a week covered with a polyethylene film for heating. 5 seeds are sown in a container or planted seedlings are planted, covered with foil. After the plants start growing, they set up supports in the form of arcs around the barrel. Plants are watered regularly as the soil dries. This original way allows you to get an earlier harvest, saves space and time to care for the plant, the fruits are always clean, and the building itself with climbing cucumber lashes has a beautiful aesthetic appearance.
A barrel with a cucumber roof is an incredible sight!
Selection of a site for sowing seeds
Choose a site for planting cucumbers should be carefully, given all their whims. First of all, they pick up a well-lit place, protected from cold winds. If there is no such place, it is created artificially, by planting tall plants in cucumber aisles. Usually corn and sunflower act as a protective barrier.
Proper crop rotation plays a major role in preparing future cucumber beds. In no case can not be planted cucumbers, where they used to grow beets and pumpkin crops. Good precursors are legumes (with the exception of beans), solanaceous crops, cabbage.
In areas with prepared soil, ridges of 1 m or 0.5 m wide are formed and the same passages between rows. For vigorous
- on beds without insulation, we form them 90–100 cm wide, 20–25 cm high, leaving between them a path of 30–40 cm. However, for heavily growing plants, narrow beds (45 cm each) with wide aisles (70–90 cm) are more suitable. ). Then the lash of cucumbers will not intertwine, and therefore be damaged. If it is planned to grow cucumbers on a virgin place, it is better to form the beds in the fall, especially if the site is located in a wet lowlands, or the soil in the garden is heavy clay, or the fertile layer is small.
Ridges-ridges (width 0.4–0.5 m, height - 0.3 m) will be appropriate on clay soils and areas with surface groundwater. This contributes to the fact that the root system of cucumbers does not dry out. After all, on such a bed, water during irrigation and rain falls from the ridges. The beds are convenient for maintenance: soil treatment, fertilization. Less: in rainy weather after contamination of the leaves may develop diseases of cucumbers.
Creating warm ridges - ideal for cucumbers. There are two types of such ridges:
- They dig a trench (not less than 1 m), fill it with organic matter (using rotted and non-ripened vegetation residues, manure) to the level of the path. In the future, the contents of the trench will not only feed the plants, but also provide them with heat, saturate the root system with carbon dioxide.
- Everything is done in the same way as in the previous version. Around the trench is a side with wooden boards or flat slate 20–30 cm above the ground level. High beds protect from cold and retain moisture well.
Warm beds allow you to make foil shelter, reduce the number of treatments of the soil, water cucumbers easily and simply. Frightens a large amount of work on the preparation of the beds.
Note: a plot with heavy clay soil and shallow groundwater will contribute to the retention of moisture in the trench, which can lead to plant rot.
Seed preparation for sowing
Cucumber seeds that are 2–3 years old are considered productive, although they can survive for up to 8 years. When buying seeds, one should give preference to those who are drafted who do not need to be prepared for sowing. Other seeds are prepared for sowing in advance:
note: Early sowing is done with dry seeds to prevent frost damage. In later lines, with steady heat, germinated seeds are sown in moist soil.
This is how germinated seeds look.
Terms of landing in the ground
The dates of sowing seeds of cucumbers in the open ground have long been associated with church holidays and folk omens. These days almost always coincide with favorable days for planting this culture in the lunar calendar. You will never regret if you follow these traditions. And using all the recommended dates and doing the seeding in stages, you will enjoy cucumbers until the first frosts. Of course, the exception will be situations when the soil did not have time to warm up to 18 o C, and the night temperature is below 12 o C.
- The first sowing falls on May 19 and is timed to the memory of Job the Long-suffering,
- Day of Falalea-Borage, Gotorypochnik, Teplovey (June 2) will be suitable for the second stage of planting,
- The last stage is the middle of June. At this time, the poplar is blooming (folk omen). It is necessary to choose an auspicious day according to the lunar calendar.
Sowing seeds in open ground
For sowing cucumbers, they make a furrow with a hoe or manually with a depth of 3-4 cm. If possible, water it, spread the seeds at a distance of 15 cm from each other. First, they are covered with moist soil by 1.5, and then necessarily dry to avoid the appearance of a dry earth crust, which prevents the growth of seedlings and the access of air. The soil is well tamped.
How and when to cover
After sowing, the soil is 3-4 cm sprinkled with peat, rotted manure, sawdust, straw, that is, mulched. Mulching not only contributes to the preservation of moisture, protects against diseases and weeds, but also is the first shelter of crops from the cold (the temperature of the soil rises by several degrees during mulching). In order to preserve moisture and shelter from returnable frosts and cold weather, before sowing, crops are covered with plastic film or other covering material. The film 2 times a week is removed for airing the beds. If the cover is made of nonwovens, it can not be removed. After the emergence of young shoots shelter removed. In early June, there are unexpected night frosts. Therefore, it is necessary to monitor the weather forecast and make shelter in time. It is possible until the middle of June to regularly cover cucumber beds for the night.
Good protection for seedlings - shelter beds after sowing spunbond
Some gardeners use covering materials until the end of fruiting in order to create additional heat, protection from rain and wind.
After the cucumber has 2 true leaves, sprout seedlings. Do it carefully, manually pinching the sprout at the base, so as not to damage the roots of neighboring plants. In the nest you can leave two plants. The number of plants per running meter depends on the type of cucumber. Power-growing cucumbers (Buyan, Farmer, Boy - Spalchik, etc.) require a larger area for the stems. Therefore, for 1 running meter you can leave 2 plants with a distance of 0.5 m between them. For varieties with small lashes (Parker, Gherkin, etc.), a distance of 30 cm between plants is sufficient. After thinning, the soil in the beds is loosened to a depth of 10 cm. When there are 5–6 true leaves, the plants pile up, sprinkling moist soil to the base. Thanks to this operation, new roots are formed and cucumbers receive additional nutrition.
How to form plants growing on the trellis?
It is much more difficult to form plants grown on a trellis. Formed to be vigorous varietal cucumbers and hybrids. Прежде всего, на стебле удаляются нижние листья до 5 листа, что способствует свободному доступу воздуха до всего растения. В процессе роста поочерёдно прищипываются боковые побеги, начиная снизу. Сначала прищипываются побеги после 2 листа, затем несколько побегов — после 3 листа.And the last row of shoots - after 4 leaves. The upper lash of the central stem is lowered down, leaving 1 sheet on it and pinching at 1 m to the level of the soil. The result is a bush in the form of an inverse pyramid. This is a professional and time-consuming plant shaping scheme.
Cucumber bush after the reverse pyramidal shaping looks compact and aesthetically pleasing
If you are not ready to do the shaping according to professional schemes, simply pinch the plant after 6 sheets and tie the side shoots to the trellis. At the same time, the lower 3 leaves are removed, and later additional processes are cut out, appearing from the sinuses of the shoots. After removing the leaves and shoots can not be left stumps!
Note: Not all varieties require formation, and they are not pinned.
How to tie up
The nature of this vegetable nadarila tenacious mustache, who silently ask for support. This fact confirms the idea of the necessity of plant garters. Tied plant saves a lot of space, gives more shoots, less exposed to disease, resulting in increased yields.
Tie up the plant begins when they reach a height of 30 cm and the appearance of at least 4 true leaves. Older plant when the garter breaks. Carefully tie the stem under the first leaf, loosely stretch the rope and tie a knot so that the young plant does not break loose. The best material for the garter is a tape strong soft fabric with a width of 2-3 cm.
The simplest version is a horizontal garter. Between hammered into the ground supports pull the rope in three rows. Young shoots are directed around the bottom row of the stretched rope.
With a vertical garter on supports, a rope or wire is attached from above. Over the entire length of the wire ropes are tied over each plant, the lower end of which is tied at the base of the stem.
Feels comfortable plant on the trellis grid, which is attached to the supports. Garter need cucumbers on a high trellis (from 1 m).
Recently, they have made triangular and spherical supports that have a decorative appearance. The choice depends on your capabilities and imagination.
Tied on a triangular support cucumbers look original
How to water and feed
Pour cucumbers with distilled, warm water (at least 22 C). In summer, water can be heated in the sun in any containers. The best time for watering is evening. But if the night temperature is too low, watering is done in the morning. Before flowering, plants that are grown in areas with light soil, it is enough to water 2 times a week, on clay - 1 time. But with the onset of flowering and fruiting, they require daily watering. At the same time, the soil should be constantly wet to a depth of at least 10 cm. Of course, this takes into account the weather conditions.
Young plants can be watered from a watering can and a hose with a ryspylitel. Adults from such sprinkling can undergo fungal diseases. Due to irrigation under the root, the root system becomes bare and gradually dies off, the yield of the vegetable decreases. Therefore, it is better to water them along the furrows, mulching the soil after watering.
The first time the plants are fed after the first loosening. It is better to feed with a solution of mullein (1:10) or chicken droppings (1:20). If there are no organic fertilizers, complex minerals (50 g / 10 l) will do. The solution is evenly distributed along the grooves around the roots at a distance of 10 cm from the plant. The second feeding is done during mass flowering. Use both organic and mineral fertilizers. It is advisable to add 0.5 g of boric acid, 0.3 g of potassium permanganate, 30–40 g of potassium sulfate to the bucket. The third dressing is made during fruiting. Together with the organic added to the bucket 1 teaspoon of urea and potassium sulfate. If necessary, in two weeks the plants are fed for the fourth time, similarly to the third feeding.
Need cucumbers in top dressing or not, can be seen by their condition. Ugly fruits indicate a deficiency of potassium and nitrogen. The lack of phosphorus indicates the predominance of male ovaries on the whips. In this case, it is useful to make foliar feeding of cucumbers.
Features for regions, including for Moscow region
If in the south and in the central zone of Russia (including the Moscow region) it is quite possible to grow cucumbers in the open field in a seedless way, then it is better to prepare seedlings in Siberia. Short summers and the harsh climatic conditions of this region make cultivation difficult.
In Moscow, the soil warms up to 12 o C, usually in the last days of May. Therefore, cucumbers are sown in this zone, starting from the end of May and ending with the second decade of June. In the south, sowing in open ground can be done in the third decade of April, ending the second decade of July. Warm, stable weather in the southern areas allows you to collect several crops of cucumber.
For the south, it is appropriate to take varieties from ultra early to late; in other regions, late varieties on ordinary beds in the open field simply do not have time to produce fruit. Therefore, the inhabitants of central Russia and Siberia are trying to grow plants mainly on warm ridges in order to get a harvest as early as possible. At the same time preference is given to early ripening and mid-ripening varieties, the maturation period of which does not exceed 50 days (for central regions) and 40 days (for Siberia).
In order not to be left without a crop, it is necessary to select zoned hybrids and varieties that have been tested in the climatic conditions of the region. Usually, 5–7 varieties are sown, among which are pollinated and parthenocarpic. For Siberia well established pcholoopylyaemye variety Altai Brigantine, Far hybrids Miranda, Chinese, crocodile Gene and others. For the climatic conditions suburbs suitable great, Nezhinskii, competitor, VIR 505 et al., Universal hybrids Anna, Stork, Maria, Metelitza, Rodnichok and others. Zoned varieties for the south - Success, Signal, Jubilee, Don, Winner, etc.
New regionalized hybrids of cucumbers, surprising for their yield, resistance to diseases and adverse weather conditions, are derived annually. But we should not forget that to obtain excellent yields in any region, it is important not only to select a zoned variety, but also to follow simple rules, ranging from seed preparation to harvesting.
Growing cucumbers in the open field is a difficult but pleasant business. By investing your soul, energy and time in it, you will be able to please yourself and your loved ones with the true homemade taste of fresh vegetable.