This flower can not be overlooked precisely because of its extraordinary leaves; it is bred by true connoisseurs of indoor plants. There are many species of this plant, but it is not always possible to grow it at home due to its capricious nature and the lack of necessary conditions.
Only an experienced grower can handle it. Care for calathea at home requires special attention.
Calatheum flower is an indoor and garden plant belonging to the Marantovaya family. Under natural conditions, it grows in Central and South America. At home, the flower grows in pots - it is a perennial, decorative and deciduous plant, having 70-80 cm in height.
All they are pleased with long stalks. The plant has underground shoots that form rhizomes, short upright shoots with rosettes of leaves depart from them.
Flowering occurs in spring and summer, the flowers have a spike inflorescence and different colors - white, yellow, purple, orange and other shades. The flowers are three-membered, are on the spike-shaped inflorescence, emerge from the apex or sinuses of the plant.
Calathea is valued by flower growers for the original and unusual color of leaves. They are simply saturated green color or painted with stripes or spots of different tones - from light yellow to red-brown. Some species have leaf color similar to a peacock plumage or a fabulous bird.
Beautiful plants are very difficult to care, they need high humidity and frequent watering. It does not tolerate temperature extremes. Its ideal placement in the house is the closed flower window.
Types of Calathea with photos and titles
There are 130 known plant species created by nature, but breeders have developed many more hybrids. The leaves of the plant are not only pleasing to the eye with their coloring, but they are still used for weaving baskets, they are wrapped in fresh fish so that it will last for a long time, they even make hats and bags of them.
More often growers can buy in the store plant varieties, both natural and derived hybrids breeders.
Plant height from 30 cm and up to a meter. It has dark green leaves, purple below, with petioles velvety to the touch. Patterns of spots and stripes of light tone go along the central vein of the leaf. The flowers have a soft color - white, cream, pink. It blooms from late spring, lasting up to three weeks.
This type of plant has a different name - Calathea Crocat. She has “false” flowers, more beautiful than the real ones, which are small in size and inconspicuous, pink or red in color and are collected in large bracts of saffron shade. The leaves have a length of 20-30 cm, dark green color and velvety surface. It blooms either in early spring or late autumn.
Otherwise called redbeard. Reaches heights up to 70 cm. The leaves are located on long petioles, have an elongated and pointed shape. The leaves are body-grooved, have a herringbone pattern and waves at the edges. Petioles and bottom of leaves have a red color.
How to care for calathea?
It is not so easy to organize a full-fledged care of calathea, therefore inexperienced growers do not even try to grow it themselves and choose more unpretentious plants. But among the many varieties of the flower, you can pick up a less naughty species and try to grow them at home. The capricious beauty will perfectly fit into the interior of your home, and for this you should work hard and grow an unusual flower yourself.
What conditions should be maintained for normal plant growth and development?
Requires a sufficiently high temperature in the room and the exclusion of its differences. If sudden changes in temperature occur, the plant begins to wither, the leaves wilt and begin to rot. The normal temperature in the room should be 23-24 degrees, if it falls below 18 degrees, then the calathea can die. Like all southern plants, it does not tolerate drafts.
The plant tolerates shading normally, but everything should be in moderation. If the flower does not have enough light, then it grows poorly, the leaves become shallow and grow poorly, their color loses its attractiveness.
This is a tropical plant, so it loves moisture. The optimum is to ensure the bush air humidity of 90%. At home, this result is not easy to achieve, especially in cold weather, you will need to purchase a humidifier.
To achieve the required moisture, some place a flowerpot in an aquarium or florarium.
But this method helps the plant with smooth leaves. Kalatee with velvety leaves, this method is not suitable. It is better to spray water over the plant without touching the foliage. You can also put the pot on the tray, after pouring pebbles or expanded clay on it and pour water. The bottom of the pot should stand on the stones and not touch the water.
The flower requires only high-quality and non-rigid water for watering. Water it better thawed or rain water at room temperature. When cold water is used for irrigation, the leaves of the plant first become soft, sag and then begin to rot. Watering should be done carefully so as not to overflow.
Excess moisture, like overdried soil, leads to twisting and drying of the edges of the leaves.
If you water the flower irregularly, the plant can completely lose foliage. To soften the water in a bucket for watering you need to lower the bag with two or three handfuls of peat.
Fertilize the plant with extreme caution and feed moderately, because it is too sensitive to it. It is necessary to feed a flower from April to August, not more than 2 times a month, watering with a liquid solution for decorative leafy plants. For Calathea Saffron, you need to take a solution for flowering plants. Make the feeding you need immediately after watering.
Calathean transplantation at home is done in February-March. For young people, this procedure is required annually. Older plants, which have already turned 3 years old, are enough to replant once every 2-3 years. Pot for transplanting need to take shallow, because the plant surface root. Soil for calathea can be purchased in the store already ready. For her, the soil is suitable for azaleic and rhododendrons.
The flower will take root well if normal drainage is ensured and there is no lime in the soil.
Some growers make soil for the flower independently. It is important that he meets these requirements: to have good water and air permeability, to contain a lot of nutrients and to be slightly acidic. The soil should consist of the following parts: 2 parts of peat, 2 parts of leafy ground, 2 parts of humus and part of coarse sand. Experienced growers are advised to add 40 g of charcoal to the soil per kilogram of the mixture or replace it with sphagnum moss.
The plant propagates in three ways:
1. The easiest way is to divide a bush. This can be done by transplanting it, dividing the plant into several parts. When each of them will have a growing point and a good root system, the bush will definitely take root. The damage that occurs when dividing the bush, sprinkle with charcoal.
2. The cuttings are not always successful, because, having a growth point, the rhizome is still required to grow. Place the cutting in a wet substrate and cover with a transparent cap, creating greenhouse conditions for it. Remove the air cap daily. As well as cutting, reproduction is done by leaf.
3. Seed reproduction is the most difficult reproduction method. Seeds usually do not grow well, and seedlings do not grow too well. Seeds must be disinfected in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate. Then sow them on the surface of the soil, cover with a transparent film or glass and place in a semi-dark warm place.
Before the emergence of seedlings regularly air and moisten the soil. If you place the container in the florarium, where all the necessary parameters are observed, then for germination it will be the best solution.
When sprouts appear, they need to pick out in separate containers, and rooted plants in permanent pots.
Diseases of Calathea
They appear from the wrong care of the plant. The most common problems are:
- Dry the tips of the leaves. There are three reasons for this: dry air, hard water is taken for irrigation and spraying, and direct sunlight strikes the flower. It is necessary to adjust the care, and everything will work out.
- The leaves of the Calatheus dry and curl. Plants of this family have the peculiarity of twisting some leaves at night. But if this happens during the day, it is already a problem that needs to be fixed immediately. The reason for this phenomenon may be insufficient watering, cold air and draft.
- Yellow leaves. When the leaves turn yellow and dry, it may be an excess of fertilizer or its lack. You need to take a dose of half from what is written in the instructions.
- Calathea does not bloom. The soil is not suitable, the plant loves a weak acid environment. Violated the rules of care for a naughty flower.
If the plant is not in a hurry to bloom, then the pot should be put in a basin of water, but its bottom should not have contact with water.
A plant always has pests. Calathey also has them:
- Spider mite The most dangerous pest. You can find on the web, which appeared on the leaves and white spots. It usually appears due to dry air. If single injuries are found, remove the affected leaf. With a general lesion, it is necessary to treat the plant with insecticides.
- Shchitovka. Waxy plaques appear on the leaves, the plant becomes sluggish and dries. First you need to wipe the leaves with a solution of household soap, and then spray it with insecticide.
- Thrips. Appear due to excessive watering of the plant. White spots are formed on the surface of the sheet, and the pests themselves are on the inside. Spots crumble, and the sheet turns into holes. You can fight with insecticides.
- Rhizoctoniosis. It happens because of an excess of moisture and the appearance of rot. The fungus can kill the plant. Only fungicides can kill the fungus.
Timely detection of a disease or pest damage will help to cope with the problem rather quickly.
Spent efforts to care for Calathey will not be in vain. A beautiful and unusual plant will decorate the interior of any room. It will delight the eyes of all households and guests of the house.
What you need to know about the flower
Calathea is a plant in the second tier of the tropical forest and belongs to the Marant. Kalat leaves are oval and elliptical in length up to 30 cm. They are velvety and glossy, the back part always has red shades in color. Admire the complex pattern of the sheet plate can be infinite.
The leaves grow on the stem, but it is short, the internodes are millimeters apart, the socket seems to grow out of the ground. The length of leaf stalks is different. Surprisingly, the flower loves classical music and cannot stand the swing of tobacco — an esthete!
Improper care for kalata at home will ruin the plant, as seen in the photo
In the care it is necessary to carry out procedures with the knowledge of the nature of the “Prayer flower”. So, the flower is called a prayer for the fact that it lifts the leaves higher and higher at sunset. In the morning the plates are in a horizontal position.
The reaction to improper care will be a change in the color of the leaves, their wilting, the appearance of various spots, the drying of the edges. In another way it is called the loss of decoration.
How to care for calathea at home
Depending on the possibility, it is necessary to choose a flower to create acceptable conditions for its maintenance. Each variety requires the use of special care operations that correspond to this particular plant. The most demanding are the flowering varieties of Calathea. The most unpretentious is the flower of Kalathea Makoyana, depicted in the photo. Home care is easier for him than for other species.
Consistently, according to the operations we will analyze how to care for a capricious plant.
The total light day for calathea, regardless of location, is 15-16 hours. This can be a shade near the south window or doshodivanie when placed in the north side. Need to focus on the color of the leaves. With a lack of light, the leaves are pale, with an excess - shrink and coagulate into a tube. If not to take measures, then after blanching the leaves will dry up and fall off.
The photo shows how the calathea blooms with proper care at home, if the winter lighting duration control is observed. The flower is prompted to bloom, creating an adjustable day length by covering it with opaque material from 6 pm to 8 am. With the appearance of rudiments of peduncles, the plant is introduced into the usual light regime.
Watering and microclimate
All varieties of calathea are watered only with soft distilled water with a temperature of 2-3 degrees above room temperature. When watering is necessary to focus on the state of the plant. If the leaves begin to lose the snout, stop moistening, dry the ground 2-3 cm deep into the soil and wait for the results. If the leaves do not rise, care for Calathey requires replacing the soil and removing rotten roots.
To soften irrigation water, you need to throw two handfuls of peat in a bucket of tap water, stir and leave overnight. The filtered water will contain less calcium and magnesium.
The frequency of watering Calathea - as drying coma of the earth and the type of leaves. In hot weather, 3 times a week, in the winter only once, checking the humidity of the coma.
Demanding to the microclimate, Calathea does not like rough wetting of the leaves. Velvet leaves can not be moistened with spray, other varieties allow fog. From the drops after drying, there are ugly stains. Therefore, to create 50-70% humidity in an apartment with central heating is impossible. At home, the care of calathea is associated with the use of special methods of humidifying the air.
If in a deep pan, on which a pot of calathea is set, to pour pebbles, small stones, and overthrow, cover the moss with sphagnum moss, then the water in the pan will evaporate evenly. A special layer of air is created around the plant. But here it is impossible to allow contact of the bottom of the pot with water, there will be a rotting of the roots.
Less radical will be the soaring from a wide plate with hot water, or use the neighborhood with large flowers, like a canopy of tropical trees. Once or twice a day around the bush you need to make a small spray from the spray. Glossy leaves wipe with a damp cloth.
In the care of calathea, a balance between excess and deficiency is constantly observed, and you should follow the sharp ridge.
Soil, transplant and temperature content
Regardless of the season, the temperature should be 18-24 degrees, regardless of the season. In this case, a sharp change in temperature and draft can lead to the death of the Calathean.
The selection of the soil - one of the requirements, how to properly care for Calathey. Given that the roots of the plant are surface, grow in breadth, you need to select the appropriate pots. In a deep bucket, a larger drainage layer is created so that the soil below does not turn sour.
Substrate buy ready for Kalat, or Saintpaulia, but adding coarse sand. You can take the composition yourself:
- leaf humus - 6 parts,
- peat - 3 parts,
- sand - 1 part.
The composition of the soil should be slightly acidic, pH 6.
How to care for a calathea flower as it grows? It will require a transplant, by carefully separating the rhizome when seated. In addition, each delenka should have a flower bud.
Usually the bush is divided in two, cutting with a sharp knife and disinfecting fresh cut. After planting the plant, it must be covered up, a microclimate must be created in the leaflets, but with airing. After the new leaves begin to appear, remove the shelter. It is important that the temperature at this time was about 25 0 С, and the plant was in the shade.
Fertilizer and pruning calathea
When caring for a calathea at home, only flowering ornamental plants are fed up. For them, a composition of soluble fertilizers is selected, in which there is little or no nitrogen and traces of calcium. Typically, such formulations are sold to care for indoor flowers.
The peculiarity of kalats is that their roots secrete substances that change the composition of the soil and its acidity. The best feeding will be a timely update of the substrate. For young plants transplantation is carried out annually. After four years, the adult plant is transplanted once every two years.
For a start, you can grow a beautiful calathea in a florarium, a tall vessel with transparent walls. So, it is easier to maintain the microclimate.
Care for calathea saffron at home
Calathea as a houseplant is considered quite capricious and requires a lot of attention and patience. In spring and summer, the flower grows and develops perfectly, but with the advent of cold weather and a short daylight, it sinks into a depressed state. Insufficient natural light and dry air in the room due to central heating can even lead to the death of the plant. Очень важно создать для калатеи комфортные условия жизни, от них будет зависеть и полноценное развитие и прекрасное цветение.
This type of calathea has a shortened stem. The leaf plates are large, 30 cm in length, juicy, oval in shape, their shade is dark green on the outside and purple on the inside. The surface of the leaves ribbed. The root system is well developed, the rosette is powerful and wide.
The flowering time is short and consists of only 10–12 days, in rare cases lasts up to 16–18 days. Usually the buds bloom in late February and early March.
Flowers themselves have a tubular shape. The color of the petals is very bright - rich orange, and at the ends there are burgundy blotches. Buds are collected in small inflorescences.
The peduncle of the calathea is elongated; it grows from the middle of the leaf rosettes.
Signs and superstitions
Calatheus is called the "prayer flower." This is due to the peculiarity of the leaves: after sunset they twist and stretch upwards. Thereby very reminding hands of the praying person.
Superstitious believe that the cultivation of this flower will help to find happiness, comfort and peace. Astrologers claim that this culture has the ability to absorb negative energy and aggression.
REFERENCE! Saffron Calathea is not suitable for forming bonsai.
This is a plant that requires high humidity. It is important to keep this indicator at the level of 60–70%. Do not forget to regularly spray the flower itself and the air around it. Experienced botanists recommend covering Calathea at night with a plastic bag to avoid evaporation of moisture, which contributes to better flowering.
Calathea crocate prefers well-heated air, the temperature of which varies between + 20–22 ° C. Consider that the culture does not tolerate temperature drops. If the thermometer drops below +18 or rises above +24 ° C, there is a risk that the plant may die.
IMPORTANT! In winter, the room is not recommended to be ventilated or to avoid drafts.
Illumination kalatee need long-lasting and bright. However, take care of the plant from direct sunlight - they will burn leaf plates. Before the start of flowering (about a month), provide the flower with 10-hour lighting.
What is needed primer?
The most suitable substrate for growing room calathea consists of the following components:
- 1 part of humus,
- 1 h. Peat land,
- 1 h. Large river sand,
- 2 ch. Leaf land.
To achieve lightness and friability of the soil, it is necessary to add a small amount of perlite, wood ash and crushed pine bark. This will help the soil to better pass air.
You can buy ready-made substrate. But when buying, warn the seller that you need a primer for the Marant family.
The resulting soil mixture must be disinfected. To do this, it must be placed in the freezer for several hours or in the microwave for 3-4 minutes.
The first 3-4 years of plant life, he needs an annual change of soil and pot. Further transplantation is performed as needed - as soon as the root system ceases to fit in the pot.
Capacity for planting need to choose a large diameter, in depth it may be small. Before placing a flower in a pot, it is necessary to lay a drainage layer on its bottom. Calathean root system should be sprinkled with sphagnum moss, and only then pour the soil.
REFERENCE! Too much pot will cause the plant to grow only the root system until it fills all the space in the pot. And the ground part will stop its growth.
Fertilizer and dressing
This plant requires regular feeding (twice a month). Use for this ready-made complex feeding, which are designed for ornamental plants, for example, Bona Forte.
Calathea does not tolerate excess fertilizer. Therefore, the concentration indicated in the instruction should be reduced by half.
Water to moisten the soil should be separated and filtered. Spring and summer watering should be abundant. During the growing season, plants should be repelled by the condition of the soil - make sure that it is constantly slightly wet.
In winter and cold in autumn, watering is reduced. At this time, the upper crust of the earth should dry out, and only then is the next watering done.
If you are going on vacation
This question worries all flower growers: how to ensure watering during your absence? The easiest way - drip hydration. You need to prepare for it in advance. Take a bottle and make holes in it.
Put the filled bottle in the bottom of the bottle and detect how much water is consumed in 24, 48, 72 hours. Then the florist adjusts the width of the holes and puts the bottle back in the pot.
Growing saffron calathea is one big difficulty, because the plant is very capricious. Therefore, any deviation from these recommendations can lead to the death of the flower. The main thing is to observe the mode of watering and lighting (the hot rays of the sun will burn the leaves of calathea, and excessive moisture will lead to rotting of the roots).
Description of the evergreen calathea
The flower is native to the tropical forests of Central and South America. But the name is of Greek origin and means "basket", since the thick and hard leaf streaks were used as material for weaving this item.
Various types of evergreen flower are also found in tropical regions of Africa, India, Southeast Asia, on numerous islands of Oceania and the Malay Archipelago. The exception is Australia.
Most of the representatives of the genus do not bloom, with the exception of only 2 decorative species - Calathea Varshevich and Calathea Saffron, in which bright orange flowers bloom. The remaining varieties of plants are notable for large, spectacular leaves with an amazing and varied pattern on their surface.
The height reaches more than 1 meter. The root system is superficial, strong. It accumulates moisture and nutrients necessary for growth. Short barrel.
The leaves are large, oblong-oval in shape or lanceolate, up to 30 cm long, assembled into a rosette. The surface of the leaves can be velvety or glossy, and the lower part is always painted in reddish tones. On top of the sheet plate is covered with a complex pattern of white lines, and the edges are smooth or wavy. The color of the leaves is distinguished by a great variety: they all wonderfully combine all shades of yellow, white and green with pink, white lines, spirals and other patterns applied by nature.
In flowering species bloom white, orange, dark purple flowers, collected in a spike inflorescence. Flowering begins in early spring and lasts about three weeks.
Brazilian Calathea Makoya is ideal for growing in greenhouses. It has large oval leaves of a light green color with a dark border, on which a dark green pattern stands out. The pattern on the upper surface of the leaf plate is similar to the pinnate leaf, and the back side is colored in burgundy.
Calathea saffron, or crocate, grows in the wild along the shores of the Amazon. She has large velvety leaves of emerald hue with a metallic tint, no pattern. Often bright false flowers, forming corymbose inflorescences, are accepted as real ones. Croquet blooms not only in spring and autumn, but also in winter.
The plant prefers radical irrigation, since the contact with water drops the integrity of the leaves. Direct sunlight causes burns..
Another type of flowering plant is represented by the calathea of Varshevich. This variety is attractive not only velvety dark green leaves with wavy edges, but also magnificent inflorescences of white or cream color, resembling roses.
Calathea saffron and crocat are also known as "Prayer Flowers." This name arose due to the characteristic feature of raising the leaves up in the evenings, which gives similarity to the hands of praying people raised to the sky. By morning, the leaf plates are again returned to the horizontal position..
Home care for the plant
Care for calathea at home includes compliance with the temperature regime in the room, proper watering, fertilizing, prevention or treatment of diseases. If you break the rules of care, the leaves of the indoor flower will wilt and lose their decorativeness: the color of the leaf plate may change, unhealthy spots will appear, the edges will start to dry out and curl up into a straw. The most capricious in terms of care are considered to be flowering species, and the favorite of beginning flower growers is unpretentious kalatea Makoya.
Light and temperature conditions
Given the tropical origin, the flower requires a high level of humidity, optimum temperature for growth and sufficient illumination.
In order for the leaves of the plant to retain their decorative effect, it is important to ensure an optimal day length, which is 15–16 hours. It is best to place pots with a flower on the east or west side. If there are no suitable conditions, shade the plant on the south window, or connect additional lighting on the north window-sill.
Carefully observe the state of the leaves: if the light is not enough, they lose their brightness and turn pale, and when there is an excess of sunlight, they begin to shrink and curl.
For the best development of the Tsvek it is important to ensure a comfortable air temperature, which, regardless of the season, should not fall below + 18 ... + 24 C. Be sure to ventilate the room, but remember that drafts and sudden changes in temperature are detrimental to the plant. And also keep the flower away from tobacco smoke, which also has a harmful effect on it.
Maintain air humidity
To maintain high humidity every day, spray a flower from a spray bottle. This rule does not apply to species of calathea with pubescent and velvety leaves. Around such plants it is allowed to spray the air without getting on the leaf plate, and when dust settles - brush it with a dry soft brush. Species with glossy leaves are allowed to wipe with a cloth moistened with water..
Another option for maintaining humidity is to put clay clay in a pan with a pot and pour water so that it reaches half the height of the drainage layer. Do not pour too much, because this can lead to rotting of the roots. In the absence of expanded clay, use pebbles, coarse sand or sphagnum moss.
Effective ways to maintain indoor humidity:
- Hang a damp cloth or towel next to the plant, and wet again as it dries.
- Place 2–3 cups of hot water near the flowerpot.
- Put vases with large-leaved plants near the plant.
Given the shallow root system, growing in breadth, a wide, but shallow pot is required. In the absence of special soil in flower shops intended specifically for this flower, it is allowed to use soil mixture for saintpaulia, azaleas or rhododendrons.
Land for Calathea should be loose and nutritious. The plant will grow well in slightly acidic soil consisting of leafy soil, peat and sand in a ratio of 6: 3: 1. Neutralize acidic soil with wood ash, which will require 30−40 g per 1 kg of soil.
Watering and feeding
For irrigation, you must use soft distilled water at room temperature. To soften hard tap water, add peat to it at the rate of 2 handfuls per bucket, and leave overnight. In summer, watering should be abundant - at least three times a week, and rarely in winter - up to 1 time in 7 days. For watering, use a watering can with a narrow spout, and pour water closer to the edges of the pot.
To prevent rotting of the roots, be guided by the condition of the soil: in winter, water the flower only after the soil dries out at a depth of 2–3 cm. When the soil is excessively wet, the plant drops leaves. But in the summer the substrate must be constantly wet.
Fertilize Kalatu should be only during flowering, usually from March to September. During this period, 2-3 times a month, apply water-soluble feed with low content of nitrogen and potassium to the soil. From October to February, fertilize the flower 1 time in 1.5 months.
Transplantation and reproduction
Due to the fact that the roots of the plant constantly emit substances that change the composition and level of acidity of the soil, the substrate in the pot must be changed annually. Mature calathea that have reached the age of 4 years and older, transplant with an earthy clod into a shallow and wide container with fresh soil every 2 years, from late February to early April. First, lay a layer of drainage from pebbles or expanded clay, and then prepared soil mixture into a pot for 25% of the height. With each new transplant, choose a pot 2 cm in diameter larger than the previous one.
For reproduction of Calathea, division is most often used, which is carried out simultaneously with transplantation. In the first year, young plants require special conditions: the air temperature should not be below + 20 ... + 25˚ C, constant spraying, moderate watering and lighting, as well as periodic fertilizer 1 time in 3 weeks are necessary.
During reproduction by the seed method, care for the seedlings is the same as for division. But this method is suitable for those who are willing to wait for a long time and patiently when the plant is formed, and spectacular leaves will appear. Due to the low germination of seeds, this method of growing calatheas is not widely popular.
Another breeding method offers the cultivation of calathea by grafting. A cutting is separated from the parent plant, placed in a container with a soil mixture, and covered with a plastic wrap on top. After the appearance of the roots of the film is removed.
Pruning the plant is not required, you only need to pick off the yellowed leaves.
Fight against diseases and pests
With a low level of humidity, the air becomes too dry, and the flower is attacked by a spider mite, scutes, whitefly or thrips. The spider mite, which eats leaves and multiplies incredibly quickly, is especially dangerous: an insect lays almost 200 eggs in just one month. It is easy to find it: look under the back of the leaves, and you will see traces in the form of thin or intermittent yellow lines.
To combat insect parasites, use the following methods:
- Thoroughly wash the stems and leaves of the flower with a soap solution (add 20 ml of liquid soap to 1 liter of water) to prevent the liquid from getting to the ground.
- Put naphthalene balls on the ground, which are effective against thrips.
- Remove diseased leaves and treat with insecticides, such as Fitoverm. To prevent poisoning by harmful substances, pre-move the plant to fresh air. Instead of chemicals you can use organic tincture of onion peel, nut leaves and cloves of garlic. To make it, take 300 grams of husk, add garlic cloves and nut leaves, cover with a liter jar of water, and leave to stand for a week. To treat one plant, dilute 1 part of the tincture in 50 parts of water.
In order to prevent, monitor the level of humidity in the room, and do not overdry the soil and regularly regularly inspect the leaves, especially their back side.
The recommended limit is 60-75%. The plant negatively refers to a slight increase in moisture due to a small spraying. therefore best place flower in florarium. Allowed placement in the oridarium.
If this is not possible, then the plant container is placed on an additional pallet with moistened pebbles or forest moss. The plant needs daily spraying with water from a sprayer. To increase and maintain humidity at night, Calathey Saffron is put on a plastic bag.
The plant grows well in subacid soil. It grows well in fortified, loose, breathable ground.
For planting, you can buy ready-made black earth for maranth subspecies or prepare the substrate yourself.
For this use leaf ground, humus, peat, fine-grained sea sand.
For greater breathability to the soil add charcoal and pine bark.
For planting it is recommended to use small wide tanks. At the bottom of the stack drainage of pebbles or pebbles. The rhizome must be covered with forest moss.
Young copies must be replanted every year. The procedure is performed in spring when nature begins to wake up. Adult representatives of the flora are transplanted every 3-5 years. It is important that the root system completely fills the container.
A useful video about the transplant of Calathea Saffron can be viewed below:
During the growing season, this representative flora is fed every other week. To do this, use the complex purchased feeding for home flowers. Calathea Saffron does not tolerate a surplus of fertilizers. Therefore, the concentration that is specified in the instructions, reduced by half.
The plant is very thermophilic. The optimum temperature for growth is 19-21 ° C.
The interval of preferred temperatures is small. Calathea Saffron dies at temperatures below 18 ° C and above 24 ° C.
The flower does not tolerate temperature changes, strong gusts of wind. Therefore, in winter, the room in which the flower is located is prohibited.
В летнее время профессиональные цветоводы не рекомендуют открывать рамы, рядом с которыми произрастает Калатея.
К освещению цветок очень придирчив. Растению нужен яркий естественный свет. Его необходимо защищать от прямого попадания солнечных лучей.
When growing in the shade, this representative of the flora becomes shallow, loses its decorative effect. Rosettes of leaves begin to thin. When there is an excess of light, the leaves turn brown.
With poor care, it can be affected by spider mites.. As a preventive measure, the flower is constantly sprayed, wiped with wet wipes and rinsed with a warm shower.
Pre-ground closed with a plastic bag. When a pest is found you can use tinctures of nettle, garlic, dandelion, pine needles, ginger.
You can wipe the leaves of the flower with potassium permanganate, alcohol or laundry soap. If the pest has not disappeared, then apply chemicals. Excellent "Aktelik", "Fungicide", "Aktar", "Bankolom".
All emerging diseases appear with improper care.
- If the plant growth slowed down a lot, the tips of the leaves began to dry and curl. - humidity in the room is too low. The plant must be transferred to the florarium or provide him with a similar habitat.
- If the leaves themselves began to curl and fall abundantly - there is too dry air next to the flower. Dry air has a negative effect on the flower. It is necessary to start spraying the plant and put it on a pallet with moistened forest moss.
The flower needs to be shaded or rearranged in a darker corner of the room.
Saffron Calathea - capricious perennial. It responds well to top dressing, additional lighting in winter, an annual transplant. It grows at a temperature of 18-24 ° C. It requires constant humidified air, everyday spraying with water from the sprayer. Propagated by seeds and root sprouts.
Leaf Care Evaluation
The leaves of the flower are not only interior decoration. By their appearance, you can see whether the florist is properly caring for the plant. Look closely at the surface of the leaves, and take steps to correct care errors:
- Yellow spots indicate sunburn. Remove the pot in partial shade or shade the window.
- Brown tips indicate that the water used for irrigation is too hard.
- Dark spots appear when excessive spraying or watering.
- Leaves dry and curl when air is too dry.
- With a lack of light, the leaves become thin.
- With excessive watering the leaves lose their elasticity, and the stalks rot. To get rid of this problem, disinfection of roots with Phytosporin and transplanting into a pot with fresh soil will help.
According to the observations of florists involved in the cultivation of kalatei, this plant is not so capricious. The peculiarity of the flower is that the leaves immediately turn to light and sound, there is a feeling that the plant has a living soul.
At first, it seems that calathea care at home is difficult and tedious. But if you have patience and follow all the rules, an exotic plant with fancy leaves will feel in the conditions of a city apartment, like in the tropics.
Calathea transplant care
At home flower requires annual transplantingThe most suitable time is the middle of spring. The dishes should not be too spacious, if you plant a flower in a plastic pot, then be sure to take care of good drainage holes. If necessary, they need to be expanded or their quantities added by themselves. Plastic is a very malleable material, it can be easily holed or burned. In pottery drainage layer is optional.
As the land suitable purchase soil for maranth or soil mixture for azaleas. Experienced florists recommend preparing the soil on their own from equal parts of humus, coniferous and leafy earth. The flower reacts negatively to the presence of lime in the soil and heavy clay substrates.
If the roots of the flower when transplanting strongly intertwinedthen do not try to unravel or cut them. Try to wash them under warm water, if it does not help, then the plant is better to transplant in this form. Just put a lump in a new pot and sprinkle with the necessary amount of soil. Formed on the walls of the pot white streaks signal a strong salinization of the soil. It is better not to use such a pot anymore, and after transplantation it is necessary to change the composition of the irrigation fluid. Filters can be used to prepare water and to clean it from salts, or to boil it.
Reproduction at home
The flower propagates well in three ways:
- Dividing bush. The most suitable moment for division is transplantation. An adult bush is divided with such a condition that each of the new plants will have a sufficient number of roots and a rosette of several leaves. The young plant is deposited in a pot with soil from equal parts of peat, large river sand and leaf earth. The separated flower is kept at a temperature of 20-22 ° C and is regularly fed. With proper care, the plant will quickly take root, and it can be transplanted into a new pot only next year.
- Cuttings. The stalk is separated from the adult plant and rooted in the soil. Cuttings is desirable to choose strong, be sure to have a few leaves. When rooting be sure to cover the stalk with a bag or a can, occasionally remove them for ventilation.
- Seeds. Calatheum seeds are planted in a moistened soil, and the container itself is covered with a film or glass. After the seeds germinate them lightly sprinkled with soil and continue to grow. The picking is done only after the formation of several strong leaves on the shoots.
Possible problems with the care
- the dried ends of the leaves signal too dry air in the room,
- brown tint of the tips may be due to improper fertilizer, both excessive and insufficient,
- the appearance of spots on the leaves and their twisting indicates insufficient watering or damage by pests,
- decaying stems are a sure sign of soil moisture, the excess moisture is especially dangerous when kept in low temperatures,
- brown spots on the leaves signal the harmful effects of the direct sun; in other words, they are burns.
Most species bloom only once a year.This usually happens at the beginning or in the middle of summer. Flowering is not very abundant, except saffron can be considered. Despite this, the flower is very popular with home gardeners, the following types of Kalathea are especially valuable: Kalathea Makoya, Calathea of Varshevich and Calathea striped. With proper care and care, Galatea will delight its owners with exceptional decorativeness and will decorate any interior.
Fertilizers and fertilizers
A flowering plant is especially needed complex feeding, designed for decorative indoor plants, during the growing season. Fertilizers are recommended to be applied regularly every 2 weeks.
In the first 3-4 years, Kalathea needs annual transplantation, and as it grows up, this procedure is performed only as needed, when the root part does not fit in the flower tank.
Considering the peculiarities of the structure of the root system of calathea, the capacity for transplanting should be acquired wide, but small in depth. First, a drainage layer is laid on the bottom, then a plant is placed, the rhizome of which is lined with sphagnum moss, and then a soil mixture.
Difficulties in growing
Violation of the rules of care leads to various diseases and changes in the external data of the flower. For example:
- Excess moisture in the soil leads to the appearance of rot on the leaf plates,
- Bright sunlight makes the leaves pale green,
- Dry indoor air, lack of moisture and low temperature contributes to the twisting and falling off of the leaves, the wilting of the stems.