Vegetables

Peculiarities of growing onion seedlings in spring in Siberia

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Probably, every housewife wants to please herself and her loved ones with fresh greens grown on her own plot. But harsh climatic conditions sometimes do not allow it. Do not despair, our help is already here. The article will help to resolve the issue of the possibility of growing onion sets in seemingly unsuitable climatic conditions.

This crop is grown for onions, as well as its green feathers for drying and consumption. Due to the presence of different varieties, it is possible to breed onion sets even in harsh climatic conditions. For a good harvest you need only take into account some nuances: the timing of planting and watering. And also choose the appropriate variety of culture.

Variety selection

The most suitable for breeding will be the following varieties of onion sets:

  • Siberian one-year. Early variety. It can be stored for a long time, the average onion weighs about 150 grams. It has a round, flattened shape
  • Strigunovsky. It can also be stored for a long time. It ripens quickly and has a sharp taste. The average bulb has a rounded shape that extends to the neck, the approximate weight is from 100 to 150 grams
  • Yukont Early culture, long stored. The color of the bulb is purple, very sharp in taste. Average fruit weight up to 120 grams
  • Ermak. Annual ripening variety of onions. Shelf life is not inferior to previous varieties. The bulb has a golden color, its weight reaches 200 grams

Landing time

The special climatic conditions of the region dictate their own rules for planting onions, and for complete success they should obey. Planting culture can be carried out either in autumn or spring. Experienced gardeners still recommend planting a crop in the spring, from early May to the end of its first decade.

Why spring and such a small period? In so short a span the earth will have time to warm up to 8 degrees, deeper by 15 cm. If you land before this time, the growth will go to feathers, and the bulb itself will not form. A landing a little later of this period will not give any results either, the bulb will be poorly formed and will be unsuitable for storage.

In autumn you can plant perennial onions. The culture perezimet well, and in the spring will give green feathers. In one hole you can plant several bulbs at once, they will grow, albeit small, but strong. In one area, onions can be planted for 4 years, then it should be transplanted to another place.

Soil and Seed Preparation

Soil for onions should be prepared in the fall. The territory should be well dig and fertilize. If getting a green feather is more important than a bulb, then you need to use organic feedings: manure or chicken droppings. They are recommended to be diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10.

If it is preferable to obtain the bulb itself, then organic fertilizers can not be used, but instead phosphorus and potash supplements should be added, they should be applied 30 g per square meter. m of soil.

In alkaline soil, onion sets grow better. If the reaction is still acidic, it is recommended to add lime or ash. You can not plant onions several times in one place, as well as after garlic, carrots are also better to refrain from planting onions.

The success of the event depends entirely on the preparation of the seed. Onion sets in harsh conditions Siberia is subject to a variety of diseases, so the seeds must be prepared carefully and in advance. In the autumn, it is necessary to dry the culture well and leave it in storage in bags that need to be put in glass jars with fabric covers. The optimal storage temperature is about 2 degrees.

You can use several ways to prepare the culture for planting in the ground:

  • The bulbs are soaked in saline for a day. Calculation 2 tbsp. l salt to 5 liters of water. After the time ends, the heads are immersed for 15 minutes in a weak solution of potassium permanganate, then planted in the soil, without drying
  • At 10 o'clock onions put in water at a temperature of 40 degrees. The temperature must be constantly maintained. Then immersed in a weak solution of potassium permanganate and planted. Can also be treated with a growth stimulator.
  • The bulbs are immersed for 20-25 minutes in water at a temperature of 55 degrees, then in cold water for the same period of time. Processed in the solution of potassium permanganate
  • Dried culture for 20 days at a temperature of 25 degrees, then the onions can be heated and disinfected by any of the methods described above.

Immediately before planting, it is necessary to once again review all the material and discard the bad bulbs. Recommended when planting bulbs sort by large, medium and small.

Before planting, the seeds should also be heat treated for 2 minutes at a temperature of 50 degrees. They are then placed for a couple of minutes in cold water.

2-3 days before planting, onion seeds are stored in a refrigerator in cold water. Immediately before planting, they are treated with a weak solution of potassium permanganate.

Landing technology

The depth of the holes should not exceed 10−15 cm. Between the rows should be made a distance of 18−20 cm, and between the bulbs themselves 7−8 cm When planting seeds between rows should be a distance of 12−15 cm. The seed must be buried no deeper than 2−4 cm, at a distance of 2 cm from each other. To get large onions in Siberia will not work, as onions require more heat.

Care culture

At the first stage of growing only watering is important. Top dressing is the next stage, when the culture gave the first 3-4 leaflets. You can use a mixture of urea, superphosphate and ash in combination with water, as the first fertilizer. Ready-made supplements are also welcome, for example, nitrophoska - 25 g should be diluted with a bucket of water.

The second dressing is carried out in a month with the following mixture: water 10 liters., Superphosphate 20 g, potash salt 20 g. In order to yield a lot of greens, you can use compost as a top dressing.

It is necessary to water the crop 1-2 times a week in the first month, then 1 watering per 2 weeks will be enough. But if the summer season is too dry, then water more often. A month before the harvest, the watering stops.

It is necessary to collect onions in dry weather, then dry it for several days in the fresh air and put it in a cool place.

Common diseases and their prevention

With the right approach to planting onions, you can reduce the risk of diseases of the culture. But if the illness has comprehended your crop, then it is necessary to take urgent measures. The area where the onion is planted is sprayed with the solution of the tile-bordeaux, and after 12-15 days, the procedure is repeated. Onions can be eaten only a week after processing.

Salt solution at the rate of 100 g of salt per 10 literswater will help to cope with an onion fly. But it is recommended to water the onions only when it reaches 7−10 cm in length, the procedure should be repeated after 4 days.

Experienced gardeners are advised to plant onions interspersed with carrots and beets, this will help prevent many diseases.

Good large bulbs grow where the feathers are not cut, so it is advisable to separate the beds for greens and for onions. For planting is best to choose open and a well-lit area. At low air humidity the culture grows better. Watering is most important during the period of growth of feathers and the formation of the bulbs themselves. In a later period, excessive moisture will impede the ripening of the onions, and in the future it will not be stored for long.

How to choose the right grade

  1. The special climatic conditions of Siberia suggest a slightly different approach to the selection of varieties and the cultivation of vegetables.
  2. It is important not only the correctly chosen planting time and a well-chosen variety, but also the quality of the seed: it is recommended to choose the bulbs for planting dense, without damage, with a dry husk.
  3. All varieties of onions are divided into three main categories: the length of the growing season, the size of the onion and the number of the onion in one nest.
  4. If the form is elongated by a sevka, then the bulbous form will be round; if the small onion is round, then the form of the large onion will be flat. Large bulbs usually give a lot of arrows, so it is recommended to purchase small and medium bulbs.
  5. In the case when the seller does not know the name of the variety, then experts recommend planting chernushka in the form of seeds and growing onion sets themselves.

Suitable varieties

Far from all varieties are suitable for Siberia. Here is a list of those from which a decent harvest will turn out. Thanks to the work of breeders, onion sets for this region are distinguished by their strength and ability to quickly form healthy and beautiful heads.

  • Black Prince.
  • Yukont
  • Siberia.
  • Ermak.
  • Siberian one-year.
  • Ermak.
  • Azerlos.
  • Arzamas.
  • Amphora.
  • Globe.
  • Veselka.

There are a few more hybrids, the advantage of which is durability and high yield.

If you have purchased varieties intended for growing in a greenhouse, then a full-fledged bulb in the open field will not work. Can be planted only for growing onions on the feather.

Before the onset of cold weather in onion seed root root neck should be at least 5 cm in diameter, the number of full-fledged leaves is at least 4 - 5 pieces.

Some gardeners are advised to plant small sevok with a diameter of about one centimeter before winter.

There is a possibility that shoots will appear in the spring, and just to shift such a bow will most likely not be able to spend the whole winter.

Terms of planting onion Sevka

It is important to carry out the procedure of planting vegetables in time, because if you plant too early in cold and frozen soil, then there is a likelihood that the bulb will give a lot of arrows. If it is planted too late, the soil moisture will already be increased, and a high yield will not grow.

  1. The soil should warm up to a thickness of about 10 cm. The air temperature is needed +8 - 10 degrees Celsius. In Siberia, this period begins from the end of April to the first half of May. Usually focused on the flowering of crocuses and some varieties of bird cherry.
  2. Some farmers make the so-called high beds, in which the soil heats up to the desired temperature much faster. Then you can plant onion sets 7 days earlier, and you can harvest faster.

Seed preparation

Since the climate is harsh, the onions should begin to cook in the autumn period. After all, in such conditions, onions are often sick, worse sprouting.

  • In the fall, sevok is well dried and folded, either in cloth bags or in glass containers, which are also covered with pieces of cloth. Seed material is also stored in a glass jar at air temperature from 0 degrees to 2 - x, otherwise the onions will give arrows, and the turnip will turn out quite shallow.
  • Before planting, use several methods of preparing the bulbs. First: 24 hours before planting, dissolve a few tablespoons of salt in 5 liters of water and soak the onions in such a solution. 15 minutes before planting, move to a weak solution of potassium permanganate. Planted material is not dried.
  • The next way: for at least 10 hours, the onions are heated in hot water, constantly monitoring and adding boiling water to the cooled water. The temperature must be maintained 40 degrees. 10 - 15 minutes before planting, they are transferred to a bucket of water, where one and a half tablespoons of manganese are pre-poured. Some additionally soak sevok in a growth stimulator.
  • If you do not have time to warm the bulbs for so long, you can use the following method: lower the seed into very hot water (+55 degrees) for 30 minutes, and then move to cold for half an hour too. At the end, as in the other methods, lower the bulbs into the solution of potassium permanganate.
  • A special feature of growing onions in Siberia is the weak resistance of the culture to fungal infections. Therefore, for 2 - 3 weeks, the bulbs should be dried at a temperature of + 25 degrees, and then treated with one of the above methods.

Before the process of planting seeding in the ground, the material should be sorted by size: first plant large, then medium and last small.

Landing in the spring and care

First you need to prepare the beds in a special way:

  • Between the onion distance is 8 - 9 cm.
  • Between the rows - 18-20 cm.
  • The sowing depth is 4-5 cm. When closed, it is 2 cm, otherwise everything will go to the arrow, and the onion will not grow.
  • Before planting, it is necessary to well gnaw and moisten the soil, pour boiling water on it and start sowing only after 24 hours.
  • After planting the bulbs, the beds mulch well.

Planting winter onions

The best period is the beginning of December. Bulbs planted deeper, because of the harsh climate they will not be able to germinate. Top wrapped beds spruce, and the greater the layer, the more likely to get a good harvest.

The diameter of the bulb should be about 3 cm. In spring, you can already pick off the first greens.

Top dressing and fertilizer

Until the first green shoots appear, it is recommended to only moisten the soil as it dries. Then you can already be taken for fertilizer vegetable.

  1. Various fertilizers are applied: if onions are planted on the feather, organic fertilizers are used, and if it is necessary to grow a turnip, then mineral fertilizers will be simply necessary.
  2. It is better to use ready-made products that should be purchased in a store for gardening specifically for onions. The first dressing should contain ammonia and phosphate fertilizers.
  3. The second stage of feeding culture should be carried out after 4 weeks. In this case, you need to dilute any complex fertilizer with phosphorus and potassium in the composition or just 20 grams of double superphosphate and potassium salt diluted in 10 liters of water.
  4. These procedures will help the plant to resist a disease such as neck rot.
  5. If in the fall mineral and organic fertilizers were applied to the soil, then nitrogen is not needed in the second top dressing, provided that the purpose of cultivation is an onion, not a feather.
  6. Lack of nutrients will not allow the plant to develop properly and fully, but excess fertilizer will not bring benefits. Before applying the dressing it is necessary to break through the soil by 4 - 5 cm and water it. Otherwise, fertilizers can burn the onion root system.

This culture is very fond of moisture, so it is necessary, especially in the first months to ensure that the soil does not dry out. But it is also not necessary to overwet. Then putrid processes can begin.

Watering should be slowed down about a month before collecting the bulbs. Then the bulb is well formed and will be stored for a long time.

Favorable dates of onion planting according to the lunar calendar 2018 (for Siberia)

In the lunar calendar for the center of Siberia for 2018, the following dates are indicated as favorable for planting onions:

  • May 1, 4-6, 9-11 and 31,
  • June 2, 6, and 10-12.

For those who are guided by the Lunar calendar, the end of May - the beginning of June will probably be a suitable term.

I am not “in trend”: I don’t usually look at the Lunar calendar, I just don’t do landings on the new moon and the full moon (these days are considered the most unfavorable for planting and planting).

Growing onion seedlings in Siberia: Personal experience

Every year I plant purchased onion sets, I don’t like to sow chernushka. I realized that for my family it was more interesting and more profitable than sevok. In one summer season, onions cannot be grown from seeds in our area. Therefore, this vegetable is cultivated in a two-year-old crop: in the first year, small onion seeds are obtained - sevok, it is planted on the garden next spring. Only by the end of the second summer get a turnip.

Chernushka, as is known, springs up a long time, the first month is growing slowly. At this time, the care is the most laborious: weeding, loosening ... And the feathers are so tiny and thin! What else is "pleasure"! Especially considering the fact that our family needs a lot of onions. At the same time, small onion need to be removed on time and properly stored, withstand accurate temperature and humidity during the entire storage period! Proper storage sevka - a time-consuming and troublesome process. Errors are fraught with:

  • drying out
  • fungal infection
  • decay.

Therefore, every spring I find it easier to buy a couple of kilograms of ready-made seed. I get where I can get it - in my favorite specialty store or on the market. For some reason, sevka unknown varieties purchased on the market, grows no worse than the elite, bought in a specialized company, and is stored perfectly.

Landing

I dig up the ridge deeply - by 25-30 cm. I don’t bring in fertilizers at this stage, but I try to observe crop rotation and not plant one crop in one place for two years in a row.

Before planting the onions, I soak it in a pink solution of potassium permanganate and Inta-Vir (1 tablet per half a bucket of water), stand for a couple of hours. After that sevok not dry, planted wet.

Between the onions I keep a distance of about 10x10 cm. I do not make grooves or pits. I do this: I take the bulb with three fingers and deepen it into the loose earth, bottom down, about the depth of 2 phalanges of the fingers. I do not sprinkle it on top, but I water it abundantly.

Care

Further, the traditional care - weeding, loosening, watering, feeding.

I water exclusively with cold water. So grandmother advised me to support her in this. And I believe that the advice of experienced - extremely useful. Mom says (and she has been engaged in gardening in Siberia for more than 50 years) that such irrigation is good for preventing diseases. And the truth is: I have not yet encountered serious problems in growing onions.

Прислушиваясь к советам из глобальной сети, рядом с луком сею морковку. Это соседство защищает лук от луковой мухи, а морковь – от морковной. На загляденье вырастают и морковь, и лук, что такое луковая или морковная муха – понятия не имею!

Удобрения

Минеральными удобрениями лучок не кормлю. Применяю только органическую натуральную подкормку, готовлю ее в 200-литровой бочке:

  • a couple of buckets of weed grass - wood lice, nettle, quinoa, white mart, dandelion will do, the main thing is that there are no roots and mature seeds,
  • two mulleine buckets or a horse manure bucket, I do not use chicken (chicken guano),
  • grams 100 raw yeast,
  • with half a bucket of wood ash,
  • I fill everything with water to close the mass by 5-10 cm.

If there is an old jam or juice, put it there too!

I wait until the bubbles appear, I mix it daily. After a week and a half you can apply.

One liter of the resulting liquid is poured into a bucket of clean water. I pour onions with this solution at the rate of 10-12 liters per square meter of planting.

I apply fertilizer twice, with an interval of 12-15 days, on moist soil. I try to keep the composition did not get on the green feathers.

The last stage of cultivation

Since mid-July, I stop watering and feeding. In the first decade of August, two weeks before harvesting, the pen should “lie down”. In extreme cases, I put it myself: just bending down (undermining) the feathers.

In our area, it is believed that the onion turnip must be removed no later than August 18, which means that it is important to lay down the feather no later than August 4-5.

I think it is not difficult to grow a decent harvest of onions from sevka in Siberian regions. Land in time for sevok in a well-prepared land, periodically water and feed, and most importantly - love every brood, and everything will turn out 😉!

The best varieties of onions for Siberia

List of the best varieties of onion sets for Siberia:

  1. "Strigunovsky" - this variety is early ripening. The bulbs are round, can weigh from 100 to 200 g. Taste is not sharp. This variety is well kept. If when growing onions moisture is not enough, the fruits are small and bitter.
  2. "Arzamas local" - This is a mid-season variety. From the germination of sevka to bending in 80–100 days. Dense onions grow from 30 to 60 g. This variety has a sharp taste.
  3. Onion "Siberian annual" - refers to the early ripening varieties. Bulbs are rounded flat. The outer scales are dry, yellow with a pinkish tinge. Bulbs of this variety can reach 200 g. Annual Siberian variety is considered to be a salad.
  4. "Bessonovsky local" - fruitful, early ripening variety. The bulbs grow with a mass of about 30 g. The shape can be both round-flat and flat.

Seed preparation

Several ways to prepare sevka:

  1. In 5 l of water pour 2 tbsp. l salt. In this solution, soaked the bulbs for a day. After that, it is necessary to sustain them for 15 minutes. in a light solution of potassium permanganate. Put them in the ground without drying.
  2. Sevok is heated for 10 hours in water at a temperature of 40 ° C. It is necessary to constantly add hot water. After that, it is treated with growth promoters. To prevent powdery mildew, sevok is dipped in a solution of copper sulfate or manganese.
  3. If there is no time to warm up the bulbs, then you can immerse them in water at a temperature of 55 ° C for 15 minutes and then immediately in cold water for the same time. Further disinfect with potassium permanganate.
  4. Onions are dried for 10–20 days at 25 ° C to prevent fungal infections.

Scheme and depth of landing

Before planting sorts sevki sorted by size.

Landing pattern:

  • Sevok diameter less than 1 cm planted at a distance of about 5 cm,
  • if the bulbs are 1.5 cm, then the distance increases 8 cm,
  • if the onion diameter exceeds 2 cm, then it is planted at a distance of 10 cm.
They deepen sevok by 4 cm, and leave 20 cm between rows to make it easier to care for it.

If you have sevok more often, it is poorly ventilated and there is a risk of disease. When sevok plunged and densely compressed it with earth, it is necessary to mulch the beds with straw, peat, sawdust.

Peculiarities of care

Caring for onions does not require special skills.

At the initial stages need regular watering. Depending on the weather, water the plants once a week, using 7 liters of water per 1 square meter. m. During the maturation of the bulbs watering should be reduced. Observe the appearance of the plants: bluish-white feathers bent at the ends indicate a lack of moisture, and pale green leaves indicate overmoistening. 2 weeks before harvesting, watering should be stopped.

Weeding and loosening

Loosen the beds with this crop before the shoots appeared. Deepen 3 cm into the soil. To a dense soil crust was not formed, spend loosening every 2 weeks. To get rid of weeds will help regular weeding beds.

Combating possible pests and diseases

The risk of plant damage is reduced if the proper preparation of the seeding was done. When diseases appear, it can be sprayed with Bordeaux mixture, observing the interval of 2 weeks. Onions are usable only one week after processing. When onion flies appear, rows can be treated with a solution of sodium chloride (100 g per 10 liters of water). This is done when the plants reach a height of 7–10 cm. The procedure should be repeated after 4 days.

Harvesting and storage of the crop

They harvest when new feathers cease to grow, and old feathers dry out and begin to creep along the ground. Cleaning is carried out in dry weather.

The bulbs are dried in the sun, and then in the attic about a crescent. You can store the bulbs with a thin dried neck. The best storage space will be cellars and basements, where the air temperature will be about 0 ° C. Onions are usually put in wooden boxes, bags or nylon stockings.

The boxes should not be too deep. The height of the onion layer should be about 30 cm. So the vegetables will be stored longer.

Onions are very grateful: in response to your care, he will give a generous harvest even in the harsh climate of Siberia.

Onion varieties for Siberia

The variety of onions is divided by the length of the growing season, by the size of the seed and by the number of onions in the nest. You can grow a round onion from a long set sem. A flat variety of onions is recognized by round onions.

Selection of varieties, preparation of the planting, timely planting in the ground and competent care and timely cleaning will allow to prepare for the winter such a crop, which will be the pride of any owner.

Qualitative sevka for landing

Do not forget that not all varieties of onion are suitable for Siberia. It is necessary to carefully choose sets to get a decent harvest. If the seller does not know exactly the variety of onion being sold, or you yourself are not sure of the veracity, it is best to buy Chernushka seeds and grow seeds on your own.

Onion varieties Zolotnik

Suitable variety for this region:

  • Azerlos,
  • Arzamansky,
  • Ermak,
  • Spool,
  • Siberian one-year,
  • Siberia,
  • Black Prince,
  • Yukont

Greenhouse varieties are only suitable for growing onions on the feather. Big turnip out of it does not work.

There are also winter varieties of onions, suitable for sowing in Siberia. Sow them in October. Before frost, 4-5 true leaves should form, and the neck thickness should reach 5 cm.

Variety Old Believers suitable for planting in the fall

Regardless of the variety, some farmers advise sowing small sets up to 1 cm in diameter before winter. There is a risk that he will not shift the winter, and in the spring will be able to give good shoots.

When to plant?

Planting sevka produced in the spring, when the top layer of earth (8-10 cm) warms up to 8-10 degrees above zero. In Siberia, this is the end of the beginning of May, up to about the 10th. You can navigate through the flowering of crocuses and bird cherry. However, these terms can be shifted if you organize high warm beds on the site. Due to the design and filling, the temperature of the soil in them is higher by 7-9 degrees than on ordinary ridges. This way you can sow onions a week earlier than your neighbors. Accordingly, the timing of the harvest also move.

The original way to make holes for onions in the prepared soil

If you plant sevok in insufficiently heated soil, you can get a high mark. Planting at a later date due to lower humidity reduces the yield.

How to plant?

Planting onions should be according to the scheme 8x20. That is, in the row of bulbs should be at a distance of 8-10 cm, and the aisle - 18-22 cm, depending on the size of the seed and the variety, this will facilitate the care of the beds and increase the crop yield. Planting depth - 4-5 cm, that is, closed sevok should be 2 cm of the earth. If you deepen the onion, the turnip does not grow, everything will go to the arrow. The bottom of the furrow must be loose, otherwise the roots will develop slowly, and the turnip will not have time to grow.

Planting onion seedlings will allow for an earlier harvest.

The bed after planting is recommended to mulch with peat or garden humus, it will save the soil from moisture loss and from late frosts.

Harvest

Growing onions is completed when the growth of new feathers has already stopped, and the old leaves begin to dry out and move along the ground. Harvesting takes place in dry weather. The bulbs are kept in the sun, and after 2 weeks they are dried in a ventilated attic. Suitable for storing onions with a thin dry neck.

Harvesting onions produced. when the feather goes down

The best bulbs grow out of that set, from which the feather was not cut off in the summer. Therefore, it is recommended for greenery to break another bed.

Growing healthy and large onions is not easy, but it justifies itself.

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