Soybean belongs to the annual herbaceous plants of the legume family. Until now, there is a wild species of it, which grows in Southeast Asia. There they began to cultivate it before BC. Soybean was introduced to Europe at the beginning of the 18th century and immediately found a large number of its fans. Now it is grown on all continents; it is not planted only in Antarctica and in northern and southern latitudes above 60 degrees.
Natural soy is a frequent ingredient in culinary dishes, it is used to replace milk and meat in the food industry, as well as food raw materials for livestock.
Soy is called vegetable meat. The same name is used to refer to soy products, which are sold as colorful plates, soluble in boiling water. But such products have nothing in common with beans, and also does not possess their properties. Since the surrogate is produced artificially.
Its beans contain more protein than meat, and in its composition it resembles an animal, which distinguishes soybeans from other plants. It has a lot of fat - 18% -24%, there is fiber, carbohydrates, ash, water. Besides:
- The composition includes many vitamins: Group B in full composition, with the exception of B12.
- Macroelements are represented by potassium (1650 mg), phosphorus (659 mg), calcium (260 mg), magnesium (230 mg), sodium, sulfur and chlorine.
- Trace elements are also present: iron, iodine, boron, silicon, aluminum, cobalt, manganese, copper, molybdenum, zinc and others.
The benefits of soy
This plant is popular not only among vegetarians, as meat replacing them, its useful properties extend to ordinary omnivores. It helps to alleviate the condition in various diseases:
- diabetes mellitus
- metabolic disorders,
Its composition is filled with raffinose and stachyose, these substances are the source of nutrition of beneficial bifidobacteria in the gastrointestinal tract. It is they who prevent the development of dysbiosis, reduce the risk of cancer, have a positive effect on life expectancy. Therefore, the service of these substances for our body can not be overestimated.
Soy has beneficial effects on women's health.. Its properties are especially needed in menopause, when the likelihood of osteoporosis, heart disease and blood vessels increases. It contains isoflavones, which are plant analogues of female sex hormones, they compensate for the deficiency of phytoestrogens. Due to the large amount of calcium in its composition, teeth and bones are strengthened. If soy to use regularly, it is possible to reduce unpleasant manifestations of menopause. It relieves sweating, fatigue, heart palpitations, hot flushes.
Young women and adolescent girls also help soybeans to remove discomfort before menstruation.
Men also need soybeans, since its use reduces the risk of oncology of the prostate.
For those, who wants to remove excess weight soy is simply irreplaceable. Lecithin in its composition:
- participates in fat metabolism and helps reduce the amount of fat in the liver.
- activates fat metabolism
- expels bile
- lowers cholesterol.
This rich in composition of the plant, in addition to its beneficial properties, can demonstrate and harmful. This especially applies to gourmets who consume it in large quantities. Its unlimited diet may affect the body negatively., as these beans:
- accelerate the aging process
- inhibit the endocrine system
- provoke the development of Alzheimer's disease,
- create conditions for the development of skin diseases: dermatitis, eczema, urticaria,
- cause other diseases: rhinitis, asthma, colitis, conjunctivitis.
Soybeans are contraindicated in urolithiasis, since it contains oxalates, which are the material for the formation of stones.
Despite the good qualities of beans for women's health, they may do a disservice. So, pregnant women should not be taken in food, because they cause miscarriage, as well as adversely affect the brain of the fetus. Baby food is diversified with soy because it can cause allergic reactions and diseases of the thyroid gland.
Nutritionists advise to limit 50 g of soybeans per day. Since they contain 40-80 g of phytoestrogens, which is the daily norm for adults.
Soy in cooking
The Chinese and Japanese use soy and its products regularly., thereby strengthening their health, and contributing to longevity. After all, it is no secret to anyone that in these countries the highest life expectancy. Scientists have conducted studies in which it was found that people who use soybeans regularly are less susceptible to cardiovascular, intestinal, catarrhal diseases and oncology.
The main thing is to protect yourself from a poor-quality product, which is a modified analogue, you should carefully read the information on the packaging before buying.
Soy eat in dried, boiled and fried. Over 100 dishes can be cooked from this natural product. This plant has amazing qualities and can be gastronomically transformed, as it has a wide range of flavors. For example, knocking it over the pan and adding a tomato, you can get the taste of beef, overcooking with carrots, we get the taste of a mushroom dish. And vegetarians are very grateful to her, because the body receives valuable protein, which saves from protein deficiency. Soy is well absorbed and has a beneficial effect on the gastrointestinal tract, so it is a valuable product that is included in many diets. Film and television stars include this wonderful product in their diet. What is prepared from it:
- Soy flour is suitable for making cookies and gingerbread. From it you can get milk, taking one part of the flour seven parts of water, as well as sour cream, cottage cheese and other products.
- Fresh beans serve as an ingredient in soup. Good in the form of porridge, for this you need to soak dried beans for the night, and cook in the morning.
- Tofu cheese is in demand, it has low calorie content, high-quality product has a hardness. It is added to salads, sandwiches are made with it, serves as a snack. It gives an exquisite taste to any dish.
- Soy milk is a natural hepatoprotector, as it has properties for maintaining the functions of the liver and strengthening the immune system. It is successfully used as a substitute for breast milk.
Recently, people often eat soy sauce. And this is correct, because it contains all the beneficial properties of the plant. It serves as an excellent prevention of diseases of the heart and blood vessels, it is possible to expect a greater effect from it than from red wine.
As a highly fortified food, etiolated soybean seedlings are used, which means they are grown in the dark. To obtain highly nourishing sprouts, in the autumn and winter period, wrap several beans in a cloth dampened with water and place them in a warm place protected from light. To be constantly with sprouts, you can sprout beans in a conveyor way with an interval of several days.
How to grow soy in your garden?
To meet the needs of the family, it is enough to have several dozen bushes plants. It grows well both on a separate bed and on its border. It goes well with cucumbers and corn. Before planting soybeans in the garden can grow beets, potatoes, grains, corn, perennial cereals. Soybean itself is a good precursor for these plants. No need to grow soybeans after sunflower, perennial legumes and legumes.
Soy grows well on any soil, but is especially responsive in fertile neutral reaction or slightly acid soil. The soil should contain a large amount of phosphorus, calcium and humus, as well as absorb water.
To get a rich harvest, soy needs a lot of nutrients. For its development, it is necessary to create favorable conditions - then it will thank the owner and saturate the soil with nitrogen.
In the autumn, during earthworks, organic fertilizers are applied if they have not been added to the previous crop. Also need superphosphate. In the spring of ten centimeters in depth is better to make nitrophoska.
Soy grows with light and heat, but at the beginning of the growing season it can withstand even frosts up to -2 degrees. It is warmly needed during flowering and the formation of beans. When flowering soy requires high humidity, due to the intensive development of greenery, which increases the area of the evaporating surface. Soybeans are grown at about 20 degrees Celsius.
The plant is sown in late April or early May at a depth of 5 cm. The soil should warm to 10 degrees. Sprouts appear in about two weeks or less.
In clean soil, soybeans are sown with ribbons, the spacing between rows is about 45 cm, between rows - 19 cm. If the plot is well watered, you can sow thicker. Sow the beans and rows with a distance between plantings of 20 cm, between rows - 61 cm.
Loosening the soil, weeding, and during budding and fruit formation, especially when there is no rain, watering once a week - important care conditions of growing soybean.
Crop harvested by yellowing and leaf fall, the beans should turn brown, and shake to produce a distinctive sound. They are laid out in the sun to dry, the pod leaves under its influence begin to spontaneously crack and open. Fruits easily get enough sleep when tapped with any object. They are placed in storage in bags, made of natural fabric or wooden tubs.
Oatmeal on soy milk. Dry soybeans are washed and soaked overnight (take 1/3 cans) in cool boiled water. In the morning the water is poured, the fruit is washed, placed in a blender, pour clean boiled water into it. Crush blender, pour the resulting milk through a sieve into a container, pour it again with water. So do until Okara does not look like cereal. Usually three decanting is enough. Milk is ready, Okara is used to prepare various dishes, such as cookies or meatballs.
For cooking oatmeal milk put on the fire, you can add vegetable oil, so as not to burn, stirring constantly, bring to a boil, add flakes and boil for five minutes, stirring slowly. Cover and insist 15 minutes so that the oatmeal absorbs moisture. You can add raisins or orange.
Cutlets. Soybean is soaked and left overnight, in the morning it is drained and washed. Pour into a blender and, together with water, bring to a uniform consistency. Shift in capacity, add a little semolina, passaged in vegetable oil, chopped onion, egg and salt. You can add carrots to onions. Form cutlets, roll in breadcrumbs and fry in vegetable oil. Tasty with any side dish.
So, the soybean plant can be an excellent substitute for meat, if someone decides to abandon it and switch to vegetarianism. Beans are also used to simply enrich your body with useful substances.
Soy. The benefits and harms of the product
Much has been written about soybean and much has been written, because of it there is much debate about the benefits and harms. But we will dispel all speculations concerning this product. Today you will find out where the world-famous product came from and what, in essence, is soy. And of course we will talk about what are the beneficial properties of soy and soy products made from it, we will discuss contraindications to the use of the product in food.
Product "soy" and the concept of it
Five thousand years ago it became known about soya, its images were found on stones, turtles, and turtle shells. The finds were found in China and date back to the 4th millennium BC. Eastern product of youth and longevity has taken root in European countries, where soy is grown for a long time.
Soybean is a legume plant. which, in essence, is not 100% bean, but is not considered a vegetable either. Thus, we are dealing with some kind of food product like mushrooms. They also argued a lot about whether they could or could not be useful or harmful. Similarly, soybean, whose benefits and harms are not fully understood, is considered a highly controversial product and the opinions of people are divided.
Green Soybean Pods
Let's call soybeans soybeans for ease of conversation and perception. So, soybeans, used in food act for the good, if not overeat. Why is soy so popular these days?
Everything is simple - this plant has:
- high yields even in areas with a dry climate,
- in the composition of vegetable protein - 50%,
- vitamins of group B, iron, potassium, calcium, irreplaceable fatty acids.
The presence of protein makes soy a substitute for meat and dairy products. She is loved by dieters, vegans who voluntarily give up animal food and those who are contraindicated for milk and dairy products.
And now, moving smoothly to the shortcomings of the product, I would like to note that not all soy is useful. Soybean has properties to absorb radionuclides, heavy metals from the soil. Therefore, in ecologically unfavorable areas, the cultivation of soybeans is prohibited, the use of such soybeans as food can harm health.
To distinguish soy with a high content of trans fats, you need to pay attention to the packaging. The manufacturer indicates the amount of GMOs if the content of harmful components exceeds 0.9%.
The composition and use of the product
The high protein product is also quite high in calories - there are 440 kilocalories per 100 grams of dried soybean seeds. The protein content of soybeans exceeds beans, peas and other leguminous plants.
The composition of the product:
- Protein - about 37 grams,
- Fat - 20 g,
- Carbohydrates - 30 grams, among them sugar - 7 grams.
Therefore, it is important to eat soy as an energetically valuable and high-protein product. And, of course, the benefits of soy products containing beneficial fatty acids speak of soy, as an exceptional product for women's health, beauty, hair, nails, and youthful skin. And the presence of fiber makes the product indispensable for diabetics and everyone who wants to lower cholesterol.
The presence in the beans of minerals and vitamins brings soy closer to the ideal product for everyone, though there are exceptions, and we will talk about contraindications a little later. And now we offer to study the vitamin composition of mature soybeans.
The content of vitamins and minerals (100 grams of ripe soybeans):
- Retinol (Vit. A) - 1 µg
- Pyridoxine (B6) - 0.40 mg
- Vitamin B9 - 375 mcg
- Vitamin C 6 mg
- Calcium about 280 mg
- Iron contains about 16 mg
- Magnesium - 290 mg
- Phosphorus - 705 mg
- A record amount of potassium - 1797 mg
- Sodium is about 3 mg
- Zinc - 5 mg
Based on the composition of the product we see that the product is indispensable for cores and people suffering from vascular diseases. It strengthens the bones due to the phosphorus content and carries out the prevention of osteoporosis. Due to the presence of magnesium, the product is useful for nervous disorders. And the content of isoflavones, phytosterols and phospholipids have a beneficial effect on the female body.
Soy. Benefit and harm. The benefits of soy products.
It is known that in the USA they produce soybean processing products for years, but they do not use beans as food. Only extract the fat from them, and then the cake is used in further processing. Soybean oil is used to prepare dietary meals. Cake is very rich in protein, so it produces soy meat and other products. The cake is also fed to animals.
Naturally, people buying, for example, sausage or dumplings and do not suspect that, in fact, they will eat products containing soy for food, is it good or bad? No harm to the product if it has been tested by the laboratory. This does not mean that GMOs are present in every pack of soy meat or milk. But still when choosing a product as food, you should pay attention to the manufacturer and trust trusted companies.
Asians eat soy with iodine-containing products - vegetables, sea kale, seafood ... ... That is why the Japanese look healthier and healthier, and Japan is considered to be a country of long-livers for good reason.
Are you interested in the question, which products contain soy most often? The best products containing soy :
Soy is also added to food, such as meatballs, dumplings, sausages and more. If you are interested - soy products, where to buy, they are sold in sports nutrition stores and on supermarket shelves among diabetic products.
Soy is very popular in India, various dishes are prepared from it, and Hindus are always fit and healthy, because healthy beans are already included in their diet.
Indian dish of soy meat pieces, coconut milk, spices and vegetables.
In Japan and China, soybeans are also very popular, there are preparing many dishes from it. Milk is also used - soy drink, the benefits of soy products are very much appreciated there. Soy is used to make various sauces, pastes, soups. In the United States and Indonesia, a popular dish called Tempe is popular, and in Japan, Edamame is boiled green soybean pods, soy flour, butter, fuju (milk film), natto, and soy sauce are also used.
As you can see, soy in foodstuffs appears quite often. And dishes from it are very healthy and tasty.Japanese soup is generally considered to be a panacea for all diseases, and this is where Japanese people are different from Europeans - they are healthier and stronger every year.
Soy protein - the benefits and harm
If we consider soy in terms of nutritional value, then it exceeds the beans in protein content (23 grams of protein per 100 grams of beans and 37 grams of soybeans). BUT protein is known as a unique building material for the cells and blood of the human body . And this is not a simple protein, but a textured vegetable that helps people with various diseases if they are allergic to animal protein.
Also due to the protein content, and the benefits of soy proteins are underestimated, soy perfectly saves athletes from overloading and helps build muscle mass. Aspiring to lose weight soy protein also helps to establish a diet.
Soy controls weight
The two-way action of soy beans is that the consumption of the product helps those who want to gain a few pounds and lose weight, those who want to lose weight, get better. This is surprising, but true. For diabetics, this is a big plus - soy is very nutritious, at the same time, phytosterols help reduce cholesterol, blocking its absorption by the body.
Fiber copes with the promotion of food through the gastrointestinal tract, therefore soy is recommended for constipation. In addition to establishing digestion, fiber helps prevent colon cancer.
For heart health
Thanks to the record potassium content soy controls heart attacks, and dietary fiber in large quantities, as it were, scrapes cholesterol from the walls of capillaries and strengthens blood vessels. Also, linoleic and lanolin acids act on smooth muscles and help lower blood pressure.
Soy also acts as a sedative because it contains folic acid, magnesium. These elements are directly related to the human nervous system. If you have mood swings or just a long sleep, it is better to replenish your body with soy.
Soybeans can reach a height of 15-25 cm in dwarf varieties and 1.5-2 m in very high. Most often in nature and in agricultural production there are forms whose height is 50-60 cm. The plant has a taproot, the primary sunrise consists of two cotyledons, which grow as they grow into leaflets.
Soybean stalks have a straight or elbow shape and differ in their thickness. During the growing season, they take anthocyanin or green color. The leaves are arranged alternately and, as a rule, omitted. They have a pinnate form. Flowers are small in size and are collected in brushes with 2-20 flowers, which are located in the leaf axils. They are odorless, and the color can vary from white to purple.
Soybean flowering is manifested by the germination of beans in an amount of from 10 to 400 per plant. They may have a different shape - straight, curved or sickle. The color is also different - brown, brown, white, yellowish. The size of the beans, as a rule, does not exceed 5 cm in length and 1-2 cm in width.
The widespread use of soybean and its easy accessibility is due to the fact that it does not require any specific conditions for cultivation. You can meet her on any continent. It is especially widely cultivated in Southern Europe, South and North America, Asia, Central Africa, Australia. It is also grown in Russia, especially in its western and eastern parts.
The basis of the composition of soybeans are proteins. At the same time, according to the results of various studies, their volume can vary from 30 to 50% of the total mass. In addition, the beans contain about 10-15% protease inhibitors, which prevent the reproduction of HIV infection. Their content ranges from 7 to 38 mg. per gram of protein.
Soybeans are also rich in vitamins. They include:
No less in soybeans and various minerals:
- Silicon - 590%.
- Cobalt - 312%.
- Choline - 54%.
- Iron - 53.9%.
- Zinc - 16.8%.
- Calcium - 34, Molybdenum - 141.4%.
- Copper - 50%.
- Bor - 37.5%.
- Magnesium - 56.5%.
- Potassium - 64.3%.
- Manganese - 140%.
- Chrome - 32%.
- Phosphorus - 75.4%.
- Sulfur - 24.4%.
The chemical composition of the seed also includes oils. Their volume per unit mass is 15-30%. Their component composition is distributed as follows:
- Fatty acids - 14%.
- Unsaturated butyric acids - 22%.
- Polysaturated fatty acids - 64%.
Thus, the beneficial properties of soybeans are determined solely by its rich composition and content of a wide range of different useful substances.
One of the most remarkable beneficial properties of soy is the ability to reduce the amount of cholesterol in the blood. It is due to the fact that its seeds do not contain cholesterol, which is present in sufficiently large quantities in protein products of animal origin. At the same time, soy protein is very similar in its properties to its animal counterpart.
In addition, soy protein is much easier to break down. To maintain this process, much less calcium is required than when processing animal products, so beans are recommended for older people, for whom reduced calcium expenditure is important due to the aging of bone tissue and the lack of this substance.
The high content of vitamins in soy fruits contributes to the regeneration of nerve tissue and, as a result, there is observed:
- Increased motor activity.
- Improving concentration, memory and susceptibility to learning new knowledge.
- Increased libido.
Soy is also very popular among people who suffer from diabetes. The use of soy helps to reduce blood sugar and maintain a certain level even within a few hours after meals.
Other useful properties of soybeans include:
- Peptides increase the protective functions of the body and strengthen the immune system.
- Isoflavones slow down cell aging and prevent pathological formation.
- Phytic acids inhibit the growth of tumors.
- Lecithin, which acts as a source of phospholipids, which are part of the cell membrane, contributes to the normalization of the cells in the body.
The use of soy is very important for women in menopause. It contains phytoestrogens, which are an excellent substitute for synthetic drugs designed to protect the body from the onset of various cardiovascular diseases and normalize the intensity of calcium excretion.
In cooking, the use of soy is widespread. In some Asian countries, it is consumed even raw, adding to various salads, rice dishes, etc. In other gastronomic cultures, soybeans are usually attached to pretreatment. It is used as a side dish, or for cooking, replacing meat products - meatballs, chops, etc. The most common way to handle soybean is boiling.
The most popular and common products made from this plant are milk, meat and cheese. They are the basis of the diet of most vegetarians who do not eat animal products. Even cake is consumed in food, which remains after the processing of seeds. It is characterized by a rich composition (proteins, soybean oil, vitamins, etc.).
Soybean oil is also used in cooking. It is considered more dietary than regular sunflower, so it is great for dressing salads and cooking fried foods.
In the Russian Federation, soybean is not recognized as a pharmacopoeial plant, therefore it is not used in the manufacture of official medicines and drugs. However, in Japan and a number of Asian countries, it is actively used in the manufacture of various dietary supplements. One of these is Touchi Extract, intended for people who have diabetes.
This supplement is approved by the Ministry of Health of Japan. Studies on the study of tuoti show that this extract inhibits the rise in blood sugar levels after eating. To reveal the healing properties of soy and extract based on it, it is recommended to take it before and after meals. The composition allows to limit the absorption of sugar in the blood.
The production of dietary supplements is based on the use of products of fermented tofu - soy cheese. Unfortunately, today a patent for this substance is only available in Japan, so it can only be purchased there or ordered online.
Application in cosmetology
In cosmetology, the use of soy is focused on those oils that are obtained from beans. They contain a large amount of vitamins E, A, K, as well as lecithin. Use oil can be for the treatment of dry and normal skin. It is capable of toning, smoothing and normalizing the fat content of the skin.
Often, soybean oil is added to various cosmetics as an additional component. But no less common is its separate use in the form of masks or wipes. It is also proven that soybean oil has a positive effect on hair, eliminating dryness and brittleness. It is often included in the balms and shampoos.
Application in nutrition
Partly, the healing properties of soy are also actively used in dietetics to lose weight. The calorie content of fresh soybean grains is only 150 kcal per 100 grams of product, which is significantly lower than the indicators of animal products. There is even a separate soy diet, in which all meat products are replaced with soy meat, dairy - with soy milk and cheese, and wheat flour - with soy. To compensate for the lack of vitamins, sprouts of this plant are additionally introduced into the diet.
Fat content in fresh fruit is quite high, but when processing they leave. For example, in milk only 1.5%, in cottage cheese - about 5%. In addition, beans contain a large amount of proteins that contribute to the accumulation of muscle mass and fat maintenance.
Application in other areas
In addition to those industries where soy is used as a medical or food product, there are quite a few technical areas where this miracle plant has found its application. For example, in the production of lubricants. Oil of beans provides the best sliding of working parts and does not dry out like other compositions, which eliminates the need for frequent replacement.
In addition, various soybean by-products are used in construction when working with concrete. They provide separation of the mass of concrete from the molding blanks, which simplifies their removal after drying.
In the field of printing, soybean oil is used to produce toners. Paper, which is printed with the use of such material remains cleaner and easier to post-process. This makes this ink more environmentally friendly.
Research scientists plant
Studies of soybeans in the Russian Federation began in the middle of the 19th century, and the first scientific publication on soy nutrition was published in the journal “Doctor” and dated 1885. Until now, Russia has a very controversial attitude towards soy products. Some argue that they should be banned, while others tend to believe that soy is more useful than any products.
Note that the State Research Institute of Nutrition of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences confirmed all the positive effects of soy on the body. During laboratory tests, employees of the institution proved that soy bean proteins are absorbed better than animals, and a wide range of vitamins and various beneficial components have a positive effect on the state of the body.
In addition, the information is supported by studies conducted in the USSR in 1991 by Volgarev and Steinke. They also proved that soy has a cholesterol-lowering effect.
In the United States, repeated studies of soy and its effects on the body have also been conducted. For example, the Food and Drug Administration has recognized that eating soy foods can prevent a number of cardiovascular diseases.
Thus, there is a lot of evidence that confirms not only the beneficial, but also the healing properties of soy.
Growing at home
Indicative useful properties of soy actualizes the question of how to grow it properly. Immediately it should be noted that this plant is unpretentious in terms of soil quality - the most important is watering. Unfortunately, it is not possible to cultivate it at home, because it has a fairly large root system.
If it says about planting in the garden, then first you need to thoroughly clean the ground from weeds. The ideal period is the end of April - the beginning of May. Consider the main features of planting soybeans:
- The plant does not like shade, so it is necessary that it is located in an open area, and the bushes are planted at a distance of 0.5 meters from each other.
- Watering a young bush is necessary as the land dries out. In hot areas - more often, in cool areas - less often. It is recommended to use warm water.
- Before planting, nitrogenous fertilizers can be applied to the ground.
- Seeds should be dipped in pre-dug holes.
- Harvesting can begin only when the leaves will fly from the bushes.
Proper planting and care will allow you to get a good harvest.
The widespread use of soybeans today is a consequence of the long history of the development and spread of this plant and its fruits. Over the entire period during which they were used, a lot of interesting facts about the origin of soy were formed. Here are some of them:
- Soybeans in Chinese sounds like “SHU”, which means “big bean”.
- In Asia, the use of soybeans in various areas began somewhere in the 16-17 century, but it migrated to Europe and other regions with a delay of 200 years.
- In Russia, they could not think of a name for this plant for a long time. Variants such as oilseed peas, oilseed bean or wisteria have been proposed. The modern name "soy" is a transcript from English.
- Tofu cheese, which is so much loved by many vegetarians and connoisseurs of extravagant cuisine, is just curd made from soy with the addition of a thickening substance - nigari.
It makes no sense to deny the beneficial properties of soy, but in conclusion, I would like to remind you that its excessive use can lead to negative consequences, so you should always consult a doctor.
How soy grows
The plant consists of low bare or pubescent stems with a height of 15 cm to 2 meters or more. All cultural species have trifoliate leaves, purple and white corolla. Oval fruits - soybeans - contain up to 3 seeds. Their length is usually 4-6 cm. Sizes are very different: from 60-100 g per 1000 seeds, up to 310 g and more. On average, this amount accounts for 150-200 g mass.
Soybeans: composition and calorie
The basic food components in the composition of the product are in the following approximate proportions:
Calorie in pure form is
364 kcal per 100 grams.
Shares of nutrients in the composition:
- water: 12%,
- ash compounds: 5%,
- starch: 11.5%
- sugar: 5.7%,
- dietary fiber: 13.5%
- fatty acids: unsaturated - 14.35%, saturated - 2.5%.
Ash substances, which largely determine the benefits of soybeans, are represented by the richness of nutrients that are found in them. Soybeans contain vitamins A, B1-B9, E, H, PP, as well as micro and macro elements: potassium, calcium, silicon, manganese, magnesium, phosphorus, chlorine, iron, iodine, cobalt, copper, molybdenum, fluorine, chromium and zinc. Useful composition also complement the 12 essential and 8 essential amino acids.
What do soy
The answer to this question depends on which of the products in question. The basic raw materials are the fruits of the plant:
- flour is made from ground beans,
- miso paste, Twendzhan, Kochudzhan - made from flour with additional ingredients,
- milk - on the basis of flour,
- oil - pressed out of the fruit,
- natto - from boiled and fermented seeds,
- yuba - milk foam,
- Tofu is a fermented soy milk cheese.
Genetic Modified Soybean (GMO)
Soy culture in the modern world is one of the plants most frequently subjected to genetic modification. Soy products are mostly produced from GM varieties. Almost all countries allow them to import, but do not allow to grow GM varieties on its territory. In Russia, this issue should be resolved in 2017.
Transgenic studies do not increase crop yield, but simplify the care for it, reducing production costs. The views of advocates in favor of soybeans of this type also focus on reducing and removing trans fats from the food product.
In international practice, IP certification can be used to distinguish a transgenic product, and in the EU and the Russian Federation information on its availability in a product (if more than 0.9%) should be indicated on the label.
Foods high in soy
Today, soybeans can often be found in the composition of inexpensive sausages, where it is added as a cheap ingredient that increases nutritional value. However, the level of this component is so small that such sausage cannot be attributed to products with its high content.
- soy sauce,
- tofu cheese
- soy milk,
- soybean seed oil
- Soy meat,
- chocolate, in the manufacture of which instead of cocoa beans are used soy,
- pasta: miso, twenjan, kochkhjan,
- Edamame boiled beans.
Is soy good for the body?
First of all, soy products are useful for those whose diet does not provide the body with a sufficient amount of protein, plant or animal. The beneficial effect for vegans and vegetarians will also be enhanced by a diverse vitamin and mineral complex.
The beneficial properties of soy for the body is hidden in its composition:
- Due to the readiness and availability of lecithin, which accelerates the metabolism, it promotes weight loss, makes different diets more effective.
- Choline and lecithin help to remove the so-called harmful cholesterol from the body, therefore, are useful for the prevention of heart disease,
- Tocopherol has a strong antioxidant effect, slowing cell aging and inhibiting the oncological activity of free radicals.
- B vitamins have a positive effect on the nervous system, metabolism, brain function and general well-being of the whole organism.
- Due to the presence of copper and iron in the composition, soy products prevent the development of anemia.
- For the female body, the value lies in reducing the negative symptoms of menopause.
- The removal of heavy metals and radionuclides is accelerating, which is especially important for residents of regions with poor ecology,
- Due to the antioxidant effect, the tissues of the whole organism rejuvenate and become more beautiful.
- Researches of scientists have shown that the use of products of this culture increases insulin receptors, which helps in the prevention of diabetes.
- The high content of dietary fiber helps cleanse the digestive system of ballast and stabilize its function.
- It is believed that constantly its use in food by the East Asian peoples is the cause of fewer cancer patients with respect to global indicators.
- The American Heart Association has found that culture is good for the heart and blood vessels, stabilizes their work, and reduces the risk of disease.
- The abundance of fiber in the composition of soy helps to improve digestion. Non-digestible dietary fibers swell in the stomach and fold up like a brush. Passing through the organs, such a cluster collects and removes with it the ballast residues of food. In addition, soft fibers have a massaging effect on the walls of organs - it stimulates blood circulation, increases secretory functions and the overall work of the system.
Soy benefits and harm for women
- It is believed that soy reduces the production of estrogen, thereby reducing the risk of developing breast cancer.
- Regular consumption of soybeans (if there are no complications on the thyroid gland) leads to a decrease in the risk of osteoporosis, to alleviate the symptoms of menopause.
- Soy products contain lecithin, which improves the breakdown of fats in the liver and prevents their accumulation.
In order for the soybean sprouts for women to become an ally and not an enemy in maintaining health, it is recommended to use only products obtained by natural processing methods: beans, meat, milk, sauce, cheese.
Soy benefits and harm for men
Nowadays it is widely believed that products made from this legume culture have a negative effect on men's health. Proponents of this idea talk about reducing the production of sperm. But it is not so. In fact, due to the large amount of protein, the volume of sperm increases, and the number of sperm cells remains at the same level, which creates the appearance of a drop in concentration.
There are also suggestions that products of soy origin lead to a decrease in testosterone production. However, clinical studies show that such an action is possible only with abuse.
The effect of soy on the brain
The benefits of this product for the brain due to the relationship of absorption with phenylalanine and tyrosine. These amino acids improve the activity of the body, maintain the tone of the nervous system and muscles, and prevent the development of senile diseases, which are accompanied by tremor and weakness in the limbs.
Studies by specialists from the Swedish National Institutes of Health have shown that the effect of soy on the work of the brain goes through thyroid hormone tyrosine. It regulates the migration and growth of neurons. However, its use due to the action of isoflavones inhibits the function of the organ and provokes the development of goiter. Similar results showed the work of Japanese scientists.
Some scientists say that there is a direct connection between the use of soy products and the dementia of mental abilities. However, the results of their research by the official scientific community is not yet recognized as reliable. On the contrary, there are suggestions that due to the presence of isoflavones, these products improve brain function. As an example, soybean advocates cite followers of the American Church of Seventh Day Adventists. They use a lot of tofu cheese, but they are not inferior to other Americans of the same age in intelligence, memory and cognitive functions.
Soy for gout
The inclusion of soy in the patient's diet of gout is considered by nutritionists positively because it contributes to the rapid and increased removal of uric acid from the body.
Diet for gout - what you can eat and what not, except soy:
- Permissible: fruits (melons, apples, bananas, plums, apricots), vegetables (garlic, onions, corn, cabbage, eggplants, greens, cucumbers, beets), berries, nuts.
- Unacceptable: fried meat, fish, smoked, canned, sausages, cheeses, raspberries, cranberries, figs, mustard, horseradish.
For a beneficial effect, you can add not only soybeans to food, but also products made from them: tofu, milk, asparagus, pasta, sauce. The exception is gout on the legs - with her, doctors do not recommend eating any legumes.
Is soy harmful to health: contraindications
Today there is widespread information that the use of soy affects the work of the thyroid gland. This is true, but applicable to those who eat it regularly and in large quantities. Such action is associated with strumogenic substances (which, by the way, are also present in large quantities in millet, cabbage, asparagus, radish, horseradish, turnip). They disrupt the function of the thyroid gland, lead to goiter, if there is little iodine-containing foods in the diet. If strumogenic substances are balanced by the presence of iodine, the risk is significantly reduced.
It should be remembered that soy products are strong allergens. For this reason, they are not advised to include in the diet of young children, whose body is not strong enough. Having a strong influence on the thyroid gland, soybeans can lay the foundation for the emergence of various diseases in the future.
What is dangerous soy for man?
Modern medicine recommends that soy products be abandoned to people who have dysfunctions in the thyroid gland and the entire endocrine system. Moreover, it should be examined by a doctor if the problems began after the inclusion of soy in the diet. Ignoring is fraught with weakness, the development of pathologies of other organs and systems, serious violations of immunity and metabolism.
To limit the use should be and with urolithiasis, as in some cases, soybeans provoke the formation of deposits.
For the reasons described above, soy food can adversely affect brain function, especially at risk for developing Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, or senile sclerosis.
Modern researchers argue that the frequent use of soybeans is harmful to the male body, suppressing the "male force". The fault of this again lies in the hormones - endocrine functions are disturbed, as a result of which the activity of spermatozoids and testosterone production decreases.
How justified is the use of soy during pregnancy and lactation?
Soy for women who are nursing or nursing babies cannot be a strictly forbidden product, but its use should be treated with rational caution. In general, it is beneficial for the body, as it brings a lot of protein, fatty acids, folic acid and antioxidants.
However, during lactation and pregnancy, soybean damage is also possible:
- The presence of estrogen-mimic substances may adversely affect the work of the thyroid gland.
- Excessive amount of fiber violates the healthy functioning of the gastrointestinal tract, leads to bloating, flatulence, colic.
- She is one of the strongest allergens to which kids are very vulnerable.
Soybeans and their derivatives should not be included in the nutrition of the child until the basic development of the organism is completed, therefore, until the age of six months is reached, they should be avoided.
Soy in the children's diet - the opinions of scientists
Talking about whether soy will be beneficial for children and whether it will lead to complications of development is still relevant. Supporters of the product refer to the centuries-old practice of soy consumption in Japan and China. Opponents, however, refer to modern research that suggests a negative impact on the thyroid gland. The level of individual hormones in a child's body is very sensitive to the diet.
The consequence of this is not always the development of diseases - problems can be expressed in early puberty or an increased amount of certain hormones (for example, estrogen in boys).
It is best to exclude the likelihood of complications by giving the child such food with great care until the age of one.
soy is useful or harmful - what more?
We can say that for a person who does not limit himself in the use of certain products, soy is not a very useful, but not a harmful product. For the sake of taste and new culinary experience, it is quite possible to use it.
And for an organism that receives little protein due to the refusal of meat, the inclusion of soy products in the diet is more useful than not. The main thing is to keep a balance between abundance and abuse. Making sure that it does not provoke the appearance of diseases and does not impair the functioning of the internal organs, you can use this useful and affordable product with peace of mind. In short, knowing in which cases soy is harmful, and in which it can help the body well, you can quite confidently include it in your diet without fear of serious consequences.
Soy - good and harm, or O soy clean
Soy is not easy at all. Why?
Soy is a controversial product. You have probably heard about its exceptional benefits: lowers cholesterol, reduces climacteric hot flashes, prevents the appearance of breast and prostate cancer, protects against osteoporosis, and promotes weight loss.
At the same time, there is a point of view that the positive qualities of soy are nothing more than a publicity stunt. And soy is harmful to health: it creates a risk of Alzheimer's disease, osteoporosis, certain types of cancer, leads to hormonal problems and some other negative results. Moreover, the horrors that sign, stagger the imagination! Sometimes it even seems that a massive attack on soy is hitting competitors from meat corporations. As if there was no century-old tradition of using this grain culture by the eastern nations!
So useful or soy harmful? It is very easy to get confused, especially for ordinary consumers who are not obliged to understand the logic of scientific arguments. How consistent are the points of view of soybean fans and supporters who are ready to meet almost in hand-to-hand combat? Is there a balanced position on this product?
Let's try to summarize everything known about the most controversial issues in a popular language. Deciding on the benefits and harms of soy is especially important for vegetarians, especially vegans who value soy as a unique source of protein.
Soy - what is it? The seeds of this plant are a fairly common food. According to experts, such fruits have the following characteristics:
- high protein content (up to 50%),
- high yield
- the possibility of preventing cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis,
- the presence of a large amount of vitamins of group B, calcium, iron, polyunsaturated fatty acids and potassium.
How to use?
Soy - what is it, and what properties do the fruits in question possess? Their unique properties make it possible to produce a wide range of different products.
Before you tell about how harmful soy, you should tell that it is very often used as an inexpensive substitute for meat and dairy products. Also, these legumes are part of the feed for farm animals.
What properties does soy have? The benefits and harms (for health) of this product are the subject of frequent controversy among many professionals. However, most of them consider such fruits unique in a number of indicators.
Scientists have found that the product in question contains a huge amount of genestein, phytic acid and isoflavones. They have an effect that is similar to the action of such a female hormone, like estrogen. This peculiarity of soy causes some of its healing properties, namely the ability to reduce the risk of cancer.
It should also be noted that phytic acid inhibits the development of benign and malignant tumors, and genestein is a unique substance that slows the growth of cancer tumors.
Soy - what is it and what are its properties? Soy products that were obtained by fermentation, very often include in the daily diet and adults, and adolescents. Such dishes are used not only as a prophylactic agent, but also for the treatment of diathesis, diabetes mellitus, various kinds of allergic reactions, urolithiasis and cholelithiasis. Moreover, soy is indicated for diseases of the cardiovascular system and the liver.
Not so long ago, experts found that the composition of the product in question includes lecithin, acetylcholine and phosphatidylcholine. These substances effectively restore and reconstruct brain cells and nervous tissue, and also have a positive effect on learning ability, mental abilities and memory.
It can not be said that all the above elements play an important role in supporting the sexual function and reproductive system of a person. In addition, they restore strength after mental and moral stress, as well as maintain the patient's motor activity.
What else is useful product in question? Lecithin, which is part of it, is able to control the level of cholesterol in the blood, increase the metabolism of adipose tissue and participate in other metabolic processes of the body. Also, this component inhibits tissue degradation and aging processes, reduces signs of arteriosclerosis, treats amnesia, muscle dystrophy and glaucoma.
What is harmful soy products?
In addition to the impressive list of useful properties of the product in question, it also has a large number of harmful qualities. By the way, the latter can easily negate all the benefits of its use in the daily diet.
Most soybean products on the local market are dangerous for health. The only exception is the food that was obtained by fermentation.
The most dangerous is soybean genetically modified. Experts say that this ingredient is contaminated with residues of herbicides and is not at all conducive to maintaining normal health.
How to get GM soy?
Why is genetically modified soy so dangerous? The fact is that in the process of its cultivation, agricultural producers treat plantations with a huge amount of such a potent toxic herbicide as Roundup. The latter is intended not only for weed control, but also for a significant increase in yield.
How does it affect human health?
In the course of numerous studies, experts have found that regular consumption of soy products causes the development of diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, thyroid gland dysfunction, diseases of the immune system, disorders of reproductive function and cognitive abilities, as well as sterility, heart problems and even cancer.
We list some of the consequences that have been associated with the frequent use of soy and soy products:
- mammary cancer,
- stones in the kidneys,
- brain damage
- food allergies (serious forms),
- disruption of the thyroid gland,
- immune system diseases
- disorders in the sexual sphere in women.
It should also be noted that American scientists have found that for those representatives of the stronger sex that used soy products 3 times a week for a long time, the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease increased almost 2 times. Also, the abuse of this food often led to a weakening of memory, a decrease in the mass of the brain and a disturbance of thought processes.
Negative impact on humans
As mentioned above, soy contains phytic acid. Its excessive intake in the body contributes to blocking the full absorption of zinc, calcium, iron and magnesium. In addition, with the help of soy products, scientists have learned to control the birth rate of laboratory animals. Дело в том, что в больших количествах фитоэстроген способен подавить репродуктивную функцию организма и значительно снижать его способность к зачатию.
Нельзя не отметить и то, что многие производители добавляют сою в детские молочные смеси. Нередко это приводит к раннему половому созреванию девочек и нарушениям в развитии (физическом) у мальчиков. В связи с этим введение соевых продуктов в детское питание совершенно недопустимо.
Soy - benefit and harm for men
Evidence that soy reduces testosterone levels, no, there are only assumptions about this. It is not necessary for men to completely exclude them from the diet, because the benefits of soy for men are that the product contains a lot of protein and vitamins, but you should not abuse them either.
In large quantities, soy can disrupt the balance of hormones and lead to sexual disorders. This assumption of scientists is only theoretically justified; healthy people who consume soy up to 4 times a week can be calm and confident in the benefits of the product in small portions.
Soy - benefit and harm to human health
Caution should be taken when consuming soy in large quantities. people suffering from urolithiasis, because soy contains in the composition of oxolates . Although there have been no documented cases of deterioration in health, doctors all over the world advise to restrict soy products in the menu whose benefits and harm are not clarified in this case.
It is better to reduce the consumption of the product up to 3 times a week if you suffer from urolithiasis.
Soy is also considered a common allergen, therefore for a child who is not strong enough, especially up to 3 years old, you need to drive the product into the diet carefully, because oxalic acid affects the baby’s endocrine system. Adult people suffering thyroid diseasesIt is also not recommended to eat soy, since an increase in hormonal levels may provoke a disturbance in the work of this organ.
There is a so-called iodine absorption in the thyroid gland and people for the prevention of the lack of this element in the body are recommended to use products with iodine content.
Special attention should be paid to soybean consumption. by men because a surplus of estrogen in their bodies is much more harmful than an excess of testosterone. It is important not to overeat and balance your diet with foods that do not contain isoflavones.
Is soy beneficial for heart diseases?
In 1995, based on the results of 38 control clinical trials, it was concluded that daily consumption of approximately 50 grams of soy protein instead of animal protein can lower total cholesterol by 9.3%, the level of LDL (dangerous cholesterol) by 12.9% and triglyceride levels of 10.5%.
Such a decrease, if it is long in time, could mean a reduction of 20% in the risk of heart attacks, strokes and other forms of cardiac diseases. And the benefits of soy would be without any precedent.
But the modern view, based on several studies published since 2000, is not so optimistic about soy and cholesterol.
According to a more complete and improved study of soybeans, which was conducted by the Nutrition Committee of the American Heart Association, 50 grams of soybeans in a person’s daily menu can reduce the level of dangerous cholesterol by only 3%. That is, it still lowers, but not too much.
In addition, we must bear in mind that 50 grams of soybeans represent more than half of the proteins needed by an adult on a daily basis. They correspond to 680 grams of tofu cheese or 8 cups (each with a volume of 236.6 ml) of soy milk per day.
It turns out that the benefits of soy for the heart is questionable?
Not at all. Known facts do not mean that it is necessary to abandon tofu, tempeh, or soy milk - and, in general, completely ignore edamame (as funny is called soybeans).
The American Heart Association Committee notes that although soy protein itself has very little direct effect on cholesterol, soy-containing foods are good for the heart and blood vessels. First, they supply the body with polyunsaturated fats, fibers, vitamins and minerals and contain very little saturated fat. Secondly, they make it possible to replace with themselves less healthy products from the point of view of health (for example, red meat).
Is soy harmful to the thyroid gland?
What is the problem? We are talking about strumogenic substances that prevent the normal functioning of the thyroid gland, up to the formation of goiter. Dysfunction can occur when the diet of people who consume large amounts of products with strumogenami (and this is millet, cabbage, asparagus, cauliflower, kohlrabi, horseradish, radish, turnip, rutabaga, etc.) lack iodine.
Studies 50 years ago revealed cases of goiter in infants who were fed on the basis of soy flour. Soy demonstrated not only harm, but harm aggressive! Since then, baby food has been produced from isolated soy protein (it, unlike flour, does not contain strumogenic substances and is enriched with iodine).
As for adults, the use of soy leads to dysfunction of the thyroid gland in healthy people, if the diet does not have enough iodine. Therefore, people who eat soy, especially vegans, need to monitor the iodine content in their food. In particular, use iodized salt, seaweed (however, in them, the iodine content is not always balanced) or vitamin supplements.
Thus, soy foods may indeed contain strumogenic substances, however, if the diet is balanced in its iodine content, soy is safe for the thyroid gland.
Is "harmful soybeans leading to dementia"?
There is a study that found a relationship between tofu consumption and impaired mental ability. But the conclusions from this study have already been criticized as insufficiently evidence. There are, in addition, three other studies proving that isoflavones help strengthen these abilities. For example, Seventh Day Adventists, whose diets contain a lot of tofu, demonstrate better cognitive functions than other groups of Americans in old age. Therefore, it can be said that at least irrefutable evidence that soy causes harm to the brain does not exist today. In the same way we can talk about the benefits of soy for the intellect and memory.
Is soy beneficial for breast cancer prevention or, on the contrary, leads to it?
The question is controversial and insufficiently studied, but there are also proven facts. For example, a study examining the health of Shanghai women revealed that those who took a high amount of soy protein in adolescence and early adulthood had almost a 60% lower risk of getting premenopausal breast cancer compared to women who did not use soy .
The fact is that isoflavones have an estrogen-like effect, which in itself means an increased risk of breast cancer. However, researchers are increasingly inclined to conclude that this effect exists over a short period of time, while the long-term anti-estrogen effect is activated. In addition, small doses of soy isoflavone (genistein) contribute to the reproduction of cancer cells, while large doses - inhibit. So not everything is straightforward with the benefits and harm of soybeans for hormone-dependent tumors, and even not everything is clear.
There is one more thing. Soy isoflavone genistein inhibits the growth of blood vessels and enzymes that support tumor growth. Soy is a “smart” product that can change estrogen metabolism in a way that protects the body from cancer.
Perhaps the only group of women who should refrain from consuming soy, or reduce this, are women who have experienced breast cancer. And that is not a fact, since the positive properties, the benefits of soy may outweigh its estrogenic effect, although the question requires further study. Therefore, if these women love soy products and are accustomed to their use, they do not need to completely exclude soy from their diet, soy will not cause any irreparable harm to them.
Soy is one of the main vegetarian products, the proteins of which add to the benefits of a vegetarian diet: nourishing and satiating, they do not form slags.
Is soy harmful to ovulation?
The evidence that soybean has a negative effect on reproductive function is not supported by any study. There is evidence that requires additional evidence that isoflaphones can delay, but not prevent, ovulation in women.
There is also no evidence that the number or concentration of spermatozoa is reduced. And recent studies show that soy does not affect testosterone levels.
Is soy good for menopause?
Soy has also been investigated as a treatment for hot flushes and other problems that are so often associated with menopause.
Theoretically, this makes sense. Soybeans are rich, as already mentioned, phytoestrogens. Thus, they could calm post-menopausal hot flashes by supplying a woman's body with the likeness of estrogens - at a time when their level drops.
True, carefully controlled studies have not yet found that this is the case, and the Committee of the American Heart Association, for its part, came to the conclusion that for soy it was not observed the properties to relieve hot flashes and other symptoms of menopause.
What is soy?
What is soy, benefits and harm to human health, what are its medicinal properties, all of this is very interesting for those who lead a healthy lifestyle, monitor their health, and are interested in traditional methods of treatment, including with the help of popular products. So we will try to answer these questions in the following article.
Everyone knows about soy. What do they know? Basically the fact that it is added to a variety of foods. And besides soy meat or soy cheese, it can be almost in any product. And how harmful or useful is it?
What substances are contained in soybeans and how do they affect the human body? Can it help a person, under what diseases and how? And is it only good for soy? There are many questions, and the answers to them are important, because now soy is used very actively and can be present as “vegetable protein” almost everywhere.
Cultivated soybean (lat. Glycine max) is an annual herbaceous plant, a species of the genus Soybean (Glycine) of the legume family.
Cultural soybeans are widely cultivated in Asia, Southern Europe, North and South America, Central and Southern Africa, Australia, and the islands of the Pacific and Indian Oceans at latitudes from the equator to 56–60 °.
Regarding the origin of soybeans there are different versions, most often it is called China. In China, there are the earliest written references to the cultivation of soybeans. The word for its name is found in the inscriptions found during the excavations of the burials of the Yin and Shang dynasties (3,700 years ago). Soybean seeds are also found during excavations, for example, at the primeval site in the village of Damudan Tun, Ningan County, Heilongjiang Province (3,000 years ago).
Now soybeans are grown on almost all continents. The bulk of soybeans on the world market is supplied by the USA. Asian countries consume almost all of the soy produced themselves. In Russia, industrial soybean production is developing in the Krasnodar Territory, in the Amur Region. Soy is used as a unique feed, food and technical culture.
Why is she so popular in the world? Because of its composition. There is a lot of protein in it (38–45%), fats make up 18–25%, carbohydrates 25–30%. In 100 g of soybean 380 kcal.
Soy in the diet of children and adolescents:
The benefits and harms of soy food for children and even for pregnant women are not fully understood. Active disputes are still going on. According to some reports, soybean isoflavones, which act like female hormones (estrogens), adversely affect the development of the embryonic brain and increase the risk of miscarriage in pregnant women who have consumed significant amounts of natural soy or shallow soy products.
However, with sufficient heat treatment isoflavones lose their hormonal activity. Therefore, the products of soybean processing, deprived of isoflavones or subjected to sufficient heat treatment, can be freely used in the nutrition of pregnant women and young children.
Composite mixes, soy milk, soy meat are suitable for nursing mothers.
Adding soy flour to cow's milk allows you to bring the composition of the mixture to women's milk, which has long been used in artificial feeding. In the presence of food allergies to milk proteins or lactose deficiency, soy-based infant formula becomes a full-fledged substitute for breast milk.
However, if a child has a normal tolerability of milk protein, there is no need to feed him with soy mixtures. In this case, soy products can inhibit the endocrine system. Children who were fed exclusively from soybean mixtures from an early age often have problems with the thyroid gland than children who have grown up on traditional dairy products.
Thus, soy mixtures are an alternative to breast milk or lactose milk mixtures only in the presence of food allergies to milk proteins or lactose deficiency.
Children over 3 years old can be given soy products of the “dairy” line: soy milk, soy cocktails, soy omelette, soy curd, and much more.
"Meat" soy products are made from soy concentrate. It can be burgers, chops and more. Soy meat has a neutral taste and smell, therefore, in order to give it specific odors it is necessary to add dressings and sauces. Since it is undesirable to give such gas stations to children, soy "meat" products can be introduced into the nutrition of children over 5 years old.
In the children's menu it is not recommended to use miso - paste from soybeans that have undergone fermentation, natto, which is made from whole soybeans, tempeh - a product of fermented soybeans. These products contain a lot of coarse fiber, and their use will lead to digestive problems in the child.
Soy sauce is also excluded from the diet because of its high salt content. In addition, it often causes allergic reactions.
Soy flour, soy protein isolate, which is added to meat products (sausages, sausages, wieners), it is desirable not to use in the diet of children under 5 years old. Flour contains a substance that inhibits the activity of one of the enzymes, which digests the protein in the duodenum. During heat treatment, this substance is destroyed, but still cereals based on such flour cannot be given to babies. In addition, soy flour contains carbohydrate non-digestible ingredients - raffinose and stachyose, which can cause bloating, diarrhea, etc.
But children can be given free soybean oil.
Thanks to modern processing technology by the method of preliminary germination of soybeans, new products for baby food are made: cereals and confectionery (cookies, muffins).
In adolescence, soy-based products provide an increased need for a growing body in a number of useful substances. Regular consumption of soy contributes to greater physical and mental stamina of a teenager.
Soy in the nutrition of the elderly:
Meat, offal, fatty fish varieties are rich in purines - a source of uric acid in the body, contributing to the onset of gout.
Another reason for the restriction of meat is the occurrence of azotemia (elevated blood levels of nitrogenous metabolic products excreted by the kidneys), which increases the load on the kidneys and can lead to their damage.
In addition, animal products contain significant amounts of cholesterol, which is also harmful in old age because of the risk of atherosclerosis and its complications.
Even in old age lactase deficiency often develops, so it is impossible to drink milk (the main source of calcium in the diet). And products such as cheese (where there is also a lot of calcium) are not recommended for older people because of the large amount of saturated fats, cholesterol and salt.
At the same time, legumes and cereals as a source of good vegetable protein are often poorly tolerated. They can cause increased gas formation, belching, heartburn, and abnormal stools.
In this case, soybean processing products are an alternative. Soy is an easily digestible protein. Due to technological processing, soybean isolates and composite mixtures do not cause dyspepsia, which is characteristic of natural bean products. And the ability to reduce cholesterol, a sparing effect on the kidneys, the ability to slow down the processes of osteoporosis makes soy foods a priority in the nutrition of the elderly and old people.
For the elderly, soy lecithin is also important. Lecithin helps repair damaged liver cells, and is also the main building material for the nervous system. It is part of the membrane of all cells and is one of the basic substances that are used for the construction of the intercellular space.
Lecithin has some efficacy in Alzheimer's disease. Alzheimer's patients who use lecithin remember their names better, are more familiar with the environment, can list more details of recent events, and are more able to concentrate. However, only soybean with a sufficient content of isoflavones has a similar effect.
It is very popular in Europe, America and China. It has a characteristic smell and taste.
Масло из сои рафинируют, но не дезодорируют. Неочищенное масло имеет коричневый цвет, с зеленоватым оттенком, рафинированное – светло-желтого цвета.
В соевом масле много полиненасыщенных жирных кислот, среди которых можно выделить линолевую, олеиновую, пальмитиновую, а также стеариновую. Кроме того, соевое масло богато железом, цинком, витамином Е, К, холином.
100 g of sunflower oil contains 67 mg of vitamin E (tocopherol), only 13 mg of tocopherol in olive oil, and 114 mg in soybean oil.
Soybean oil, like any other vegetable oil, lowers blood cholesterol. Soybean oil can be used daily for 1-2 tablespoons as a preventive measure. The easiest way to fill them with fresh vegetable salads.
Soybean oil improves metabolism, and also helps strengthen the immune system. Scientists have found that daily consumption of soybean oil prevents the development of some serious diseases, such as a heart attack.
Soybean oil should not be used for allergies to soy. As for consumption during pregnancy, the question here is difficult. On the one hand, soybean oil is a natural source of vitamin E and this is useful. On the other hand, it contains a lot of isoflavones (phytoestrogens), which, if excessively consumed, may even cause miscarriage.
According to Yury Konstantinov’s “Soy. Unique product. Use in medicine, cooking, cosmetology ".
So is it worth eating soy? Is soy good or bad?
What is known today about soy allows us to conclude that its moderate use is safe for almost all healthy people. A moderate intake is 2-3 servings daily (1 serving = 80 g) if you are vegan. Pay attention to the balance of your menu.
Soybeans, tofu and other soy products are a great alternative to red meat. Soy is useful primarily as a substitute for harmful meat, which is more harmful than soy, but only “more meat!”
In some cultures, soy products are the main protein, and there is no need to change age-old habits. However, if you are not vegan, there is no reason to make soy the main source of protein: 2-4 servings of soy are sufficient per week. And to give up soy is also no reason.
2 conclusions about the benefits and dangers of soybean:
1. Numerous tests have not revealed the harm of soy for human health. The scandal around soy is clearly not up to the scale of the problem. However, many of the beneficial properties of soybeans also did not find scientific evidence.
2. Moderate intake of soy is perfectly safe for healthy people:
- There is no reason to give up soy if you are used to it
- Eat up to 2 servings of soy products a day with a balanced diet if you're vegan
- Eat soybeans up to 4 times a week if you are a meat eater.