Actinidia - southern subtropical plants, in the natural environment live in Japan, Korea, China, India and other countries B, and Yu.-V. Asia In Russia, actinidia are common in the Far East, Sakhalin, the Kuril Islands, occupying the northernmost position in their natural range. In the forests of these regions there are 3 types of actinidia: colomikta, argut and polygamous.
In my garden in the near Moscow region, Actinidia has been growing for a long time; it is one of my favorite berry plants. This crop requires 2-4 times less food area than other garden bushes, and, especially, trees.
This alone is important for a fairly modest garden plot of 6 acres. And in terms of economic value and decorative effect, actinidia surpasses other liana-like cultures (with the possible exception of high-stem arbor forms of grapes).
In actinidia, numerous white flowers with yellow stamens emit a strong, irresistibly pleasant scent in spring.
But, most importantly, these are fruits of actinidia, rich in biologically active substances.. Gentle and sweet Actinidia berries taste something like pineapple, or strawberry, or banana.
Fresh berries the most popular frost-resistant actinidia, colomicas, by vitamin C content are almost twice as high as wild rose, 12 times black currant berries, and 20-25 times lemon. One berry weighing 3-4 g is enough to meet the daily human need for this vitamin. No wonder the actinidia berries are called "the fruits of health"!
I.V. Michurin, for the first time in our country, introduced actinidia into the culture and brought out many of its varieties, wrote: "It can be said with certainty that in the future actinidia will occupy one of the first-rank places among the fruit plants of our region that are capable of completely push out the grapes ... not only replacing it in all types of use, but far surpassing it in the quality of its fruits ... ".
It seems that this prediction comes true: actinidia is now actively and widely implemented in the gardens of the Black Earth Region.
Actinidia - a plant of semi-shady places with rich humus and moisture soils. Penumbra is necessary for young plants, favorable for adults. In full shade, the fruits are well tied, ripen quickly, but also fall off very easily, besides, vitamin C accumulates less, leaves fall early, and shoots, having lost their foliage, can dry out.
High moisture provision is necessary for this culture. With a lack of moisture, plants stop growing, leaves grow coarse, spotted, coagulate.
In the harsh climatic conditions of the Nonchernozem region, where the culture of nipper grapes is difficult to successfully grown actinidia, kolomikta. This tree-vine (with climbing counterclockwise, stem) withstands temperatures down to minus 30-40 ° С and can grow to 8-10 m and above. For normal vegetation, colomikte requires 120 frost-free days and a sum of active temperatures equal to 2000 ° C, which happens almost annually in the Non-Black Earth Region. Liana wraps around trees, tall shrubs, artificial trellis, arbors, arches. Creeps on the ground without support.
Is different original decorative variegatedness, especially the male specimens. In June, part of the leaves becomes white first, then pink and bright crimson color. From a distance it seems that the bush is covered with many large white and pink butterflies.
Root system Kolomikty densely branched at a depth of 25-30 cm in a radius of 60-80 cm. Suction activity of the roots is high. Therefore, it is desirable to keep the soil under the bush in a wet state.
Flowers actinidia has bisexual, having stamens and pistils, and same-sex with some stamens. But pollen of bisexual flowers, as a rule, is not capable of fertilization. In this regard, to the 2-3nd plants with bisexual flowers are planted one with the stamens.
Fruits colomikty - multi-chamber berries up to 2-2.5 cm in length and up to 1.5 cm in width, green, sometimes with a golden shade on the sunny side, sweet or sweet-sour, strongly aromatic. When ripe, showered on the ground. This phenomenon, which I did not like very much in the early years of fruiting actinidia, now seems to be a great advantage: no need to climb high bushes to pick berries, because the berries themselves, as they say, fall rrymo in your mouth. 2-3 times a day I just collect them from the concrete slabs of the garden path, along which the bushes of this vine are placed.
For 30 years, I have not noticed any diseases in Kolomikta. There were no pests, except for cats, which have a great predilection for young shoots and roots.
Since this creeper has no suckers on the shoots, the plant needs support. With a large decorative effect, arbors, pergolas, blind, unsightly walls of buildings, skeletons of dead trees, etc. can be used as supports.
In my garden for about 30 years, actinidia of 2 species - colomicta and argut grow. Kolomikta, planted on a waste land, where even weeds do not want to grow - from the north and north-west sides of a residential house - turned a large entrance ring into a green arbor, threw a balcony over the attic and climbed onto the roof, revived the homely wall with greenery. Almost every year I remove 2-4 kg of berries from a bush. Kolomikty bushes can actively bear fruit for up to 50 years. So, I have them now in full bloom.
Actinidia argut, polygamous, varieties
Kolomikty has many varieties. Of Michurinsky most popular Varieties Pineapple and Clara Zetkin. The first one has round fruits weighing up to 2.3 g. A pleasant sweet taste with a strong aroma. The second variety gives long regular cylindrical fruit weighing up to 3.5 g, a pleasant sweet-sour taste, with a strong aroma. Fruit ripening is almost simultaneous, later. It is the most large-fruited and resistant to mushroom diseases variety.
On Pavlovsk Experimental Station VIR near St. Petersburg displayed a large number of forms of actinidia kolomikty. I will focus on the most interesting of them. This is VIR-1 with sweet, strongly fragrant fruits weighing up to 5 g with a yield of up to 4.5 kg from a bush.
Kolomikta Leningrad large gives berries weighing up to 6 g. In the variety Pavlovskaya berries weighing up to 3.5 g ripen in mid-August. The variety has a high winter hardiness.
Of great interest are varieties Leningradskaya early, Matt, Victory other. But in the Ukrainian variety Purple Garden N 2 fetal weight reaches 11 g. For central Russia, of all the actinidians, colomict is most suitable as the most unpretentious and cold-resistant.
The local Russian names Kolomikty - raisins, small raisins, crawler.
Actinidia argut (acute)
Actinidia argut (acute) the local name is large. This is the most powerful vine of all Far Eastern species of actinidia. Growth shoots (sleeves) it reaches a length of 30 m. Fruits weighing from 6 to 10-12 g, ripen in the suburbs in early September. The necessary minimum of active temperatures for arguty is 1700-1800 °.
Actinidia: planting and care in the open field
In the Moscow region, this figure is 2000-2200 °, with an average monthly temperature of 17.8 ° in summer.
But argut less frost-resistant than colomikta, requires shelter branches for the winter at least with snow. I received argut seedlings from an amateur gardener from the Yaroslavl region, where she, as this gardener says, is successfully cultivated. Are popular varieties of argut Taiga emerald, daughter Zeya, Bureyanka with fruits weighing 8-9 g with a banana aroma and others. Of great interest to experienced gardeners are argut hybrids with actinidia purpurea. it varieties Kiev hybrid N10 and Kiev large-fruited with outstanding qualities and fruits weighing up to 10-15 g. Arguta - the most productive species of the actinidia genus. Up to 50 kg of berries are harvested from one adult plant. Ripening berries simultaneously.
Polygamine Actinidia (Perchik)
Polygamine Actinidia (Perchik) grows in the south of the Far East and Sakhalin Island. Heat-loving, the required amount of active temperatures - 2200-2500 °. The taste of berries is sharp, hence the local name "pepper". While we have not gained popularity. In recent years, overseas Chinese has entered the culture of actinidia. In New Zealand, its hybrid is widely distributed. KIWI with fruits the size of a chicken egg and weighing up to 100 g. The name is given by the name of the famous New Zealand wingless kiwi chicken, which resembles the pubescent fruits of this actinidia. We have this species is growing only in the south.
Planting, reproduction of actinidia
Everything actinidia breed and by seed, and vegetatively. Seeds must be fresh, although the refrigerator can be stored for up to 2 years. Before sowing, the seeds are stratified for 2 months at a temperature of 2-5 ° C and then germinated in greenhouses or greenhouses at a temperature of 20-25 ° C. Depth of planting seeds 0.5 cm, shoots appear after 3 weeks. Fruiting in seed reproduction begins after about 5 years. Before flowering to determine the floor of the plant is impossible.
The most effective way of breeding actinidia - green cutting. Preparation of cuttings produced in late June - early July, when the shoots begin to woody. Cuttings are cut from the middle part of the shoot 10-15 cm long with 2-3 buds. The lower leaves on the handle are removed, the upper - cut by half. Planting depth - 5-6 cm. As a substrate it is better to use peat mixed with washed sand in a 1: 1 ratio. The optimum air temperature should be 20-25 ° and humidity 85-90%. The period of rooting cuttings - 25-40 days. It is necessary to plant immediately to a permanent place: actinidia does not like transplants.
When landing Between plants leave an interval of 1.0-1.5 m. Fruiting during vegetative reproduction begins in the 4-5th year, earlier than in seed. Yield significantly increases the high agricultural technology - weeding the soil under the plant, loosening and watering. Pruning and shaping bushes is reduced to the removal of broken, sick, old and thickened shoots.
Actinidia can also be propagated by lignified cuttings cut in early spring before sap flow begins. Survival rate - 50-70%.
Planted actinidia in the pit size of 1.0 x 1.0 x 0.6-0.7 m. The pit is filled with manure or sheet humus interspersed with dried sod and peat. Fruiting plants useful to feed slurry. It is impossible to allow bushiness of a plant: usually 1-2 branches (sleeves) per bush are left in culture.
So, actinidia will grow well and bear fruit in the presence of 4 main conditions: partial shade, good soil, humidity and supports.
Harvesting as ripening, which in the Moscow region begins in August. Berries, harvested immature, a few days reach condition. The fruits of actinidia have a susceptibility to various odors. Therefore, they should be stored in a completely clean, dry and ventilated area.
The fruits of actinidia are consumedmainly fresh, like dessert. With great success, they are also used for making jams, compotes, jelly, candied fruits, marshmallows, and fillings for sweets. Dried actinidia berries are highly valued. From the raw berries they prepare delicate to taste and smell gentle "royal" wines resembling champagne, as well as liqueurs and liqueurs. Here are some recipes.
Cooked from actinidia: jam, compote, dried berries
Jam. Take slightly unripe berries, wash. For 1 kg of berries, 1 kg of sugar and 100-150 g of water are sufficient for preparing syrup. Sugar is dissolved in water and berries are dipped in boiling syrup. Boil them for 3-5 minutes and remove from heat for 6-8 hours. After the berries have settled on the bottom, jam is boiled with a weak boil for 20 minutes. Under these conditions, the berries do not boil soft, they resemble figs in taste.
Compote. 250-300 g of sugar are added to 1 liter of water and brought to a boil. This syrup is poured in berries laid in small glass jars, pasteurized and hermetically sealed.
Berries with sugar. Washed and slightly dried berries are rubbed with sugar in a ratio of 1: 1.5. The resulting mass is placed in small jars, hermetically sealed and stored in a cool place.
Dried berries. Ripe berries are dried in hair near heat sources for several days. To taste remind sashmish.
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Actinidia arguta Ananasnaya (female)
Female variety with very tasty, fragrant fruits. The fruits ripen in October, oval, slightly oblong, green with a red blush. Starts fruiting for 3-4 year. It needs a warm, sheltered place. It is better to cut in late autumn or winter (before the beginning of the growing season), it is possible in the summer after partial lignification of new growth, as the cut "cries".
Before planting seedlings should be stored at a temperature of 0 - + 2ºС. When bud germinates, it is necessary to transfer the plant to a cool, well-lit room to avoid stretching the shoots. Planting in the soil of plants with young shoots is allowed only after the threat of frost has passed.
Actinidia Colomikta prefers open areas or lightly shaded, warm areas protected from northern winds. Actinidia is sharp (arguta) in full bright sun can burn. But in full shade the plants will be depressed. It grows well on rich humus, loose fresh soils, does not tolerate prolonged waterlogging.
Description of the features of actinidia arguts: popular varieties, rules of planting and caring for culture
Flowering and the manifestation of decorative coloring on the leaves begins in 2-3 years after planting.
Before planting, the container with the seedling is immersed in water for 15-20 minutes, so that the substrate is well soaked with water.
The distance between the plants is not less than 2 m. Since actinidia is a dioecious vine, 1-2 paternal bushes are required for optimal development and fruiting of 5-7 maternal bushes. The depth of the planting pit is 60-70 cm, diameter 60 cm. A drainage of broken brick and gravel is deposited at the bottom of the planting pit with a layer of 10-15 cm, over which soil mixture including rotten compost is poured with a hill. Wood ash (300-400 g), superphosphate (200-300 g) are added, and on heavy soils 1-2 more buckets of sand. Then a seedling is placed there, straightening the roots, covered with soil and slightly compacted. Note that the root collar must be level with the ground. The recessed seedling can stop growing and even die! Landing site plentifully shed.
Planted plants require shading from the bright spring sun. It is advisable to put a protective mesh against cats (they often gnaw young plants and shoots).
Further care is periodic feeding, watering, shallow loosening of the soil (root system surface) and removal of weeds. As the vine grows, strong support and a garter are needed.
The first time pruned do 3 years after planting, in the second half of September, after the leaves fall. In early autumn and in early spring, when sap flow is moving, actinidia cannot be cut off, since they can weaken and die. In adult plants, shoots are shortened annually by 1/2 - 1/3 of their length and cut out the branches thickening the crown. Rejuvenating pruning is done at 7 - 10 years of age, pruning old lianas onto a stump 30 - 40 cm long, and leaving young ones.
Young plants take shelter in winter, adult bushes overwinter without any problems.
Actinidia: features of planting and care in the suburbs
The best varieties of actinidia: Kolomikta, Arguta, Klara Zetkin, Michanin Pineapple, Harvest, Early, Late, Leningradskaya Early, Matt, Victory, VIR-1, Worthy, Teachers Memory, Faceted, September.
Agrotechnical actinidia. Actinidia is a light-loving and moisture-loving plant. It grows well in non-shaded areas. Light sandy soils, heavy loamy, acidic and marshy for its planting unsuitable. Pits digging depths of 40-60, a width of 60 cm. Since the fall, they make: one bucket of rotted manure or peat compost, 200-300 g of superphosphate, two glasses of wood ash. The bottom of the pit must be drained with broken bricks or gravel up to 10 cm.
Actinidia is planted (in five - ten women - one man) in the spring. After planting, watering and mulching are required. Actinidia belongs to the group of liana plants. A long, thin and flexible woody stem can reach, for example, in Argut-30 and Kolomikta varieties of 10-15 m. Therefore, supports are constructed for it in the form of vertical ladders, trellis and pergalov.
During the growing season, three additional feedings are carried out: in the early spring they apply ash (nitrogen fertilizers cause strong growth of shoots, as a result of which they do not have time to lignify by winter and freeze), before flowering - bone meal or double superphosphate - 10 g, potassium salt - 13 g or potassium chloride - 8 g, urea - 10 g per 1 m2. After harvesting, it is desirable to fertilize the soil (all fertilizers, except for ash, are applied in the form of liquid dressings in wells or grooves).
Actinidia: landing - the beginning of all beginnings
Adult plants are watered regularly. In the early years, they are protected from cats that eat young shoots and roots.
Fruits of most types of actinidia are distinguished by juiciness, delicate pineapple aroma, pleasant acidity, therefore they are suitable for many types of processing, except for the Polygamy variety, which has fruits with a sharply burning taste, in the Far East this actinidia is called “pepper”.
Еще И. В. Мичурин писал: «…можно с уверенностью сказать, что в будущем актинидия у нас займет одно из перворазрядных мест в числе плодовых растений нашего края…».
Gardeners in the middle zone of the country mainly cultivate actinidia kolomikta, since its two other species - argut and polygamus - are very cold, in natural conditions they grow in the latitude of Novorossiysk and Sochi.
Actinidia Colomikta is a perennial winding vine that twists around counterclockwise. In the summer, many actinidia plants shortly before flowering leaves change color — the top is white, sometimes the leaf blade becomes silver, and then the white color is replaced by crimson, so the liana is very decorative, looks great when gardening arbors, arches, trellis, etc.
But actinidia is not only decorative, but also a valuable fruit, medicinal plant. The fruits of her juicy, sweet. It is a pity that the mature fruits on the branches do not stick, fall off, deteriorate quickly, therefore they should be gathered unripe and allowed to ripen, spread out in a thin layer in a place protected from sunlight. Fruits are rich in vitamins (10-15 times more vitamin C than black currants, oranges, and lemons).
Actinidia, as a rule, a dioecious plant: on some specimens only male are formed, on the other - female flowers. You can distinguish them as follows: female flowers are located singly, have a cylindrical upper ovary, men are collected by 2-3 in the inflorescence, the ovary is bulbous in them. Petals in male flowers at the time of flowering fall at the same time, and in female ones, as the flower ages.
In order to have a guaranteed harvest, one must have both male and female plants. True, many gardeners have noted instances of fruit set when growing only female plants.
Propagated actinidia seeds, layering, cuttings. Since in April you hardly have fresh prepared actinidia seeds (and more than four months before they are prepared, including stratification), we will tell you how to propagate actinidia by cuttings.
Usually cuttings with 3-4 buds are cut at the end of flowering and planted in a moist greenhouse in partial shade. The cutting can be cut off at the beginning of the growth of the shoots, when they started to grow from the bottom. Cut it with a "heel", i.e. with part of an old escape. Rooted cutting is not in the greenhouse, but simply under an ordinary glass jar, whitewashed lime from the inside.
Planted cuttings in the circle of the apple tree in the hole, which previously made a little washed sand. All summer the bank should stand over the handle, watering directly under it.
By the autumn, the stalk is loosened, but you can remove the jar and leave it to winter in place, covering a 10-cm layer of fallen leaves in front of the frost. In the third year, actinidia may already bloom.
Yet infrequently in the backyards of country houses you can find such an exotic plant as Actinidia Argut. This is a perennial shrub in the form of a climbing vine, the length of which can reach 20 meters. Since it is a lianoid plant, it needs reliable support along its entire length.
The fruits, or rather, the berries of the plant resemble a kind of kiwi, only of a reduced size. For transportation, they are of little use, and the shelf life is small - only 3-4 days. But of them you can make jam, compotes and use fresh. Vitamin C is contained in them more than in currants or lemon, and therefore the benefits of actinidia are obvious.
Actinidia Argut is a dioecious plant - this means that for fruiting, which occurs 3-4 years after planting, it will require, besides a female, also a male plant. It will be possible to determine their sex only after flowering, as they differ in exactly flowers.
Actinidia planting and care in the Moscow region Growing from seed Varieties with photos and descriptions
It can grow on any soil and its nutritional content is very undemanding. That's just very sensitive plant to chlorine and lime in the ground. Actinidia Argut is a moisture-loving plant, and the main task of care will be watering, or rather, keeping the top layer of the earth moist.
In order that the soil is not too dry it is desirable to mulch any material. If this is not done, the root system will become very hot, which will lead to plant disease and death. Loosening the soil in the wheel circle should be carried out very carefully, because the roots lie directly near the surface.
There are other popular varieties of actinidia Argut:
- Actinidia Arguta Pineapple - this The plant is up to 6 meters high and produces small, but very attractive fruits with a pink-yellow side. But this is not the main thing - the taste and smell of fruits is almost identical to the exotic pineapple, which is very appealing to lovers of this plant,
- Actinidia Argut Veika - dioecious variety, which produces relatively large reddish fruits ripening in October. This species is characterized by increased winter hardiness that does not require shelter (up to -30 ° C),
- actinidium argut samoplodnaya - The name itself says that the plant does not require a male for fruiting, because the flowers on it are bisexual. Fruits are well transported.
Actinidia Isaiai is a self-pollinated variety of actinidia. It has an unusual property to pollinate other varieties: Wakey, Pineapple and others.
It blooms in mid-June with beautiful white flowers.
Actinidia - growing in the Moscow region
The fruits of this green variety, 35 cm in size, begin to ripen in the last days of September.
Ripened fruits are sweet, soft, with a pleasant smell, they contain a lot of vitamin C content.
The leaves of the plant are deep green and have a wide elliptical shape.
Actinidia Isaiah refers to a long deciduous tree liana. Plant height reaches 8 meters in diameter 1.52 meters.
This variety is cold-resistant enough to withstand temperatures up to minus 30 degrees of frost.
Liana begins to bear fruit soon for 23 years after the landing.
The cultivation of lianas Isaiai is counting on a long time actinidia blooms and bears fruit for more than 25-30 years.
Based on this, the plant needs a reliable support, which can be replaced by a hedge, a ladder, and a trellis. It is not recommended to plant actinidia under large trees so that there is no struggle between them for light and moisture.
Deep digging around the plant is not allowed, probably only a small loosening.
The best land for creepers is a fertile composition of medium humidity with drainage, for which elevated areas are ideal. The penumbra is well tolerated, but for ripening the fruit better well-lit areas.
Planted 2-3x summer seedlings of actinidia mainly in early spring.
In the planting hole, or in addition to the trench, a layer of drainage stones is laid, pebbles, bricks broken into small pieces.
Bring a bucket of organic fertilizers and a mixture (approximately 600 grams) of mineral. Drainage sprinkles fertile soil, later a mixture of fertilizer, sand and earth.
Plant the plant, after which it is plentifully watered (2.5 3 buckets), mulch the earth with compost or peat.
Isaiah seedlings of Actinidia multiply using a new progressive method of microclonal propagation, providing the following benefits:
• is the planting material similar to the parent material?
• increased disease resistance and viability of seedlings due to the absence of viral forms.
• seedlings of the presented varieties are sold with a closed root aggregate, which ensures 100 percent survival.
Actinidia care includes the following activities:
• evening and morning spraying with water in hot weather,
• control of pests and plant diseases with the help of chemicals.
Now the demand for actinidia saplings among gardeners of summer residents and amateurs has grown substantially. Attracts attention as the berries with high healing properties and taste, and the plants themselves, which are decorative vines.
This is an article from the domestic publication. Own house in the village.
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Types of actinidia
Such a well-known fruit, like kiwi, sold in any vegetable outlet, is the fruit of Chinese actinidia - an exceptionally heat-loving culture that cannot germinate in our frost conditions. However, gardeners with great experience are still trying to find a way to create conditions for its germination in our latitudes. The complexity of the rather time-consuming care for Chinese actinidia is to create a shelter. The three other varieties below are more resistant to cold.
It grows in its natural environment in the Far Eastern region. It has a good resistance to frost, characteristic of the territory of the middle zone, which makes it possible to plant and care for actinidia in the Urals.
The temperature minimum at which it is able to continue the development of actinidia in the Ural region of Kolomikta is -44 ° C. However, the spring temperature drops have a negative effect on the plant.
The maximum height of the bush is 5 meters. The average diameter of the thickness of the trunk of a fully formed plant is 5 centimeters. The color of the shoot is red-brown. Actinidia Kolomikta differs by the appearance of a variegated whitish-crimson color before the transition to the flowering stage. The size of flowers with an unusual lemon-lily of the valley aroma is small. The beginning of the flowering period is at the end of spring. When ripe, the berries fall to the ground.
The height of the productive shrub of Actinidia Argut can reach more than 10 meters. The index of frost resistance of this type is relative. Rare varietal varieties are capable of continuing to live in conditions of falling temperatures below -30 ° C. The average cold resistance of Argut actinidia is -27 ° C. On the territory of the Moscow region and central Russia, the temperature does not drop to this mark every season, but once every 10 years such conditions occur in our country.
The size of Argut's leaves is larger than average. The diameter of the flowers that do not have the flavor, is 3 centimeters. The average yield is 14 kilograms. The ripened fruits are not showered.
Useful information. Taste of the fruits of actinidia Polygamy can be described as a mixture of figs and sweet peppers.
The height of the crayfish actinidia Polygamy is 5 meters. Appeared this view of the Far Eastern territory. Color shoots light brown. Actinidia Polygamy has a relative cold tolerance - the minimum temperature at which the plant is able to continue fruiting is -31 ° C. However, shoots which have not completed the growing season are subject to freezing.
Note. Frozen scrub Actinidia Polygamy independently restores its vital functions.
Fruit color of actinidia polygamy yellow. The size of the large leaves is 14 centimeters. The variegation, characterized by the acquisition of foliage silver color, is maintained until the berries are fully ripe.
Important! To place in a shelter the actinidia creeper Polygamy must be removed from the trellis.
The appearance of berries
In the list of the State Register of our country in the field of breeding achievements are presented more than 4 dozen varietal names of actinidia, planting and care in the Moscow region can be carried out, as well as focused on cultivation in certain regions of Russia.
Often the choice of actinidia is the best varieties for the Moscow region, the cultivation of which is limited solely to samples of planting material presented in nurseries. Since many seedlings are purchased abroad, most of them do not take root in our climatic conditions.
Important! In order to make possible the cultivation of actinidia in the Moscow region and other areas of central Russia, only domestic hybrid varieties of actinidia are suitable.
List of Kolomikta Actinidia Varieties:
- Grape is a cold-resistant medium-yielding varietal actinidia. The transition to the stage of maturation occurs at the beginning of August. The weight of one olive-green berry is 2 grams. Gastronomic characteristics - sweet and sour taste and apple flavor,
Useful information. Berries varieties of actinidia for the region of Moscow region Grape contain a large amount of vitamin C.
- Elegant is a winter-hardy variety of actinidia. This variety of actinidia is grown in the Urals, planting and care of which is carried out on the basis of varietal characteristics. 4 g fruits ripen in the second half of August. Gastronomic characteristics - sweet-sour taste and aroma of pineapple. Good disease resistance
Useful information. The fruits of actinidia Graceful contain the highest concentration of vitamin C among the other varieties of this culture.
- The marmalade is a medium-resistant variety of late maturation actinidia. The color of the 3-gram berries is olive-green, sometimes with a reddish tinge. Gastronomic characteristics - a very sweet taste and strawberry flavor. High in vitamin C.
List of Argut Actinidia Varieties:
- September is a mid-late variety of actinidia. The weight of dark green berries is 10 grams. The gastronomic characteristics of this varieties - slightly sour taste and aroma of pineapple. Low in vitamin C,
- Mikhnevskaya is a medium late variety of actinidia. The gastronomic characteristics of the 10-gram berries - sweet-sour taste and aroma of pineapple.
The list of varieties of Actinidia Polygamy:
- Zlata is a medium-end fruitful varietal actinidia. Orange fruits, on average, weigh 5.5 grams. The taste is reminiscent of a mixture of figs and sweet peppers,
- Forest is a variety that has an identical description with the variety Zlata, but the average weight of its berries is 7 grams,
- Acroparium is a sort of late-ripening actinidia. The color of the 3-gram berries is dark orange. The taste of the fruit resemble hot pepper.
Interesting fact. The maximum period of fruiting actinidia in a permanent place can be almost a hundred years.
Actinidia, on average, is capable of bearing fruit in one place for half a century. It is necessary to plant plants of both sexes on the site, which is due to the fact that actinidia refers to dioecious plants that require pollination in a cross-sectional way. Usually on 5 female plants 1 male is planted. The trellis type for actinidia creeper is grape stand.
Within the central zone, actinidia is planted in a place protected from the wind, on the south side of the residential building. It is necessary to maintain an adequate level of soil moisture. In hot weather, the plant is sprayed twice a day.
Important! Planting actinidia near trees is unacceptable, as this will lead to soil dehydration.
Soil features for planting actinidia in the suburbs:
- the groundwater level should not exceed 1 meter,
- neutral pH,
- loamy, high humus,
- well drained soil
- high potassium content.
The right time to disembark
Note. Planted actinidia in the spring, but it is permissible to carry out planting in the autumn, 2 weeks before the cold snap.
Important! The slightest deformations of the root system should be avoided, since the plant is not always able to tolerate even a 10-minute exposure to air with open roots.
The best option would be to transplant the seedling formed from the container. Age of planting material should not exceed 3 years.
Note. It is not recommended to plant the plant in hot weather.
When planting should be observed approximately 3-meter distance between plantings.
The germination of the root system in the actinidia creeper is carried out in a horizontal direction. The shallow landing pit should be well drained to avoid stagnant fluids. For the manufacture of drainage, you can use the following materials:
Step by step instructions for planting:
- 2 weeks prior to disembarkation, create a 50-centimeter depression, having a diameter of 44 centimeters,
- Put aside the topsoil,
- Lay drainage 10-cm layer,
- Смешать верхний слой с ведром перегноя,
- Залить яму ведром воды,
- Дождаться оседания грунта,
- Полить саженец в контейнере,
- Вынуть саженец, избегая деформации корневой системы,
- Насыпать небольшой холм из чистой почвы,
- Установить саженец,
- Засыпать посадочной смесью,
- Полить растение,
- Мульчировать землю,
- Оградить растение от домашних животных,
- Создать теневые условия на 2 недели.
Note! It is unacceptable to add fresh mullein and lime to the landing pits.
How to care in the suburbs
For actinidia, the drying of the soil and dry air is unacceptable - this leads to the beginning of the foliage dumping and the freezing of the unripe shoots with the onset of frost.
Watering is carried out weekly in the amount of 5 liters of water on the formed bush. A good effect on actinidia will be planting legumes under it.
Actinidium in section
Actinidia fertilizer terms:
- from the beginning of spring on 1 m² a 20-gram dose of potassium phosphate fertilizers and 35 grams of nitrogen,
- when the ovaries are formed, on 1m² 10-gram dose of potassium-phosphorus fertilizers and 15 grams of nitrogen,
- at the end of September, a 20-gram dose of potassium phosphate fertilizers is introduced.
After applying dry fertilizer to a depth of 7 cm plant watered.
Note. Once every two years a bucket of humus should be brought under the bush.
How to propagate actinidia
Note! It is not recommended to propagate actinidia seeds.
Available methods of breeding Actinidia:
- Reproduction by layings consists in pinning a shoot on the ground, after which it is covered with a 10-cm layer of soil. The upper part of the escape is located outside. The area of escape is mulched. Rooting is carried out at the end of the summer,
- For grafting young 10-centimeter shoots taken in early June. The upper straight cut is placed at a 3-centimeter distance from the kidney. The measure of the lower cut is a little more than 40o. The lower part of the foliage is removed. Planting cuttings is carried out at a 60-th angle with the depth to the middle kidney. Shelter create from nonwoven matter. Spray 10 times a day. For the winter fall asleep with fallen leaves.
Forming Actinidian Vine
Shrub molding can begin in the third year after disembarkation, only in summer. Form in the form of a two-shoulder cordon. When pruning Kolomikty and Polygam takes into account the implementation of fruiting on long shoots. Pruning of young shoots is carried out on the third part. Anti-aging pruning is carried out after 10 years of germination.
Note. It is not necessary to carry out anti-aging pruning for Arguty.
Actinidia care in the fall
After the seasonal harvest of fruit, planting is fertilized with phosphorus and potassium. After the fall of the foliage, irrigation irrigation is carried out.
Adult cold-resistant plants do not cover - instead, the near-barrel area is mulched. Young plants are removed from the trellis and covered with spruce leaves, dry foliage or a 20-cm peat layer, under which they put a means from rodents. Before covering the vine, it is sprayed with 3% Bordeaux liquid.
Actinidia diseases in the middle lane:
- Powdery mildew, which is disposed of by double treatment with dissolved 0.5% soda ash 1 time in 10 days,
- Fungal diseases that are treated with phytosporin every 10 days,
- Foliage spotting, which is treated with 1% Bordeaux liquid,
- Leaf beetle is eliminated by tincture of tomatoes and hot pepper.
Actinidia is a wonderful ornamental and fruiting plant for the Moscow region. Fruits of some varieties of actinidia contain a higher concentration of vitamin C than wild rose. Observing simple care requirements, in the fall you can grow and harvest a bountiful harvest of healthy berries.
Cultivation of actinidia in the Moscow region
Actinidia is a relict vine, but thanks to its exceptional adaptability, it has experienced radical climate change and is now growing in the Far East, in China and several countries of Central and East Asia.
Aktinidiyu can grow not only in the Far East, but also in the suburbs
The fact that rare varieties of vines grow in the Moscow region, we are obliged to the doctor of biological sciences E.I. Kolbasinoy.
Since 1958, Ella Ioganovna has been studying the actinidia and lemongrass - wild plants of the Far East, the Kuril Islands and Primorye. The samples were collected by the researcher in the form of seeds from the fruit of wild-growing lianas and delivered to the capital for selection work. In the 1980s, on the territory of the village of Mikhnevo, Stupinsky District, Moscow Region, 27 author's plant varieties were obtained, which were subsequently entered into the State Register of Breeding Achievements.
Actinidia grow well and bear fruit not only in the east of Russia, but also in the Moscow region thanks to domestic breeders
Actinidia prefers acidic and slightly acidic (or neutral) soils, well-moistened, but without stagnant water. A well-lit area should be set aside for planting, best on the east side and, if possible, on a slope. If the soil in the area is clayey, heavy, you can add river sand to it.
A favorable neighborhood for creepers will be currant bushes, but from the apple tree actinidia is better to plant as far as possible.
How to plant a vine:
- Under the planting, they dug holes 50x50 cm in size, one and a half deep with a spade, with an interval of 1.5–2 meters. Pre-selected seedlings of different sexes, it is better to have on a single plant of the male type at least 3-5 female.
- At the bottom of the landing pit first lay out the drainage: broken bricks, purchased clay or river pebbles. On top of the drainage cover the soil. Gardeners recommend pouring a mound and plant actinidia in it. It makes sense to practice if there is no slope on the site. So the water will not stagnate and flood the roots.
- Before planting, seedling actinidia plentifully watered. They are planted in a hole, covered with soil with all additives, tamped well and watered again.
- The root collar can not be buried. Gardeners recommend multilating pristvolny circle of actinidia after planting mowed grass.
For actinidia, it’s better to make an earthen hill so that moisture does not stagnate.
Actinidia juice is a delicacy for cats, in the search for which they dig up roots and damage young stems. While the vine grows, it is better to protect it from animals with a metal grid.
Actinidia love moisture. During dry periods, vertical irrigation is useful - it will save the vine from loss of foliage.
Due to superficial roots, deep digging of the soil around the planting site is not recommended. Only superficial loosening and weed control of young seedlings is permissible. Overgrown plants themselves suppress weeds.
When choosing a top dressing, one should remember that actinidia is contraindicated in lime and chloride mineral fertilizers.
The climate of the Moscow region is generally favorable for the cultivation of actinidia. Most varieties without any problems endure frosts down to minus 30–35 o C. Gardeners recommend covering only young saplings, adult plants are not removed from the trellis and are not covered. If some shoots are damaged in winter from frost, then they are quickly restored later.
DFor the abundant fruiting of actinidia, it is recommended to prune off excess shoots. It is not recommended to prune during the period of active sap flow, this can cause the death of the plant. A suitable period for grafting is the beginning of summer, at which time pruning is almost painless for the mother plant.
Crop is recommended not only to give shape, but also for better fruiting actinidia
To ensure a constant harvest of berries, you need to plant plants of both sexes. Actinidia is a dioecious plant, and gardeners, although they share their experience in harvesting only females, still note that when men are planted, the crop increases several times.
To the question about the self-produced varieties of actinidia, the candidate of agricultural sciences N.V. Kozak replies:
All types of actinidia dioecious. Moreover, during the life of each plant its floor does not change. Therefore, the flowers of female plants must necessarily be pollinated with pollen from male plants. And although the female flowers have stamens with anthers, their pollen is sterile, that is, neither the flowers of other plants, nor their own, can be pollinated. So, there is no completely self-fruited domestic varieties of actinidia kolomicta yet. In the garden of actinidia, it is necessary to plant 2 male vines (preferably of different varieties) for every 5–7 female, and of a certain type, since in Kolomikta and polygamy pollination is possible only within one’s own species, and only close species of actinidia are suitable for mutual pollination: argut , giralda and purple.
N. Kozak, Candidate of Agricultural Sciences
Homestead newspaper № 2 (January 2016)
If it is intended to use a plant for decorating a plot or a facade of a house, it does not matter what gender the planting of the vine is: they are all variegated. For the construction of actinidia due to the lack of aerial roots does not pose any danger.
What varieties of actinidia can be grown in the suburbs
Today, over 200 samples of actinidia are grown at the Moscow Experimental Plant Plant. In the State Register of the Russian Federation included:
- varieties of early ripening (Grape, Far East, Abundant, Queen of the Garden, Park, Flat, Pretty, Homestead),
- medium ripening (Waffle, Smooth, Elegant, Maritza, Coin, Early Dawn, Sweetie, Forty, University),
- late maturing (Moma).
Of the varieties growing on the territory of Russia, the very first actinidia colomicta was obtained, from which other varieties of domestic selection were subsequently derived.
Among the main advantages of colomicas is the content of a record amount of vitamin C in its berries: an average of 1000–1200 mg per 100 g. In the berries of black currant and raspberry of this vitamin - 100–300 and 25 mg / 100 g, respectively, in lemon - 50–70 mg. Berries of an actinidia - the effective remedy from radiation injuries, promoting removal from a organism of radionuclides, interfering absorption of radioactive isotopes of potassium and chlorine. These berries are gorgeous and varied in taste. So, strong actinidian aroma and large (up to 6 g), the fruits are distinguished varieties Lakomka and Waffle. Marmeladka has a strong strawberry flavor, Maritsa has sweet fig flavored fruits. Pineapple flavor in varieties Pineapple, VIR-2, Leningrad large-fruited.
Care for actinidia in the Moscow region
Taking care of a planted plant is a snap. It is only necessary to carry out ordinary garden activities with high quality and on time: loosening, watering, fertilizing and pruning. The roots of actinidia are mainly located close to the surface, therefore it is impossible to dig up the soil at the bush, you can only gently loosen it with simultaneous weeding, especially in the early years. Adult plants weeds are not scary.
The climate of the Moscow region is quite suitable for growing many varieties of actinidia, they withstand temperatures down to –35 o C. Therefore, only young, still poorly acclimated seedlings need to be sheltered for the winter.
As we have already found out, actinidia tolerates stagnation of water very poorly, in order to prevent it, an impressive drainage layer was poured into the hole. But drought is also contraindicated for her, so watering in dry seasons is necessary, though not very much, but regularly. It is necessary to mulch the wheel circle to make it easier to provide constant soil moisture. In severely dry years it is also useful to irrigate the leaves with sprinkling, especially from the sunny side. Young plants can not stand and direct sunlight, in the first summer you need to provide light shading.
Actinidia can cope with the weeds itself, but thickening is harmful to it, it is necessary to prune in time. In such an untidy condition, it is difficult to monitor soil moisture.
Top dressing, like any garden pet, actinidia are needed, but it is better not to regale it with mineral fertilizers, especially those containing chlorine. At the very time, it will be necessary to pour a couple of humus buckets once a year into the tree circle and slightly put them into the soil. It will respond well to chicken droppings, just remember that this is a very dangerous fertilizer when it is in inexperienced hands. You need a maximum of 500 g of litter, but it is in no way closed up dry. Dilute the handful in a bucket of water, allow it to stand for a day, after which it is diluted 10 times again and the plants are watered abundantly with a solution. Before flowering and fruiting, the vine very much likes wood ash, which you can simply sprinkle in a tree trunk and water well.
One of the most important operations on actinidia is pruning, with its help both the formation of the desired configuration of the vine and its recovery by removing thickening, broken and dead parts are carried out. Pruning is carried out in early spring and late autumn. In the spring, you can carry out “cosmetic” operations, and the main ones - at the end of September: during spring pruning, the vine is “crying”, losing precious nutrients. Cut in the fall should be as clearly weak shoots, and some of the large, if they are clearly obscure the young branches, in the right direction. It is clear that at the same time with pruning it is necessary to place the vines in the direction desired by the owner: although she herself grabs the supports, it is necessary to tie the young branches to the trellis for a while in a place where it would be comfortable and beautiful.
There are no special rules in pruning actinidia: that which clearly hinders
Proper pruning, like all other care activities, allows the Actinidia bush to successfully bear fruit for several decades.
Suitable varieties for cultivation and their features
Kiwi lovers need to plant winter-hardling actinidia on their land, as the fruit grows on Chinese actinidia, which is not intended for our latitudes.
But there are the best types of plants suitable for cold climates, which will please similar fruits.
- maintains cold to -45 ° C,
- sensitive to spring frosts,
- plant height up to 5 meters
- trunk 10 centimeters thick,
- shoots are brownish red,
- flowers are small, have a spicy aroma, reminiscent of a mixture of lily of the valley and lemon,
- the plant blooms in the last decade of May,
- to achieve technical maturity, the fruits fall off.
Acute or Argut
- reaches a height of 15 meters
- withstands frost -40 ° C
- leaf diameter of the plant is 3 centimeters, they do not smell,
- maximum yield of 15 kilograms,
- when technical maturity is reached, the fruits do not crumble.
- height is 5 meters
- shoots are light brown in color
- the plant withstands -35 ° C
- recovers well after freezing,
- fruits resemble a mixture of sweet peppers and figs,
- leaves 15 centimeters long.
- long stems - 10 meters,
- the plant blooms in early June,
- fruit ripening in September
- harvest - 5 kilograms,
- maintains -25 ° C
In harsh winters requires shelter.
How to choose quality seed and cuttings
- Seeds are harvested at the end of autumn. Put in water and incubated for 5 days. Daily updated water.
- Then wrapped in a wet cloth and buried in the sand. In a wet environment, withstand two months. Temperature is +20 ° C.
- Weekly take out, air seeds and moisten the fabric.
- A box filled with sand and buried seeds are buried for 2 months in the snow. After that, transferred to the room, keep the temperature of +12 ° C.
- Before germination will have to wait another month. After that, transplanted into the soil and grow in the room.
- When the second pair of leaves appears, you can plant on a permanent place.
The cuttings should not be damaged, should not be dry.
Preparing the site and soil for planting
At the cottage will need a place with a lot of lighting. In dark places, the vine is also able to grow, but will serve primarily a decorative function. With the deprivation of a sufficient amount of light fruits practically do not grow.
The soil is chosen slightly acidic, allowed neutral. It should be constantly hydrated, but without water stagnation.
Terms and rules of landing
Planted in open ground in spring. Biennial seedlings are best suited. With such planting material, fruits can appear next year.
- Dig a hole. Depth 70 centimeters. Diameter - 50 centimeters.
- Between plants keep distance. The ideal distance is 1.5 meters.
- Planted heterosexual seedlings. It is preferable to land one female on three women.
- Drainage is poured into the pit.
- The seedling is kept in a liquid for 1.5 hours. Put in the hole. Fall asleep with fertilizer. Rammed.
- Mulch around.
- Next set the trellis to support.
Cats lovers enjoy the sap of the plant. To do this, they dig up the root system and injure the stems. Therefore it is necessary to build a fence in the form of a metal grid.
Seasonal care in the Moscow region
All varieties are treated equally. The main thing is to comply with all recommendations.
Does not tolerate dryness and drying of the soil. Under such conditions, dropping the foliage. Because of this, young shoots may die in winter.
It is necessary to keep the ground constantly moistened, but without stagnant fluid. In especially hot days arrange sprinkling.
Fertilizers are applied three times per season:
- After the snow melted. Phosphoric fertilizer - 20 grams, nitrogen - 35 grams, potash - 20 grams.
- When the ovaries are formed. Phosphoric fertilizer - 10 grams, nitrogen - 15 grams, potash - 10 grams.
- In the late fall. Phosphate fertilizer - 20 g, potash - 20 grams.
Spread top dressing dry, slightly dug into the soil. Immediately watered.
Formed crown from the third year. Carry out the procedure only in the summer. In other periods, the culture will die due to loss of juice. Young shoots are recommended to cut by half.
Anti-aging pruning is carried out with 10 years of age.
Не рекомендуется размножать семечками. Такое растение не принесет желаемых результатов.
- Отводками. Когда закончит в побегах идти сок, выбирают один. Прижимают к почве и посыпают землей. Верхушка должна остаться сверху. Вокруг мульчируют. Укоренение происходит осенью. До весны можно не обрезать.
- Черенками. Срезают с сильных побегов. Длина 15 сантиметров. Нижний срез должен быть косым (45°). Верхний — прямой. At a height of 4 centimeters above the kidney. Planted obliquely into the soil. Angle 60 °. Cover with non-woven material. Spray 7 times a day. Sprinkled with leaves for the winter.
Does not grow and does not bear fruit
The reason for the lack of fruit - the male sex of the culture
- Plant dioecious. They are divided into female with pistillate flowers and male with staminate flowers. Sex does not change throughout life.
- After flowering males fall off. Female flowers form fruits, but only under the condition of pollination, which occurs with the help of insects and air currents.
- Planted near-sex vines nearby. For 2 men - 5 women.
Reasons for no growth:
- Planted in autumn seedlings will not be able to settle well. As a result, the spring will begin to languish and completely die. Planting is necessary only in the spring.
- In a very dark place, the plant will not want to fully develop and will lag behind in growth, so you need to transplant to a well-lit area.
- An apple tree planted nearby suppresses the growth of a culture.
- The stagnation of water can cause root decay of the root system, which will significantly affect the state of the vine and can lead to death.
- The reason may be cats who love to feast on the plant. With constant undermining of the roots, the liana slows down the growth and as a result may die.
- Young trees, poorly insulated for the winter, may freeze slightly. It will badly affect their condition. Some time liana will lag behind in growth. If the root system is not completely frozen out, after a while the growth will resume independently.
- In a very hot summer, in the absence of proper watering, the plant can slow growth. If you do not urgently fix the situation, the vine will reset all foliage. The soil should be constantly hydrated. To reduce the amount of watering, the land around the plants is mulched.
To improve growth, it is recommended to plant hazel and currant. Plants nourish the liana, thereby improving its performance.
Description of plant species
Most often we meet with actinidia when we buy in a kiwi shop. This is the fruit of the Chinese actinidia, which loves warmth and does not winter in our latitudes. Some advanced gardeners are experimenting to tame this southern sissy. The achieved results are encouraging, but the process of sheltering plants is quite complicated and time consuming. Much simpler in this respect is the cultivation of other species: Actinidia of Colomicta, Argut and Polygamus. We look closer to these frost-resistant representatives of actinidia.
In the wild form is found in the Far East, so the cold of the middle zone is not terrible for it. She is quite capable of surviving at -45 degrees, but is sensitive to spring frosts. Rarely reaches a height of more than 5 m. The thickness of the trunk at the base of an adult plant is from 3 to 10 cm. It has a reddish-brown color of shoots dotted with round lentils. A distinctive feature of this species is the whitish-crimson variegation before and during flowering. Small flowers with a strong and pleasant aroma of lemon and lily of the valley. Flowering occurs at the end of May. The ripened fruits are showered, the immature ones are well proportioned.
More taller than her sister, can grow up to 15 m, but less frost-resistant. The limit in some varieties is 40 degrees of frost, but for most it is significantly lower from -25 to -28. Such frosts in the middle lane and the Moscow region are not every winter, but still once in 10-15 years extreme cold will make worry about the safety of plants.
The leaves of the argut are large, elliptical, flowers up to 3 cm in diameter, odorless. Productivity can reach 15 kg from a plant, fruits are not inclined to fall.
Suitable shrub varieties
More than 40 actinidia varieties have been entered into the state register of breeding achievements of Russia, which are zoned for all growing regions. All of them are created by various breeding institutions of our country. The choice of a gardener often depends only on the ability to find suitable seedlings. This is where the trouble begins: the majority of the plants sold are of foreign origin. But what grows well in Holland or Poland, we may not settle down. In the middle lane and the suburbs need to focus only on domestic varieties.
Varieties of actinidia colomikta.
- Grape. Highly winter hardy variety of medium growth power and the same yield. Lasts in early August. Small fruits - 2.3 g of olive-green sweet-sour taste with apple flavor. The content of vitamin C - 1532 mg%.
- Graceful. Winter hardiness is good. Maturing term - the middle of August. Sweet and sour berry, weighing 4 g with pineapple flavor. Record holder for vitamin C among actinides. Its in it is 2000 mg%. The variety is resistant to diseases.
- Marmelade Ripens in the 3rd decade of August. Winter hardiness is average. The berries are olive-green, sometimes with a blush weighing up to 3.3 g of a very sweet taste with the aroma of strawberries. The content of vitamin C 1245 mg%.
Actinidia argut varieties
- September. Keeps up in average terms. Dark green berries have a weight of up to 10 g, sweet or slightly sour taste and aroma of pineapple. Content of vitamin C is up to 183 mg%.
- Mikhnevskaya. Keeps up in mid-late dates. Berry large - up to 10 g, has a sweet and sour taste and aroma of pineapple.
Polygamum Actinidia Varieties
- Zlata is a fruitful variety of medium maturity. Orange berries have a weight of up to 6.3 g and taste of figs and sweet peppers.
- Forest. The main indicators as in the previous variety, only slightly larger berries - up to 7.4 g.
- Droning Late-ripening actinidia with dark orange berries weighing 3.5 g and taste of hot peppers.
Very promising hybrid varieties of both domestic and foreign selection. They have larger berries, taste is better, and winter hardiness is at a good level for the middle lane. The largest fruits of the Hybrid Kolbasina - up to 16 g, very tasty.
The most popular varieties in Russia
In our country, gardeners use several varieties of actinidia. Here are the most popular varieties for planting at their summer cottage:
- Argut. This grade experts refer to frost. Although it is known that he is not able to tolerate the most severe frosts (below -40 ° C). It has quite large fruits, which in some cases reach a weight of 10 g. During the season, one such actinidia produces up to 10 kg of berries. Moreover, the fruits even after ripening remain on the tree. This continues until the first frost.
- Kolomikta. Of all the actinidia cultivated in our country, this variety is most suited to the climate of the Moscow region. The plant tolerates frost quite calmly down to -10 ° C and does not require any special care. Even a gardener who does not have much experience can easily learn how to handle a plot with a planted Kolomikta. The fruits of this variety ripen in small batches. Usually their weight does not exceed 5 g, and the total yield per vine is about 5 kg per year. Overripe berries can quickly fall off after freezing.
- Polygamy. This plant variety is best suited for cultivation in the northern regions of our country, as it can tolerate even very severe winters when the temperature drops to -35 ° C. The fruits have excellent taste, after ripening, change color, becoming bright orange.
Ways to grow in the suburbs
Actinidia is a type of liana, experts recommend using trellis for its cultivation, the length of which should be at least 2 meters. It has 4 rows of wires that go every 40-50 cm. These rows will be needed to weave the stem, and also allow you to form a beautiful crown.
Actinidia requires careful care and periodic pruning. This process begins in the first year of life, after which it must be repeated every autumn. Thanks to pruning, a gardener can remove the weakest shoots and thereby make the shrub stronger and stronger.
How to choose the planting material
When buying seedlings Actinidia need to adhere to certain rules. This will allow you to choose the most suitable seed for a particular garden plot.
- Actinidia - a plant rather gentle with fragile root system. Therefore, when buying, you should take only those seedlings that are equipped with special containers to protect the roots.
- The plant is a dioecious culture, and for ripening the fruits on the plot must be both male and female plants. It is quite difficult to distinguish by eye, especially for non-specialists, the different forms of the plant. Most differences occur at the time of flowering male forms.
Kolomikta blooms very beautifully, so this variety is often used for decorative purposes.
- To get the fruits, four female plants are planted on one male plant.
- When buying seedlings, it is necessary to pay attention to their age, as plants that are more than three years old may not be able to transfer the transplant to another place.
- It is better to buy seedlings obtained from cuttings, and not from seeds. It is possible to distinguish saplings by external signs. So the seed obtained from cuttings has lateral shoots from the buds. Seedlings from seed will be with shoots from the upper buds.
Choosing a site for planting and soil preparation
Actinidia is best planted on a site where there are various supports that she could use for growth. In some cases, it may be part of a fence, an arch or a gazebo. Liana has a rather impressive root system. It is better to plant it away from other types of plants. If this is not done, actinidia can crush the plantings that hinder it. This is especially true of fruit trees and bushes.
To protect the top of other plants, actinidia can be shielded with something high, for example, a slate sheet.
In terms of soil actinidia, light and mineral-rich soils are suitable. If the site of planting is dominated by clayey soil with a large amount of moisture, the plant will not be able to bloom and bear fruit normally. In such cases, even before landing, it is necessary to carry out work on site preparation.
First of all, to remove excess moisture, you need to arrange a drainage system. This work needs to be done in the fall. After that, the soil is saturated with nutrients and only then plants are planted.
When the site is selected, you can start planting actinidia. To do this, dig a hole in the area that is approximately 50 cm in diameter and extends to the same depth. In order to prevent moisture accumulation, pieces of broken brick, crushed stone, expanded clay or pebbles are laid out at the bottom of the pit. Also in the hole you need to put about 12 kg of humus, up to 150 g of superphosphate and 300-400 g of wood ash.
In no case should fresh manure or lime be used to fertilize the soil!
After planting, the plant can be fed with special complex fertilizers. This will provide it with nutrients for a long period of time.
Actinidia seedlings before planting must be prepared, for which their roots are placed in water for 20 minutes. After they have laid the hole, they also need to be watered well. This will require up to 30 liters of water. In the future, watering plants produced as needed. It should be ensured that the soil moisture does not exceed 60%.
They put actinidia in such a way that the interval between bushes remains within 1.5 meters. So seedlings will not interfere with each other to develop.
In many ways, the rules for caring for actinidia resemble those that apply to grapes.
- The plant responds well to frequent watering, but it must be ensured that moisture does not stagnate.
- A good effect for creepers is spraying the foliage. It is best to repeat this procedure several times a day.
- The soil around the shoots must be regularly loosened. At the same time it is necessary to work with tools carefully enough not to damage the root system.
Diseases and pests
Actinidia is very rare and does not require additional protection. The same can be said about the pests that are not very fond of this plant and only in rare cases it can suffer from leaf beetles.
Actinidia fruits from mid-August until the first frost. The harvest depends on the particular variety and the climatic conditions of the area.
How and where to store fruit
Fruits can be eaten fresh or harvested for the winter. In order for the berries to be preserved, you can:
- dry, after which they resemble raisins and can lie for a very long time,
- grind with sugar and get something like jam or jam,
- make juice, which after processing will be stored for a long time,
- cook compote.
Actinidia varieties: photo gallery
This year I drove through selection sites of actinidia. Kolomikt had a chance to try in Mikhnevo in MOVIR, and there was a desire to never take it in the mouth again, tasteless. With this son Kolbasina five years ago, he assured me that Kolomikta is the most worthy of actinidia, which I can hardly think is completely wrong, because at Moscow State University in botany for a long time I tried Kolomikta of raisin taste (for that is my fresh impressionability). Arguty tried this October in the Kiev botanical garden and would also lose heart in love if it were not for Isaiah, who is now ripe for me and really reminds of the sweetest marmalade. Industrial actinidia argut from America also happened to try a couple of past years in a row. It is sweet though, but there are turpentine notes on the palate, which is not very pleasant. So far, only one of them has fallen in love, and doubts are precipitated, maybe, in her place, plant gooseberries?
The survival rate of the colomikta, in my opinion, does not depend on the variety, but on the floor, yes. Male instances more delicate. I grow on the palmette and metal trellis from the southeast side of the house. If the minimum requirements for the soil and elementary agrotechnics are observed, the culture of colomics, unlike arguty, does not create problems. All the necessary information can be easily gathered from the works of E. I. Kolbasina and N.V. Kozak, as well as in the network many posts of Belarusian practice S. F. Nedyalkova.
I want to join all fans of actinidia. I have grown 3 varieties of actinidia kolomikta since 2000: Pavlovskaya, Sentyabrskaya and some other unknown. Plus a boy whose variety is also unknown. Pavlovskaya is most liked for moderate growth, stable large yield and large-fruited. If we compare it with September, which seems to be much more powerful in terms of growth than Pavlovskaya, then the first one seems to have some under-pollination of individual flowers. The fruit turns out very different quality, which can not be said about Pavlovskaya, where all the berries are one-on-one. All female creepers during flowering are interspersed with flowering shoots of a male plant ... Also this year, three more varieties of colomikty have been planted: Champion, Lakomka, and Kolmina Memory. About 15 argut (in a broad sense) and polygamous have also been planted, but it is too early to talk about them.
Actinidia appeared in the Moscow region and spread thanks to enthusiasts, grown by the efforts of gardeners and amateur gardeners, and many have already noted the pleasant taste of these berries.
Preparing the site and soil for planting
Actinidia is a long-lived, in one place it can bear fruit for more than 50 years, and some species up to 90, therefore it is necessary to choose a place for it responsibly, so as not to disturb the plants with transplantation. It should be borne in mind that for successful fruiting in the garden must be both male and female specimens, since actinidia is a dioecious plant and requires cross-pollination. The optimal ratio: 1 male for 5-7 women. For this creeper, you will need a support, most often it is a trellis of the type of grape stands.
Wild species grow in shading from trees, in the middle zone of the sun is not so much, so Actinidia is better placed in windless places under the protection of buildings, from the south-east or south-west side. If the vine is oriented to the south, you need to monitor the soil moisture, and in the heat to spray the plants in the morning and evening. It is impossible to plant actinidia near the trees, both crops will grow poorly due to lack of food and moisture.
Actinidia requirements for soil:
- ground water is not higher than 1 m,
- the reaction is neutral or slightly acidic,
- high-humus loam, actinidia grows poorly on light soils, clay categorically does not suit it either,
- the ground must be well drained,
- high potassium content, but not in the form of chloride.
Actinidia: how and when to plant properly?
Planted actinidia in the spring, while sleeping buds and sap flow has not begun. You can plant it in the fall, but not later than 2 weeks before frost.
Actinidia responds extremely poorly to the slightest damage to the root system. Staying outdoors with open roots even for 10 minutes can be disastrous for him. To young Actinidia well caught, it is best to transplant a seedling grown in a container. Its age should not be more than 3 years, otherwise the survival rate of the plant will be questionable. For container plants, planting dates are not so critical, but in hot weather it is not worth doing.
The distance between the plants should not be less than 2 m, but the optimum is about 5 m, so that the adult lianas have enough nutrition. The roots of actinidia grow not deep down, but horizontally. В глубокой посадочной яме растения не нуждаются, а вот дренаж в ней должен быть обязательно – застоя воды это растение не переносит. Сделать его можно из обломков кирпичей, гальки, каменноугольного шлака.
- за 2 недели до посадки копают яму глубиной 50 см, диаметром – 40 см, верхний слой почвы откладывают в сторону,
- укладывают дренаж слоем около 10 см,
- the top layer of soil is mixed with humus — near a bucket, with a half-liter can of ash, 200 g of superphosphate and 50 g of ammonium nitrate are added, half a pit is filled with this mixture,
- poured a bucket of water into the pit
- give the earth a good settling
- shed a seedling in a container and gently remove it from it, without damaging the roots,
- they put a mound of pure land on which the seedling is set,
- they are poured with planting mixture and watered in such a way that the root collar is flush with the ground,
- mulch the soil around the plant, set the fence against the cats, and plant a seedling for a couple of weeks.
Fresh manure and lime cannot be added to the landing pits categorically.
Care in conditions of Moscow region and central Russia
Different species require about the same care during the growing season.
Actinidia does not tolerate the drying out of the soil, it does not like dry air either. On its excessive dryness can respond by dropping leaves, which is fraught with freezing of young undripe shoots in winter.
Actinidia is poured weekly, up to 6 buckets of water are poured under each adult bush. Helps to make watering less thorough mulching. Actinidia will be grateful if you plant ground-covering annual flowers under it, or, better still, plants from the legume family.
Spraying the plants in the morning and in the evening is a necessary procedure, especially in hot weather.
For the whole season will require 3 dressings:
- in early spring for every square meter 20 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers and 35 - nitrogen fertilizers are introduced,
- after the formation of ovaries on the same area will require 10 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers and 15 g of nitrogen,
- in mid-September, 20 g of potash and phosphate fertilizers are applied.
Fertilizers are applied in a dry form, gently sealing up to a depth of about 7 cm - actinidia does not like deep loosening. Fertilized plants need to be watered. Once a couple of years in the fall under a bush spiked about a bucket of humus.
Reproduction by layering
After the end of the sap flow, the selected shoot is pinned to the ground and covered with a layer of soil of 10-15 cm so that the top is outside. Mulch the pinning point and take care of the layering during the season. Usually it takes root by the fall. You can wait with the separation from the parent plant and until spring.
Reproduction by cuttings
Green cuttings suitable for breeding at the beginning of the summer are taken from strong meter or half-meter shoots. The length of the cutting is from 10 to 15 cm, the upper cut is located 3-4 cm above the bud, it is straight. Lower cut - oblique with an angle of 45 degrees. The lower half of the leaves are removed and the upper one is shortened by half. Planted cuttings in the cutting at an angle of 60 degrees, deepening to the middle kidney. The handle is covered with non-woven material. The distance between cuttings 5x10 cm. Spraying is carried out from 5 to 10 times a day, depending on the weather. The use of artificial fog increases the percentage of rooting. For the winter, the stalker is covered with fallen leaves.
Lignified cuttings for rooting are cut in late autumn or late winter, but before the start of sap flow. Store them vertically, tied up in bunches in a box, covered with sand. Storage temperature from 1 to 5 degrees. They are planted in the cuttings in early spring and look after them in the same way as in the previous case.