With the arrival of spring for most gardeners becomes an urgent question, how to make a greenhouse. And before proceeding to work, you need to understand all the nuances of construction, choose the right place for construction, material and adhere to the sequence of work.
A greenhouse is a plot in a vegetable garden or garden that is not affected by climatic conditions, temperature fluctuations, or rainfall. Thanks to this construction, the gardener can independently create the necessary conditions, set the temperature and humidity favorable for growing the planned plant species. Many flower growers can build a greenhouse and organize a winter garden, covered with flowers and greenery, even on frosty days.
You can make a greenhouse both independently and by hiring workers specifically for this. The first method will cost you much cheaper, and the construction technology is simple. The most important thing is to understand what elements the greenhouse will be made of and with the help of which it should function.
What type of greenhouse for construction to choose
A variety of greenhouses must be chosen from such considerations as the type of plants grown, the duration of operation, the budget you are counting on. The most effective experienced gardeners consider several types of greenhouses, which are used to obtain rich crops.
- Arched greenhouse - its design is considered optimal when growing low-growing plants, but also in the center you can plant curly or high seedlings. The plus of such a greenhouse is that no precipitations will accumulate on its roof and you will not have to clear snow from it every time.
- Tunnel greenhouse - also not susceptible to weighting the roof due to precipitation, however, there are much more places to plant in it. The standard size of tunnel greenhouses is considered to be ten meters wide and five heights tall. This kind of excellent for windy areas, because it has a high stability with strong gusts.
- Pyramidal greenhouse - the most compact design, which will take up little space on the site and is designed for growing seedlings, but if you want, you can build a greenhouse with such a frame of any size and use for different types of plants.
- Gable greenhouse - considered a classic. This form resembles an ordinary house, thanks to which gardeners can construct structures of various heights and sizes. The gable greenhouse is an excellent solution for tall and climbing plants that need additional support.
Rules for choosing a site for construction
Understanding how to make a greenhouse, a gardener should know that any construction should be started by choosing a site and marking the selected area. So, there are several rules that will help to better position the greenhouse at the dacha. It is better to place the future structure in such a way that one of its walls is closer to the house. This will help to further carry out the necessary communications (electric cable, heating).
Decide for yourself whether the greenhouse will be used in winter. If the answer is yes, then the long sides of the building should be located to the north and south.
An important question is the choice of soil. Well, if the greenhouse is built on black soil, but clay soils will not help to achieve a rich harvest. The site for the construction of the greenhouse and around it should have a flat landscape so that all the moisture does not flow or flow out of it. The owner of the site should choose a solar platform as a place for a greenhouse, future plants will need a lot of heat and sunlight.
The main stages of construction
The construction of any structure always begins with the preparation of the territory and the laying of the foundation. It is necessary to prepare a site for the future structure, level it well, clean out of vegetation and mark the territory. If a lightweight greenhouse design was originally conceived, then the most important element, the greenhouse film, will be fixed on the racks. This method of building a greenhouse is considered the easiest. It is necessary to prepare the pits for the rack, a depth of at least a meter and fix the frame at the same level.
In the case when the greenhouse will be heavy overall design, the builders recommend to prepare a strip foundation of a small depth. This will help not only to increase the reliability of the greenhouse, but also to prevent the soil freezing. The frame itself will consist of the same reinforcement that was laid in the foundation. After the supporting pillars are fixed in prepared pits in one-meter increments, the entire foundation must be poured with concrete. If you do not want to spend money on a large amount of cement mortar, then only concrete supports can be concreted.
The frame of the greenhouse, as well as the foundation, can be both metal and wooden. If you do not want to knit the posts and the roof of the reinforcement, you can use wooden boards as racks. When choosing wood, the boards should be selected on the basis of such considerations: for the crossbars, a board size of 80x100 is sufficient, and for vertical posts and a harness 100x100 mm.
It is also necessary to choose the right amount of crossbeams in your greenhouse. For example, if the total height of the structure is 2.6 m, then the first level of the crossbars must be set at a height of about 90 cm above the floor, and the second one - at 1.8 meters. The third row of crossbars is considered to be a ridge bar, which will serve as the base of the roof in your greenhouse. This level of bars must be mounted on the frame at a height of 2.6 meters.
After the construction of the frame for the greenhouse the next stage of construction will be the fastening of the shelter itself. The material for greenhouse walls should be at least 85% transparent, and resistance to the climatic conditions of the area is also important. If you yourself design and assemble a greenhouse, then take care of the ease of mounting shelter.
When choosing glass as a transparent material, it is necessary to take into account that it can be mounted only on wooden frames. In the case of a metal frame, it is customary to use a film or a more modern material - cellular polycarbonate. The fact is that any film is exposed to the negative effects of external factors and for this reason we quickly wear out. In addition, it must be removed in the winter. If there are no strong winds in this area, then cheaper material will last a maximum of two years.
Of course, in terms of its heat-saving properties, no material can surpass glass.
For the greenhouse the best option would be a glass panel with a thickness of 4 mm. To mount it, you must purchase additional beadings. But it will be easier to work with film. It will stretch onto the frame with a solid canvas. If your greenhouse is very large and the length or width of the film is not enough, then in advance you will need to combine two pieces of material into one, carrying out welding with a hot iron.
Greenhouse in winter
Many people prefer not to disassemble the greenhouse for the winter period, but to continue growing vegetables or flowers in it. In this case, the design of the greenhouse will differ from the summer version of the presence of heating. There are several ways to heat a greenhouse in winter. For example, even when laying the foundation, you can supplement the design with the so-called “heated floor”. The foundation will heat up due to the heat pipes being installed into it.
If there is a large number of sunny days in your area, then you can use solar panels that surround the greenhouse as heating. The simplest option is gas heating, which can be carried out directly from home or a heating boiler that runs on solid fuel.
These are the final stages of the construction of the greenhouse. After all the work done, you will have a warm, isolated room that is perfect for growing crops and floriculture.
Conditions of planting and growing seedlings in the greenhouse
Growing tomatoes does not require much effort from gardeners, which is why they are so widely distributed. Even in deserts, where the soil is very poor, the locals do everything possible to get the coveted crop.
And yet it takes a little effort to create favorable conditions for a good harvest. What should be done before landing?
Tomatoes in the greenhouse
Prepare a greenhouse
As is known, it is in the greenhouse that the crop is several times larger. But to achieve harvest and prevent disease is possible only if the greenhouse will be properly prepared.
Since the planting of tomatoes is done in early May, the seedlings should calmly endure rather cold nights. Therefore, it is necessary to cover the greenhouse with a double layer film if it is not made of glass or polycarbonate.
It is necessary to leave between the layers of polyethylene a so-called air cushion, which increases the temperature inside the greenhouse and increases the life of the inner layer. Be sure to make vents for airing.
Important! Planting tomatoes in the same greenhouse for two years or more is not possible, there are infections, bacteria and pests that can destroy new seedlings in the soil.
Set the stage
Before you plant a new crop, you need to start preparing the soil for 10-14 days. It is necessary to get rid of last year’s soil by 10-15 centimeters, and process the rest with all known copper sulfate in the proportion of 1 tbsp. l per 10 liters of water. Ready-made beds are burnt, rid of numerous weeds and fertilized with the help of humus.
The more fertile the soil, the less humus is needed. And, accordingly, vice versa.
A very important role in the quality of the crop is played by properly prepared seedlings. You will need boxes or boxes about 10 centimeters high. Inside, either a purchased soil mixture is placed, or prepared from peat, humus and sod land in equal quantities. Soil must be moistened.
After the soil is compacted, they begin to form grooves (they are usually made with a depth of 1-2 centimeters). Putting the seeds and filling them with the already prepared mixture, you need to put the container in a bright place.
Important! After 5 days it should be covered with a film cap. So the seedlings should climb faster.
About a week or so later after the emergence of shoots two true leaves should appear. When this happened, it was time for a dive. This is a transplant of plants from one container to another, more capacious. This is a mandatory step: the root system is already strong and requires more space.
Each plant is removed along with the earth (usually with a toothpick) and moved to a spacious pot.
In order for the seedlings not to stretch, the gardener must observe the temperature regime and monitor the light, changing the direction facing the light every day.
Usually the seedlings are in pots for no more than 50 days, its height during this time reaches about 30 centimeters. When there are 10 days left before planting directly into the greenhouse, they should be regularly tempered on the balcony or with the window open all night.
What determines the quality of the crop
Watering. While the seedlings have not taken root, it is necessary to refrain from watering. The first watering should be done about 10 days after planting. Water should have an average temperature of + 20-23 degrees. After the start of flowering, watering should be increased from 5 liters per 1 square. meter to 10 liters.
Ventilation. Two hours after watering and at another time, the greenhouse needs to be aired by opening the vents or the door, lifting the film. Do not neglect this, because the temperature regime is very important, especially during flowering.
Garter. On the third day after landing, you need to start tying. The procedure is carried out to ensure that the stem of the plant does not break under its own weight, and the fruits do not rot.
Masking Aspiral plants are called lateral shoots of a plant, which grow not from the stem, but from the leaf axils. Thus, they branch a bush, which leads to shading, the spread of disease and a reduction in the period of maturation of the fetus.
Important! Passering is usually done in the morning to dry the wound.
Top dressing. Without top dressing to get a really big and juicy crop is unlikely to work. The first dressing is made after 10-15 days after disembarkation, the second - after another 10 days. In the end, for the season, the procedure must be done four times.
Greenhouse temperature for tomatoes
The quality of the crop depends on many factors: proper watering, ventilation, garter and dressing. Of course, the temperature in the greenhouse also plays a significant role for tomatoes. In addition, its constant maintenance at the right level is a very difficult task.
Note! The optimal greenhouse temperatures for cucumbers and tomatoes are different. The temperature requirements of these two vegetables are different, therefore it is rather difficult to have a greenhouse with mixed plantings.
Minimum air temperature in the greenhouse
The minimum temperature in the greenhouse is +6 degrees. That is, it can not be lowered, it will not subside even with a complete outage of electricity.
This figure is considered too low for the growth of the fruit. What temperature can tolerate tomato seedlings in the greenhouse? The minimum is +15 degrees. But do not forget that this is still an unfavorable environment and the temperature should be more.
Optimum temperature for seedling growth
Growing tomatoes can start at +15 degrees, but, anyway, this is very small for them, so you need to increase it over time. Already at + 25-30 ° a significant increase will be noticeable. Going beyond the limit of 30 degrees during the flowering period is prohibited, because the ovary will fall, and flowering will stop.
Greenhouse temperature for plants
Thus, in order to create favorable conditions for tomatoes, the temperature should be from +21 to +24 in the daytime, and at night from +17 to +19 degrees.
Unfortunately, weather conditions never adapt to people and the garden. Therefore, in order not to lower the temperature, it is possible to create artificial sources of heating in the greenhouse. Fortunately, in the age of technology, it is not difficult to bring this to life:
- Water heating. The system has a rather complicated construction and installation, therefore it is intended for greenhouses with a large territory.
- Surface heating. For this type of use infrared rays. This option is more simple and budget than the previous one. But, unfortunately, and less effective. In any case, the system can significantly increase the temperature in the greenhouse, if necessary.
- Electric heating. Despite the high prices for components and the tariffs needed to bring this heating to life, this option is spreading more and more.
- Bake. It can even be used without pipes. Due to this, the cost to create such heating is significantly reduced than many people use.
- Film. Of course, this option is the most economical. You just need to add a layer of film, thereby creating an air gap that can avoid climatic conditions.
Soil temperature for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse
Tomatoes are very capricious vegetables that do not grow and do not produce a good crop anywhere. The gardener must carry out thorough work during the preparation of the soil, because the temperature of the earth is very important for planting tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Optimum ground temperature
It should be recalled of the mandatory characteristics, which should have the soil:
- Average acidity level
- The absence of any pathogens,
- Lack of treatment with chemicals
- The presence of any baking powder,
- Sufficient amount of biohumus.
Do not forget about the temperature of the soil. Why is following her regime so important?
When a plant is in cold soil, it is absolutely natural that it is not accepted, and its growth slows down significantly. Even if the plant can survive, it will be weak and painful. When the temperature drops to +10 degrees and below, the plant slowly begins to die.
But too warm soil will not benefit. It absorbs all the beneficial properties of the plant, depletes the roots, causing the stem to become sluggish and the leaves yellow. Rescued plants give a bad harvest, which will ripen much later than usual. We can not allow the increase in performance to more than +22 degrees.
Thus, the optimum temperature is from +18 to +22 degrees.
Note! Frequent watering leads to rotting of the roots, the spread of fungal infections.
At what temperature seedlings die
If the temperature in the greenhouse is less than +15 degrees, the seedlings take root very poorly, because the absorption of minerals is less effective, the roots slow down their development, and access to water is much more difficult.
If the temperature is +10 degrees, the roots of future fruits stop growing because they are not able to absorb the nutrients.
Если температура падает до +5 градусов и ниже, рассада не просто замерзает, но и погибает из-за повреждений. А при +0,5 градусах и даже минусовых показателях растение гибнет моментально.
Советы и рекомендации опытных огородников
- Подвязывать помидоры после появления завязи,
- It is impossible to plant the plant too deeply, because in this case the stem will give new roots, and the growth of tomatoes will slow down significantly,
- Before planting, remove the diseased yellow leaves,
- Planted preferably in the evening or on an overcast day,
- Do not overdo it with nitrogen fertilizers,
- The greenhouse is located on a spacious plot, with a larger side from east to west for better lighting,
- Convenient and compact to have beds, while having free access to each plant,
- When garter choose the material that does not injure the stem of the plant.
Getting the coveted crop of large and juicy tomatoes is not as easy as it may seem at first glance. To do this, you need to spend a lot of your time and energy, as well as follow the rules and tips presented in this article.
The technology of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse
Dive, i.e. we transplant the seedlings into separate pots 8 cm deep, as soon as we count two or three true, and not cotyledon leaves. Transplanting is needed to keep the stem from growing. Its optimal length before planting is 25-30 cm. Our task is to timely distill the seedlings of the desired length by the time of the transition to the closed ground. After transplanting into a more spacious container, the root system of the seedlings will be actively developed, and not the stem with leaves.
Wishing to know how to plant tomatoes correctly
So, when planting seedlings in a greenhouse, you must follow a number of simple rules:
How to plant tomatoes in the greenhouse?
Therefore, in case of clay or loamy soil types per 1 m² of tomato beds in a greenhouse, a bucket of peat, humus or sawdust must be added. If at your disposal a peat bog, then for 1 m² you need to add a bucket of sod, humus and small wooden chips, as well as a half-bucket of coarse sand. All this should be well dig. But before that, in both cases it is worth adding mineral fertilizers: superphosphate at the rate of 2 tbsp. spoons per 1 m² and potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. spoon for 1 m².
How this is done is clearly seen in the photo below. You should also pinch the top of the plant when it exceeds the height of the trellis.
Tomato care in the greenhouse
You can do the opposite: fill the hole with water, put a seedling in it and sprinkle with earth.
Immediately after planting in the greenhouse, you should try to maintain the temperature no higher than 24 degrees during the day and 17-18 at night.
If at the same time the greenhouse is open for airing, then there is no place to fill it.
Preparing the greenhouse for planting
The equipment of the winter greenhouse will have to be approached in a planned and balanced way, without unnecessary expenses. What to do, have to fork out to pay for electricity.
Watering tomatoes in the greenhouse should be rare, but it is quite abundant, and the air should be dry. It is better to water the plants along the furrows formed between the rows. When watering, the water should fill the furrow completely, and when it is absorbed, the soil surface should be promulgated with peat, humus or dry soil.
Every summer resident should know how to grow tomatoes in his greenhouse, and for this he must have many different ways to grow these vegetables. Below you can see a few photos of correctly grown tomatoes in the greenhouse.
Dive seedlings in separate pots watered weekly. By the time of watering the soil should be significantly dry. After 12 days after transplantation, plants are fed along with irrigation at the same time, adding 1 tablespoon of nitrophos and azofosca to 10 liters each. Each sprout should get half a cup. After 15 days we feed up again, you can use ready-made products such as “Senora Tomato” or “Fertility”. Pale green seedlings need to be fed with “Ideal” if tomatoes slowly grow with guamat, and rapidly growing with superphosphate.
Tomato garter in the greenhouse
In order to disinfect the prepared soil, immediately before planting the seedlings in the greenhouse, it must be watered with a solution of potassium permanganate (1 g of manganese per bucket of water). For maximum effect, the water temperature should not be below 60º. Disinfect the soil at the rate of 1 liter of solution per 1 well.
Watering Tomatoes in the Greenhouse
In order to obtain an earlier harvest, part of the tomato seedlings in the greenhouse should be planted under small film shelters (tunnels, dvuhskatnye frameworks). Cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse, which do not require large material costs, makes it possible to obtain mature fruits 2-3 weeks earlier than from open ground. For planting under these shelters, early ripe determinant varieties are used.
With proper care, young tomato bushes before planting in a polycarbonate greenhouse will look like in the photo:
New greenhouse made of polycarbonate, it should be remembered that seedlings by age should be older than 60 days. These are quite powerful and durable plants for greenhouses, protected by a rigid, air-tight polymer shell. For example, for film-covered structures, plants are recommended to plant 60 days after “hatching” sprouts, because polyethylene cannot protect it from the effects of frost occurring in the spring.
It is not necessary to plant tomatoes in a cold soil: seedlings grown with such difficulty may die,
2-3 days before planting the seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse on each plant should remove 2-3 lower leaflets that may come into contact with the ground. This technique significantly reduces the likelihood of disease transplanted seedlings and improves air circulation between plants, which has a positive effect on the establishment and development of the first flower brush. It is not necessary to remove the leaves at the very stem, otherwise you risk damaging it. Removing the leaves, it is necessary to retreat 1.5-2 cm from the stem and pinch them, leaving small peplenuts.
Tip If the seedlings have outgrown, it is set in the hole at an angle so that most of the stem with leaves removed in advance remains underground.
It turns out that if tomatoes and cucumbers in a greenhouse grow together, then creating suitable conditions for one type of plant suffers another. There is only one way out - to plant in different greenhouses or try to create tolerable conditions for one of the crops on unprotected soil.
The most difficult task is to maintain it at the right level during the entire period of growth and ripening of the tomato. It can not be lowered.
For the formation of an additional root system during loosening, the soil from the aisle is gradually poured in rows to the bottom of the stem. Plants are spudding in rows, and an irrigation furrow is formed between the rows. On these furrows have to walk during the care of plants and during the collection of fruits. In this regard, the soil in the furrows is strongly compacted. Therefore, it is necessary to periodically loosen the forks without turning the reservoir. It is better to do before the next watering. So that the soil in the furrows is less compacted, it is advisable to put in the grooves lattice wooden flooring (trapiki).
Adding an article to a new collection
In order to get a good harvest of tasty tomatoes, you need to take care of the plant, not only in the seedling period, but also after planting tomatoes in the greenhouse or the ground. To learn how to plant seedlings and what to do next, read below.
Before starting planting tomato seedlings, you need to select the best seedlings with a strong root system and strong shoots. The landing is carried out in the late afternoon or in cloudy weather. It is important that by this time the ground at the depth of the roots warmed to 10-15 ° C (to measure the temperature, you can take an ordinary thermometer and place it briefly in the ground). At a lower soil temperature, the seedlings will not take root, and if the soil cools to 2 ° C, the plants will die.
The term of planting tomato seedlings
In the middle lane for planting tomato seedlings in a polycarbonate greenhouse, the optimal period is 1-15 May. Under the film cover, tomatoes are planted on May 20-31, and in open ground - on June 10-20. The main thing is to be sure that the frosts will not return.
To calculate the time of planting of seedlings of tomatoes, it is necessary to make a start from which variety you have chosen:
The height of the seedlings is measured from the root collar - the place where the above-ground part goes into the horse system. Of course, these numbers are not strict, much depends on the conditions in which the seedlings were contained. In any case, focus on the appearance of plants. Ready for planting at a permanent place seedlings of tomatoes should be 25-35 cm tall, have a well-developed root system and 8-10 true leaves.
Seedlings ready for planting
How to prepare the soil for tomatoes
Good precursors for tomato: cabbage, cucumbers, carrots, onions, beans. It is not recommended to plant tomatoes after the crops of the family of solanes: potatoes, eggplant, pepper and, note, a tomato. That is why the tomato planting site needs to be changed every season, returning vegetables to the former garden bed no earlier than in 3-4 years. And if this is not possible, then it is recommended to remove the top layer of soil on the garden every year and replace it with a new one. Soil preparation is carried out in 5 stages:
- sanding (carried out in the fall for heavy wet soil at the rate of 1 bucket of sand per 1 sq. m),
- liming (used to reduce the acidity of the soil, for this, in the autumn or spring digging, lime powder is applied to the soil at the rate of 0.5-0.8 kg per 1 square meter),
- disinfection (in spring the soil is treated with hot (70-80⁰С) solution of blue vitriol at the rate of 1 l per 1 sq. m),
- organic fertilizer application (when digging up the soil, add humus or rotted compost at the rate of 3-7 kg per 1 sq. m),
- the application of mineral fertilizers is carried out at the spring digging of the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm (see table).
Planting tomato seedlings in the ground
Already just before disembarking, beds should be formed (optimal dimensions: width 100-120 cm, height 15-20 cm) and holes should be made at a distance of 35-45 cm in a row and 55-75 cm between rows.
When the bed is already prepared, further actions depend on the capacity in which the seedlings grew. If it is a peat tablet or a cup, then the seedling is dipped into the hole, without taking it out. From other containers, the earthen room with a plant should be carefully removed using a spatula or other tools (a cardboard or plastic cup can be cut with scissors).
1-1.5 hours before planting, the seedlings need to be shed properly so that during the transplantation the earthen room does not crumble and the roots are not damaged.
Seedlings are placed in the wells vertically and covered with fertile soil to the cotyledon or the first pair of true leaves. Then the earth is thoroughly compressed and watered. It is important not to forget to put the pegs (50-80 cm high) in order to tie the plants to them around the 12th day. If the seedlings overgrown, it is planted "lying" or bury more than usual.
Planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse
For growing tomatoes in the greenhouse a mixture of garden soil (2 parts), peat (1 part), sawdust (1 part) and humus (1 part) is well suited. In general, according to the technology of soil preparation and the process of planting, this procedure does not have any particular differences from work in the open field.
After planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, it is important to regulate the temperature, and therefore, to air (especially during the flowering period), avoiding excessive moisture
Watering and fertilizing tomatoes after planting
Tomatoes after planting in the ground or the greenhouse the first time (5-10 days) is better not to water. Then the tomatoes are watered about once a week, spending 3-5 liters of water for each bush. If the weather is dry, the plants are watered more often.
During the growth of the fruits themselves, it is important to ensure that the soil is constantly hydrated, for this you can multiply the holes, for example, compost, straw, newsprint, wood chips, etc. With the beginning of ripening, irrigation of low-growing varieties should be reduced, and tall varieties should be increased. After each watering you need to loosen the ground and remove weeds.
Tomatoes are watered solely under the root, as watering with sprinkling causes plant disease, as well as delayed fruit ripening. Watering is done in the afternoon so that less moisture evaporates.
The first feeding Tomato is carried out 10 days after planting. Plants are watered with a mixture of mullein and nitrophoska (0.5 l of the first and 15 ml of the second for 10 l of water) at the rate of 0.5 l of solution per bush.
Second feeding spend 20 days after the first. This time another solution is prepared: 0.4 kg of chicken manure, 1 tbsp. superphosphate and 1 tsp potassium sulfate in 10 liters of water (1 l of the mixture is poured under each bush).
Third dressing spend another 10-14 days later (15 g of nitrophosphate and 15 ml of potassium humate per 10 liters of water, consumption - 5 liters per 1 square meter). And after another 2 weeks, tomatoes are watered with a solution of superphosphate (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water) at the rate of 1 bucket per 1 sq.m.
Water well the bushes before each top dressing so as not to burn their roots. Tomatoes after planting in the ground also need to feed and foliar way (on the leaves). 3-4 times per season, tomatoes are sprayed with this solution: 15 g of urea and 1 g of potassium permanganate per 10 liters of water (this amount is enough for 60-70 bushes). In drought, tomatoes can be sprayed with a solution of boric acid: 1 tsp. boron crystals in 10 liters of water. As well as watering, foliar feeding is recommended to be carried out in the evening in dry weather.
Option 1. Radical
The first option involves the following actions: all frozen stalks need to be trimmed with garden shears, right to the ground. Your task is to save the roots of the plants and prevent them from wasting their time on the dead "tops".
At the end of the procedure, experienced gardeners recommend feeding tomato seedlings with urea and wrapping them in film. If done correctly, after a while the roots will begin to produce new, healthy shoots.
Option 2. Humane
The second option is to gradually "thaw" the seedlings. To do this, at dawn, the seedlings are sprayed with cool water.
Immediately after spraying, the seedlings must be “hidden” from the sun's rays, because the survival of tomatoes will mainly depend on how gradual the warming process is.
To help seedlings recover, do not neglect and feeding. It is necessary to dilute 15 g of urea in 10 liters of water and bring it under the roots of seedlings. The next stage (after 3 days) is fertilized with humates, mullein. If necessary, treatment is carried out growth promoters.
Observing simple rules for planting seedlings and providing plants with the necessary care, within 40-60 days after the appearance of the ovaries, you will receive a bountiful harvest of tomatoes.
Approximate landing time
As a basis, you can take the average number of days required for the growth of tomato seedlings from the time they are planted to the desired size (about 25 cm). Different varieties it ranges from 50 to 80 days. Thus, after about 60 days from the day the first sprout appeared, the tomato seedlings are theoretically ready for transplanting into a closed ground (see table).
In practice, this depends on the regional climatic features, on the type of the greenhouse (whether it is heated or not) and on the average daily temperature values of air and soil in the greenhouse. In addition, every self-respecting summer resident before such an important event will surely check with the lunar landing calendar for the corresponding period.
As a rule, most working gardeners are tied to the long May holidays, during which most of the planting is planned. If there are favorable factors (early warm spring, southern regions, excess free time), the transfer of grown tomato seedlings to the greenhouse can be carried out as early as April.
Based on this, it is possible to approximately calculate the timing of planting tomato seeds for seedlings (the second half of February - the beginning of March).
Since tomatoes are very thermophilic plants, it must be remembered that not only soil temperature is important, but also atmospheric temperature indicators. Therefore, if it is possible to heat (heat) the greenhouse, then the timing of planting tomato seedlings will significantly shift to earlier months. But at the same time, it will be necessary to maintain a constant average daily air temperature not lower than + 15 ° С and monitor the heating of the soil, otherwise the seedlings will freeze. The calculation of daily average indicators occurs by adding the night and day data of the thermometer column.
These same values must be adhered to the full cultivation of tomatoes in the greenhouse without heating. As soon as the sun can warm the greenhouse in a day to such an extent that at night the temperature does not fall below + 8 ° C, then the suitable time has come to plant tomatoes.
The optimum temperature of the soil, which the prepared seedlings can withstand without problems, is + 15 ° C at a shallow depth. If the thermometer shows less than + 10 ° C, the seedling root system may become sick and die. In warm soil, the roots grow better, seedlings take root faster.
To prepare the tomatoes for growing in a greenhouse, the seedlings must be hardened. So, a few days before planting, plants are carried out for 20-30 minutes to fresh air.
In the future, the optimum temperature for growing tomatoes will be + 20-22 ° C during the day and + 16-18 ° C at night. These values are true for the ground. Soil temperatures below + 15 ° C can lead to a slowdown in the development of the root system and, accordingly, to a deterioration in the growth of seedlings. Если показатели меньше +10-12°С, питание корней прекращается совсем, рассада погибает. Вместе с тем перегрев земли не менее опасен для растений: t от +30°С способствует тому, что пыльца растений становится стерильной, цветение останавливается, имеющиеся завязи опадают.
Regulation of the temperature when growing tomatoes will allow you to get a good harvest, even in an unsuitable climate. In addition to the fact that greenhouses with automated heating are on sale, the population often uses household heaters, stoves, and their types. And you can use simple methods: soil mulching, additional covering of the earth with a special black film, etc. On sunny days, you can maintain the desired temperature by airing the greenhouse.
Soil preparation in the greenhouse
It is necessary to prepare the greenhouse and the soil in it in advance. The soil is enriched with nutrients by embedding the green manures, manure and other fertilizers since autumn.
For maximum warming up of the land, gardeners in advance (2-3 weeks) cover film greenhouses with covering material. In this regard, polycarbonate and glass greenhouses are much more convenient. For them, it is enough just to close all the doors and vents in advance. In any case, the soil itself is also recommended to cover with a black film coating that absorbs the sun's rays, for its speedy and deeper heating. This happens in just a couple of sunny days.
If the earth still does not have time to warm up to the optimum value, you must do the following. Before planting seedlings on a sunny day, it is necessary to pour plenty of hot water on the soil of the greenhouse and close all the vents and the door. Water should be poured not only in the hole, but over the entire area of the greenhouse. Scalding with boiling water will disinfect the soil, relieve from the majority of harmful microorganisms.
There is one immutable rule: if the earth is not heated to the end, it is impossible to plant seedlings deep. Otherwise, the tomatoes will hurt, which will affect the harvest.
Using manure as a fertilizer is justified not only due to the fact that tomatoes love nitrogen (but do not get carried away with organic matter, otherwise all the forces of the bush will go to the tops). Its overheating contributes to an increase in the surrounding temperature. In the same way, the compost and humus, which has been planted since the fall into the greenhouse land, acts.
So, every attentive gardener can understand all the temperature subtleties of planting tomato seedlings in the greenhouse, receiving, in thanks for his efforts, the harvest of environmentally friendly, personally grown vegetables.
Estimated greenhouse planting time
- The basis can be taken the average number of days that are needed for tomato seedlings from the time of planting to the optimal size (about 25 centimeters). In different varieties, it will vary from 50 days to 80. Thus, eventually, 60 days after the development of the first sprout, the tomato is almost ready for the process of transplanting into a closed ground.
- In practice, everything will depend on regional terrain features, on the variety of the greenhouse (whether it is heated or not), as well as on the average daily air regime around and the soil mixture in the greenhouse. In addition, any self-respecting summer resident before you begin to engage in planting must necessarily consult with the lunar landing calendar, which will correspond to the period of growth and development of the flower.
- As a rule, a large number of working gardeners are tied to the long May holidays, during which most of the planting works take place. If there are favorable factors for planting (early and warm spring, the southern regions of growth, a long period of flowering), the transfer of grown tomato seedlings to the greenhouse can occur as early as April.
Based on such data, it is possible to approximately calculate the time of planting a seed of tomatoes for subsequent seedlings (the second half of February - the beginning of March).
Features of the temperature regime during planting
Since tomatoes are very thermophilic crops, it is worth remembering that not only the temperature of the soil around it will play the main role in their germination and development, but also atmospheric and temperature indicators. It is for this reason that if there is an opportunity to heat (heat) the greenhouse, then the time for planting the crop should be shifted to an earlier time.
With all this, it is worth supporting the constant daily average rate of air indicators., preventing it from dropping below + 15 degrees Celsius and monitor the process of warming up the soil, otherwise the seedlings will begin to freeze. Calculate the average daily temperature can be, if you take into account and the addition of both day and night temperatures on the thermometer.
These same indicators should be followed in case full-fledged cultivation in greenhouses without comfortable heating of the plant. As soon as the sun can fully warm the entire greenhouse to such a level that the cold at night will not fall below +8 degrees Celsius, this will mean that the right time has come for the tomato to land.
The optimum indicator of the soil, which can fully withstand the prepared seeds of Solanaceae culture, is + 15 degrees Celsius at a shallow depth. If the thermometer's column starts to show less than +10 degrees, the seedling's rhizomes can quickly fall ill and even die. In warm soil conditions, the cultivation of seedlings is much faster, and its rhizomes qualitatively take root in the ground.
To prepare tomatoes for active cultivation in the greenhouse, the seedlings should be tempered. So, a few days before planting the seedlings into the soil, they should be taken out for 20-30 minutes outside, so that they can be saturated with oxygen and be properly tempered.
In the future, the best temperature for growing crops from 20 to 22 degrees during the day and 16-18 degrees in the evening. These figures will be consistent with the soil soil.. Soil temperature less than 15 degrees slows the development of the root system of the plant, as well as degrade the active growth of the culture.
If the indicator at this time is below the mark of + 10-12 degrees, then the nutrition of the roots will stop altogether, and the seedlings will die during the first periods of their formation. At the same time, excessive overheating of the earth is dangerous for seedlings: more than 30 degrees can make the pollen in plants become completely sterile, which will stop the active process of flowering of the culture, the ovary on the plant will quickly fall off.
High-quality temperature control in the process of growing a tomato will help get one of the most high-quality crops in the wrong growing climate. In addition to greenhouses with automated heating, household heaters, stoves, as well as their main varieties are now most commonly purchased on the market. You can also use simple methods: soil mulching, additional process covering the ground with a special black plastic film. With a large number of light hours, this temperature can be maintained by regular airing in the greenhouse.
Preparation of soil mixture in the greenhouse
Prepare a greenhouse, as well as the soil mixture for it in advance. The process of enriching the soil with organic components by means of its incorporation with manure, siderite, as well as other varieties of fertilizers should be done in the autumn.
In order to carry out the maximum warming up of the land, the gardener should (for 2–3 weeks) cover the film greenhouse with covering material. In this case, using polycarbonate or glass varieties of greenhouses is much more convenient and comfortable. For them, it is only necessary to close all the vents and doors in advance. In any case, the soil composition itself should also be covered with black protection film, which can absorb all the sun's rays, so that the earth can warm up in a short time and deeply. Such a process can take place in just a few light days.
If the soil is still not able to fully warm up to the desired rate, then the following should be done. Before the process of planting seedlings on a sunny day it is worth plentifully pouring the soil in the greenhouse with the help of hot water, and then cover all the vents and the door. Water should be poured not only in the wells, but also around the perimeter of the greenhouse. The process of scalding with boiling water will help disinfect the soil, eliminate a large number of harmful parasites and microbes from it.
There is one main rule: if the land in the greenhouse is warmed up poorly or not until the end, then it is prohibited to plant seedlings at a deep level. Otherwise, the tomatoes will begin to fall ill, which negatively affect the overall level of the plant and fruit.
The use of manure in the form of natural fertilizers is justified not only because such tomatoes love to grow in nitrogen (but you should not get carried away with organic indicators of the soil, otherwise all the forces of the culture will go to the creation of tops Its overheating is able to raise the temperature around. The effect of the compost and humus from the autumn season into the greenhouse soil also takes place.
To understand all the intricacies of planting seedlings under certain temperature conditions any gardener is capable. If the correct temperature conditions are observed in a greenhouse, the grower will be able to get ecologically grown fruits of the plant, as well as high fertility rates.
The effect of temperature fluctuations on plant growth:
- The development of phosphate starvation.
- The plant begins to fade.
- Overgrowth of root system proliferation.
- The rhizomes of the plants begin to slowly form, and also poorly absorb moisture from the soil.
To the greenhouse was fully suitable for the cultivation and formation of tomatoes, you should carefully follow all the rules for care. It should be remembered in what optimal temperature such plants need. It should be remembered how you can increase or decrease the overall temperature inside the greenhouse.
At what temperature can you plant tomatoes in the greenhouse?
To create the optimum temperature in the greenhouse for the process of planting a tomato, you should carefully review the temperature regime during which the tomatoes feel most comfortable. During the daytime and nighttime temperatures are quite different from each other. At different intervals cultural development is to use a certain indicator of temperature.
The most optimal temperature for planting a crop will be a temperature of 22–24 degrees, if there is sun during the day, and from 19 to 20 degrees in the case when the day is bad.
Such temperature indicators in greenhouses will be well suited until such time as the plant begins an active process of fruiting. During the fruiting culture, tomatoes are able to withstand the effects of higher temperatures - from 26 to 32 degrees Celsius. But at the same time, it is worth noting that if the temperature index is too high, the culture begins to waste all its abilities to bear fruit and produce a high-quality tomato crop, as it can worsen the process of photosynthesis in culture.
Tips for quality temperature control:
- In the process of flowering culture temperature should not fall to 14 degrees.
- In order to stabilize the plant growth process that is too vigorous, it is worth settling the temperature regime to a value of 26 degrees Celsius.
- In order for the process of growth and development of fruits in the culture to occur stably, it is necessary to stabilize the temperature in the greenhouse to 17 degrees Celsius.
If you comply with the optimal indicator of temperature, the culture will qualitatively blossom and bear fruit. It is worth noting that a stable temperature regime is not the only rule for the proper cultivation of a crop and the assembly of a good harvest from a plant. In a greenhouse, you can grow only those varieties of tomatoes that are designed for growing in greenhouses.
Greenhouse temperature for healthy plant growth
It is worth paying attention to temperature adjustment from the very moment of planting seeds into the soil. The qualitative process of plant germination will serve as warm weather around 15 degrees. This should be taken into account at the time when the seeds are planted, as well as not forgetting that the culture should be hardened all the time and organize frequent airing. After the plant germinates, the temperature index should increase to 25–30 degrees with time.
In order to eliminate the process of pulling out seedlings, it is worth lowering the overall temperature to the initial value. This will help the rhizomes of plants. quickly and efficiently form.
It is worth noting the fact that the cold is below 10 degrees. contributes to a complete arrest of the growth and development of culture at the time. Too high temperature, and too low can worsen the flowering of the crop, as well as contribute to the wilting of the plant. High temperatures affect plant loss of pollen characteristics. If the temperature on the street is too low, then the pollen does not have time to form at all.
Peculiarities of the effect of too high and low temperatures on tomatoes
- Temperatures up to 5 degrees and above 43 can lead to a quick death of the plant.
- A temperature reading of less than 16 degrees indicates that tomatoes poorly fertilize nitrogen and phosphorus from the soil. At this time, the rhizomes worsen the process of its development, which does not give free access to water. All this can lead to a bad process of engraftment of culture.
- Temperatures from 10 to 12 degrees can stop the process of absorption and absorption of useful minerals and organic matter from the soil by the plant.
What do you need tomatoes in the greenhouse?
Thermal conditions in small film shelters using only solar heating are determined by climatic conditions and time of day. According to TSCA, on sunny days, the air temperature in them is 10–15 ° C higher, and on cloudy days - 2–3 ° C higher than in open ground. The soil temperature in sunny weather is 2–4 degrees higher. Air humidity under the film reaches 85 - 100%, which is undesirable for tomatoes. To reduce air humidity, regular airing of shelters is necessary. The polyethylene film has a high permeability to thermal infrared rays, which leads to a strong decrease in temperature at night. The difference with the open ground in the early planting dates is no more than one degree, so it is necessary to take measures to warm the landings. With the expected lowering of the air temperature, the shelters in the evening additionally cover with matting, hessian, thick paper. From small May frosts (up to minus 2 ° C), tomatoes can be protected by watering the soil under cover.
The main thing is that the seedlings have from 8 to 12 own developed leaves of dense green color and one, but better than a pair of formed inflorescences. The minimum allowable height is 15cm, maximum 35cm. The height of the stem 40-45cm is the limit, which dictates the use of a specific scheme of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse, eliminating the appearance of impeding the growth of roots on the stem embedded in the ground.
Tomato: why does he like heat so much?
The future inhabitants of the greenhouse has its own list of requirements, independent of the type of greenhouse cover. For good growth and systematic development of tomatoes:
No need to plant tomatoes deep into the soil, if the climatic conditions in your area do not contribute to this.
For the cultivation of tomatoes in the winter are suitable varieties of the Golden Queen, Orange, Rusich, Moskvich.
To accelerate ripening, reduce the risk of diseases and improve the air exchange and luminosity of tomatoes, it is necessary to regularly remove leaves and lower branches beginning to turn yellow. Some growers in the period of mass ripening generally cut off almost all the green mass.
How to arrange a greenhouse for growing vegetables?
Departure in the first days after disembarkation.
The ideal humidity for cucumbers on hot days is 85%. But when the temperature drops, the humidity should also be reduced, bringing it to 70% by airing the greenhouse.
Which one depends on the climatic characteristics of your region. Next, brief instructions have been given on the separate cultivation of vegetables.The pledge of a healthy crop depends on the quality of the soil in which tomato seedlings are planted. It should be as close in composition to that in which the seeds ripened.
If during the main refueling of the soil a sufficient amount of organic and mineral fertilizers was applied, then it is not necessary to conduct top dressing. It is better to judge the need for dressings by the results of agrochemical analyzes, but this is for certain vegetable growers with some difficulties. A visual assessment of the state of the plants provides some indication of the level of their mineral nutrition. However, the absence of symptoms of nutritional deficiencies does not mean that plants do not have the need for certain fertilizers. In order for the soil to have a constant supply of nutrients, it is advisable to give 3-4 supplements per season. Approximately you can use the dose recommended for open ground. Apply both organic and mineral supplements. The best results are given by feeding in a dissolved form. In addition to nitrogen, phosphate and potash fertilizers, microfertilizers are also required. Хорошие результаты дают подкормки полностью растворимыми комплексными удобрениями (кристаллин, кристаллон и т. п.). Особенно осторожно надо подходить к применению азотных удобрений. Так как при их избытке растения «жируют», а в плодах накапливается избыточное содержание вредных для организма человека нитратов и нитритов.
После полива укрытие в 16–17 часов закрывают, чтобы произошло внутреннее испарение. On the inside of the film, with a subsequent decrease in air temperature as a result of condensation of water vapor, a thin layer of water is formed, which reduces heat transfer. The next day, the shelter must be well ventilated to reduce the humidity of the air. This is the technology of growing tomatoes in the greenhouse.
For 4-5 days before planting in a closed ground, seedlings need to be sprinkled with a solution of boric acid, prepared at the rate of 1g per liter. Such treatment will protect the first flower buds from infection. For spraying choose an overcast morning so that the sun's rays do not burn through the young leaves.
Calcium is necessary, which will prevent the flowers from falling off and the formation of black spots on the fruit. Enrich the greenhouse soil with this trace element during feeding with solutions of calcium chloride or calcium nitrate,
Temperature for our tomatoes
The height of the seedlings of tomatoes during transplantation into the greenhouse should be 25-30 cm. Smaller seedlings are still weak and can be lost during transplantation. Higher seedlings are easily damaged, which also leads to her death. Yes, and it will be more difficult for plants to get accustomed, because they will be planted with a large leaf mass, which all the time must be maintained with water and nutrients taken from the soil. And the root system of overgrown tomatoes will inevitably be damaged during the landing and will become much weaker.
As you can see, growing cucumbers and tomatoes in a greenhouse is not so difficult as troublesome, requiring constant attention and monitoring of the microclimate in the greenhouse. To please both those and others at the same time is unlikely to succeed, so you have to make a choice, giving the "cushy job" to either tomatoes or cucumbers.
Immediately after planting, the plants must be protected from direct sunlight.Tip To increase the humidity of the air, arrange the poultices: in the first half of the day, pour abundantly not only the beds, but also the paths, and then tightly close all the doors and air vents. But after 1.5-2 hours, the greenhouse should be ventilated.Differences begin at the stage of installation of the greenhouse. Cucumber is better to orient the long side from north to south to protect the plants from the active day sun, and tomato - from east to west.
In order to determine the temperature inside the greenhouse, you must first measure it outside.
Humidification of air in a greenhouse or greenhouse
When growing tomatoes in film greenhouses, particular attention should be paid to the pollination of flowers. In conditions of high humidity, and sometimes it can not be avoided, pollen does not get enough sleep from the anthers. Requires additional pollination. In large farms, vibrators are used for this purpose, and in our conditions, plants should be shaken by tapping a stick on the trellis wire. Pollination should be carried out in the morning with strong airing of greenhouses.
The plot for film shelters is prepared in the same way as for planting in open ground. The rates of fertilizers here are somewhat higher. Experienced gardeners will be happy to tell you how to plant tomatoes in a greenhouse. Seedlings are planted on low ridges around May 10–20 (depending on weather conditions). Plants on the ridge are more often located: in 2–3 rows with a distance between rows of 30–40 cm, and between plants in a row - 25–30 cm. If the goal is to get the earliest possible harvest, then a thickened plant is used - up to 10 plants 1 m2. In this case, the plants form in one stem, leaving 2–3 inflorescences.
Heaters for growing vegetables
It happens that the personally grown seedlings above the specified limit, but this is not a reason to deprive her of the chances of a normal life and fruiting. She just landed in a special way, shown in the image below.
Requires magnesium, potassium, nitrogen, boron, phosphorus, which are complex in the most accessible for plant assimilation as contained in the most popular country fertilizer “Azofosk”,
After planting in the greenhouse, tomatoes begin to grow at a temperature of about 15 ºС, but over time it needs to be raised,
For transplanted tomato seedlings a very important indicator is the temperature of the soil. The optimum temperature is in the range of 12-15º. Planting seedlings is best done in the warm late afternoon. Possible during the day, but only if it is quite cloudy. It is important to follow these recommendations, otherwise the plants will not tolerate the transplant and will be sick for a long time, which may lead to their death.
How to grow cucumbers and tomatoes in the greenhouse correctly
Tomatoes are very healthy and tasty. But before they are ripened, they need a lot of work. And the point is not that tomatoes are too whimsical, on the contrary. They are loved by the Colorado potato beetle, and in warm weather and high humidity, the phytophtora fungus can completely destroy the tomato crop in a few hours.
To do this, you can stick a tree branch next to each bush or use your own hands to whiten the walls and roof of the greenhouse with lime mortar. Subsequently, it can be easily washed off with water.
Why cucumbers and tomatoes can not be grown in the same greenhouse
Other nuances should be described in more detail.
If the temperature of the greenhouse outside is below zero, then inside the greenhouse it should be above zero.
- For a better filling of the fruits, the last buds, the weakest in the hand - from 2 to 5, must be removed. Sometimes sprouting of the brushes is observed: stepchildren appear on the brush, which sometimes bloom and even tie fruit. They should also be removed.
If they want to harvest higher and for a longer period, then no more than 5–6 plants per 1 m2 are planted, and form them in two stems, leaving 5 inflorescences on the bush (on the main stem they leave three brushes and on the stepson - two brushes). After landing, put the frame and stretch the film. If there is a tunnel shelter, then the arches are installed through 60 cm (above every second transverse row) and are tied together by synthetic string over each planted longitudinal row. In the future, to the horizontal stretched twine will be held garter plants. In this case, you can do without stakes.
We assume that we grow viable bushes of tomatoes. About one to two weeks left to transfer them to the ground. By all indications, it is time to start processing and arranging the "green house" for tomatoes.
- Need a moist soil that can hold water for a long time without drying. And at the same time, greenhouse land should not be too heavy. A sandy, slightly clayey soil is recommended for tomatoes, in which moisture will linger, and the level of moisture in the greenhouse does not exceed 70% of your favorite tomatoes. In order to achieve the recommended effect, peat is brought into the sandy soil, and sawdust and the same peat are added to the clay soil, but as a fertilizer.
When the temperature rises to 25 ... 30 ºС, the seedlings grow noticeably,
Immediately before planting the seedlings, the wells need to be watered well - 5 liters of water per 1 well, then spread out the seedlings and plant the tomatoes. Many novice gardeners are trying to plant seedlings obliquely, but this must be done vertically. The roots should be filled up so that the earth does not reach the first leaflets of 2-3 cm. It is impossible to allow the leaves of the planted seedlings to lie on the ground, not to mention sprinkling them upon planting.
Tomatoes are very useful because they contain a large amount of vitamins, but require careful maintenance.
Principles of cultivation
Watering should be in the root zone, making grooves and holes between plants.
Greenhouse for tomatoes and cucumbers prepared for planting seedlings, starting in April.
Agrotechnical minimum for the growth of any plants was set once and for all. The temperature in the greenhouse can not be reduced below +6 degrees. This means that with a complete blackout, the temperature in the greenhouse does not fall below 6 degrees. Tomatoes, as already mentioned, will not live at +6, this is too low a temperature. Give them a limit of +15 - +17 (while their growth will be very slow). Hence, we conclude: one should take care of an “alternative” source of heating in order to always maintain the optimum temperature indicator.To avoid stagnation of moist air in the surface layer, as well as to promote better illumination of the plants, remove the lower leaves. This operation begins when the fruits are formed on the first hand, and are carried out constantly once a week. At one time, no more than 2-3 leaves are removed. Gradually, all leaves are removed until the 3rd - 4th brush. To wounds dried up and healed faster, pruning of leaves is carried out in the morning. After removing the leaves, watering can be carried out no earlier than a day.
Care for planted tomatoes in the greenhouse should be more thorough compared to open ground. First of all, it is necessary to strictly monitor the air temperature. In sunny weather, the temperature in a small shelter quickly rises and reaches 40 ° C and above. In this case, the pollen becomes sterile, pollination does not occur, damage to the leaves and the stem can be observed. To prevent these undesirable phenomena, it is necessary to resort to airing shelters, lifting the film from the sides, and lowering it again in the evening. If there is windless, warm weather, then the film is removed during the daytime. In warm rainy weather, the film at the ends of the tunnels should be open to reduce the humidity of the air. After 30–40 days after landing, the film is removed when a stable warm weather is established. Such short-term use of the film allows it to be used to cover the plant for 3–4 years.
Fully prepared for the settlement of green inhabitants greenhouse should be 5 days before work. Based on this circumstance, the owner should choose the methods of cleaning and disinfection. After cleaning and disinfection of a limited polycarbonate area, you need to do a breakdown of the beds.
- We must not forget that the life cycle of a tomato bush varies from 110 to 130 days, depending on the personal characteristics of the variety. In order for the plant to have time to go through all the stages of the green and red life path, it is planted in the ground rather early. For the middle band, the usual term: from the end / middle of the first decade to the middle of the second decade of May. In short, by May 15–20, tomato seedlings should already be located in the greenhouse. For the northern regions, the landing dates will certainly shift with a focus on specific climatic conditions.After that, to avoid excessive stretching of the plants, the temperature must be lowered again to 15 ° C. Such a change in climatic conditions contributes to the development and strengthening of the root system, despite the insufficient light,
The first 20 days the tomato grows slowly, then the growth is significantly enhanced.
Therefore, more and more gardeners prefer to grow tomatoes in the greenhouse. They are easier to protect tomatoes from diseases and pests, and the crop is 2-2.5 times larger, and tomatoes ripen in a greenhouse, even unheated, 2-3 weeks earlier than in open ground. Planting tomatoes in the greenhouse begins with seedlings. Growing seedlings is the most difficult and crucial stage in the whole chain of growing tomatoes in a greenhouse. Without healthy, well-developed and hardened seedlings for a good harvest can not count.
Tomatoes tolerate heat well enough, but they cannot be overheated either. The temperature in the greenhouse during the day is desirable to maintain at the level of 25-26 degrees, at night - 18 degrees.
- In order to better penetrate water and air to the roots, in the first days after planting the soil should be loosened, and as the roots grow, pierce the ground.To warm up the ground faster, it is covered with black film, the greenhouse itself is tightly closed and left for several days.
It should start to lay the heating pipes before the construction of the greenhouse. And over the entire area of the greenhouse, as the tomato does not like the cold. Putting thermometers to check the temperature in the greenhouse is recommended immediately in several places, in advance before planting. It is necessary to check the temperature in each of them and keep records for several days.
- Good results are provided by the enrichment of air with carbon dioxide. The easiest way is this. The dishes (bucket, tank) are half-filled with fresh manure, almost filled to the brim with water, and put in the greenhouse, stirring the contents periodically. During fermentation of manure, carbon dioxide is released into the air, which increases the intensity of photosynthesis.After each watering film cover should be well ventilated. The formation of plants here should be carried out more carefully, not allowing the outgrowth of stepchildren, at least once a week. Finish it when the fruit is tied up on the last inflorescence. At the same time, the stem is limited in growth, leaving 2-3 leaves above the upper brush. In the northern regions of our zone, tomato harvest in the open field is usually low. Fruits are often strongly affected by late blight. In these conditions, to obtain a high yield, it is advisable to grow a tomato under the shelters of the dual-slope type. The height of the shelter in the ridge is up to 150 cm, on the sides - up to 110-120 cm, the width can be different depending on the number of planted rows of plants. When landing in 2 rows (this scheme is better for caring for the crop and it provides good ventilation of the structure) the width of the shelter is 110–120 cm. At the ends and on the roof the film is fixed rigidly to the frame of the shelter. A bar (reel) is nailed to the lower edge of the side film, onto which the film is wound when lifted. For better tightness of the shelter during the early planting of the reel is better to lay in small grooves. With the onset of warm weather, the film is twisted from the sides onto the roof of the shelter. If in the summer there are strong dews, then at night the sides of the shelter are lowered so that the plants are dry. This largely prevents the defeat of their late blight.
The beds are best “pull” along the long walls of the greenhouse. It is convenient to arrange them in the form of two or three separate lanes or in the form of letters P or III, which are turned with legs towards the entrance. The width of the beds is calculated individually, its optimal value is 60-90cm, maybe 100 or even 110cm. The main thing to remember is that the minimum distance between bushes when planting a tomato in a greenhouse cannot be less than 50 cm, and 10 cm or a bit more should be removed from the border of the bed. The passage between the ridges is determined arbitrarily, but not to the detriment of convenience in the process of weeding and performing other maintenance procedures. If space permits, it is advisable to make 70 cm aisles; if it does not, then 50 cm or a little less.
The life span of a variety is an important parameter when choosing a variety of cultivated tomatoes. In any case, the seedlings are planted only when the earth warms to a depth of less than 20 cm. Naturally, in the northern regions favorable conditions for planting occur much later. This means that a variety of tomatoes is needed for northerners with a shorter life cycle than for the middle band. True, it saves increased daylight hours, but recklessly rely on it is not worth it.
- At temperatures below 15 ºC, the efficiency of mineral absorption decreases, the roots do not develop at a sufficient rate, access to water is difficult, and seedlings take root much worse,If you still have to plant overgrown seedlings, you need to remember that you can not immediately plant it at all the necessary depth, because the powdered stem starts to take root, and the growth of seedlings for a few days (usually from 10 to 15) stops altogether.
Scheme of planting tomatoes.
- With prolonged hot weather, frequent airing is necessary, since at temperatures above 35 degrees the flowers fall off, failing to form an ovary.Clear signs of insufficient watering and air humidity
For cucumbers, it is best to arrange high beds of loose manure 70-80 cm wide. In the process of burning it will warm both the ground and the air in the greenhouse.
- Between racks, shelves with plants and walls should maintain a certain distance. Thus, natural air will circulate in the greenhouse. If we are talking about winter planting, the air should get into the greenhouse already heated. This means that the air flow should be set away from the plants. Air outflow can be done with a special ventilation device. This way you can avoid problems with mold. Since the humidity in the greenhouse for a tomato must be high, this should be artificially achieved.The harvest begins to flow 2–2.5 months after planting. It is better to harvest the fruits in brown or blanche ripeness, which contributes to the accelerated filling of the rest of the fruits. The first fruits are harvested after 3-4 days, then more often. Fruits are harvested only in dry weather. The last collection is carried out before the onset of frost.
Under this type of shelter, it is possible to grow both early ripe determinant varieties and later large-fruited varieties. Growing varieties of tomatoes is formed in three stalks, and later varieties - in two stalks. The tops of the stems pinch August 10-15. Plants are tied to the frame or stakes. Если рассада к моменту высадки переросла, то не менее половины длины стебля надо уложить в канавку глубиной 7 – 10 см и засыпать землей (листья с этой части стебля убираются). При такой посадке на уложенном стебле формируется мощная придаточная корневая система. При этом первая цветочная кисть закладывается ближе к поверхности земли, поэтому общее количество кистей на растении при сравнительно низкой высоте сооружения будет больше.Both of these factors contribute to a higher yield.
Greenhouse ridges for tomatoes are usually higher than the general surface level, because the ground elevated above the ground warms better and faster. There are different interpretations in the priority heights: from 20 cm to 40 cm. The height depends on the owners' ability to fill the bed with suitable soil and mixture and on their physical ability for a long time at the bed in the “bent” or “squatting” position.
- With individual claims of tomatoes, we met. We found out how to create conditions for their safe growth in a polycarbonate greenhouse. We realized that for planting tomatoes, we should prepare a greenhouse and grow or purchase seedlings. Those. all efforts aimed at obtaining the harvest will consist of two stages: the production of seedlings and the preparation of the greenhouse.When the temperature drops to 10 ºC, the roots of tomatoes stop absorbing nutrients from the soil and stop growing,
To avoid this, make the hole half as large as usual, insert a plant into it and cover it with earth, but not completely, but just the roots, as if you were planting ordinary seedlings. And only after 10-12 days, when it becomes clear that the plant has stuck, fill the hole completely.
Sowing seeds in a greenhouse is not particularly difficult. For sowing you need to use only high-quality, healthy seeds. It is better to purchase them in specialized stores, buying products of well-known companies.
- On hot days, the greenhouse can be kept open.Proper feeding of cucumbers.
First, you can install special air humidifiers. Secondly, it is necessary to water the tomatoes more often with hot water. Water temperature during watering should not be lower than 20-25 degrees. This means that water heating is also required. Some "kill two birds with one stone at a time": make pipes with water heated. This requires thermoregulation or vigilance. What you will heat the water, it depends on you. Some gardeners use solid fuel boilers, others - gas or electrical devices. Sometimes the system closes in such a way as to heat the greenhouse along with the house. Do not forget that the greenhouse should be heated both during the day and at night. Taking into account that the temperature of the air decreases at night, then at this time it is better to warm the air, that is, you should turn on the heating systems at full power (especially when it comes to cold areas where the temperature at night drops to -40).
Fruits need to remove everything, and even much earlier than the intended date, if the initial signs of late blight appeared on individual plants.
Preparation of the greenhouse for planting begins in the fall. Plants are removed and burned, the old film is removed. When growing a tomato in a greenhouse for 3 or more years in a row, pests and pathogens accumulate in the soil. In addition, with the uninterrupted use of nutrient soil, one-sided use of nutrients is observed, which leads to the depletion of soil for tomato culture. Therefore, if there is an opportunity, the greenhouse frame should be transferred annually to a new location. If this is not possible, then in the fall, after harvesting post harvest residues from the greenhouse and destroying them, it is necessary to remove the top layer of the soil by 4–5 cm, where the pathogenic sources mainly concentrate, remove it from the greenhouse and put it in a pile for 2-3 years biological recovery. Instead of the excavated layer of soil should be brought fresh soil. All parts of the greenhouse, inventory and packaging must be decontaminated. After this, it is necessary to evenly scatter humus or compost 10 kg per 1 m2, dolomite flour, phosphate and potash fertilizers and dig up. Doses of fertilizers should be determined based on soil analysis results. Approximately you can use the same dose as for open ground or slightly higher. In the spring, as soon as the soil is ripe, loosen the soil without turning the layer with garden forks to the greatest possible depth, then nitrogen fertilizers should be scattered and sealed with a manual cultivator. If fertilization and digging were not carried out in the autumn, this is done in the spring. The greenhouse should be covered with a film a few days before transplanting, so that the ground can warm up well.
The soil for tomatoes needs to be optimized in the following ways:
- Buy seedlings easier, and the time with the forces will be spent less. However, there will be no confidence in the exact observance of the agrotechnical norms of its cultivation. In addition, not all varieties of tomatoes are suitable for efficient planting in a polycarbonate greenhouse. Often in the spring there are noticeable differences between night and daytime temperatures, due to which moisture can condense on the polycarbonate walls. It can significantly harm non-hardened varieties, because contributes to the emergence and spread of disease.Lowering the temperature of the air in the greenhouse below 12 ºС and overestimation to 30 ºС during the flowering period of tomatoes leads to falling off of the ovary and stopping flowering. This is due to the fact that at low temperature pollen does not ripen, and high temperatures make it sterile,
- It is forbidden to put fresh manure or chicken manure into the wells prepared for planting the seedlings, since the plants damaged by the transplant will die.The timing of sowing seeds for greenhouses from different materials is slightly different. For greenhouses made of cellular polycarbonate and glass greenhouses, seeds for seedlings should be sown between February 26 - March 2. For film greenhouses - 10 days later.
It is held once every two weeks using ammonium nitrate, double superphosphate, magnesium sulphate and potassium sulphate.
- Paraffin heaters are often used as additional heating. This is one of the most popular ways to increase the temperature in the greenhouse. Paraffin heater is not only effective, but also absolutely harmless to plants. Special paraffin heaters for greenhouses moisturize the air. However, it is necessary to monitor the heat regulation and ensure the presence of traction.In order to grow tomatoes all year round, you need to live in a warm country with a Mediterranean climate. However, with the help of modern technology, this climate can be artificially recreated in northern latitudes. In this case, the risk of death of the fruit can be reduced. To do this, the temperature in the greenhouse for the tomato was optimal.
The planting of tomato seedlings in unheated film greenhouses (amateurs mainly have this type of greenhouse) can be started from the first decade of May, and in heated greenhouses - from mid-April. It should be remembered that the film does not protect the plants from negative temperatures, therefore, in case of early planting periods in case of a threat of frost, it is necessary to have on hand individual means of protection against cold weather.
- Loamy and clayey soil is “loosened” by adding humus, sawdust and peat to a 1m² bucket,For growing in a greenhouse with this type of coating, it is advised to purchase disease-resistant, hardened hybrids with the alphanumeric index F1. They are somewhat more expensive than high-quality seeds, but they are better adjusted according to the conditions specified by the polycarbonate. Less sick, more fruitful. Self-pollinating hybrids will not need to be artificially pollinated. Among them are representatives of large-fruited tomatoes and varieties such as "cherry". The only negative - the seeds of hybrids will not have "parental" properties. The next generation loses the qualities laid by breeders when two varieties are crossed. Characteristics of hybrids appear only in the first generation.
At temperatures below 5 ºC plants are damaged and die. Too overheated soil is no less dangerous for tomatoes. So, when the temperature rises above 38 ºС, the vegetable crop withers and dries,
Also, when planting seedlings should not be abused with nitrogen fertilizers, since an excess of nitrogen will lead to the fact that you get a lot of tops and a minimum of fruit.
- Many novice gardeners make the mistake of sowing seeds in a dry dry soil. The soil in the greenhouse for growing tomato seedlings should be moist and well heated. The optimal soil temperature for seed germination is 15-17º.. Tomatoes can be tied up in different ways: like cucumbers (to a vertical trellis), to separately hammered stakes, or to arrange horizontal trellis for them.
- When using organic fertilizers, insist 1.5 kg of mullein or 1 kg of bird droppings in 10 liters of water, after which the infusion is diluted with water: the first in a ratio of 1:10, the second 1:15.It can be produced when the temperature of the air and soil in the greenhouse reaches 18-20 degrees.
- The soil is heated with an electric cable immersed in the soil to a depth of 15-20 cm. This is the same “warm floor” system. By the way, you can use it. The only thing you should not forget is cable insulation. To avoid accidents, work in rubber boots and gloves. In addition, additional insulation in the form of special plastic protective containers for wiring will not hurt. It is recommended to protect the cable with additional steel mesh. Remember that watering water and electrical cable is a dangerous combination. The wires should not touch each other, they should be fixed with special clips at a great distance. For greater thermal conductivity and safety, the cable is placed on the sand and sprinkled with sand on top. Then the soil is laid and watered: wet earth warms faster.Do not allow sudden changes in temperature during the day.
The scheme of planting tomato in the greenhouse depends on the variety, the method of forming the bush and the size of the greenhouse. Planting rows are better directed from north to south, which improves the lighting conditions of plants. In a greenhouse 2 m wide tall greenhouse varieties, when forming them in one stem, should be planted in one row to the left and right of the central path. In the row between the plants give 35–40 cm, that is, about three plants are planted per m2. If the greenhouse has a width of about four meters, then there are two possible planting options. When the rows are directed along the greenhouse, they are planted in one row on each side, and in the middle of the greenhouse - two rows at a distance of 50–60 cm row from the row. In this case there should be two tracks.
The soil with a predominance of peat is “lightened” by adding 1m² of bucket of sod land, humus and small chips. And another half a bucket on 1 m² of coarse sand.
- For planting in a polycarbonate greenhouse, you can use:
- Temperature below 0.5 ºС leads to the instantaneous death of tomatoes.The scheme of planting seedlings directly depends on the type of tomatoes. But there is a general rule: each plant must have enough air and sun for full growth. There are three main types that differ in plant height: stunted, medium strong (determinant) and tall (indeterminant).
At temperatures below 12º, most seeds will not germinate, no matter how good they are.
- PollinationAttention! Before feeding the plants need to be watered well!
Single row cucumber planting
Another way to keep temperature for tomatoes is to avoid any heat loss. To do this, they build a greenhouse very carefully, “glue” all the gaps and correctly adjust windows and doors, leaving only a properly installed chimney and ventilation. Broken windows and torn polyethylene - death for tomatoes in the winter.
- Rarely what a traditional indoor plant can be compared with the beauty of a bush of such a tomato - the whole plant is simply covered with clusters, each with 10 fruits of 20-30 g each.You can use another option for placing tomato in wide greenhouses. In the middle one central path is made, and landing is carried out by two-line ribbons across the greenhouse. One of the aisles, the one on which they walk, is made wide, and the other, respectively, narrow. For example: 100? 40, 90? 50, 80? 60. Depending on the variety, the distance between plants in a row is 45–50 cm. With this planting pattern, there are also about three plants per 1 m2.
After backing up the “optimizers”, homemade soil mixture should be fertilized with 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate with 2 tablespoons of superphosphate, and then thoroughly dig. Immediately before planting tomatoes on the beds in a polycarbonate greenhouse, the ground should be watered with a pink solution of potassium permanganate. For the preparation of a disinfectant soluble 1 gr. pharmaceutical powder of potassium permanganate in 10 liters of water at a temperature of about 60 ºС.
Tomatoes - a greenhouse plant
Determinant tomatoes, bushes which reach a height of from 0.7 to 1.5 m and stop growing after a set of 6-8 deliveries,
Thus, daytime temperature fluctuations of 21. 23 ºС can be considered optimal for growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, and at night of 17. 18 ºС. This creates an optimal climatic environment for tomatoes, contributes to a better absorption of moisture and mineral substances from the soil and directly affects the quantity and quality of ripe fruit.
Diagram of the correct planting of tomato seedlings.
Seeding and seedling care
The first 3 weeks after the emergence of the seedlings of tomatoes can safely go about their business - during this period, seedlings grow to the root, and the ground part will grow slowly. The next 2 weeks the seedlings will begin to intensively form a leaf mass. But even in this period, there will be no particular hassle for gardeners.
. Since insects have limited access to the greenhouse, they have to be self-pollinated (see How to pollinate tomatoes and whether or not to do it), shaking the nearby plants slightly or passing through the rows between them with the fan turned on.
Attention! Do not plant in very hot weather. If the air temperature is above 27-28 degrees, wait for the evening and its decrease.
So, summing up, we recall: properly maintained temperature, careful watering with warm water and timely care are the key to good growth of tomatoes. With a host approach, you will get a generous tomato crop at any time of the year. Good luck!
Tomato - very tasty and healthy fruit. Among all the famous vegetables, he rightfully takes pride of place. However, not many people know that a tomato is not a vegetable at all, but a real berry! Maybe that's why it is so difficult to grow? After all, berries, as you know, are much more whimsical.
If early ripened undersized varieties are recommended, recommended for open ground, then in a two-meter-wide greenhouse they can be placed in two rows to the left and right of the central track, but plant them in order to facilitate maintenance is better in a staggered manner. At the same time, plants form 2–3 stems, and in a row they are placed every 50 cm.
Then we form the wells in a checkerboard pattern, with a kind of zigzag or against each other, not forgetting that there should be 50-60 cm between tomato bushes. Prepare a solution from 1 bottle of the greenhouse preventive drug Zaslon and pour it into 0.5 l each the hole.
Indeterminate tomatoes growing and blooming during the whole garden season without any restrictions.
In addition to temperature fluctuations, the humidity of the air in the greenhouse is also important, since at the same temperature and different humidity the state of the plant may be different. If you planted a seedling and a cold snap occurred, it is necessary to start additional heating of the greenhouse by artificial means.
Low-growing varieties and hybrids of tomatoes are mainly intended for cultivation in the open field. It is inexpedient to grow them in a greenhouse, as they are heavily shrugged, taking up a lot of space horizontally, while the vertical working space of the greenhouse remains free.
Preparing for planting in the greenhouse
Cucumbers are removed young, in the phase of technical maturity, preferably in the morning and every day or every other day.
In the ridges make deep round holes, fill them with fertile soil, which make the holes smaller. In them, the seedlings are set vertically, trying not to bury much, after which they water abundantly.
First, let's look at what a tomato is and what it is eaten with. In Europe, this vegetable-berry is known from the XVI century. At first, the tomato was considered an ornamental plant and was afraid to eat, considering it poisonous, unlike tobacco, which was brought along with the tomatoes. Tobacco smoking was considered a good thing.
By the time of planting tomatoes soil should be wet. If the spring moisture has partially evaporated, then water recharge irrigation is carried out 1-2 days before planting. On the ground surface pegs mark the distance between the rows and stretch the twine in the direction of the rows. Accurately above the rows, the horizontal wire trellis should be stretched at a height of 2.0–2.2 m from the soil surface. According to the planting scheme in the ground make the hole, shed them with warm water, and seedlings are planted in the dirt. Good results are obtained by introducing into the wells before planting a handful of humus and 4–5 g of superphosphate, which are pre-mixed with the ground. Planting is vertical, but if the seedlings are overgrown, they are planted obliquely, as described in the previous section. When planting potless seedlings, 1–2 lower leaves should be removed so that seedlings take root better. После посадки растения еще раз поливают теплой водой, а лунки мульчируют торфом или перегноем. Потом можно 2–3 недели не поливать, если растения не будут испытывать недостатка влаги.
Соблюдение рекомендованного расстояния – практически обязательное условие. Если между кустами помидоров будет много свободного пространства, они активно станут активно ветвиться. Из-за многочисленных пасынков снизиться урожайность. It will be necessary more often than it should be, to carry out a pasynkovanie, and this is an extra stress for sensitive "seniors". Removal of stepsons is carried out on a sunny morning, not cutting off, and breaking off extra branches. After the stalk should remain on the skin 2-3 cm long. The sun will dry the broken surface and heal.
Indeterminate tomatoes in priority. Their fruits begin to ripen earlier, and the bushes bear fruit longer. However, with a reasonable combination of two or three types of tomatoes, it will be possible to collect fruits for seasonal salads, for long-term storage, and for preservation. There is no consensus about planting different varieties of tomatoes in one greenhouse. According to the assurances of a number of gardeners, gardeners, so do not. There are not consonants claiming that in an arched structure, for example, it is irrational to cultivate bushes of the same height. Along the rounded walls, it is advisable to plant determinant tomatoes, and along the line of their indeterminant counterparts close to the center.
The minimum temperature that tomatoes stand in greenhouse conditions depends on the variety of plants. The average figure ranges from 5 ... 7 ºС. Undoubtedly, there are special frost-resistant varieties, mainly hybrids, which are able to withstand a lower temperature, but not very long. The negative impact of low temperatures adversely affects the growth and fruiting of tomatoes, so a constant temperature in the greenhouse should be higher. Before planting tomatoes in the greenhouse soil, seedlings need to be briefly put outside in the sun to temper tender room tomatoes. This procedure will increase the resistance of plants.
If you still decide to plant several bushes of undersized tomatoes in the greenhouse to get a very early harvest, then you need to plant them near the wall of the greenhouse, where it is as low as possible. The planting scheme will be as follows: 40 cm in the row between the plants and 60 cm between the rows.
All you need to do during this time - two watering seedlings. The first is when all the seedlings will grow, and the second two weeks after the first. The third watering will be needed immediately before planting seedlings from the greenhouse to the greenhouse. Watering seedlings of tomatoes must be at the root, and not on top of the leaves. The temperature of water used for irrigation should be in the range of 20-22º. It is not necessary to feed the seedlings while it is growing in the greenhouse.
For the first time after planting, tomatoes are watered only one week later.
Overgrown fruits inhibit the growth of new ovaries. Be sure to remove ugly fruits.
Tomatoes and cucumbers are the most popular salad vegetables in our country. Therefore, the majority of summer residents and owners of personal land plots necessarily arrange greenhouses for cucumbers and tomatoes on them, in an effort to provide their family not only with fresh vitamins, but also with delicious winter preparations.Tomatoes, or, as they are also called, tomatoes, are a plant of the family of nightshade. The name “tomato” was given to fruits by the American Indians, and the word “tomato” was invented by the Italians, who are known to be big fans of these berries. Oh, they know a lot about real tomatoes. Italians add them wherever possible, and in any form: fried, boiled or stewed. But the Spaniards even combine them with strawberries, preparing a special cold soup - gazpacho.
Scheme of planting tomatoes in the greenhouse
Three to five days after planting, when the seedlings finally take root, a tomato garter is placed in the greenhouse. To do this, cut the twine length 2.5–3.0 m (it is better to use synthetic twine, since it does not rot, and it can be used after disinfection for 2-3 seasons). One end of the twine is tied with a sliding loop on a wire trellis and lowered over the plant. The other end of the twine is tied loosely under one of the lower leaves. The stem is twisted around the twine through each internode. This operation is further carried out once a week, combining it with the holding of a beaker. The butchers are removed when they are no longer than 2–7 cm in length. They are best cut in the morning when the plants have a strong turgor, and the wounds have time to dry for a day. Little stepchildren are removed to the base, but if they have outgrown, they leave a stump 1–1.5 cm.
In the prepared beds we plant tomato seedlings in the following sequence:
Hybrids do not need to disinfect, soak, germinate, temper, etc. their forcing is as follows:
Some vegetable crops under the influence of rapid cooling freeze or stop growing. This significantly affects the yield of plants. The first to feel the cooling of heat-loving crops that grow close to the soil, including tomatoes.
Yet in greenhouses it is preferable to grow medium and tall varieties and hybrids of tomatoes. The scheme of planting tall varieties and hybrids, which usually lead to one stem: 60 cm between plants in a row, and between rows - 75-80 cm.
After 35-40 days after the emergence of shoots, the plants have already formed a good root system and ground leaf mass and begin to grow rapidly in height and in width. If the necessary measures are not taken at this time, the seedlings will greatly stretch and outgrow.
Further watering is done under the root, not falling on the leaves, once every 7–10 days, depending on the level of soil moisture. At the same time per 1 sq.m. 10-20 liters of water is poured.
. The distance between adjacent plants should be at least 40 cm, between the beds - at least one meter.
Allowable landing temperature
First you need to properly arrange a greenhouse (greenhouse). Greenhouse for vegetables can be from almost any material: from polycarbonate, plexiglas, polyethylene and even from old window frames. Tomatoes, too, will not “find fault” with the material from which the “house” is created for them, but their “requirements” are increased: the greenhouse must be light and have artificial heating. Therefore, to reduce the risk of death of tomatoes, their natural features should be considered.
Indeterminate varieties form in one stem. In this case, all stepchildren are removed. After the stem reaches the trellis, it is gently pulled along the wire, tied in two places, and then lowered down. Pinch the top for 1.5 months before the elimination of the culture, that is, no later than mid-August. Over the last inflorescence, 2-3 leaves are left, due to which the fruits of the upper brush are poured.
Before planting seedlings of tomatoes, two or three of its lower leaves are cut off,
- We will prepare boxes, plastic bags or boxes with holes for drainage of excess water below. The height of the planting container is up to 7 cm. At the stage of preparing the container for seedlings, it is necessary to take into account that different varieties of tomatoes are not sown in one container.
- Tomato seedlings when frozen to -1 ºC can significantly suffer. It will stop growing and begin to bear fruit much later. If the tomato seedlings are unheated and insufficiently ingrained, the plants may die from such stress. The most frost-resistant varieties of tomatoes can withstand about 3 ºС below zero, but only if the frost was a short time.
- The most difficult option is when grown in a greenhouse of medium-grown varieties and hybrids of tomatoes. Here, planting patterns will vary considerably depending on growing a plant in one or two stems. In the first case, the landing pattern will be 40 cm in a row and 50 cm between the rows. When growing such tomatoes in 2 stalks, the scheme will be as follows: 60 cm between plants in a row and 70 cm between rows.
The optimum temperature for growing
What are these measures? It is necessary to carefully monitor the temperature inside the greenhouse. During the day it should not exceed 18º, and at night it should not fall below 15º. During this period, the hardening of plants is carried out: on warm days, when the temperature rises above 12º, the frame of the greenhouse opens first for 10-15 minutes in the early evening hours, and every day this period increases by 15-30 minutes. The fact that seedlings are well hardened, can be judged by its color, which becomes a bluish-purple hue.
- Cracking - the result of excessive watering
- Tomatoes grow well in the open air and in hotbeds. But the price of these vegetables in some regions of the country is not quite high during the season, so many still prefer to grow them in greenhouses for early harvest.
- If two rows are made on one bed to save space, cucumbers are placed in a checkerboard pattern. It should also be remembered that between the plants and the walls of the greenhouse there should be a free space of 30-40 cm.
- What is this difference?
- Recommended air temperature during planting and the initial growth phase
- It is more difficult to form determinant varieties in one stem. They also remove all stepchildren, except the topmost one, which is a backup in case the growth of the main stem is completed with a floral brush. If the stem continues to grow, then during the subsequent stepson, the backup stepchild is removed, and the new stepchild located above is left above as a backup. It is possible to form both indeterminantny and determinant varieties in 2 stalks, but at the same time it is necessary to plant plants less often.
- Overturn the pot with seedlings and lightly tapping, freeing the container
- We prepare a soil mixture from equivalent parts of turf soil, peat and humus in terms of volume. Fertilize it with one tablespoon of superphosphate and the same amount of wood ash. If there is no time to bother with cooking, we buy a soil with pre-mixed fertilizers, intended for tomato seedlings.
The correct temperature in the greenhouse - the key to a stable and high-quality harvest. Therefore, if the climate of your region is not suitable for growing tomatoes, the air temperature of the greenhouse must be regulated. If automated greenhouse heating hits the pocket, simpler heating options can be applied, such as mulching the soil, additional hiding with film, and the like. Stabilizing the temperature to normal, you need to maintain a given mode, then including heating, then ventilating the greenhouse space.
The minimum temperature threshold that can withstand tomatoes
5 days before the expected planting of seedlings of tomatoes in the greenhouse of a plant, it is necessary to spray it with boric solution per 1 liter of water 1 g of boric acid. Spraying should be carried out in the early morning when the weather is cloudy. If this is done in sunny weather, burn spots may appear on the leaves of the plants. This simple agrotechnical technique will help preserve flower buds, which ultimately will significantly affect the overall yield.
The temperature at which the tomatoes in the greenhouse freeze
Humidity is maintained at 40-60%.
Preparations for planting tomatoes begin in the fall, changing the soil or digging it up and disinfecting it to destroy the phytophthora contained in the soil and other diseases of the tomato. In the autumn, when digging, you can make fertilizer.
Garter (see. How to tie cucumbers in a greenhouse: possible methods and techniques).
Contradictions between tomatoes and polycarbonate
- Decide what kind of greenhouse you need: capital or temporary. The construction of a capital greenhouse is more labor intensive, since it requires the installation of a foundation. This makes the structure heat-resistant and durable. So if you plan to turn the cultivation of tomatoes into a real business, you will have to work hard by making a real palace with artificial lighting and heated soil. Then your tomatoes will grow at any time of the year and will not be inferior in taste to their summer "comrades"! The greenhouse is recommended to "sheathe" the top with a bar, iron. The most optimal is considered the classical form: drop-shaped or semicircular. It is believed that this form does not linger precipitation on the roof of the building.
- If there are plants infected with viral diseases in the greenhouse, they should be taken care of last in order to prevent the spread of the virus.
- The root system, which has preserved the shape of the pot, is set in the hole so that the cotyledon leaves are located above the ground surface,
Before planting, pour the soil mixture with a solution of a useful agent - guamat, diluted according to the instructions attached to it. The solution should have a beer color and a temperature of approximately 35-40ºC.
Light and durable greenhouse structures with a polymer coating are confidently squeezing out of the out-of-town areas of outdated glass and film precursors. They have a lot of advantages, but sometimes ignorance of the specifics of the material turns the advantages into weighty cons. Therefore, if you plan to plant a tomato in a greenhouse with plastic glazing, you should consider its technical features. A careful owner needs to remember that tomatoes:Proper planting tomatoes - the basis of a good harvest. Therefore, it must be done responsibly, because the slightest carelessness can significantly affect the future harvest. But do not be afraid to experiment, creatively approach any work. And it is quite possible that you will be able to find something new, something that will allow your family and friends to be surprised with a record crop.Methods of garter brushes tomatoes.
Standard Tomato Requirements
- As in the case of cucumbers, in early spring the ground is covered with black film so that the soil warms to the required depth faster:
- About a week later, vertical trellis was erected above the rows. Ropes are tied to them with a free knot that can be easily untied.
- Tomatoes do not like high humidity, in which they are quickly affected by bacterial and fungal diseases. With increased humidity, flowers are poorly pollinated, and as a result the yield is reduced.
The frame is built from durable elements that will withstand heavy wind and a hurricane.
In addition to the formation, care activities include loosening watering, feeding, maintaining the temperature and humidity regime, controlling pests, diseases and others. In film greenhouses, temperature control is limited. Air temperature is reduced by airing. To this end, open the vents and doors from opposite sides of the greenhouse to more intensively pass the air exchange.
Stage # 1 - Growing Tomato Seedlings
We plant the seeds immediately in boxes / bags / boxes according to the “per school” principle, i.e. thickly into the grooves to a depth of 1.5 cm. The distance between the sown grooves is 5-7 cm.
Abundant and regular airing is required. Natural "ventilation" in buildings covered with solid polycarbonate sheets is lower than that of "frame" greenhouses with glass or film. Therefore, for good growth of tomato bushes and fruit ovaries, we need a construction not only with side windows, but also with upper windows. It is desirable that the vents were at least three. It is even more desirable that at least one of them be equipped with a device that automatically opens the vent hole in the case of “busting” with the temperature inside the structure,
You rich crops!
- When growing tomatoes in a greenhouse, there is one rule: the greenhouse should be illuminated all day by sunlight. This is very important, because even a small shadow from the nearby bushes can ultimately significantly reduce the yield of tomatoes in the greenhouse.
- The first feeding and all subsequent ones are done in 2-3 weeks.
Once or twice a week as the lashes grow, the knot is released, the rope is twisted around the plant and tied up again to the trellis. You will learn more about the cucumber garter from the video attached to the article.
- And the ensuing fruits lose their taste. In addition, tomatoes are quite easy to tolerate the lack of moisture and heat.
- If you already have a suitable greenhouse, then you need to prepare it in a special way. Remember that where tomatoes grow, it is not allowed to lower the temperature to less than 17 degrees. Tomatoes are very thermophilic! The optimum temperature for them is 26-27 degrees. If you grow a tomato in the summer, there should be no problem. For the "winter" tomatoes will have to significantly complicate the equipment of the greenhouse.
- Tomato unlike cucumber loves "drafts". In hot sunny weather, it is advisable to lift the film from the sides of the greenhouse or remove it altogether. Refreshing irrigations, that is, irrigations in small doses, also contribute to a decrease in air temperature, after which thorough ventilation should be carried out immediately.
- We water the first time and immediately tie up the bushes to the trellis in 10-12 days. With irrigation do not rush to keep the growth of stems in height.
- We install containers on the coasters laid on the windowsill (bricks, sticks, stacks of old notebooks, etc.). It is necessary that the root system freely flowed air.
- Requires preventive protection from the destructive phytophtoras and other vegetable pests that multiply in an enclosed space as actively as cultivated plants. Therefore, before planting seedlings, the greenhouse is regularly processed to destroy fungal spores, putrefactive microorganisms, and larvae of voracious insects,
- Помидоры — теплолюбивая культура, поэтому для их выращивания необходимы особые условия. Создать благотворный для томатов средиземноморский климат на своем дачном участке поможет теплица. Чтобы выращивание овощей было максимально эффективным, в парнике рекомендуется выдерживать определённые климатические условия, соблюдая показатели влажности и оптимальный температурный режим. Это снизит риск гибели томатов и поможет получить хороший урожай качественных плодов.
- Tomatoes in the greenhouse make its length. The width of 1 bed can vary from 60 to 90 cm, height - 35-40 cm, and the number of beds depends on the width of the greenhouse. At the same time, one should not forget to leave between the beds aisles 60-70 cm wide.
For the first dressings, 50 g of superphosphate, 10 g of urea and 30 g of potassium sulfate are dissolved in 10 liters of water. When plants enter the fruiting stage, the dose of superphosphate is reduced to 30 g, and the dose of urea and potassium sulfate is increased, respectively, to 30 and 50 grams.
4-5 days before planting the seedlings in the greenhouse prepare beds with one or two rows of holes. The planting scheme is the same as that of cucumbers. By this time, the ground should warm up to at least 15 degrees at a depth of 12-15 cm.
Below the string is tied to pegs, a pipe laid along the bed or another support.
For their cultivation in greenhouses, they try to maintain a sufficiently high temperature and dry air, for which reason they often arrange ventilation.
Much depends on the latitude in which you live. So, in the north, in Belarus and Siberia, maturation will go slower, but in the Crimea - faster. The difference between the ripening of greenhouse tomatoes in different climatic zones is 1-2 months.
The optimum air temperature in the greenhouse for a tomato should be different in different growth phases and during the day, and depends on the light. Before fruiting, it should be a day in sunny weather of 20–22 ° C. In the cloudy 19–20 ° C, at night 16–17 ° C. As soon as the fruit starts pouring, the temperature should be somewhat higher: in the daytime in sunny weather 24–26 ° C, in overcast 19–20 ° C, at night 17–18 ° C. These temperature levels should be maintained as far as possible throughout the entire fruiting period. When the night temperature rises even by two degrees, the internodes and flower brushes become longer, the stems become thin and weak, the flowers are small, the fruits are worse in quality. During the transition from nighttime temperatures to daytime parameters very often condensation forms on the plants, which can lead to burns if the morning is sunny and hot. In this case, careful ventilation is required. This should be done carefully, as cold air flows can lead to the whitishness of the fruit. Soil temperature should not be lower than 16–18 ° C.
Stage # 1 - preparing the greenhouse and planting tomatoes
The video lesson will help you to master the procedure:
In the box, seedlings will grow about 30 days before the appearance of two or three of their own leaves. During this time, they only need to be watered 3 times, so that the seedlings do not stretch too much. The first time we pour a small amount of water, when all the seedlings seem "to the light." Further, according to the situation: in one or even two weeks. The ground should be wet, but not waterlogged.
We need lower parameters of humidity and temperature than cucumber bushes, which is why they should not be planted together in the same greenhouse. Otherwise, the yield of one of the crops significantly reduced.
When planting tomato seedlings in a greenhouse, the most important factor is not even how hot the air is in the greenhouse, but what is the temperature of the soil at a shallow depth from the surface. Therefore, before planting tomatoes in the ground, you must ensure that the temperature reaches a minimum of 15ºС. Under these conditions, seedlings can be planted in a greenhouse, as it will quickly take root and take on new roots. If the temperature of the surface layer of the soil is below 10 ºС, then the roots will not develop and there is a risk that the root system may rot.
- Before planting seedlings in the greenhouse, you need to work to improve the soil. The soil for tomatoes in the greenhouse should be porous, well breathable, and also contain all the necessary fertilizers for normal growth of tomatoes.
- Pasony (see Pasting tomatoes in the greenhouse, and why is it needed?).
Cucumbers require exactly the opposite growing conditions - moderate temperature, lack of drafts and high levels of air humidity and soil. With a lack of moisture, the leaves begin to wilt quickly, as the water evaporates quickly from their large area.
Another important tip: do not grow tomatoes in the same greenhouse every year. They will “deplete” the soil and stop growing. It is better to alternate cultures: for example, sow tomatoes once, and next year - cucumbers.
- The soil must always be kept loose and wet. Tomatoes are especially in need of water during fruit loading, when the optimum soil moisture should be 75–80% HB. So, during the pouring of the first four brushes, the maximum water consumption by tomato plants is observed.
- Studying in detail the process of forcing the seedlings and the procedure for preparing the greenhouse gives a lot of advantages. Compliance with agricultural practices will ensure yields, help prevent diseases. In any case, it is better to thoroughly understand in order to get the desired result and not learn from your own mistakes and mistakes.
- Regularly turn the boxes, substituting different sides of natural lighting, so that the stems do not "skosoboschilo."
- Another important requirement from the "Signors" of tomatoes is good illumination. A slight shading will not fail to reflect on the growth and development of the planted seedlings and, as a result, on the harvest. Because polycarbonate is inferior to glass in its light-conducting ability, objects that cast a shadow on the greenhouse are better removed. What is easier to do: move the design or transplant bushes, you need to decide in fact on the spot.
- To maximize the heating of the soil, the film greenhouse is recommended to be covered in advance, a black film coating is very well suited for this purpose. If the soil does not have time to warm up to the desired condition, and the seedlings already need to be planted, before planting the tomatoes, pour a little hot water into each well. Another rule: do not plant the seedlings deeply if the ground is not fully heated. To plant seedlings in cold soil means to subject tomatoes to various diseases. Tomatoes will hurt until the soil temperature reaches an optimal value. In this case, it is better to wait: the soil under the film warms up pretty quickly - just a couple of days.
Scheme of planting tomatoes in the ground.
In order not to allow the tomatoes to grow and form many fruit-bearing branches that slow down the ripening of already existing fruits, they remove the processes that appear between the main stem and the branches.
. Tomatoes are planted in the wells with a clod of earth and watered abundantly with warm water, pouring about 5 liters of water under each plant.