Spicy and medicinal herbs

Mustard need to dig over or you can just mow?

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Mustard (Sinápis) is a plant from the genus Cabbage, whose name comes from the Greek words sinos (harm) and opsis (vision). When the mustard is ground, it emits ether, which causes lacrimation.

Many grow this plant in their beds in order to improve the soil, because after it, vegetables and other plants grow much better and faster.

Mustard is an excellent siderat (organic fertilizer that is specially grown), the roots of the plant grow very deeply, thus eliminating the need for deep digging and loosening. Many people know about these properties of mustard, but still it can be used as a spice.

Before you start growing, you need to decide what it is for. There are different varieties: white mustard - good siderat, salad (leaf) mustard - used as greens to the table, black mustard - used as a spice.

In addition, mustard seeds are widely used, which are formed on all its species. Mustard seed oil, seasoning sauce are made from seeds, and they are also used in marinade cooking. Mustard seeds are used in medicine - mustard plasters are made from them.

Mustard is an excellent honey plant. Beekeepers place beehives with bees near mustard fields in order to get mustard honey, because it is very useful.

Also, this plant is used as feed for livestock.

What is useful mustard?

  • Mustard (seeds and young leaves) contains vitamins useful for the body (E, PP and groups B, A, C) and trace elements (calcium, potassium, phosphorus, iron, sodium, zinc and others),
  • it improves metabolism
  • slows down cell aging
  • contributes to the improvement of human mental activity,
  • is an antioxidant
  • mustard powder plasters have disinfectant properties,
  • mustard plasters have a positive effect against colds,
  • excellent detergent (natural)
  • used as a means to combat obesity.

Although it is considered to be such a useful plant, it is necessary to be careful of those who have housing and communal services and kidney diseases.

Growing young greens to the table

Salad (Sizaya or Leaf it also Russian, Indian, Sarepskaya) mustard has large and tasty juicy leaves. This green grows quickly, so it can rejoice in early spring. You can grow this type on a separate bed or next to other plants.

Sow the grains in the ground to a depth of 1.5 cm, in separate rows. The distance between each of them should be about 25 cm. If the seedlings are thick, then you shouldn’t thin out them right away, it is better to do this when the leaves grow a little and you can use them to the table. Garden mustard bed must be watered regularly, but do not allow stagnant moisture.

Any soil is suitable, but it is better to sow the seeds in loose and light soil. Fertilizers should not be used.

The optimum temperature for growing mustard is + 18 + 20 ° С. Since in hot weather, mustard quickly "leaves" the arrow, it is recommended to grow it in spring and early summer or autumn.
You can cut the leaves for food in 2-2.5 weeks.

In addition to eating salad mustard, as well as white can be used as siderat.

Growing green manure

White mustard is very useful for other plants that will grow after it. White mustard roots are extracted from the minerals potassium, nitrogen, phosphorus and give them to the soil, where other plants can easily digest.

The white mustard root system penetrates deep into the soil, loosens it, saturates it with oxygen. Also destroys the causative agents of various plant diseases, reduces the amount of wireworm.

The mustard siderat, grows very quickly, can grow even in relatively cold weather. In early spring, the plant withstands frosts of up to -5 ° C. It can be sown in early spring, when the earth thaws, or in the fall, just before the frost - in the winter.

The plant will grow well on the ground of any acidity. The standard for sowing is 4 grams. on m2. If the site is littered with wireworm - 5 gr. on m2.

Seeds are sown in rows or rows to a depth of 1.5 cm. After sowing, the area is watered abundantly.

The first shoots are visible for 3-4 day. The plant grows quickly, after 2 months it can reach 20 cm.

Before the mustard blooms it is cut and plowed into the ground to a depth of 5 - 10 cm.

From one hundred square meters of land, sown with white mustard, you can easily get 400 kg. natural fertilizer.

Growing spicy black mustard

This type of mustard (French, Dijon, Real) is an indispensable component of savory dishes in cooking. It has a spicy and slightly pungent taste. An indispensable component of masala, some sauces and marinades.

In cultivation, this species differs in that it needs good soil, and also black mustard, a thermophilic plant. Therefore, it is sown a little later than the leaf.

Do I need to dig up mustard?

After a month or one and a half after planting, when the mustard grows to 15-20 cm, it can be mown with a flat cutter or oblique. Before this, it is advisable to pour it with a solution of EM preparations in order to speed up the fermentation processes and create all the necessary conditions for the maximum enrichment of the soil with nutrients.

But the question is whether it is necessary to dig up mustard on the siderata or leave it in a mown state? Experts advise not to dig it, especially in the fall, but just leave it on the ground. She will have time to recycle properly in the spring. And the dying roots left inside will give the earth softness and structure.

If you do decide to dig up mustard, you should follow some rules. First of all, you need to choose the right time of year for this. When is it better to dig up mustard - in the fall or spring? It all depends on when you put it. It is logical that spring mustard should be dug up in spring, before planting potatoes or other crops in its place.

Answering the question - is it necessary to dig up mustard in the fall, it should be noted that experts advise this period. By the autumn, mustard accumulates a maximum of useful substances and is ready to give them to the soil.

Before digging, you need to wait for the flowering of mustard - at the time of its beginning, the plant has accumulated the greatest amount of useful substances. But it is not necessary to tighten it either, because, firstly, the mustard stems become coarser and rotten worse, and secondly, if the seeds fly apart, undesirable shoots will appear.

Precautions when growing mustard

For all its benefits, mustard still carries a certain risk to its followers, that is, those crops that will be planted in its place. Since the plant is a cruciferous, it threatens all the same diseases and pests as other cruciferous plants - cabbage, radish, radish.

Therefore, it is impossible to plant these crops on the site of mustard, so that they would not pass on possible diseases, such as keel, and pests such as cruciferous flea.

The content of the article

  • How to sow mustard from weed
  • How to sow green manure phacelia
  • When to sow the green manure and when to bury them in the fall

Even the most fertile soil of the garden plot will require fertilization sooner or later. Best of all, if it is organic: humus, peat. However, such weed growth is inevitably followed by rapid growth of weeds. For this reason, many gardeners opt for planting green manure plants, which are full-fledged green manure. These are cereals (rye, oats), legumes (peas, clover, alfalfa, vetch), crucifers (rapeseed, rape, oilseed radish, mustard). Each plant has its own advantages and disadvantages, so their choice should be approached wisely.

What is good mustard

I must say that all types of mustard (white, black, leaf) have the right to treat siderats. At the same time, the leaf can be successfully used in cooking, cutting off juicy leaves for salad two weeks after sowing. Black mustard is little used as a green fertilizer. The blame is her love for heat.

White mustard, unlike its relative, can withstand spring frosts to -5 ° C. It is unpretentious to the soil, because its root system is able to penetrate to a depth of 2 meters, breaking even the heaviest soil. Mustard extracts nutrients to the surface and converts them into easily digestible form, making them accessible to their cultural followers. Especially well mustard fills the soil with phosphorus, sulfur and nitrogen.

The value of mustard, which is often sown as a compactor, preventing the growth of weed, in rapid growth. And the cold weather does not slow down this process at all. Mustard sprouts appear as early as 3-4 days, and the highest growth rate and development of the plant falls on the beginning of the growing season. In just 1.5 months, mustard can rise to a height of 20 cm. Although it can reach 80 cm, such achievements are unacceptable for the use of mustard as a fertilizer. You should not wait for the phase of its active flowering to bury the crushed green mass in the ground.

All green manure plants are used to control weeds, but their action is different. If rye itself is aggressive to any kind of vegetation and only cornflowers is allowed into its territory, then mustard is much more appealing in this regard. With rare sowing, weeds will still make their way; therefore, if it is assumed that mustard will not multiply for the sake of saturating the soil with minerals, but also from weeds, then you need to take care of sufficient planting density.

Rules for sowing white mustard

On average, 2.5 g of seeds per square meter is recommended. To get rid of weeds and some diseases and pests in the soil (and mustard is effective in combating wireworm, nematode, late blight, scab), the number of seeds increases to 4-6 g. Since mustard is a precocious crop, it can be sown from mid-April and ending mid-August, taking the plant has not yet planted or already liberated from vegetable area.

Sowing mustard from the weed does not require any special farming practices. Seeds can be distributed along the furrows or scattered by hand, closing up to a depth of 1.5–2 cm using a rake. It all depends on the size of the sown area. It should be borne in mind that for friendly shoots watering is required. Mustard is a moisture-loving crop, but excessive moisture, like drought, can be harmful.

Using mustard crops as a siderata, one should take into account that it cannot be sown where crucifers have grown or will be planted, as she herself belongs to this family and can be subject to the same diseases. Since the mustard is supposed to be embedded in the soil as a fertilizer after 1.5 months from planting, one more rule must be strictly followed: other crops can be planted in the place where the green siderata is dug up only 2–3 weeks after this action.

Following this recommendation, it is good to plant mustard early in the spring to the place where tomatoes and peppers will grow. In Siberia, for example, these vegetables are planted in open ground only by mid-June. The mustard sown in mid-April will not allow the weeds to overwhelm the area that has been empty for so long and will create a favorable environment for the future plants to feed.

What is useful for mustard plants?

Sowing mustard to fertilize the soil used to enrich the earth with nitrogen and phosphorus. The green mass embedded in the ground actively gives these useful trace elements to follower plants, feeding them at the most important, initial stage of growth. It should be noted that mustard is not only siderat, it has many other useful qualities. She is:

  • Cleans the soil from phytophtoras, scab, putrefactive microorganisms, fights with wireworm, slugs and seed moth,
  • Because of its rapid growth does not allow other weeds to grow,
  • Improves soil structure
  • Prevents leaching of garden and garden lands due to its ability to trap nitrogen,
  • After frost turns into a mulching shelter, protecting the soil from freezing, and, accordingly, retaining more moisture in it until spring,
  • It is a good honey plant
  • It can be a companion plant for various garden and garden crops, for example, for potatoes, beans, grapes, fruit trees, as it stimulates their growth and protects against pests.

How to grow green fertilizer?

In fact, very easy. Mustard is adapted to any soil and conditions. After planting its seeds, you can forget about the plot for 2-3 weeks. She will rise and grow in any case. Even she does not care for frosts - young shoots withstand frosts of up to -5 ° C, without much damage to the green mass.

The size of the seeds of this plant is small, but since they have some volume (similar to very small beans), it is convenient to grab them when planting. therefore mustard is usually planted, not sown, by row method, keeping the distance between the seeds of 10-15 cm, and between the rows - 20 cm. Under favorable conditions, this plant forms sprawling bushes that need space. It is not necessary to deeply plant planting material, it will slow down germination and weaken the plants. The maximum planting depth on loose, sandy soils –1 is 1.5 cm, on clayey soils - 1 cm. Shoots together appear in 3-5 days.

If time is short, you can organize the sowing of mustard to fertilize the soil. The result, of course, can be expected worse than with a uniform landing, but it will still be. With this "accelerated" method, you can simply scatter the seeds on the previously prepared loose soil surface, and deepen them with a rake. In this case, the rate of consumption of seed material - 4-5 g per 1 m².

When to plant mustard to improve the soil?

The first planting of white mustard, which is most often used as a fertilizer, is made in April. As soon as the permanent night frost stops, and the air temperature rises above 10 ° C, this undemanding plant is planted. To achieve its conditional form, it will take about 4-7 weeks, that is, if you sow mustard in spring, in April, you can manage to fertilize its area before planting the main garden plants.

But it should be noted that not all vegetables can be planted after mustard. Cabbage, radish, radish, lettuce and other cruciferous plants have bad neighbors, followers and predecessors for it, since they are all affected by the same diseases.

After harvesting crops that occupy large areas, there is still a sufficient number of warm days that can be used for planting siderats on this plot.

Autumn mustard is planted after potatoes and cereals., thus rehabilitating large tracts of land. Sometimes this siderat is sown before winter, so that the mustard will spring up. The most important thing in this case is not to make a mistake with the landing time. Seeds should be placed in cold, but previously loosened earth. They need to stay in a state of rest, before the onset of spring, and, at the same time, not to freeze. Therefore, the depth of embedding can be slightly increased, since the meltwater will still erode the top layer of soil.

How to use Sinapis alba for feeding?

According to gardeners, mustard is a very convenient green fertilizer that does not require much effort when using the application. It is embedded in the soil immediately, at the place where she grew up.which is very convenient - no effort is required to carry and transport. For example, if mustard is used as a weed suppressor for potatoes, then when weeding it is simply buried in the soil with a hoe or hoe.

Cut mustard in the garden should be before floweringotherwise the stems will be rough, and it will be difficult to process. But at the age of 5-7 weeks it is as soft as grass. Now it’s time to clean it up, having previously watered with a solution with effective microorganisms (for example, “Baikal”). This will speed up siderata recycling. But do not forget that in the dry state, the decomposition process is slow, so the area on which the mustard was sown to fertilize the soil must be periodically moistened.

If the land, which is planned to be “revived” by siderats, has been under heavy exploitation for many years, then there are most likely too few microorganisms left in it, and no one will decompose the green mass. therefore Vermicultivated compost must be added along with the mustard mustardrich in fast-breeding earthworms.

When using siderates for feeding and healing the soil, it should be taken into account that each plant absorbs, and subsequently, gives its followers a certain set of macro- and microelements, and white mustard alone cannot ensure the correct balance of the nutrient medium. To fully fertilize the site, it is necessary to use a mixture of green crops.

Mustard Description

First you need to decide on the goals of cultivation. White mustard is excellent sideratov, unpretentious and fast-growing. Leaf and salad mustard comes to the table as spicy greens. Черная горчица имеет более пряный и острый вкус, чем салатная.

Любой вид горчицы дает семена, из которых делается магазинная горчица, горчичное масло и горчичники. Кроме того, растение является прекрасным медоносом и хорошим кормом для скота.

Горчица принадлежит семейству капустных, поэтому страдает от тех же болезней, что и капуста, и от тех же вредителей.

В горчичных семенах и ее зеленых листьях много полезных веществ, which include vitamins A, C, E, PP and group B. Many of it and trace elements:

  • potassium,
  • phosphorus,
  • magnesium,
  • gland,
  • calcium,
  • sodium,
  • zinc
  • others.

Mustard improves digestion and metabolism, is natural antioxidant:

  • slows the aging process
  • stimulates the growth of healthy cells
  • improves mental activity.

Mustard patches are used to disinfect wounds and speed up their healing, they are used to fight colds.

Mustard also helps people who want to lose weight, because it breaks down fats. The same property makes it an excellent natural detergent. Stored well, washed off easily.

When consuming spicy seasoning, of course, you need to know the measure. Especially careful should be persons with gastritis, gastric ulcer, kidney disease.

Cultivation of white mustard

White mustard roots draw nutrients from mineralsThese substances are:

Back these elements are returned in a form that is easily absorbed by plants. The roots loosen the soil to great depths. Killing various pathogens, for example, late blight and scab. Reduced the number of wireworm.

One of the biggest advantages of white mustard, like siderata, is the growth rate. Even in the cold, the plant grows fast. Mustard seedlings spring stand frost to -5 ° C. Therefore, it can be planted as soon as the ground allows, or for the winter, before the cold.

White mustard is suitable soil of any acidity. The seeding rate is 4g / 1 m², if on the wireworm section - 5g / 1 m². Seeds are deepened by continuous sowing or rows of approximately 1.5 cm. Then the plot is watered.

Shoots appear for 3-4 days. After 2-2.5 months after sowing, mustard can grow up to 20 cm. Then it is mown, and the soil is buried to a depth of 5 cm. These procedures should be done before flowering.

Productivity - 400 kg per hundred, which is equal to the introduction of 300-400 kg of manure and other fertilizers. There is no danger of poisoning the soil, plants or yourself.

Knowledge of some special technologies and great physical effort does not require the cultivation of mustard.

Growing mustard salad

G leavesOrchitsa salad large and juicy. Growing it is done separately and with other plants, is used as a seal. Salad, or gray mustard is ready for use in early spring, when other vegetables are not yet available. Other plant names:

Seeds are planted at a depth of 1.5 cm in rows, between which a distance of 25 cm is made. When thick shoots appear, they are thinned, and the torn plants are eaten. Lettuce mustard should be watered regularly, and there should be no over-wetting of the soil.

Leaf mustard is suitable for any soil, but it is desirable to grow it in a fairly loose and light soil. Do not use mineral fertilizers, rather choose organics.

The optimum temperature for growing mustard salad - 18-20 ° C. Higher temperatures will cause it to go to the arrow. So, in the hot summer you need good watering, fan irrigation should be done early in the morning or in the evening.

After 2-3 weeks after planting, you can already cut the leaves and eat them.

Like black and white, salad mustard is an excellent sideratom.

Growing black mustard

This plant is used as a component of many sauces and various dishes. It has a more spicy taste and greater spiciness than mustard salad. This is the best honey plant among the mustards.

Other names: french and real. Compared with the leaf plant more thermophilic and more demanding of the soil. Otherwise, growing it is the same as growing salad.

Soil preparation for planting

Although the plant is unpretentious, it requires proper tillage. Sufficient moisture should accumulate in the soil at the depth of the planted seeds. Weeds and plant residues from the previous ones are harvested.

The best preparation is stubbling. The depth of processing is 6-8cm, after which the plunge cut depth is 10-12cm. If during the preparation in the autumn time there is a contamination of the offspring of the roots, additional herbicides are used. To create a high-quality sowing bed, at a depth of 4-5 cm, angular transverse cultivation is made. It should be a leveled ground with positive physical qualities.

A certain nutrient medium must be created in the soil. Scientific research and observations say that there should be enough nitrogen or nitrogen fertilizer in the soil. For proper growth you need up to 60kg of fertilizer per 1t of seeds. The same ratio for potash fertilizers. Phosphoric components should be 25-30kg. A more accurate idea of ​​the amount of fertilizer will give an analysis of the soil.

Seeds are seeds of the first reproduction, which are carefully sorted. Sowing is usually planned for earlier periods. A two-week delay can result in a yield loss of around 40%.

The optimal width between the rows of seeding should not be less than a minimum of 15 cm. On contaminated soil and on soil with low nutrient saturation between the rows can be 60cm. Seeds are sown to a depth of 2-3cm for soil with a normal level of moisture. On dried soil, the depth is increased to 5 cm.

To reduce the loss of soil moisture after sowing roll rollers.

Care of crops

Neither the sharp smell of asthenia, nor its bitterness save from pests. The most dangerous in this regard is the flowering period, when the pods are formed. This time cabbage aphid behaves most actively. Crops are protected by processing.

In addition to aphids, there are other enemies. If seeds are not pickled during preparation, beetles may appear on the plants. cruciferous flea, which is also struggling with the use of insecticides.

At the end of the budding period it finds rape sawfly, rapeseed flower beetle and seed stole-marsh.

Seed treatment is good for post-harvest diseases. Mold, Alternaria, Perinospora, and other diseases are treated with herbicides allowed for this culture.

Caring for sowing is not only the fight against diseases and pests, this includes cultivation. Before the emergence of the first shoots necessarily harrowing light toothed harrows. These harrows easily remove the crust on the ground, which will facilitate the emergence of seedlings.

To prevent the emergence of dense thickets that upset the penetration of air, light and moisture and air, produce post-emergence harrowing. This is most often done when up to five leaves appear on the plants. On large areas with large distances between the rows in the same period, cultivating up to 5 cm depth is carried out.

As far as possible, the required level of humidity is maintained on the acreage. Culture likes dry soils, but it also feels bad in overly wet soil.

Sowing and cultivation from seeds in summer cottages is carried out on an industrial scale. Thanks to manual labor, the harvest is higher than with industrial cultivation on large areas.

Features of growing on a summer cottage

In the garden it is recommended to grow white mustard, more like a salad. Landing is done early. Seeds are planted three weeks before planting vegetables and potatoes. This is explained by the fact that the culture is not afraid of low temperatures. 3-4 weeks after planting sheets will be good.

For top dressing Plants use: bird droppings, mullein, infusion of fermented nettles.

If you plant a seedling of vegetables between a culture, it will protect it from pests and frosts. After strengthening the seedlings, mustard can be cut and left between the rows for the purpose of mulching.

To obtain seeds, the plant is planted as early as possible. To speed up the process of emergence of the first shoots, the planting can be covered with a film. When two true leaves appear, rows should be thinned up to 5 cm between plants, up to 15 cm after the appearance of the fourth leaf.

During the season on the site the seeds can be planted many times. It is necessary to monitor the growth and remove the plant until the flowers appear, otherwise the mustard will spread to the entire plot.

Until mid-August, the culture can be grown as a siderata. The later plantings will no longer yield leaves or seeds, but will provide reliable protection of the soil from weeds and pests.

Harvesting

Harvest can be a variety of ways. Where weeds bring trouble, cleaning is done in a separate way. The plant is mowed with rollers with a seed moisture of up to 30%. Rolls are selected when the humidity is not more than 15%. In clean areas, harvesters are used, and the moisture content of seeds in this case is 12-15%. At the currents, the moisture level can be increased to 9%, after which they are placed in storage. In the same place is made dressing against rodents.

At home, the mustard, after harvesting, is laid out on shelters protected from the sun, then threshed, and after the final drying, it is scattered into bags.

Sow mustard in spring

Sowing mustard begins in March and ends in August. And when to dig up mustard? You can immediately in the year when sown. For planting fit any soil. If you live in the southern region, the planting of plants can be done when the spring comes, or even when February ends.

But in order to have a high probability that the mustard will grow, it will be sown almost shortly before the main crop is planted, including berries and vegetables.

If you have planted cabbage, radish, radish or other cruciferous, then you should not sow mustard after them. Why? The fact is that they have common pests and diseases. And with turnips, the plant does not even grow nearby.

It is good to start sowing mustard before the flower beds and flower beds were broken. Sow it in front of bulbous and rhizomatous flowers. Because of the siderates, which rot, plant growth slows down. Therefore, if you only mowed mustard, you need to wait about a week to sow and plant vegetables and berries at the same place.

Sow mustard in the fall as a fertilizer

Mustard white as siderat - when to sow it in the fall? The months of August and September are suitable for this. So you can leave it to overwinter. If the plant has managed to grow well before the cold weather, then it is mown, and the soil is treated.

Mustard, located in the southern region, grows faster. Therefore, make its landing in mid-September or October. The fast-growing plant is able to ascend even at a fairly low temperature - up to 5 degrees Celsius. At the same time, it partially germinates at plus 2. It is also interesting that when growth occurs, even when the temperature is below zero, the green mustard leaves will continue to grow. They are able to withstand minus 5. If autumn is warm, then the plant, sown in October, can reach 10 cm in height.

Mustard as a siderat in the fall is sown immediately after the harvest was harvested. Do not hesitate with this question, because literally in 3 days weeds will start to appear.

A good example of how to use mustard

When August ends, there is usually a harvest of tomato that grows in the open field. In parallel with this, sow mustard around each bush. When the harvest has already been gathered and it is mid-September, add to the plant the powder mixture. As far as temperature permits, leave siderats so that they continue to grow in winter. In springtime, the area is plowed with a cultivator.

What if in autumn the plant had time to grow strongly? Then do not plow it, and leave it as mulch. Now water the area with phytosporin, after which you can plant a tomato.

Features of sowing mustard

How to sow mustard in the fall? For this planting to be effective, it is important to prepare each bed in advance. When you have removed the main crop, then begin to clear the plantation from weeds. Also, it should not be vegetable residues. On every square meter will go about 2 buckets of humus. If necessary, add a little dolomite flour, dig and pick up the site. It is important that those lumps of land, which are very large, are leveled using a rake.

How to sow mustard in the fall to have a good result? No need to make any rows or measure distance. Sowing takes place very thickly - just take the seeds in a handful and pour them gradually, like salt in the soup. Approximately per square meter will take up to 5 grams of seeds. Do not be afraid of dense sowing. Because of the carpet seedlings, the rains will not wash out nutrients from the soil, and therefore there will be no soil erosion.

If you plan to make seasoning from mustard, then use the row method. Between each seed should be 10 cm, and between the row - 20 cm. When the bush grows, it will be strong, and the rows begin to close. If necessary, when the plant grows, thin it.

Whatever technique you use, do not plant the seed too deep. Because of this, germination can be delayed. Sit a seed no deeper than 1 cm. If you plant a plant like siderat, then it is possible for the seeds to remain on top of the soil. At the same time it is important that the earth was loose and it is necessary to water it in a timely manner.

The right approach to caring for a plant

Best for the plant fit light (sand) and medium (loamy) land. Well fit a dense black soil, as well as drained areas. With great difficulty, mustard will grow on clay soil, because only loose soil is suitable for it. With regard to the acidity of the soil is suitable any. Including suitable acidic, neutral and alkaline soil. Mustard can be planted both in the shade and directly on the sun itself.

Plant shoots are very fast. If conditions are favorable, the sprout will appear in 5 days. After this, the growth slows down somewhat. A month later, your entire lawn will be covered with mustard. After some time, you will see beautiful buds, and after another week, yellow flowers will appear that will bloom for a long time and attract bumblebees and bees to pollinate.

Dijon mustard requires moisture in sufficient quantities, as it has a superficial root system. If there is a dry period, it is important to water the plant carefully so that there is no drying out of the soil. Mustard does not need additional feeding.

Mow mustard correctly

How fast the plant will grow depends largely on watering and temperature conditions. Within a month, you will be able to notice a growth of 20 cm. However, if you plan to mow sprouts, then it is important to focus not on growth, but on flowering.

It is very important to mow before flowering occurs. There are at least three reasons for this:

  • when flower stalks are formed, then the stalks and petioles are rough near the leaves. As a result, green mass is not so rapidly reabsorbed in the soil. It is important that the leaves are tender, then they can quickly become a green fertilizer.
  • when the mustard is already in bloom, its nutrients are spent, which the soil needs. The function of the siderata is lost. But if you mow it in time, then vegetables and berries will be able to get the necessary food,
  • if mustard has formed seeds, its reproduction occurs by means of self-sowing, which turns the necessary plant into an ordinary weed.

When you have mowed the plant, you need to dig a lot thoroughly. Use a shovel, chopper and flat cutter as tools. With dry weather and occasional rain, water the area in a timely manner. Only if the soil is wet will worms and other microorganisms “work” in it.

Biohumus is formed faster and the soil is better bearing fruit if you use certain additional drugs, for example, Baikal EM-1. This product is pretty good. However, it is not suitable for poor, depleted soil. In addition, it does not work well without organic matter - humus and compost. How often does the earth need such humus? At least once every 4 years.

It is not always possible to improve the condition of the soil by sowing mustard. If the soil is sandy and clayey, the formation of the humus layer is too slow. In this matter, the use of mustard for digging will not work. This option is suitable only when the cultures alternate, and the land is already well developed.

What if you planted mustard, and she did not give her seeds with growth? Then do not mow it, and leave it for the winter. With the help of a cultivator or a flat cutter in the spring, it can be simply dug up. So it can be used as mulch. However, this option is not as practical as the use of straw, sawdust and other materials.

When is it best to plant mustard?

This question may worry a young gardener who has not yet encountered this plant. If you use mustard as a fertilizer, then the month of April will do. As soon as the night frosts have ended, and the temperature has reached 10 degrees, you can practice landing.

Also, planting can be carried out in the autumn, when all cultures are removed from the site. Use the remaining warm days for a landing. For example, where there was a place of potatoes or cereals can be planted mustard. This will allow large areas of the soil to become healthier.

Rarely mustards are planted before winter begins. In some cases it is practical, because then the seeds will grow in spring. Но здесь очень важно угадать, когда посадить растение. Грунт должен быть не только холодным, но и хорошо разрыхленным. Не беспокойте семена до весны, однако они не должны замерзнуть. Как этого достичь? Глубина, на которую вы садите семена, должна быть достаточной, чтобы их не размыли весенние талые воды.

Важно правильно обработать грунт перед тем, как садить в него семена. How to do it? It largely depends on the plant's precursors, for example, potatoes or legumes. But whatever the predecessors, the soil must be thoroughly moistened, destroy the weeds and level the top layer of soil. Then there is a chance that the mustard seedlings will be abundant.

Additional recommendations

During the care of sowing, it is necessary to carry out certain activities in order to create optimal conditions for the plant. Before sowing the seeds they need to be pickled so that the seedlings are protected from pests. A good preparation for this is “Ophthalol”, due to which mustard will not suffer from cruciferous flea.

What if you didn’t pickle the seeds in time, and fleas showed up during sprouting? Then use other insecticides in the form of “Volaton” and “Fastak”. In some cases, mustard can affect cabbage aphid. In some years, this parasite manifests itself particularly strongly, and then “Decis” will come to your aid. With the help of it is the edge processing. Do not forget to water the mustard after planting, especially taking into account the moisture content of the soil.

Small totals

Mustard is a very useful plant, especially if you have a garden plot. She can not only fertilize the soil. In some cases, this plant protects other crops from pests.

For planting seeds there is no need to know any special secrets, because it sits right on the open field. During the care does not need to carry out complex procedures. The most common in our time has become white mustard. she has many useful qualities. In addition, gardeners actively use it to fight pests. Using the simple tips from this article, you can also appreciate the great benefits of such a plant as mustard.

The useful mustard

  • restores poor soil - quickly produces organic matter, which is embedded in the soil (after 30-50 days from sowing) and enriches it with nitrogen and phosphorus
  • absorbs sparingly soluble minerals and converts them into readily available forms
  • excellent baking powder for heavy soils, improves soil structure
  • inhibits weed growth before sowing the main crop or after harvesting
  • prevents the leaching of valuable nutrients during heavy rains
  • substances released by mustard inhibit the growth of mold and bacteria, therefore planting mustard after tomatoes, potatoes and other vegetables significantly reduces the number of pathogens of phytophthora, scab, putrefactive microorganisms in the soil
  • allows you to reduce crop rotation and return the main crop to its former place earlier than the required time for a year or two
  • on soils where white mustard is grown, the number of wireworms and slugs decreases dramatically
  • during late planting, the uncut crop mustard remains as mulch, performs the function of snow retention
  • white mustard sown in spring during flowering is a good honey plant
  • sown next to the main crop, white mustard can act as a companion plant: for example, root selection of mustard stimulates the growth of peas, beans, grapes, and dews aphid and aphids near fruit trees

To this we must add that the cultivation of mustard does not require much labor, and the seeds are inexpensive, sold in every garden store or on the market.

With all the positive qualities of this crop, mustard is not perfect. Mainly due to the fact that it can affect diseases and pests: white rust, alternariosis (leaf spot), powdery mildew, kila.

Sowing mustard in spring

It is possible to sow white mustard at any time from March to August on any type of soil and dig in the same year. In the southern regions, it is possible to sow in early spring and from the end of February (after the 20th day).

But for greater efficiency, mustard is sown in the spring one month before the main crop is sown, and these are practically any vegetables, berries (especially strawberries) and salad greens.

Important: mustard must not be sown after crucifers (cabbage, radishes, radishes) - they have common pests and diseases. And turnips do not tolerate mustard even in the neighborhood.

It is possible and even necessary to sow mustard before breaking down flower beds and flower beds, until bulbous or rhizomatous flowers are planted, stored for storage.

Important: rotting siderats can inhibit plant growth, so wait at least 1-1.5 weeks after cutting mustard and digging before sowing or planting vegetables and berries.

Sowing mustard to fertilize the soil in the fall

In the central regions of Russia, mustard is sown in August-September, leaving to hibernate, and close up next year. If the mustard has enough time to grow enough - you can mow and close up the soil in the fall.

In the southern regions, fast-growing white mustard is sown until mid-September and even in October-November, as it easily germinates even at low temperatures - friendly shoots at a temperature of 5 to 10 ° C, partial germination at temperatures of + 2-3 ° C. And if the seedlings have already sprouted, young mustard greens continue to grow and remain at low temperatures (withstands up to -5 ° C). In the long warm autumn, even the mustard sown in October has grown back 10 cm tall.

It is important to sow mustard in the fall immediately after the harvest; it is advisable not to delay this work for longer than 3 days, so that weeds do not have time to begin to germinate.

Mustard example

At the end of August we harvest open-field tomatoes, at this time we sow mustard around the bushes. After harvesting the tomato, around mid-September, you can sprinkle the wicker-oat mixture onto the mustard. All siderata remain to grow in the winter, as the temperature permits. In the spring, the whole territory is tilled by a cultivator.

If, in the autumn, the mustard has had a great time to grow, you can not plow it, leave it as mulch, and after spilling the entire area with phytosporin (twice a weekly interval), plant the tomato seedlings again.

How to sow mustard

Sow mustard for better efficiency in the prepared beds:

  • after harvesting the main crop of the ridge, it is necessary to clean weeds and vegetable residues
  • fertilize with humus, about 1-2 buckets per 1 square. m beds
  • if necessary, make dolomite flour
  • dig and fence (level with a rake, breaking large clods of earth)

The technique of sowing mustard as a siderata is simple: there is no need to make rows and measure the distance - the seeds are sown thickly, sprinkling the soil out of handful, just like we pinch salt or soup or 5 g of seeds per 1 m² of soil. Do not be afraid of dense crops - carpet seedlings delay the leaching of nutrients from the soil with rain, preventing soil erosion.

The technique of sowing mustard as a seasoning, or a companion plant is different: in a row manner, between seeds about 10 cm, and between rows no more than 20 cm. Bushes grow strong, rows close. Subsequently, you can thin out shoots.

When sowing with any technique, it is important not to bury the seeds much, otherwise germination will be delayed, and this is absolutely not profitable for us. The maximum depth of embedding is 1 cm. When sowing siderats with a carpet, it is permissible if some of the seeds remain on the soil surface - after watering on loose soil, they will settle and take their place in the soil.

Care for mustard white

The plant is suitable for light (sandy), medium (loamy), prefers well-drained areas and on dense black soil, clay (heavy soil) grows with difficulty - it requires a more loose structure. Any soil acidity grows on acidic, neutral and alkaline soil types with a pH from 4.5 to 8.2, but optimally 6.5. Mustard can grow in partial shade or in full sun, but quickly only in conditions of a long light day.

Mustard grows very quickly - under favorable conditions (temperatures above 10 ° C) sprouts appear in 3-5 days. But then, as a rule, grow slowly. Plants cover the ground in 4-5 weeks. Buds are visible about five weeks after emergence. Yellow flowers appear a week later, and the bloom is long, attracting bees, bumblebees and other pollinating insects.

Mustard requires a lot of moisture for optimal growth - it has a shallow root system, therefore it does not grow so well during dry periods without irrigation (the soil should not dry out much). Additional dressings are not required.

Why do you need to mow mustard before flowering

  • Firstly, with the formation of peduncles, the stems grow coarser, the petioles become stiffer at the leaves - all this slows down the process of processing the green mass in the soil (the stems and peduncles rot in a very long time). The softer the leaves going under the digging, the faster they will be decomposed by soil microorganisms and the faster they turn into green fertilizer.
  • Secondly, during flowering, mustard spends nutrients from the soil on its “personal” needs, loses the function of the green manure, and we need food to remain for vegetables and berries.
  • Thirdly, the mustard which formed the seeds multiplies by self-sowing and turns into a weed.

After mowing, the green mass is dug up, buried in the soil on heavy soils and with hoe and flat cutter on the lungs. If the weather is dry, rains are rare, the treated area needs to be watered periodically - worms and microorganisms that “work” on a wet substrate participate in the decomposition of organic matter.

Many gardeners are trying to accelerate the formation of biohumus and improve soil fertility by adding the Baikal EM-1 preparation. This is a really good product, however, if the soil is very poor, depleted by many years of growing vegetables or berries, and no organic matter (humus, compost) was added when sown, then you should not hope for mustard and Baikal. In this case, the saying is true: "There is no dung - there is no harvest." Humus needs to be made at least once every 4-5 years.

Even if you sow mustard 2-3 times over the summer, mow and plant greens in the soil, this will not improve the soil structure especially - on sandy or clay soils the humus layer will form too slowly, and the next cycle of growing vegetables will make it. Therefore, the sowing of mustard for digging cannot fully replace the improvement of the soil of an unprepared plot - it is useful only in the alternation of crops on already developed lands.

If the mustard has outgrown, but has not yet formed seeds, it can be left before winter, do not mow, and in the spring the old tops can be dug up with a cultivator, hoe or flat cutter or left as mulch. But you should not strive for such a method - it is more expedient to use straw, sawdust and other materials as mulch.

White mustard in cooking

Did you know that the young leaves of white mustard are very tasty salad greens?

Just cut off the growing leaves (up to cotyledons) with scissors. Do not try to pick off - pull out of the ground with the roots. Mustard leaves are fragrant but not spicy; they can replace leaf lettuce in recipes; they are not subjected to heat treatment. Store in a refrigerator in a jar of water or in a package, like other greens.

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