Many gardeners want to decorate their site with an amazing and interesting plant. These include the European certsis, the flower has not only a beautiful appearance, but also a rather strange and curious second name.
His interpretation is very ambiguous, but nonetheless very interesting. So why is Judah a tree so called? Where did this name come from and what kind of plant is it?
What is this plant
The tree of Judas is also called the purple purple. It belongs to purple and the legume family. It grows in the Mediterranean and the Middle and Near East. It prefers to grow on the slopes of the soil, which contains lime. The plants are very drought tolerant and are very fond of sunlight.
The plant develops very slowly because of 5 years it can grow only by one and a half meters. And for 100 years of his life, it can be more than 12 m, while having a trunk diameter of up to 60 cm and crowns up to 10 m.
In Russia, European certzis can be found in the Caucasus or on the Black Sea coast of Crimea. It grows also in the Caucasus, and in the steppe of the Krasnodar Territory. It blooms very beautifully, but its flowers do not possess a smell.
Spring comes, it is time to flowering of this shrub. And flowers bloom with a bright pink shade. At this moment it looks a bit like sakura. After the leaves have fallen in their place, the pods appear. within them contains beans, which resembles beans. But they can not eat. Even plants are characterized by a very powerful root.
Why such a strange name
So why did this plant acquire such a frightening name? Let's figure it out. There are two versions of the origin of the name. According to one of them, this shrub was distributed in the territory of Ancient Judea, that is, where Israel and Palestine are now located.
The second version has biblical origins. Legend has it that Judas hanged himself on the branches of this plant, betraying his time Jesus Christ. He was one of the disciples of the prophet, but he also did not believe in him sincerely. This man had many negative features, such as deceit, greed, meanness and selfishness.
After he betrayed Christ, he began to suffer the torments of conscience and realized that it was he who was to blame for this death. Judas was not even pleased with the money, because everyone turned away from him. Then the traitor despaired and went wherever his eyes look. Then he wandered into the grove and saw a tree that had white flowers. It was a well-known shrub.
After Judas hanged himself on a branch, the leaves of this plant turned violet. This color is considered by many in many countries to be the color of grief and sadness.
Now the name Jude has become a household name so called those people who are able to betray for the sake of profit.
The composition of the plant contains biological active substances - flavonoids. They have anti-inflammatory and anti-bacterial properties. These components can destroy Koch's wand, that is, it is active against dangerous tuberculosis.
And also contributes to the cure of this deadly disease. The use of this plant for medicinal purposes comes even from ancient China. There, healers used bark plants to heal wounds.
It was believed that such a medicine kills germs and reduces inflammation. For this, the crust was ground and applied to wounds, ulcers, abscesses.
This shrub is used for decorative purposes. Used in carpentry work. His kidneys are used in cooking in the manufacture of hot spices. This tree is loved by beekeepers. Many of them plant this shrub in their area, in order to attract bees.
The bright shade of flowers is very popular with insects. Honey, which is then collected after these bees, has many useful properties:
- Relieves inflammation.
- Kills bacteria.
- Treats lung disease.
- Improves digestion.
How to plant
Before you plant a shrub you need to choose an open and well-lit plot of land. He will be comfortable where the south, that is, the place should be bright and warm. Does not tolerate drafts, the earth should also be, with lime and saturated with oxygen.
It is best to grow plants from seed, since cuttings will grow poorly in harsh climatic conditions. Before planting seeds, you must first soak them. And to prevent fungal diseases, they can be pre-treated with a fungicide.
Before planting the seed soil, it is necessary to loosen it well. Seed should be planted in the winter to a depth of several centimeters. Then you need to cover it with something, for example, fallen leaves.
It is necessary for warming the plant will grow slowly and will often die off the upper shoots. After 3 years they will get stronger and will reach 20 cm in height.
How to care
In order not to experience problems in the care of the plant he needs to provide a comfortable environment. By itself, the shrub is very whimsical. He needs watering only in the period when there is a severe drought. Feed too desirable very rarely, it must be done once a year.
The plant does not tolerate cold weather, so it is necessary to warm it in winter. young shrubs need to be often cut, namely, to remove young shoots, because they do not form a beautiful crown. You also need to remember that the plant has a very developed root system, therefore, adult shrubs can not be transplanted.
And also you need to often loosen the ground around the plants, and remove weeds. The branches of the shrub are very delicate, so they can break from any gusts of wind, they need support.
So, what did you learn about this interesting plant? Let's see:
- It grows in a warm climate. Can tolerate drought.
- It has a rather strange name, with biblical history.
- The shrub has many beneficial properties, as it contains biologically active substances.
- There are many of them, where they are used, for example, for decorative, culinary and carpentry purposes.
- Bees can make this plant amazing honey.
- It can be planted in central Russia and knew about its features, to maintain the shrub in good condition.
Why is the tree so called?
Probably, many are interested in why the plant was so named. Tsertsis, the purple, or the Judean tree is so called because, according to one of the legends, the repentant Judas on this tree took the score from life. True, different nations have their own version of this story, while the trees in it are very different - aspen, elder, birch, mountain ash. But for some reason it was precisely tsertsis that was nicknamed exactly this way - the Judo tree.
Cercis has heart-shaped, slightly rounded leaves. They are green on top, smooth, and the underside is bluish. Young, just appeared leaves have a reddish tint, which in autumn changes to light yellow. First, flowers appear on the tree, and then leaves. Flowers remain on the tree for twenty days, by which time the leaves are already opening. Flowers of extraordinary beauty - delicate, can be painted in a light lilac or more saturated shade. Have a standard for legumes.
The Judah tree, the photo of which is presented in this article, has a fruit - a brownish flat bean about 10 cm long. On a tree they last up to two years.
It has pretty little lilac flowers. But there are so many of them that they are simply covered with branches. They are collected in inflorescences, which have up to 8 flowers. It is characteristic of this tree that flowers appear even on thick and old trunks, thanks to which it looks very impressive. There are terry and belotsvetkovye species of Canadian tsercis.
This tree is quite hardy, and therefore successfully grown in the south of our country, up to the Voronezh region. A little to the north (in the Lipetsk region) this species freezes, and therefore does not bloom too much. Well, in Pomoskov'e Iudovo tree, the photo of which you see in this article, hardly reaches its full magnificence.
This is a southern species that is not frost resistant, therefore it is widely distributed only on the Black Sea coast. The flowers are quite large (up to 2.5 cm). They appear as if from the bark that covers the branches. There is a white-flowered form of this species.
In landscape design, chercis (or Iudovo tree) perfectly combines with bird-cherry, bauber, coniferous plants, cherries, and decorative flowering shrubs.
At home, the Japanese crimson is called Katsura. An ancient legend has it that a Chinese monk learned the secret of eternal youth. He felt invulnerable and immortal. He believed that this gave him the right to commit the most terrible crimes. For his actions he was sentenced to exile to the moon. Without reaching it, the monk broke off and fell to the top of the Katsura tree. Since then, it has become the embodiment of an impossible or unattainable dream.
Crimson, or Iudo tree, is used as a decorative hardwood, it has a bright shade of leaves in the shape of a heart. This color becomes especially saturated in autumn, when the tree is colored with scarlet and yellow colors and looks truly magnificent. Very bright brown-carmine shoots give it special originality.
Today, the Japanese crimson, or Iudo tree, is quite widespread and very popular in Europe, where it was first introduced in 1880. Later, new decorative forms appeared - Rotfusch with a funnel-shaped narrow crown and gray, strongly shriveled foliage, Pendulum with weeping branches and others.
Growing up in Russia
In the Moscow Botanical Garden of Judah, a tree reaches 7 m in height. In St. Petersburg, you can even meet the beautiful purple, which is worse than other species tolerates cold.
This tree loves light. But at the same time it is able to live in partial shade. It prefers the north side and a place protected from the winds. Plant a tree should be in early spring, so that before the onset of cold weather, it stuck. The soil is unpretentious to the soils of purple, but most of all it suits subacidic loam or sandy loam. The soil should be light in structure, this will allow the root system to develop freely. Numerous surface roots add wind resistance to the tree. Purple is not very fond of transplantation, this is due to the fact that the plant has a taproot.
Purple loves moisture. It does not tolerate intense heat, and during droughts it often drops leaves. It survives well in reservoirs, along river banks. Land for planting should be well drained, not have high groundwater.
Judah tree: reproduction
Cercis is propagated by seeds. They are difficult to germinate and require scarification. To break the seed cover, use concentrated sulfuric acid for 30 minutes or the seeds are soaked in warm water, and then stratified in cool conditions - at a temperature of +3 +4 degrees for two months.
Shoots appear and develop very slowly. Moreover, by the end of the first year of life, seedlings, as a rule, the aerial part dies off, which is the norm. Next year, new shoots will appear from the sleeping buds, but they will also die in the fall. Only in the third year will the shoots spend the winter. Such an unusual development is due to the fact that cercecous develops the root system in the first place, and only then the ground part. In nature, this tree grows in dry places, so it does not waste moisture until it has so many roots.
Reproduction is possible with the help of cuttings and grafting. Shoots for this cut in winter.
Description of Judah Tree
The Iudino tree, or Cersis european - shrub or tree, reaches 6–16 m in height. Thick crown has the shape of a ball. The twisted trunk is covered with black wrinkled bark. The light green leaves are round, heart-shaped, with a diameter of 6-12 cm. The bottom of the leaf plate is covered with dark feeding conductors. Thin leaf stalks reach 4 cm in length.
Purple-purple flowers are collected in inflorescences of 3-6 pieces. Buds appear on the branches, in the axils of the leaves and on the trunk. Fruits - flat beans with a length of 6-11 cm. In each pod 9-15 round brown seeds ripen. Flowering plant from mid-April to May. Fruiting begins in early September.
Cersis european grows on stony hills and slopes, prefers calcareous acidified soils. The plant is drought resistant and light-requiring. In the shade a tree slows down in growth, it hurts and dies.
Judah tree is heat-loving. Maintains short fall of temperature of air to -13 ° C. Cersis grows slowly, in 5-6 years it reaches a height of 1.3-1.6 m. Century trees grow up to 13 m with a trunk diameter of 55-65 cm.
Wood of Judah wood is used for joinery and construction work. From young buds prepare spicy seasoning for oriental spicy dishes. Flowers decorate the interior. The plant is a productive honey plant. Planted near apiaries.
The Legend of the Judah Tree
Many people wonder why the Juda tree is so called. Legend has it that in ancient times the inflorescences of the plant were snow-white in color and exuded a gentle seductive scent. Magnificent bloom admired people, weddings were played around the tree, celebrated holidays and celebrated celebrations. This continued until Judas Iscariot, who betrayed Jesus Christ, chose Cersis to commit suicide: he hung himself on a strong bough of a tree.
All people who treated a traitor with contempt, stopped to read the plant for the beauty and fragrance of the inflorescences. No one else gathered in the shadow of Cersis to hold lavish festivities and holidays. People called the plant "Judah tree" and avoided it. The shrub itself, saddened and dishonored by the touch of Judas, changed the color of flowers from snow-white to pink. Since then, the color of Judas Tree reminds now living of betrayal, lust for power and hypocrisy.
Scientists believe that the name of the plant caused confusion in translations. Perhaps Cersis was called not a Judah, but a Judean tree, thus denoting the place of growth - ancient Judea. This explains the fact why the Judah tree received such a name.
Reproduction of Cersis
Judah tree reproduces by seed and grafting. Stratify seed 3–3.5 months before planting. To do this, put the seeds in the refrigerator, cellar, basement or on the balcony.
Immediately before planting, soak the seeds for 24 hours in a container of hot water. The shell will soften, which will increase the number of shoots.
Freshly harvested material can be planted in the winter in the high beds with loose stony soil. A large percentage of germination of seeds stored in pods on the tree all winter.
In June - July, cut the cuttings from the tree with 2-4 live buds. Plant spikes in a mixture of humus and sand, daily moisturize the soil. Do not replant the plant within 0.5-1 years, a weak root system can deform and die.
If you do not cut the center conductor, the tree will be formed into a single trunk. In case of its removal, lateral shoots are formed, forming a spherical spherical crown.
Caring for a Judas Tree
Iudino tree or cersis - capricious, capricious plant. It does not grow in places of stagnant moisture and accumulation of groundwater. With poor soil drainage, the number of inflorescences decreases.
- Water Cersis only in hot weather. Ensure that the earth is not overwetted.
- In spring and autumn, apply organic fertilizer to the soil: mullein, horse manure, bird droppings and urea. Feed Cersis annually with mineral solutions.
- Loosen the root layer of soil, removing weeds. In the summer months, mulch the ground with freshly cut grass, chopped straw or dry sawdust.
- Cut off old, diseased and deformed branches and twigs. If necessary, form a crown, trimming young shoots.
- Late in the fall, warm the plant by wrapping a rag or hay around the trunk. Pile the basal soil with dry foliage or a layer of peat. It will save young saplings from freezing.
- The boughs of Cersys are cracked by sudden gusts of wind. Tie a young plant to a wooden or plastic support. Substitute stable props under the branches and thick branches of an adult plant.
The tree is resistant to diseases and pests. Not affected by powdery mildew and cherries. In the spring on the leaves can live aphid ordinary, which disappears after processing wood with chemicals.
A photo of the Judah tree can be found in the landscape design reference book. Planted in single and group plantings, in harmony with deciduous and coniferous plants. With an alley landing, maintain an interval of 4–5 m so that the roots of Cersis do not touch.
The root system of the tree is pivotal, it is not recommended to replant the plant over 3 years old.
Novice gardeners ask questions about what a Judah tree is and whether it is possible to plant a plant in decorative compositions. A capricious shrub adorns the gardens and parks, delighting guests with lush flowering in the middle of spring. Caring for Cersis is not difficult, just follow the guidelines for proper watering and preparing the plant for winter. Do not plant a Judah tree in the northern regions with a changeable climate.
В конце апреля начале мая в Ужгороде цветет уникальное дерево – Церцис европейский, больше известный в народе как Иудино Дерево. Его еще называют – Багряник европейский (лат. Cercis siliquastrum). Название происходит от одной из легенд, повествующей об Иуде, который, осознав величину своего Греха, повесился именно на Церцисе. Ученые считают, что название произошло благодаря названию родины дерева – Иудеи.
The flowering of the Judah tree is a fantastic sight. What is surprising, first there are flowers that "hold out" on the tree for more than a month, a little later - young leaves. A lot of colors, it is very rich purple-pink, and the flowers grow (without smell, by the way), not only on the branches ...
... but also directly from the trunks, the bark of which is represented in the form of deep cracks ...
Cercis introduced tree in Transcarpathia, but in warm latitudes, for example in the Crimea and the Caucasus, is very common. It grows mainly on rocky mountain slopes and does so very slowly - about a meter in 5 years. The fruits ripen in September and are very similar to the fruits (pods) of acacia. Because of this, these two trees are often confused.
The buds of the tree are used to make hot spices. Wood (in warm latitudes) for joinery purposes. The main function is decorative.
The largest plantings (in Uzhgorod) of the Judah tree per unit area are in a circle on the Druzhby Narodov Square. They bloom first. Another “bush” of tsertsis is located in the green zone near the “Ukraine” department store opposite the church of the father of Sidor. He blooms a week later. The oldest tree (another subspecies with a paler color) grows at the entrance to the old dental clinic on the embankment. It blooms half a month later than those in the Square of Friendship of Peoples.
From this photo you can estimate how much paler the color is ...
As is known from the same canonical Gospels, Judas went and hung himself. In Russia, it was customary to think that the tree on which he hung himself was an aspen, the leaves of which always tremble, even in the absence of wind. But the Judah tree is called something completely different: the one whose flowers are very bright, fluffy, as they say, terry. There is Catherine-Ann Porter's story “The Color of Judah's Tree” —as a Mexican rebel tempted a teacher, and she was seduced. Iudino tree (Cercis siliquastrum), tree of the family of cesalpinia. Height 7–15 m. Leaves falling, round, blunt, entire, with deeply heart-shaped at the base. Flowers bisexual, bright pink, on the trunk, old branches and in the axils of the leaves, 3-6 in bunches. The fruit is a flat, multi-seeded bean. It blooms in spring, before the leaves bloom. Propagated by seeds. It grows wildly on rocky slopes and on calcareous rocks in southern Europe and South-West Asia.
In the USSR it is found in the wild state in gardens in the Crimea, in the Caucasus and in Central Asia. Ornamental plant. Wood is used for carpentry crafts, kidneys - for hot spices for sauces.
The glittering crown of the grove.
According to unverified data, Judas hanged on it. But seriously, when bright black flowers appear on a black, lifeless trunk, and around you there is the desert place of Judea. They are definitely decently impressive, and thoughts of the strength and weakness of all living things are evoking.
Generally, aspen, but this is nonsense. Aspen trees do not grow there. It seems the leaves are trembling. Remember how Judas hanged himself.
The tree of Judah is called purple, these trees grow in the Crimea. Judah tree blooms earlier than leaves appear on the branches (April-early May). Perhaps the name is related to the legend that Judas hanged himself on a tree.
Crimson (Cercis) planting and care pruning growing from seeds
“The beauty of a flower is in one flower.” A Japanese saying
Man has always sought to make nature a part of his home, and indoor plants, the area of growth in nature which covers the entire globe, can add to any room new colors. They delight us, benefit, filling the room with oxygen, and purifying the air from harmful substances. Reacting to our state, like our pets, home flowers are able to cheer us up, and thank you for taking care of them - bright blooms, and the beauty of green foliage.
Our Journal of Home Plants will become your guide among the diversity of plant families and species, and will help you figure out how to take care of flowers, fertilize them so that they do not hurt, and how to deal with their pests. What kind of lighting, watering and temperature conditions your plant needs, and how to harmoniously combine the whole atmosphere of the house with the chosen colors.
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The laws of Tu B'Shvat
Although Tu B'Shvat is an ordinary working day, it is customary to celebrate it by adding to the usual meal a variety of fruits - fruits and nuts. But the main ones are the fruits, symbolizing the land of Israel. Seven kinds of fruits associated with this land are mentioned in the Pentateuch. Two of them are cereals: wheat and barley. The remaining five: grapevine (gefen), fig tree, pomegranate, olive and honey (meaning not honey, but date nectar, dates are also considered the traditional fruits of the land of Israel). These fruits, if they are not eaten during the meal, are blessed with a short closing prayer.
The fifteenth day of the month of Shvat is the hope for the rebirth of the earth; it is not by chance that seedlings are planted on this day, just as it is not by chance that the Torah compares man to a tree. Man is a field tree.
The fifteenth day of the month of Shvat is the New Year for the trees. One of the four New Years that the Jewish calendar counts: the first day of the month Nisan - New Year for calculating the order of annual holidays, as well as for calculating the beginning of the reign of the Jewish kings, the first day of the month of Elul - New Year for separating tithing from cattle, tithing was allocated during the existence of the Temple, the first day of the month of Tishri, is the universal New Year, which also serves to calculate the age of fruit trees (for Jews, this is important, since the Torah forbids eating the fruit of a tree that has not reached three years).
The fifteenth day of the month of Shvat is the New Year for fruit trees. The meaning of this day is the beginning of the harvest of new fruits. Fruits that have ripened to 15 shvat belong to the old harvest, after 15 shvat - to the new. For the Jews, this is important because it determines in this manner what kind of tithing fruit is. During the existence of the Temple, such knowledge was necessary, since the tithing was different each year: in the first year - for the Levites (members of the Levi family), in the second - to buy meat for themselves in Jerusalem during the holidays, in the third year - for the poor. And since all laws related to the land are carried out only in the land of Israel - today, the fifteenth day of Shvat (Tu B'Shvat) became the celebration of the fruits of Eretz Israel.
Custom plant trees in Tu B'Shvat
In Tu B'Shvat, it is customary to plant trees. This is a relatively new tradition, introduced 100-150 years ago. However, the importance of planting trees is mentioned throughout the Torah. The book of Vaikra says: “When you enter the Land of Israel and plant a tree ...” - that is, every Jew who settled in the Earth must plant a tree. The Midrash explains that even if you see a lot of trees, you still have to plant them, because this is one way of approaching the Almighty: as the Almighty planted the garden of Gan-Eden, so a person should plant the garden. There are many other important things to do, for example, to build a house, but a person is not obliged to come to Israel and build houses himself; others can do this. A person must plant trees, despite the fact that many also plant. The Midrash says that if a person plants a tree, and he is suddenly informed that the Messiah has come, then the person is obliged to plant the tree first, and only then go to greet the Messiah. Planting trees is an action for the future, and the arrival of the Messiah is a rather lengthy process, and therefore, with the arrival of the Messiah, everything should be abandoned and nothing else should be done.
When the first European settlers arrived at the beginning of the Zionist movement in the country of Israel, they found the country destroyed and empty. Most of the country was swampy, the other part was a dry desert, and the country could barely feed its few inhabitants. The Jews could buy only the most inconvenient land in the country of Israel, but they were filled with the desire to renew the country of the forefathers for the Jewish people so that they could return to their country. They planted eucalyptus and drained the swamps: they planted forests on the desert mountains — to make these mountains similar to what they were in ancient times, they spent water, planted gardens and planted fields. The earth blossomed, and the harvest was enough for all in abundance. The land of Israel was loyal to the Jewish people, it did not give the harvest to foreigners who temporarily owned it. In the Talmud, our sages said: “There is no sign of the approaching deliverance more obvious than the flourishing of the country of Israel, as stated in the TaNaKh:“ But you, mountains of Israel, will disperse your branches, and you will bear fruit for My people, Israel, for they are coming. For here I will turn to you, and you will be tilled and sown ... And I will multiply people and cattle on you, and they will multiply and multiply, and inhabit you as before, and do more good than before, and find out that I am the Lord. ” .
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Ordlo residents will not be able to get married quickly
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Why we celebrate Tu B'Shvat 15th Shvat
In the era of the formation of the Tanakh New Year trees were not celebrated, and it is not mentioned in the Holy Scriptures. Only in 1c. BC, during the period of activity of two wise schools - the school of Hillel and the school of Shamai, the question arose of the date of the New Year of trees. According to the school of Shamai, this is the 1st of Shvat, according to the school of Hillel - the 15th. In the end, the prevailing opinion of the school of Hillel.
It was about determining the date, which is important for the fulfillment of the commandment of the separation of Maaser ("tithes") from the fruits of trees. The Torah obliges every Jew to separate the Maaser from the fruits of this year’s harvest and give it to the cohenes and Levites who served in the Temple, or the poor. It was impossible to separate the Maaser from the fruits of one harvest, intending thereby to fulfill this duty in relation to the fruits of the harvest of another year. Therefore, it was necessary to establish the exact date of the New Year of the trees.
Our wise men, came to the conclusion that until about the middle of the month of Shvat trees drink moisture, which is preserved in the soil? since last year, and since that time - the water of the rains that fell this year.
Therefore, the 15th day of the month of Shvat became the New Year of the trees. Gradually, Tu B'Shvat began to be considered also as a kind of Judgment Day of trees, when their fate for the next year is decided, just as the fate of a person is decided in Rosh-Gashan, the New Year.
Tu B'Shvat can fall on any day of the week, except Sunday and Friday. Unlike other Jewish holidays, the laws of this holiday are few. Tu B'Shvat is allowed to work, the prayers of this day are the usual prayers of everyday life, without any addition. But nevertheless Tu B'Shvat is a holiday, and therefore this day they do not make mourning speeches, do not read “Tahanun” (a prayer in which we repent of our sins, read them every day, except for those days when there is a duty to rejoice) and Avgarahamim (a prayer made in memory of the Jews who died at the hands of their haters, they read on Saturdays).
One of the main customs holiday - there are fruits that grew on the land of the Land of Israel and for which it is famous. But it is also customary to eat fruits that are reminiscent of Eretz Yisrael, even if they were grown in other countries, almonds, carob trees, apples, etc.
How many varieties of fruit do you eat in Tu B'Shvat? There is a custom to try at Tu bi-Shvat 15 different varieties of fruit - in honor of the 15th day of the month of Shvat. According to another custom, only 7 kinds of fruits are eaten - those that the Country of Israel is famous for (wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives, dates). But the majority adhere to the custom of serving as many different fruits as possible, fresh and dried — figs, raisins, plums, etc.
Many have taken, above all, the fruits of seven kinds. These fruits are eaten in the order in which they are mentioned in the Torah: first the grapes (or raisins), then the figs, pomegranates, olives and dates.
In the Jewish communities of the East it was decided to first eat dishes made from wheat and barley, and then - fruit.
Eretz Israel is “a country flowing with milk and honey,” the land of which gives a bountiful harvest.
A special place among the fruits of the Country of Israel is occupied by seven species, the first names of which the Jews were obliged to bring to the Jerusalem Temple and give to the priests. Here are the seven species that have become a symbol of the Land of Israel: wheat, barley, grapes, figs, pomegranates, olives and dates.
The first of the seven plant species is wheat, due to its exceptional importance. As in antiquity, and in our days, wheat is one of the most important cereals used by man for food - bread is baked from wheat flour.
Barley ripens before wheat, its harvest begins in the month of Nisan. At the time of the Temple, at the end of the first day of Passover, the heads of the people of Israel went out to a field near Jerusalem, barley and flour were crushed. Omer (about 2500 cc) of this flour was delivered to the Temple. Barley bread is not as tasty as wheat, and therefore in ancient times was considered the food of the poor.
Torah says that when he came out of the ark after the end of the Flood, Noah broke the first vineyard. The country of Israel for centuries has been famous for its grapes. The grapes are used, both in raw form, and for making wine, which, as our sages say, "cheers the heart of man." In the daily life of Jews, wine occupies an important place, it is necessary for the performance of many religious rituals - “Kiddush” on Saturdays and holidays, havdalah at the end of Saturday, four glasses of Easter “Seder”, etc.
During the lifetime of Moshe Rabbein, it was decided that Jews are forbidden to drink wine made by non-Jews. Moreover, even wine made by Jews, to which a non-Jew touched, cannot be drunk. You can not even buy non-Jewish wine in order to resell it in order to earn money. Alcohol, vodka, brandy, etc., made from non-Jewish wine - even from stones and the skin of grapes that crushed a non-Jew - are prohibited. Wine made by a Jew, but passed through the hands of a non-Jew, remains kosher only if the cork or tap of the vessel is sealed with two seals.
The fig tree is a tree with a thick spreading crown, in spring it blossoms, in winter its leaves fall. Инжир созревает в середине лета, его едят, как в сыром виде, так и в сушеном. В Торе смоковница выступает в качестве символа плодородия. Так, инжир был среди плодов, которые разведчики принесли Моше, — в подтверждение плодородия Страны Израиля.
Смоковница стала также символом мира и спокойствия.
Наши мудрецы уподобляют плоды смоковницы Торе, говоря: «У любого плода есть несъедобные части: у фиников — косточки, у винограда — косточки, у гранатов — кожура. Но инжир — съедобен полностью, без остатка».
Гранат — это плод, обладающий многими замечательными свойствами, во многом он подобен еврейскому народу.
Pomegranate can be stored for a very long time and not deteriorate - its juice does not dry out in grains. And the grains in the pomegranate are separated from each other, each has its own individual taste, but only all together they form a whole fruit.
The graceful forms of this fruit since ancient times inspired the masters: pomegranate images adorn the Torah scrolls, two hundred copper garnets framed the columns of the Jerusalem Temple, metal garnets adorned the high priest's tunic. The author of the Song of Songs compares the temple of his beloved with a “slice of pomegranate”.
The olive tree has long been widespread in Eretz Israel, mainly in the mountainous regions. The olive tree is a tall, wide-bred and sturdy evergreen plant, the mighty roots of which can grow even in the rock.
Man has been using the fruits of oil-bearing trees since ancient times. Olives are eaten, their oil is used both for food and for the production of medicines, soaps, cosmetics.
In ancient times, the olive tree and its fruits were considered sacred, and priests were anointed with olive oil in the Jerusalem Temple. Pure olive oil burned in the temple candlestick.
The olive branch serves as a symbol of peace, the image of the olive branches adorns the coat of arms of the state of Israel, framing the menorah, for the olive tree is a characteristic part of the country's landscape.
The fruits of this tall, branchy tree are called “honey” by the Torah. The date palm branch (lulav) is one of four plant species over which a blessing is offered on the holiday of Sukkot. Fruits of date palm trees grow in large clusters at high altitude. Sweet dates ripen at the end of the summer, they are eaten, both raw and dried. It is not by chance that the Torah calls dates “honey”: honey is actually made from them.
Our sages liken the people of Israel to a date palm, all parts of which are used: its fruits are edible, the young shoots are used as lulavs, the branches serve as a covering for the huts that are built on the holiday of Sukkot, the fibers are used to build houses. Likewise, the people of Israel - not a single Jew is “superfluous”, everyone performs his task.
And yet, the wise men say: a bone of a date resembles a heart, and it is one of a date, as are the sons of Israel - the whole nation has one heart, and it is addressed to the Most High.
Almond tree - a symbol of flowering and renewal
Perhaps the most characteristic symbol of Tu B'Shvat is the almond tree: tall, beautiful, with surprisingly fragrant flowers. It is not by chance that its fruits always occupied an honorable place on a festive tray with fruits in any Jewish home. Perhaps it is almonds more than other fruits that reflect the nature of Eretz Israel.
Among all the fruit trees growing in the Land of Israel, almond blossoms first.
It begins to bloom at the end of winter, when in the mountainous areas, where it is widespread, snow still lies. White and pink fragrant flowers in dense veil cover the branches of the tree before the foliage appears. The almond tree covered with numerous flowers is like a bride.
The fruits of the almond tree - a very nutritious product. The almond tree is mentioned many times in the Tanach. Among the gifts that Jacob sent to Egypt were almonds.
In the book Koheleta (Ecclesiastes), the almond tree symbolizes the cycle of human life.
Eretz Israel Trees
Pistachio tree. Of the three types of pistachio tree, common in the Land of Israel, only one species - the Atlantic pistachio - has a wide stem and a spreading crown. Trees of this species grow in Jerusalem and its surroundings. Trees belonging to two other species (mastic and Palestinian pistachios) resemble more like bushes.
Oak. Evergreen mighty oaks are among the largest of the trees growing in Eretz Israel. The “Abraham Oak” is widely known in the city of Hebron - one of the most respected old-timers among the country's plant world.
Cedar. This conifer tree is distinguished by its great height, mighty trunk and powerful crown. Cedar - a durable plant. Strong and fragrant cedar wood played a large role in the past in the construction business, in particular, cedar beams were used in the construction of the Jerusalem Temple.
Pine. Evergreen coniferous wood, the wood of which is used in construction. Pine aromatic resin is used in various industries.
Tamarisk. A small tree with scaly leaves and white and pink flowers. Tall tamarisks are found in the vicinity of Beersheba, and it is possible that Abraham planted a tree of this species in Beersheba.
Cypress. Evergreen coniferous tree with spherical cones, widespread in Eretz Israel. It is usually planted in long alleys. Cypress perfectly adapts in different climatic zones of the country.
Sycamore. High, reaching a height of 15 meters tree with wide leaves and small flowers. In Eretz Israel, it grows along the banks of water flows.
Carob. Carob is very common in Mediterranean countries in general and in Eretz Israel in particular. Due to the deep roots and narrow leaves that prevent a large loss of moisture, it perfectly tolerates arid climate. Carob blooms in late summer, but the fruits ripen only next summer. These fruits seem dry, but edible and have a sweetish flavor. Among the fruits that are eaten in Tu B'Shvat, the horns occupy a special place, although the Torah does not include them as important fruits (as, for example, seven types highlighted by it). The legend says that the Queen of Sheba, going to meet with the king Shlomo, took with her the seeds of the carob tree, and since then this tree has taken root in the Land of Israel.
Acacia. In Eretz Israel, it grows mainly in desert areas. To the north of Lake Kinneret, an acacia grove of the species that was apparently used in the construction of the Tabernacle has survived.
Sycamore (sycamore)wide tree with a spreading crown. In the past, it was widespread in Eretz Yisrael. Today, individual "veterans", whose age reaches hundreds of years, are found in different parts of the country.
The origin of the word tree
Tree. Common Slavic word that has correspondences in other languages. A common Slavic word has the form dervo and is derived from the stem der (with the same stem, but with a modified vowel, we are dealing in the verb to tear up). In Old Indian we find daru— “tree”, in Greek dory we mean “tree”, etc. The initial meaning of the noun tree - “that which is torn out”. Naturally, our distant ancestors looked at the tree from a purely practical side - pull it out of the ground and use it as you need.
The origin of the word tree in the Krylov G. A. etymological online dictionary
The word "tree" was included in the Old Russian language in the XI century, in contrast to the Old Slavic form, the Old Russian was characterized by full-consistency. The word has a common Indo-European basis deru-.
Lithuanian - derva (pine).
Latvian - darva (resin).
Derivatives: wooden, woody, wood, shaft.
The origin of the word tree in the online etymological dictionary A. Semenov.
Tree. A very ancient common Slavic word associated with the Indo-European base "Der-". It is found in Lithuanian “Derva” - “pine”, and in Celtic “Dervos” - “Oak”, and in Greek “Dori” - “Shaft of Spear”, and in Sanskrit “Dara”, “Dru” - “Tree” . Our “tear, tear” is connected with it, obviously, the “tree” originally meant “that they are being torn out” (from the future arable land, clearing it, see Village), or “that which is being torn off”.
The origin of the word tree in the etymological online dictionary Uspensky L.V.
tree mn trees (from sobir. * dervje, dial. tree), ukr. tree, art. another ѣ drѣves and drѣva ξѣλον, δένδρον (Maye 360), serbohorv. drijevo, word. drevô, drevė̑sa, czech. dřevo, slvts. drevo, polish. drzewo, in.-puddle drjewo, n.-puddle drjowo Relatively lit. dervà "pine", wines. der̃va, with a different vocalism: darva “pitch”, ltsh.
Landscape design will decorate the wonderful Juda tree
dar̂va "resin", Anglo. teru "pitch", Greek δόρυ “tree, bar, spear”, δρῦς “tree (plant), oak”, dr.-ind. dāru, dru- “wood (material)”, avest. dauru, -dru- "tree", irl. derucc "acorn", Gallsk. dervo - in local n Dervus "oak forest" here is goth. triu tree tree, het. taru is the same. - T., Lat. larix “larch” with “Sabinsky” l, see Bernecker 1, 185 and ff., M. - E. 1, 442, Walde - Gofm. 1, 765, Trautman, BSW 53, Meye, Et. 372. Wed. also firewood.
The origin of the word tree in the etymological online dictionary of Vasmer M.
Tree. General Suf. derivative (cf. woods) from the same base as to tear up (see), dr.-ind. dāruGreek doryHittish taru and so on. The initial value of n. the tree is “torn or ragged” (cf. dial. wood “Clearing, undercutting”, i.e. the place cleared of trees).
The origin of the word tree in the etymological online dictionary Shansky N. M.
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See also: the meaning of the word tree in explanatory dictionaries.
European cercis, or the so-called Judean tree, grows in many European countries, as well as in North America, Canada and the United States. The Canadian subspecies of cercis easily tolerates a cold winter. More precisely, it is a perennial shrub that belongs to the legume family. Key Features:
- The plant has bright green rounded leaves, shaped like an egg,
- In the spring, when it is time for flowering, bright pink flowers bloom in the shrub. At this time, the certsis vaguely resembles Japanese sakura, only flowers have more saturated, juicy pink shade,
- When the flowers fall, instead of them there are pods, inside of which are rounded beans, resembling beans and beans. Eat them can not be,
- It has a very powerful, branched root system.
When domestic gardeners are asked what a Judah tree is, many answer as follows: "This is an aspen tree on which Judas hanged himself." However, this is considered to be only in Russia. In Western Europe, the name “Judeo tree” (in English, sounds like “Judah’s Tree”) refers specifically to certzus. Regarding the origin of this interesting name, there are two versions. The first version claims that Cercis was one of the most common trees in ancient Judea (on the territory of modern Israel and Palestine), hence the name - "Judah").
However, there is another version of this unusual name. It goes back to biblical times. The Gospel says that one of the apostles - the first disciples of Jesus Christ - was Judas. Unlike other disciples of Christ, he had no sincere faith in him. Jude was different from his fellows by such negative traits as:
- Passion for profit
- Willingness to meanness and betrayal.
Afterwards the name "Judas" has become a household name, and now they call it every person who is ready for meanness for the sake of enrichment. When Jesus Christ had his last supper with his disciples, Judas went and betrayed him to the authorities. For this, he received thirty silver coins. However, soon Judas began to suffer from the pangs of conscience. He realized that he had betrayed his beloved teacher in vain, and realized that he was to blame for his death on earth. Judas was no longer happy about the money received, because everyone turned away from him.
Tormented by grief and torments of conscience, he went wherever they looked, came into the grove and hanged himself on a tree. A wonderful tree with snow-white flowers grew nearby (this was the cerceis).
When the tree saw what happened to Judastender flowers have pity over this miserable sinner, felt compassion for him. The beautiful tree was so upset by Judas ’infamous demise that the snow-white flowers turned violet. Purple is traditionally considered the color of grief and sorrow in many countries. This is how certsis appeared - a plant covered with pink, purple or violet flowers.
Judah tree as a honey plant
European Cercis is a wonderful honey plant. Many amateur beekeepers plant this tree in their private apiaries. The bright flowers of Cercis attract bees, and honey, obtained from the pollen of the flowers of the Judean tree, has many useful properties. Honey from European cerci is quite rare for sale. It has a thick texture and golden brown. Beekeepers mark its high taste qualities: honey has a pleasant, slightly tart, taste, with a bright floral aroma. The honey of the Judean tree, as well as the leaves of the plant, is rich in useful bioflavonoids. He has The following useful properties:
- Stops chronic and acute inflammatory process,
- Destroys pathogenic bacteria and expels parasites from the body,
- Used in the treatment of diseases of the upper and lower respiratory tract (bronchitis, pneumonia, laryngitis and tracheitis),
- It has a beneficial effect on digestion and stimulates the metabolism.
In order to obtain a sufficient amount of honey from the cercer, one should plant several trees in the apiary, in different places or together, in a group.