How to distinguish spring from winter in appearance? A rigid rod sticks out of the middle of the bulb of a winter crop - the rest of the arrow. In the spring of such a rod is not, so he does not arrow. The teeth of the winter bulb are large and form a single layer. The cloves of the spring bulb are small and can be arranged in two or more layers. And the main difference is the different landing times. Spring is planted in spring, and winter - in autumn. And now the main thing - about the rules of landing.Garlic Cultivation Video
Method number 1 - traditional
Under the culture, a place is taken away from under the early harvested plants: cucumbers, early cabbage, radish, legumes. The site should not be located in the valley and flooded with melt water in the spring - the teeth will rot and die. Fertilizer soil: make humus or rotted manure, digging shovels on the bayonet and make furrows after 25 cm. Untreated teeth are planted every 10-12 cm. Plantings are closed, watered and mulched.
Photo planting winter garlic
Method number 2 - double landing
Double planting of garlic is relevant for small areas. The main secret is that the garlic sets in 2 levels (longlines). This is done in the fall or at the end of August. The first row is lower, the second is higher. We dig a groove deeper and lay out the first level of teeth at a depth of 11-12 cm. Someone will say - deeply. Do not worry. They will feel great there.
We fill up with earth and lay out the second row at a depth of 6-7 cm. Between the teeth we make a distance of 10-15 cm, between the grooves - 25 cm. We sprinkle it with earth. It turns out one tooth over another. Nobody bothers anyone, everything just lacks.
Method number 3 - sowing
You can also not stick your teeth in the ground, and sow, that is, lay them on the flank or just throw in rows. The only thing that will possibly confuse you is the garlic head lying on its side and a curved neck. But the quality of products, taste and size of the bulb, it does not affect.
In the photo sowing garlic
Teeth planted and mumbled. In the spring, they immediately start to grow. That tooth, which was lower - in more favorable conditions. He is deeper and warmer there. He better developed the root system. And the one that is higher, warms up faster in the spring.
When to remove garlic? The bulbs are removed when the arrow bursts. Why then break the arrows? If you leave them, the garlic heads will grow smaller. The arrow takes over the food, as it is formed by the bulb, but it is worth a few to leave. The arrows of garlic will show you when it is ready for harvest. Break out the arrows either when they first appeared from the stem, and when they made a circle.
When to plant garlic?
Every autumn this question arises for all gardeners. And here, as they say, how many people, so many opinions. Someone prefers to plant onions for 2-3 weeks before the soil freezes. The tooth manages to take root and readily moves in the spring in growth. But the early August and September planting is considered not correct, since the tips of the feather begin to turn yellow early in the plant. We will not convince you of the correctness or incorrectness of a particular method. We will tell about the interesting experience we have done.
Pictured planting garlic
We planted garlic in three terms: August 20, September 20, and October 20. The best harvest came in August. He best wintered. If you think about it, it becomes immediately clear why. We planted him early, he managed to root well, gained strength and immediately drove in the spring to his height. And the worst crop was from the October planting. He really did not root, had a bad winter and did not grow much.
If the plant managed to ascend from August and September planting, then nothing terrible happened. It should be so. To check whether the August planting is so productive, plant a part of the teeth a bit early, and a part when it seems more correct, and then compare the results.
You ask why sprouted garlic does not freeze out? When he gave the roots, the composition of the cell juice changed, it became more sugar. Try freezing the syrup. The syrup will not freeze, but the water will freeze. That is, after germination, it passes into another state, it just “falls asleep” for the winter.
Photos of garlic on the garden
It is already useless to feed garlic in the summer closer to harvesting. If you are going to feed him, then it should be done in May - June. Then he from the pen gains the weight of the bulb. When he wakes up, he needs it. As a top dressing take infusion of biohumus or horse manure. Planting is desirable to mulch humus or chopped straw.
Rows sprinkled with ash from pests. Mulching helps preserve moisture in the soil and protects the bulbs from overheating. You can not mulch garlic. Cultivation and care then consist in top dressing, regular loosening, weeding removal and watering.
Another rule: choose the largest teeth for planting. Plant small - small bulbs and get. If the leaf tops turn yellow, this indicates damage to the root system. Causes: gnawing roots with pests or soil rot.
If plantings are mulched, then they do not need to be watered. Under normal weather conditions, rain is enough. The clove has already grown roots, will itself draw moisture from the soil, will form a good onion.
Growing spring garlic
Also prefers fertile land. If necessary, humus or rotted manure is introduced into the soil in the amount of 3-5 kg / m2. Teeth are put in rows at a distance of 6-7 cm from each other. Between the rows they keep a distance of 25-28 cm. Approximate depth of seeding of garlic cloves is 3 cm. We describe two methods.
Method number 1 - traditional
Plant spring early spring April 15-25. Before planting, the heads are divided into teeth and sorted by size. Slices of each size should be planted in separate grooves. Care is the regular loosening of row spacing, watering and removing weeds. If planting mumble something, as mentioned above, in irrigation is not necessary.
Method number 2 - germinated teeth
Garlic heads are stored all winter at 20 ° C. At the end of March, the onions are sliced, soaked for 3 hours in room temperature water, taken out into the cellar, where they are laid out in one layer and covered with rags or a film. When the roots grow 2-5 cm in length, the teeth are planted in moist soil.
Photo planting garlic
Spring plants are fed as well as winter crops with an extract of mullein, biohumus or horse manure. Inorganic fertilizers use urea at the rate of 1 matchbox per bucket of water when shoots appear, then after 10 days and a third time at the end of June. From pests between rows spill ash.
Spring bulbs are harvested during the mass drying of the feather of the lower tier of the plant in the third decade of August - the first decade of September. Selected from the soil of the bulbs laid out in one row to dry under a canopy. The plant should be completely dry. Do not rush to cut off the green shoots of garlic, since the bulb receives food from them and continues to grow during drying. Dry tops cut off, leaving 5 cm.
Garlic has a tendency to degenerate, just like potatoes. During reproduction by teeth, diseases gradually accumulate in the crop, yield decreases. To prevent this from happening, from time to time garlic is renewed from bulbs. For the first year of the airframes, one-teeth are obtained. In the second year, full-grown onions grow from them. Garlic turns out to be improved and you don’t have to go looking for planting material, especially since it is quite expensive.
Garlic on the photo
Bulbs taken from the plants, which left the arrow. When the inflorescence is bursting and the onions are painted in the color characteristic of this variety, the inflorescences break out, put in a dry place for ripening. On landing take bulbs with a diameter of 4-5 mm.
Method number 2 - direct
In the first year, single skins are grown from the traditional air method. In August, single-teeth do not dig, but leave for winter in the soil. The following spring, the plants are carefully thinned, thus increasing the distance between the remaining onions. By the end of May, the distance between the rows should be 25 cm, and between single teeth in a row - 10-12 cm.Garlic cultivation and care videos
Method number 3 - growing through winter
In the first half of June they sow bulbs. Before that, they are stored unwashed in the refrigerator. By the second decade of September, the plants are already with 4-5 leaves, a good root system and thick as a pencil with a stem. In October, winter plants are hardened and winter well. The following year, full-sized onions are developed.
We shared with you all the secrets that we used ourselves. Now you know how to grow garlic. It's up to you. Choose the method you like, but rather a few, then to compare the results, and grow a huge crop, to your joy and to your neighbors to envy.
Species features of garlic
Garlic belongs to the herbaceous plants of the bulbous family. It has a round bulb with a fibrous rhizome. The leaves are narrow, lanceolate in length from 30 to 90 centimeters, grow from each other, forming a false stem. Peduncle grows separately and reaches a height of 1.5 meters, ends with an umbrella inflorescence, on which seed boxes appear after flowering.
The leaves and the bulbs themselves are suitable for food, which form from 2 to 50 cloves covered with scales. This part of garlic contains a large amount of vitamins and antioxidants and is considered the most useful and tasty. Garlic is spring and winter for planting under the snow in the fall. Growing garlic is simple and does not require a special tool.
This species is planted in open ground in early spring, and harvested in early autumn. The heads of spring garlic are small, but they are perfectly stored until the next fresh crop without losing their properties. In addition, the plants do not form arrows, and the bulbs themselves consist of small internal teeth and larger external ones. For seed material are selected large slices.
Popular varieties: Elenovsky, Gulliver, Victorio, Moscow.
The difference with summer varieties is the technology of planting and the size of the bulbs - they are significantly larger in winter garlic. Used in everyday food and culinary production, stored poorly. Arrowed varieties ripen earlier and produce crops in early summer, but require additional care.
Popular names in Russia are Zubrenok, Alkor, Lyubasha, Healer, Herman and others.
It is important to know that any garlic is sensitive to soil acidity. This plant prefers normal or alkaline soils, therefore it is not recommended to apply fresh organic fertilizers before planting.
Place for landing should be in a dry and well-lit place. In the shade the plant will go to the arrow, and the bulbs will remain underdeveloped. The optimal soil will be loamy with a large amount of organic matter (peat, humus, compost), which has good water-holding capacity.
For garlic, observe the following crop rotation rules:
- It grows well after squash, potatoes, cabbage,
- Suitable for neighborhood with bushes of raspberry, currant, gooseberry, strawberry,
- Do not recommend planting after onions, carrots, cucumbers and tomatoes,
- The maximum term for planting garlic in one place is 2 years in a row, the next planting in this place is not earlier than in 4 years.
Land preparation begins in the autumn, when the garden bed is cleared of weeds and fertilized with compost, leaves, and pereperemym manure. To reduce the acidity make lime, chalk solution or dolomite flour.
In the spring, everything is dug up and mineral substances are introduced in the form of superphosphate - 30 g / m 2 and potassium salt or urea at 20 g / m 2.
When the soil is depleted, ordinary furnace ash helps well, which is applied in a dry form or with a solution.
Ready teeth for planting can be bought in the store, but it is better to do it yourself. To do this, select the best bulbs from last year's harvest for each type separately. The main selection criteria are the large size of the slices, their purity and the absence of mold on the surface. Even one infected clove in a bulb can cause infection to everyone else. Until the landing, the heads are not divided into segments, but stored in a dark and dry place.
The cleaned teeth are soaked before landing in a weak solution of potassium permanganate or phytofluorine, to prevent the development of fungal diseases.
You should always clean each clove of the upper shell, on which rot and microorganisms can accumulate. After that, it is immediately placed in the ground to prevent drying of the ground with the root.
Another popular way to get seeds is from arrows with inflorescences. They select the best plants and leave arrows on them until they are fully ripe. Finished is considered to be an onion (aerial bulb), which has acquired a characteristic color and is freed from the protective film. On seeds break large and healthy bulbs. This scheme is designed for two-year cultivation. In the first year they get one clove, and in the second they get a full onion.
The advantages of this method:
- Planting material has no contact with the soil and therefore is practically sterile,
- Not consumed a large number of quality cloves of garlic heads.
The peculiarity of any sort of garlic is the need for a long stratification - the presence of planting material in cold conditions. Therefore, winter garlic is planted just before the onset of cold weather, and spring garlic is planted in cold soil immediately after the snow has disappeared. This planting technology favors the development of a healthy plant and a bountiful harvest.
Planting winter varieties of garlic
In central Russia, the end of September is considered to be the optimal time for placing seeds in the ground. early October. If it is planted earlier, the cloves will sprout and will give shoots that will freeze and will not sprout in spring. With a late landing, they will not have time to take root and will slowly ascend.
To plant under the snow, slices are dried, then no frosts are terrible for them.
The standard distance between rows is 25 cm, between plants is 8 cm. The depth of penetration is at least 10-12 cm so that the germinating roots do not push the seed to the surface before the onset of cold weather. Good results are obtained by planting among other garden plants. Such compaction does not affect the yield. Dry ground can be watered once before the onset of cold weather.
The quantity and quality of winter garlic harvest is influenced by the amount of snow in winter. For snow retention, beds with plantings are mulched with peat, sawdust, covered with fir and spruce fir trees. It is useful to throw a little snow in the winter on the beds with garlic.
Planting spring varieties of garlic
For spring sowing, it is desirable to have a bed already prepared. The top layer of soil thaws the earliest and is already suitable for planting garlic seeds, without waiting for the soil to thaw to the full depth. Early planting is the key to a great future harvest.
There are several options for planting garlic:
- Rows with a gap between plants of 10 cm and a distance of 20 cm to the next groove,
- Square method with a mesh size of 15 by 15 cm,
- Two-layer disembarkation in one hole, when the first clove deepens by 15 cm, and the second by 8 cm,
- Two-layer planting in squares - the teeth of the lower layer are located in the center of the squares formed by the upper row of seeds.
Such nesting schemes help to get the harvest during the whole season, and the yield exceeds the standard one by 1.5-2 times.
Garlic care after planting
Plant shoots need regular care and care for them. This refers to irrigation, weeding, fertilization.
It is no secret that garlic loves moist soil and abundant watering, especially during the sprouting period. At this time, he needs regular watering in the amount of 10-12 liters per square meter.
As the bulbs grow, the intensity of irrigation is reduced, and from August until the harvest, it is stopped completely. This reduces the risk of decay and spoilage of garlic heads in the ground.
Weeding and fighting with baring
Weed begin with the appearance of the first shoots. Remove not only weeds, but also the excess shoots of garlic, preventing the full formation of the main onions. Simultaneously with weeding the beds, they are loosening (it is recommended to loosen the soil after the rains).
Breaking shooters begin with their growth to 15-20 cm, if you do not plan to get the bulbs for seeds. Arrows should be broken or cut closer to the bulb. Broken sprout will continue to grow, taking a lot of nutrients from the root system. This operation is carried out regularly.
How to grow garlic from seeds is described in detail in our other article: Growing garlic from bulbs (seeds)
The introduction of mineral and organic substances greatly affects the yield of garlic. It is important to strictly observe dosage and time of fertilizer. Предпочтение отдают удобрениям с содержанием фосфора и калия: суперфосфат, сульфат калия, аммиачная селитра, мочевина, аммофоска.
Вносят эти удобрения 3 раза за сезон – в начале посадки, через месяц, при формировании небольшой луковицы.
Органические удобрения вносят с появлением первых листочков. Лучшим по составу считается раствор коровяка. Он богат азотом и безвреден для растений и человека. Птичий и другие пометы используют осторожно, внося их в перегнившем виде или слабых растворах. A large amount of nitrogen is needed only at the initial stage of growth.
Always combine fertilizing with irrigation. This contributes to the speedy absorption of nutrients by the plant.
Read more in our other article: How to feed garlic? Spring, autumn, before planting
Garlic Diseases and Pests
Plants are subject to fungal diseases that can be transported by air or contained in the soil that has not undergone appropriate treatment.
These diseases are:
- Bacterial rot,
- Black mold,
Treatment of affected plants is carried out by spraying with fungicides or Bordeaux mixture. After harvest, the stems from these plants are burned, and the bed is treated with the same preparations. It is advisable to change the cultivated crop, for example, sow with carrots or potatoes.
Among parasitic insects, stem nematode, onion fly and garlic mite cause great damage. They damage plants and fruits in the garden and during storage. Destroying pests insecticidal drugs (Intavir), and to prevent their appearance helps a thorough cleaning of the beds at the beginning of the season and deep digging.
From onion flies and tick helps proven folk remedy. Pour a glass of tobacco dust and ground pepper with a few liters of hot water, draw for 2-3 days, filter and dilute in one bucket of water. Sprayed every 10 days.
Harvesting and storage
Digging of winter garlic begins in July and finishes spring varieties in late August - early September. Orientation should be on the yellowed lower leaves and ripened seed pods. Ripe garlic stops producing new feathers, and the inflorescences begin to crumble.
Without waiting for the foliage to wither completely, the bulbs gently break in and extract the whole plant. Cleaning is carried out in dry weather, and watering is stopped 2-3 weeks before.
Rhizomes shake off excess ground and sent to dry in a warm and well ventilated place. Drying of garlic under the rays of the sun during the daytime is allowed, and at night it is cleaned into the room.
In the process of drying the nutrients from the leaves turn into bulbs.
Dried garlic is tied up in bunches or braids and hung in a dry cool place. The optimum temperature during cold storage is 1-3 degrees, and when it is warm, it does not exceed 25 degrees.
Properly harvested and dried garlic can be stored for several years without loss of taste and vitamins.
Choice of varieties
Almost all types of garlic are grown and feel good in the open field. At the same time for each region, it is important to select zoned varieties that give the greatest return. In the open field cultivated winter and spring varieties. Among the winter crops there are two groups:
- Gunmen - Spas, Dobrynya, Alkor, Gribovsky-60, Gribovsky jubilee, Komsomolets, Azure, Losevsky, Lyubasha, Nadezhny, Sail, Bogatyr, Rusich, Sagittarius, Caesar, Chechen, Polet and others. Varieties of this group are the most common and popular. They multiply teeth from the parent bulb and seeds.
- Non-shooting - Doctor, In memory of Yershov, White Elephant, Novosibirsk. The varieties of the group are small. Breed only teeth.
Widespread spring, non-arrow varieties of different ripening terms:
- Early - Sochi,
- late - Gulliver,
- middle-ripening - Elenovsky, Victorio, Ershovsky, Abrek, Demidovsky, Aleysky, Orlovsky, Degtyarsky, Nugget, etc.
Produced in advance, at least 7-10 days before planting, so that the soil has settled. This is done in order not to be mistaken with the depth of landing teeth. Under the main refueling make 1 square. m .:
- humus - 6-10 kg,
- potassium sulfate - 2 tbsp. l.,
- superphosphate - 1 tbsp. l.,
- wood ash - 1 cup.
For soil disinfection use a weak solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate (1 tablespoon per 10 liters of water).
The beds are made narrow (about 1 m) to maintain the plants was convenient. The soil is carefully digged with fertilizers to a depth of 20-25 cm.
Preparation of planting material
For planting selected large, one-dimensional, without signs of disease and damage to the bulb. They are split into individual teeth and choose the best. Teeth deformed, with damaged scales and shallows, attached, not used for planting. For disinfection, they are soaked in a 1% solution of potassium permanganate or copper sulfate.
Traditional terms of planting garlic for the winter - no less than 2 weeks before the establishment of frost. Depending on the region and the temperature conditions of the current year, this is the period from the end of September to the end of October. In the southern regions, the landing dates may shift to November.
The main condition for planting in the winter - the teeth must root, but do not sprout.
How to cook the beds, cover the ground after watering, plant garlic cloves in the ground - about this in the video.
For spring planting, soil begins to be prepared in autumn. Cereals, legumes, forage grasses, and vegetables are chosen as precursors, except for all types of onions and carrots. The soil should be neutral, for which you can make dolomite flour, chalk or wood ash. As fertilizer per 1 square. m. contribute:
- 1 bucket of humus:
- 20-30 g of superphosphate,
- 20 g of potassium salt.
In the fall, they do a deep digging of the soil and leave the garden until spring. After wintering the garden will be enough to loosen and prepare rows and or holes for planting. Soil decontamination can be carried out in advance, as for winter garlic.
Winter arrowed varieties of garlic can be propagated by seeds that ripen on the arrow (peduncle). For the production of marketable garlic, it is usually removed, and for seeds leave the largest specimens for growth and ripening.
The procedure for preparing the beds for sowing aerial bulbs is the same as for planting garlic cloves. It is only necessary to plan in advance, will be sown in the fall or spring.
Single-toothed cullets, which in the next season will be used for the production of multi-edged garlic, can be sown in the fall, like teeth, or in spring:
- Small onions can freeze out in a harsh winter, so spring sowing is practiced in the northern regions. Sowing time should be early - 1-2 decade of April.
- Sowing under the winter spend 8-10 days earlier than planting Zubkov.
Sevok - single-teeth planted in the winter at the same time as the teeth.
Main activities for the care of garlic in the open field
Watering garlic in the spring-summer period is recommended in dry weather, as the soil dries, but only before the maturation (2-3 weeks) of the bulbs. Watering should be abundant, water consumption - 10-12 l / sq. m
With proper soil filling before planting, no more than two supplements are enough for garlic. It can be watered with a solution of cow dung or bird droppings (1:10, 1:20) or a solution of mineral fertilizers in 10 liters of water:
- The first top dressing with the appearance of 3-4 leaves - urea - 1 tbsp. l
- The second feeding, two weeks after the first - nitroammofoskoy - 2 tbsp. l
Fertilizer fertilizer can be replaced with a solution of wood ash (150-200 g per 10 liters of water).
Disease and pest prevention measures
The most effective preventive measures:
- crop rotation,
- timely harvesting of plant residues and deep digging of the soil,
- disinfection of seeds and soil before planting.
For the fight against fungal diseases use "Fitosporin" or Bordeaux mixture.
To combat pests apply folk remedy - an infusion of tobacco dust (1 cup) with ground pepper (1-2 tablespoons per 10 liters of water).
Minor physical effort, proper care and little material spent on growing garlic in the open field, will certainly pay off a good harvest.
The technology of growing winter garlic
Winter garlic is most popular with gardeners. This is evidenced by the fact that more than seventy of its varieties are registered in the State Register at the time when there are only fourteen varieties of spring garlic. Such popularity is due to its positive qualities:
- High yield - two to three times higher than that of the spring.
- Early ripening - the first half of July.
- Larger heads compared to spring garlic.
In the vast majority of varieties of winter garlic are arrowheads, i.e., an arrow with a spherical umbrella formed by small flowers grows from the middle of the bulb. After flowering, each flower forms an air bulb (the so-called bulb), used for propagation.
After flowering, each garlic flower forms an air bulb (called a bulb) used for propagation.
The reproduction of winter garlic occurs in two ways:
- The first way is to plant in the fall zubkov, which are rooted for winter, and sprout in early spring. With this option, young greens and garlic heads can be eaten as early as late May - early June, and full ripening occurs by mid-July.
- The second method is breeding with bulbs. In this case, the bulbs, collected at the end of the summer, are planted in the ground before winter, and by the end of the next season single-teeth grow. They, in turn, are planted again in the winter and the next year they receive the harvest of normal, but already healthy, garlic. This method is used for the following purposes:
- For a large number of planting material in a short time. The number of bullets of the desired grade can be an order of magnitude higher than the number of chunks obtained.
- In order to improve the planting material. As you know, when growing garlic from chives, various diseases, especially the stem nematoma, are stored and accumulate in it. The bullets lack this disadvantage.
- To restore varietal features. When growing garlic from a clove within a few years, it degenerates, the heads become shallow, the yield drops. After growing the planting material from aerial bulbs, the signs of the variety are fully restored..
The choice of location and preparation of the beds
In any case, garlic needs good lighting and ventilation. Therefore, a place for him is chosen open, even, dry, without flooding.
For the cultivation of garlic choose a flat, sunny place without flooding
On the overmoistened soil the garlic soaks and rots. To prevent this, it is often planted on high beds — this is especially true for winter garlic. The best soils are loams and sandy loams with neutral acidity. And you must follow the principles of crop rotation. It is not necessary for 3-4 years to plant garlic after crops such as:
Garlic will feel good after such crops:
- any cereals (except barley and oats),
- strawberries and strawberries.
The bed should be prepared no later than 3-4 weeks before planting, and for spring garlic it is better to prepare it in the fall. At the same time, the soil should be deeply dug and at the same time fertilized:
- compost or humus at a rate of 5–10 kg / m 2,
- superphosphate - 40 g / m 2,
- wood ash - 1-2 l / m 2.
Planting winter garlic
This process is absolutely simple and it looks like this:
- Planting material is prepared immediately before planting. For this:
- Disassemble the heads into individual teeth and calibrate them. For planting choose the largest, and small leave for eating. In this case, the rule applies: the larger the clove, the larger the bulb will grow from it. And vice versa.
For planting choose the largest teeth
Before planting, the chives are sanitized in a weak solution of potassium permanganate
Garlic is usually planted in long rows of three rows with an interval of 25 centimeters.
With the onset of Morohov, a bed of winter garlic is covered with straw.
Planting garlic bulbs
The bed for planting bulbs is prepared in the same way as for cloves. The size of the bulb should be at least 4-5 millimeters, and even better. Air bulbs can be planted in late autumn at such times that they do not have time to germinate before the onset of frost. It should happen in early spring. And you can also keep the onions until spring in a canvas bag at room temperature and plant them on the beds at the same time as the teeth. In this case, the bulbs 30–40 days before planting are placed in a refrigerator for hardening. The sowing interval should be 3-4 centimeters, and the seeding depth is 2-3 centimeters.
For sowing using the bulb with a diameter of at least 4-5 mm
Planting spring garlic
Spring garlic, in contrast to winter, forms many (up to 15-30) chives, growing in 2-3 layers. For planting use only the largest teeth from the outer layer, and the rest are either used for food, or sown with other cultures to repel pests. Since spring garlic is planted in spring, the depth of its planting should be less than winter. After all, it does not need to be protected from frost and it needs to create conditions for faster germination. Therefore, the grooves for its landing make a depth of 4-5 centimeters. The planting interval in the row is also small - about 6-7 centimeters, since the spring garlic teeth have much smaller sizes. To speed up the emergence of shoots, you can germinate the teeth, wrapping them in a damp napkin for several days.
Rules for the care of garlic in the process of growing the same for both types. They are simple and consist in performing the usual procedures for garden crops.
In the spring after the emergence of shoots garlic needs regular watering. Their frequency depends on the specific weather conditions of the current season. It is important to observe the constant moistening of the soil to a depth of 40 centimeters, preventing it from drying out. Provided mulching beds usually 1-2 irrigation per week is enough. Hand 4-5 weeks before the intended harvesting irrigation is stopped. It is convenient to irrigate using drip irrigation systems.
Garlic will need fertilizing in the spring during the period of vegetative mass gain. Usually, after 2-3 weeks, watering the beds with urea solution (20-30 grams per bucket) is used, using 10 l / m 2. Then preferably twice at an interval of 2-3 weeks to feed garlic liquid organic fertilizers. It is best to use chicken droppings, dissolving it in water (a ratio of 1:10), and in its absence, mullein can be used (2:10). Like irrigation, fertilizing is stopped 4-5 weeks before the crop ripens.
Garlic is better to feed liquid organic fertilizers
Garlic is mainly resistant to most diseases and pests. Often it is used to combat these problems on other plants. But still, sometimes (usually with any violations of agricultural technology), he himself undergoes fungal diseases such as decay, rust, mold, downy mildew. For the prevention and control of them it is better to use biological preparations (biofungicides), for example, Fitosporin or Trichodermin. Fitosporin is more effective as a prophylactic agent, it is used for treatments with an interval of 2-3 weeks throughout the season. In addition, it is also an excellent foliar feeding, absolutely harmless to humans. Trichodermin copes well with root rot and other fungi. It can be used when detecting signs of illness.
Garlic pests are best known for onion flies, onion moths and stem nematomas. Less commonly, garlic is attacked by weevils and ticks. As for the flying insects (fly, mole), then it is best to apply intimidating treatments with extracts of tobacco, ash, or a solution of 1 tablespoon of kerosene in a bucket of water during their flight. The following chemical insecticides can be recommended from chemical protective equipment:
Stem nematoma is a parasitic form of worms (worms) that live in the soil and penetrate the garlic through the bottom. Fighting this pest is difficult and it is better to use preventive measures. If at the site there is a risk of infection with nematoma (or the disease was noticed earlier), then before planting it is necessary to carry out tillage.
Winter garlic: planting before winter, when planting teeth in the ground
There are two main types of garlic - winter and spring. The first is suitable for autumn planting, it can be left to winter in the soil. Spring (non-shot) are planted in the spring. The landing time does not affect the technology of growing plants. Winter garlic can also be planted in the spring, then it will ripen a little later, and will be stored better.
In order to obtain a stable harvest, each summer resident must determine the optimal time for planting of cloves - for each region, the planting time of winter garlic is different. Teeth are planted in the middle zone in September-October, in the south - in October-November, and in the North-West in August (the experience of G. Kizima).
Soil and planting
Garden plot for growing garlic in the open field should not be flooded with water on rainy days - this will harm the culture. We have this happened in 2015, when the mudflow overflowed the garden and brought the clay. Although the water did not stand for long, clay was applied on top of it, and the heads of garlic were soaked or suffocated - in the winter they were kept out of the ordinary badly.
Если чеснок выращиваете как монокультуру, за пару недель до предполагаемой посадки взрыхлите верхний слой грядки плоскорезом, и внесите в нее перегной или зрелый компост. Почва должна быть с нейтральной кислотностью. Заранее можно провести известкование или добавить в землю немного золы. Для защиты чеснока от грибковых заболеваний пролейте грядку Фитоспорином-М. And in order to avoid germination of weed shoots, cover the prepared bed with black non-woven material.
Garlic should not be planted in the same place - it contributes to the accumulation of growth inhibitors in the soil and attract pests. It is desirable that the precursors of the culture were cabbage or cucumbers.
As already mentioned, winter garlic in the Central zone is planted mainly in September or in early October. It is remarkably tolerant of frosts: nothing will happen to plants even at a temperature of -20 degrees. However, before the onset of frosts, it is better to cover them - for this purpose, the tops from the harvest of the autumn harvest, leaf litter, peat or humus are used. In the spring garlic feathers will pass through any mulch.
The dates, of course, are indicative: if there is a warm autumn in the yard, you should not rush to disembark teeth. It is better to wait until the first snow falls, and after it has melted, plant garlic.
For planting choose the largest heads of the plant. Before being placed in the soil, the teeth are separated and heated to +40 degrees. The sowing pattern is simple: 4 cm between teeth at a distance of 20 cm between rows. Planting material is placed in the soil to a depth of 5-8 cm.
We do not single out a separate garden bed for garlic, but use combined plantings, planting it along the edge of one of the 3 medium beds. One line on the 3-meter bed is enough for salting and winter storage. Moving around the garden, garlic cures the soil for pathogens, and the crop rotation is observed for him himself - he will return to his original place after 6 years.
Previously, we planted a groove for planting with a flat-cutter, and laid teeth into it, and now we have begun to press a peg and throw teeth there. Then sprinkle the wells with compost. Here is a fairly simple technology of growing garlic in the open field.
It seems that there is no gain in terms of labor costs - there and there we have to bend our knees. But planting in the dense holes of the peg does not disturb the layers of the soil, and the roots of garlic are perfectly fixed there for the winter - they never protrude from the ground as it happens when they are planted in dug soil.
Cultivation of garlic in the open field: features of care
Garlic is no more whimsical in care than onions. It will be enough for regular mulching of the soil and periodic watering. Culture does not need mineral fertilizers, rather the opposite. Do not make dressing with fresh manure. For the year it will be enough to feed the soil twice: with solutions of bird droppings in the spring, ashes - in the summer.
In order for the bulb to pick up more nutrients and become large, the arrow is cut off at the time of the appearance of the second round. Arrows are edible, there are many wonderful dishes with their use. As soon as the leaves begin to turn yellow, you can start harvesting. We recommend that you do not wait for the false stem to dry - this will adversely affect the quality of the teeth.
The heads can be assembled by prying the ground with a pitchfork (without turning the reservoir), and if the soil is loose, then simply pull it out of the ground with your hands. After harvesting the crop must be dried. To do this, garlic is often braided in braids and hung from the ceiling or on the veranda. Well, we recall that storage in conditions of high humidity will lead to rotting teeth, and as a result, the harvest will deteriorate quickly.
Adherents of natural farming have accumulated many methods of growing garlic, there are even planting in two tiers. We also tried everything, and gradually abandoned large volumes, reduced the garlic bed to one row. And only then they began to plant their teeth without digging, with the help of a peg. Such a fairly simple cultivation of juicy heads in the open field is very suitable for us. Now you know how the garlic is planted before winter, and you will be able to choose the best time for your region when planting teeth in the ground.
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