There are dining, sugar and fodder beets. Dining, leaf and root, may differ in terms of ripening, the shape of the fruit, the color of the pulp of the root. You can grow in the country any, it is only important to know the characteristics of the variety.
Early ripening beets are planted for summer consumption, it ripens completely two to three months after sowing, but they start to eat it much earlier. It is better to grow for long-term storage medium-late and late varieties that ripen from three to five months. Root crops usually lie all winter, which are removed after full ripening, but such a long time beets may not grow in all regions. Therefore, it is desirable to choose a variety, knowing how much time it needs to grow, and the duration of the warm season in a particular area.
Early varieties such as “Cold Resistant”, “Egyptian”, “Red Ball”, “Bordeaux 237”, “Nobol”, need from 60 to 90 days from the time of sowing for ripening. Young roots begin to be used for food, if their diameter exceeds 1.5 cm, this is the time when thick shoots thin out, and the roots and leaves can already be eaten. Young juicy leaves are often used together with other vegetable herbs for salads, okroshka or soups.
Medium early varieties ripen from 90 to 130 days. Beet varieties "Detroit", "Mulatto", "Bon", "Bohemia" more resistant compared with the early. It does not suffer from temperature changes, withstands drought, less exposed to disease. After full maturation can be stored for a long time. It is these varieties that are chosen for consumption in winter in those regions where September brings real cold, where later varieties simply cannot mature.
Late beets should grow from 130 to 150 days from the time of sowing, of course, five months of heat is not everywhere, so these varieties are not grown in the north. Among the most popular late varieties gardeners choose "Cylinder" and "Renova".
Site selection and preparation of beds
Beetroot, planting and care in the open field for which is not too troublesome, likes open sunny places. So the bed she needs to find unshadowed, so that all day she could get the maximum solar heat. Every year the beets are planted in a new place, otherwise the crop can not be seen at all, and the entire season will be fighting with diseases and pests. It is not advisable to plant it after all types of cabbage, radish, rape, carrot. Experts disagree on the opinion of potato specialists, but this vegetable grows best of all where tomatoes, cucumbers, peppers, onions, eggplants, legumes or grain crops were previously grown. As you can see, the choice is large enough so that you can change the place every year - this is a very important condition for trouble-free cultivation.
He does not like beets of heavy, acidic soils, as well as stagnation of water, but he can somehow maintain his existence even there. But a vegetable grown on light, air-permeable soils can be even slightly alkaline, and if it also receives regularly the right amount of moisture, it certainly will give a tasty juicy, slightly crisp root vegetable. It is best to pick up (or create) a plot with fertile sandy or loamy non-acidic soil, such conditions will be the key to a good harvest. Often, gardeners planted beet curb along the paths in the beds with cabbage or carrots. This neighborhood will provide the vegetables with the necessary nutrition and watering, since the needs are largely the same.
Sowing is done most often in spring, when the earth has already warmed up to +10 degrees, but they are preparing the place from autumn. After harvesting, the garden beds are completely free from plant debris, they are dug up deep into the shovels bayonet, removing perennial weed roots simultaneously. If the soil is at least slightly acidic, you need to correct ph by adding lime, dolomite flour or at least wood ash. In the fall, the soil is filled with fertilizers - humus or compost must be applied, complex mineral fertilizers containing, in addition to obligatory nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, some other amount of iron, boron, copper, magnesium, molybdenum, manganese.
But beets are sensitive to overdose of fertilizers, too generous mineral dressings can lead to accumulation of nitrates, roots will get voids or cracks. You can not fertilize roots with fresh manure, only humus, stood for at least two years.
Thus, the prepared soil is watered and left to rest until spring, to assimilate fertilizers. Autumn sowing is carried out before winter, not earlier than November, so that the seeds do not ascend, but survive until the onset of heat, at the same time getting hardened by frost.
They will sprout before spring crops, will give stronger sprouts, unless they germinate during an unplanned thaw, which will inevitably lead to their subsequent freezing.
Seed preparation and planting procedure
The seeds of the beetroot are peculiar, several are hidden under one shell at a time, up to five sprouts can be formed during germination, which is why they are laid in the ground, one for each nest. Strange large drupes should have a sandy-brown color or a little greenish, if the purchased seeds are colored bright pink or bluish-green, this means that they have been processed with fungicides and growth stimulants, they no longer need to be prepared for planting, they are directly dry in the ground.
Unprocessed seeds need to be prepared for sowing. To do this, they are first soaked with warm water, the floating ones are thrown away, those that remain are wrapped in gauze or collected in a canvas bag and filled with a growth stimulator solution ("Appin", "Zircon") for the time indicated on the package. Such a solution can be prepared by yourself. Per liter of warm water take 2 g of boric acid, 4 g of nitroammofoski, 5 g of superphosphate, 1 teaspoon of baking soda, a little wood ash. This solution is poured seeds for half an hour. Then another day the seeds are kept in conditions of heat and moisture.
The tilted seeds are placed in prepared grooves in the garden, at a distance of about 10 cm from each other. The furrows are easy to make with the end of the board - the board is put sideways on the prepared bed and slightly pressed down to two centimeters. Then they retreat 20-30 cm and make the next groove. It is very convenient: the bottom becomes flat, dense, the rows are parallel, the distances between the rows are the same. They are lightly watered from the watering can just before sowing.
Seeds are covered with soil, watered, and then mulched a couple of centimeters high with peat or compost. Sowing is carried out when the temperature of the air and the soil has been established not lower than +10 degrees. If you sow earlier, the seedlings will appear, maybe a little later, but such plants do not form a root vegetable, they usually grow large leaves and rush to throw out the peduncle.
In regions with a short summer, it is more convenient to grow beets by the seedling method, planting them on a bed, also at a ground temperature not lower than +10 degrees. And before that, they are germinated under film or at home. If the seeds were sown in boxes, then with the appearance of the leaves, they dive into separate cups or break through a couple of times before planting on the bed, and the plucked sprouts are transplanted to another place. Seedlings are planted on a permanent place after the appearance of three leaves, it is advisable to simply move the seedlings together with the earthy clod, so it’s good if they already grew in separate cups. Such a transfer along with the native land reduces stress and accelerates the process of adaptation in a new place.
Open field maintenance
After the appearance of a pair of leaves for plants care, as usual: weed, water, loosen, feed, protect from pests and diseases. From sowing to leaf closing, the bed with beets needs to be weeded all the time - weeds not only take nutrients from vegetables, but provoke various diseases. After closing the beet leaves above the ground, the weeds practically do not grow under them.
Root crops for uniform development should receive a sufficient amount of moisture, so you need to water the plants regularly, use better settled water heated in the sun. Young plants are usually watered once a week in the evening, and in the morning you need to loosen the ground around to prevent an earth crust from forming. Adult plants are watered less often, but it all depends on the weather — hot, dry weather requires more frequent watering, while rain or overcast weather pushes off irrigation. If in doubt, you can always check with your hand how much the earth has already dried to decide whether watering is needed. To water and loosen the ground less often, you can mulch the bed with peat or just with hay, cut by grass.
At first, plants actively consume nitrogen, they need it to grow, and later they need more potassium, phosphorus, and boron to form root crops. Therefore, after the appearance of leaflets, the bed can be poured with a solution of an infusion of mullein or bird droppings, but they must be diluted eight times (manure) or twelve times (droppings). Some water infusion of nettle or urea. Beetroot responds well to foliar feeding, in the summer it is poured from a watering can over the leaves with a solution of boric acid, for which dissolve 2 g of boric acid with 10 liters of water. In the summer, they sprinkle salt water over the leaves, dissolving 1 tablespoon in 10 liters of water. Gardeners who cultivate vegetables on depleted soils feed them every two to three weeks. But experts warn that excess fertilizer can lead to cracking of root crops, the formation of voids. In addition, beets tend to accumulate nitrates, which we then consume, causing harm to ourselves. So all the feeding you need to do on mature thinking.
Be that as it may, the closer the autumn, the less need to water and feed the plants. Two to three weeks before the harvest, watering is generally stopped. This is most relevant for late varieties that are intended for long-term storage. Early ripe beets are watered as needed and pulled when needed.
Not so many diseases trap beets in the garden. With a lack of boron, fomoz can develop. Peronosporaz can deprive of the crop, with the first symptoms (twisting of leaves, the appearance of bloom with a purple tinge) before the formation of root crops can be treated with copper-containing drugs or special fungicides. When overwetting, stagnation of water in heavy soil can be rooted. Beet and mining flies, shovels, beet aphids or flea attacks are possible. From them can save the infusion of onion peel. Dusting plants with wood ash and tobacco dust will be a good prevention.
Harvesting and Storage
Early beets are pulled when the roots have grown more than 6 cm in diameter, but you can eat them before. But later varieties that are going to be stored in the winter are harvested when the leaves turn yellow, dry, fall to the ground. If the leaves began to dry - in a week you need to choose the harvest.
On a dry, fine afternoon, the beets are hooked on with a pitchfork, taken out, and left to dry on the garden bed. Then cut off or cut off manually (this method is considered less painful), leaving not less than 2.5 cm petioles, shake off the remnants of the earth, sorted.
That beets that will be stored for a long time, dried in the fresh air under a roof or in a ventilated room. And then transferred to the place where it will be stored at a humidity of 90% and a temperature of from 0 to +2 degrees. Root vegetables are stored in wooden or even plastic boxes, for better preservation, they are powdered with chalk or just sprinkled with sand.
A set of activities that allows you to get the maximum amount of useful elements and give a good harvest consists of certain stages:
- selection of seeds and their preparation for planting,
- placement of root vegetables
- sowing and care of seedlings,
- growing root vegetables
- pest control
- harvesting and preservation.
When choosing a place for gardening it is necessary to know that the place should be sunny, the land is loose and fertile. The main condition for obtaining good plants when growing beets in open ground is a rare planting with a distance of at least 25 cm in a row and between roots and not less than 10 cm. The more, the better. In cramped conditions, six acres of such places are few, and if you still consider that the rotation must be respected, the choice of place is difficult. There are two exits, sowing on a narrow ridge along Mitlayder or along the sides of the beds with other cultures.
Beet refers to the crops of soil self-poisoners. Planting beets in the same place next year is impossible; the crop will be significantly lower than other predecessors.
Depending on the time of sowing and the region choose beet varieties. For autumn planting, you can take a variety Podzimnyaya A-474. In order to obtain a cylindrical fruit there is a cylinder. There are successful varieties - Gribovskaya, Egyptian, Pablo and others. When selecting seeds, you need to pay attention to their color. If the seeds have a non-characteristic color, it means that they are already prepared for sowing.
Sowing beets and caring for young plants
Simple seeds represent a combination of several seeds in one package. In this case, it is necessary to process the seed in any growth stimulator and leave it raw for pecking for a day. Sowing seeds produce at a depth of 2 cm with a distance of 5 cm. With the germination of seeds in the nest leave only a strong seedling. In the future, as the beets are grown at the dacha, it is repeatedly thinned out for eating vitamin greens.
Soil preparation for sowing begins in the fall. The future place is well filled with compost, superphosphate and potassium chloride. Compost is brought to the garden bed. It will not be out of place to shed a sowing site in the fall with a 3% solution of blue vitriol. This will destroy the weed spores and at the same time provide the soil with copper, which the beets need.
Subwinter seeding is carried out in November, when the earth has already frozen along pre-prepared furrows. Root vegetables will need to be used as early greens. Storage products under-winter planting is not suitable. For winter storage, beets are sown at the end of May and later. In a heated earth, a root crop develops well and quickly gains leaf mass. Often, gardeners planted beet seedlings at a permanent place. This method allows you to get products earlier.
Particular attention in the cultivation and care of beets is given to the first stage of growth. Thinning seedlings or caring for weak plants planted with seedlings is a crucial period. It is at this point that pests and diseases can attack the plant. Therefore, seedlings should be watered, scattered with ashes or scare powders.
During this period, you can not use microbiological preparations. The root system of cultivated plants is still traumatized and should not be affected by bacteria. Therefore, within two weeks, if necessary, use chemicals. If the cardinal measures are preferable, then the usual insecticides are used against insects during their mass appearance, and against the fungal diseases Oksikh or Fitosporin in the approved doses.
The formation of the outlet and the root
In order for the plant to develop faster, at the very beginning after thinning nitrogen fertilizing is given. A tablespoon of urea is diluted in 10 liters of water and fertilizing fertilizer is made on moist earth. After this, the plants gently loosen and weed, without damaging the root system.
The amount of precipitation will show how often to water the beets in the open field. In any case, the beets need one or two deep waterings during the development. The remaining watering of the soil will maintain moisture. Do not overdry the soil. Root crops can become tough or cracked. But in the last three weeks before harvesting it is not necessary to water and feed the beets.
When forming a plant, it needs several feedings. When the plant is picking up a rosette, foliar feeding with micronutrient fertilizers and boric acid will be beneficial, and the same after two weeks. Twice a season you need to water the plants with salty water, dissolving a teaspoon of salt in a bucket of water. When filling the root with the size of a walnut, apply the fertilizer Agricola-4 or potash and superphosphate fertilizers. Nitrogen accumulates in the beets, impairs its storage and taste, so it is not used when pouring.
Boron and salt are necessary for the development of root vegetables. A native of the Mediterranean, beets like salty crystals brought by the sea air. Salt will add sweets to beets, and boron will save the root crop from black ulcers of fomosis.
The plant rises above the ground during loading. Do I need to spud beets? Unlike carrots and potatoes, the root crop does not accumulate solanine from the action of light, it does not change the taste. Therefore, spud beets do not need. When to harvest beets, depends on the weather. The roots protruding from the ground should be removed before frost or covered on cold nights.
Harvesting beets is carried out in clear dry weather. Обрезать ножом ботву опытные огородники не советуют. Причина в том, что ранки долго не засыхают, и из корнеплода уходит влага, так нужная ему при хранении. Как правильно убирать свеклу видео показывает подробно. Главное, травмировать кожицу продукта, предназначенного для хранения, нельзя. Корнеплоды следует хорошо просушить в тени, очистить остатки земли и опустить в погреб. Свекла хранится в песке, в сухом ящике или яме.
В огородах мы выращиваем красную свёклу. Truly industrial importance is its closest relative - sugar beet. This is a vegetable that appeared relatively recently - a little more than 200 years ago, and was developed in Europe by the targeted efforts of scientists. In 1747, German chemist Margrave found sucrose in beetroot and offered to make sugar from it. Research continued, but Napoleon was truly interested in this discovery.
The fact is that sugar at that time was made from sugar cane, which was imported from the colonies mainly English. After the start of the war with England, cane sugar became a very rare commodity in Europe. The Emperor of France appointed an award of 1,000,000 francs to thatwho will make sugar from beets. The very first sugar factories began to appear in Europe during the life of Napoleon, but already after the fall of his Empire. So the prize, so no one received. But the first beet processors received such profits, which didn’t remain out of date, becoming the richest people in a few years.
What else should I look for when growing beets in the open field? Organic matter is best to apply humus. It also grows well on peat soils - all that is needed is to ensure that the soil is not too acidic and, if necessary, lime. It is responsive to nitrogen fertilizers - it can accumulate nitrates. Immature manure adversely affects the development of the fetus - it will be porous, loose, and will be poorly stored.
Salty soil withstands easily. Mineral fertilizers on organic fertilized soils can not be applied at all. They are used usually in the fall under digging. The composition of the fertilizer on 1 square. meter:
- a bucket of good land or peat,
- 10 kg of humus or compost,
- 10 kg of sand
- 200 grams of dolomite flour or lime - fluff.
- a glass of dry ash.
This fertilizer is already quite enough for good care, but it is not bad to add a box of superphosphate matches, a spoon of potash and the same amount of potassium salt.
There is a way of winter sowing when the seeds are planted before the onset of cold weather. After that, the soil is mulched with peat or humus. This will ensure early seedlings and early harvest. Seedlings will be more stable to cold snaps. But, in autumn sowing, you can lose the crop because of a sudden strong freeze. Beetroot is very sensitive to cold: seedlings may die at minus 3-4 degrees.
A more traditional way of planting is in the spring from mid-April to the end of May. The main role is played by temperature. Beetroot worse than other root crops tolerate low temperatures, so they plant it later than carrots or radishes. Sowing begins when the temperature of the soil rises to 8-10 degrees.
Planted seeds to a depth of 2-3 cm in the grooves, at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Seeds of beets - this is the seed fruit. These are several accrete seeds, which appear from the accrete flowers in the inflorescence, therefore the beet does not sprout in a single plant, but in a kind of nests. Only recently, varieties with a single seed have begun to appear. Beetroot - two-year plants, the seeds gives the second year of life, and we remove it at the end of the first year. Therefore, seeds are rarely collected at home. We usually buy them in the store..
To increase the resistance of the root to frost easily with the help of hardening - this is when the seeds are affected by the contrast temperature.
- Seeds should be placed between layers of damp cloth at a temperature of 18–20 degrees for 15–20 hours.
- Then transfer to the refrigerator, where the temperature is 0–2 degrees for the whole night.
- In the afternoon, keep at room temperature again.
Hardening with contrasting temperatures should be continued until the first seeds are crooked within a week.
Useful techniques of seed preparation
Sparging is the long-term presence of seeds in water that is saturated with air. Seeds swell much faster, substances are eliminatedslowing germination. It's easy to do this:
- the seeds are placed in a glass or other container for 2/3 filled with water,
- A tube is placed on the bottom, the other end is connected to the compressor from the aquarium,
- It pumps air and the seeds move continuously in the water,
- As a result, the seeds are saturated with oxygen, their germination increases.
It is recommended when sowing, especially early, add a little spinach seeds. These so-called beacon seeds will quickly sprout and designate beet beds, which will allow you to immediately begin to care for and weed and cultivate weeds without fear of damaging the seedlings.
In Russia, traditions very clearly established the time of planting and the time of harvesting beets. They sowed it on May 1 - on Kuzmin’s day, and cleaned it on September 1 - at Föklu-beet factory. The people said: Fockla - pull the beets. And almost immediately after harvesting this vegetable in Russia, funeral rites of flies were held. In the old days they believed that it would reduce the number of flies and mosquitoes in Indian summer. Little Coffins for flies cut out of beets, placed there flies and buried them with weeping and lamentations. This event was attended by young unmarried girls. They tried to dress up - after all, the burial of flies was the first bride of the future brides before the fall weddings.
Care for beetroot in the open field
The first 2-3 weeks beet beds are recommended to close the film to protect against frost. Sometimes it is planted with seedlings - then the seeds are sown in a greenhouse at the end of March. And in open ground transplanted in the middle or end of May. This allows for a very early harvest. However, in contrast to tomatoes or peppers, planting seedlings is not a necessity and is used quite rarely.
To root turned out large, beets need to be thinned in time. Sow usually with a margintherefore, plants quickly become crowded. Thinning should begin when the first true leaf appears. Between plants, 4–5 cm should be left. The beetroot grows in nests, therefore, the need arises to double the thinning of crops. The second thinning is done 20–25 days after the first one and the interval between shoots of 10–12 cm is now left. Thinned plants can now be sowed - transplanted to another place one by one, like a seedling, necessarily pinching the main root. Then the root does not go into the depth, but begins to immediately fill with fruit.
Secrets to fight disease
The disease, which is terrible for growing sugar beets, is chalcosporosis. There are yellow spots with red edging around the edges, in wet weather - gray bloom. Favorable condition for the development of this disease is a temperature of 15-20 degrees, high humidity. To avoid this disease, it is necessary to seed seeds before sowing in open ground.
You can use drugs fungicides. In production, ready-made pickled seeds are used, but they are not marketed. You can take advantage of such a drug as "Maxim". The package says how to properly dilute and apply it. Using fungicides, we can avoid the consequences of the disease of table beet disease and, if properly care for them, then get a good harvest.
As we know, the general principle operates: the same culture cannot be planted in the same place for 3-5 years - it is necessary to observe crop rotation. You can use siderats, which not only enrich the soil, but also reduce the number of weeds by 30–40%. For example, when we harvest, on the place where the potatoes are harvested you can plant siderats: rye, mustard or rape.
Care, loosening and weed control begin almost immediately after sowing. If there are lighthouse shoots - they see and do not touch the grooves with seeds. If the beacons are not planted - you need to mark the future grooves with pegs when sowing, so as not to hurt the shoots when loosening. Loosen the soil after each watering. Watering the plants must be abundant: young shoots are watered at the rate of 10 liters per 1 square meter.
After mid-July, when the root crop begins to develop, if it is hot, watering is doubled. And two weeks before cleaning, watering is stopped completely. It is often advised to lure with sea salt or ordinary rock salt diluted in water. This recommendation to care for this root appeared because wild beet originated from the Mediterranean region and grows near the sea. However, the practical usefulness of this advice has not yet been confirmed.
When yellow spots appear on the leaves, this is a sign that the soil is acidic and the plants lack potassium. It is necessary to shed planting lime milk with potassium chloride. You need to feed the plants only if you think that it does not grow well enough. If you have applied fertilizer in the fall and root crops are developing normally, it is better not to fertilize at all.
Eat beets from the moment the fruits appear. Though they are small, they are suitable for salads and borscht. The young beetroot even eats leaves - they have as many nutrients and vitamins as they do in root crops. Initially, the beets ate only the leaves, and only then tasted the roots. And the current roots - is the result of a long and painstaking selection.
For storage in the winter harvest is collected at the end of September. The main secret is that the roots do not come under frost - after that they will not be stored. Pull the beets out of the ground with their hands, gently shake them off and cut the foliage, leaving short cuttings no longer than a centimeter long. And one more growing advice: so that the beets do not spoil, it should be placed in the storage very carefully. It looks like hard root crops crush when struck, and death begins in these places - beetroot rots. If you are careful, the roots will continue until the next harvest.
Preparation of the site for beets
Beets like heat and bright light, so they need a sunny plot with nutritious and loose soil. It grows well on peat soils, sandy loams and loams with high fertility. To ensure a high yield, the land for beets is better to cook in the fall.
Good forerunners of this culture are:
- tomatoes and peppers,
- cucumbers, pumpkins and zucchini,
- greens, legumes, cereals,
- onion garlic.
It is not recommended to plant beets after:
- all kinds of cabbage, radish,
- carrots, celery and parsnip.
Beetroot grows worst in areas where its closest relatives were grown: chard, fodder, sugar and table beets.
The plot is dug up at the end of the garden season or in early spring on a spade bayonet with the application of fertilizers indicated in the table.
It is important not to exceed the recommended doses of mineral fertilizers, otherwise the roots will be loose, with voids and cracks. Fertilizers can be replaced with organic matter: rotted manure that has lain in the herd for at least two years with humus, ash.
It is better to do the beds immediately before planting.
It is better to do the beds immediately before planting, so more moisture will remain in the soil and the seeds will germinate faster. The soil is loosened and leveled with a rake, if it has time to dry up, you need to water it well, after which you can begin to sow.
Beet seeds - wrinkled drupe, rather large size, so they are easy to plant with the necessary spacing. Purchased seeds are often treated with stimulants and fungicides, they are easy to recognize by their bright pink or greenish color. Such seeds do not need to be processed, it can even harm. They are sown without preparation dry in a moist soil.
Beet seeds treated with stimulants and fungicides
The color of the untreated beet seeds is brownish, sometimes sandy with a greenish tinge. It is recommended to prepare them before planting as described below.
- Soak the seeds in water at room temperature for several hours. The sprouted seeds are thrown away; they usually germinate late, giving small root crops of irregular shape.
- Drain the water and immerse the seeds, wrapped in cheesecloth, in a solution Epin, Zircon or other germination stimulator. Maintain them in solution from half an hour to 4 hours, focusing on the instructions on the use of the drug.
- Removed from the stimulator solution and placed in a warm place for 12-24 hours. During this time, the seeds swell, some of them are pecked, after which you can start planting.
Beet seed processing
Planting beets in open ground
To beets pleased you a good harvest, it is important to determine the timing of planting. Single sprouts appear when the soil temperature is 5-7 degrees, but mass and friendly shoots can be achieved only when the earth warms to a temperature of 13-16 degrees at a depth of 8-10 cm.
This is usually not earlier than mid-May. Planting beets in the open ground earlier is meaningless - being in cold, damp soil, the seeds can rot, and the ascended plants will then go to the arrow.
Beets are usually planted no earlier than mid-May.
On prepared beds, grooves are marked with a depth of about 2 cm. They are conveniently made using a board, pressing it with the end into the loosened soil - the bed of grooves will be dense, and the depth of planting will be the same. By selecting the board of the desired width, you can also mark the distance between rows with it. It should be:
- 10-15 cm for receiving small root crops intended for summer consumption or pickling,
- 20-30 cm for varieties with large root crops for winter storage.
The grooves are watered from the watering can, preventing erosion, and left to absorb water. The seeds are laid on the bottom of the grooves, keeping an interval of 4 to 10 cm, depending on the size and purpose of the selected variety. From above, they are covered with soil or well-rotted humus and watered.
With large planting volumes, you can make a pattern, as in the figure, while the distances between plants will always be the same.
Template for sowing beets at the same distance
Beet is unpretentious and drought-resistant, but it will be able to give a high yield only with good care and compliance with agricultural technology.
- In dry and hot weather, beets are regularly watered from a watering can by sprinkling. Water is better to use separated and heated in the sun. At the same time, the leaves are refreshed, the plants perceive better feeding, grow faster.
In dry and hot weather, beets are regularly watered from a watering can by sprinkling
Mulching will help reduce the frequency of watering and loosening.
In the phase of two true leaves, the plants are thinned
It is recommended to feed plants with complex fertilizer two or three times during the growing season.
Selection of varieties and seeds
Beets are unpretentious and ready to grow in all latitudes, with the exception of permafrost. You can opt for zoned local varieties or experiment with new hybrids with increased stamina.
The term of ripening beet depends on the variety and ranges from 80 to 130 days. You can correct the time of ripening by planting beets under a greenhouse or seedlings, pre-germinating seeds.
The most popular varieties suitable for cultivation in all climatic conditions:
Valenta - an early ripe grade with sweet, dark red pulp, cold-resistant, lezhky, steady against diseases.
Ataman - medium-late variety, cylindrical fruits weighing 300 g. Maroon, sweet with homogeneous pulp, very well stored.
Cylinder - medium late variety with an elongated bright red fruit, the weight of which reaches 500 g, strong immunity and good keeping quality.
Subwinter - medium-early cold-resistant variety, resistant to most diseases, fruits roundish weighing 200-400 g with burgundy pulp.
Red hero - medium-early high-yielding variety, cylindrical dark red fruits with thin skin and uniform pulp weighing 200–550 g
Red ice - middle-early variety, fruits are bright red, with structural pulp, light weight - 200–300 g., Is well stored.
Bikores - mid-season high-yielding variety, bright red fruits weighing 200-350 g, leaves.
If you plan to eat all-season beets from your garden, then you need to plant both early and late beet varieties.
More often, beets are planted in spring, when the air warms up to 15-18 C. It can be done a little earlier, after planting unsprouted seeds under a greenhouse in April.
If the spring is too cold, you can move the planting date to a later time, while choosing the beets of early ripening.
Winter beets are sown with dry seeds before the onset of frost. Only specially targeted varieties are selected for this. Places of crops harbor. They start growing in early spring and provide summer harvest of beets. Ripened roots in summer are not subject to long-term storage.
Preparing the soil for beets
Dig up the soil in the autumn after a thorough harvest of the previous harvest. Organic components (compost or manure) contribute as deeply as possible - by 30-35 centimeters. You can organize some semblance of a warm bed, but with a thin layer of organic matter, so that it can decompose by the time the beet root grows to it.
The acidity of the earth is reduced by scattering dolomite flour, ground egg shells, or wood ash.
Mineral supplements - superphosphate and potassium sulfate - it is better to make in the fall, so that they have time to dissolve in the soil. They are scattered in dry form over the bed before digging at the rate of not more than 0.3 kg. per square meter of land.
Root crop develops better in loose soil. Весной грядку хорошо повторно перекопать и замульчировать торфом или перепревшими древесными опилками.
Выбор места, севооборот
Правила, по которым выбирают место для свеклы:
- свекла любит пространство, чем реже высажены друг от друга корнеплоды, тем больше у них места для наращивания округлых бочков,
- if there is no need for large plantations of this root crop, it is possible to plant beets in a curb manner over potatoes, cucumbers, beans, next to greens or onions,
- beets need frequent irrigation, but stagnation of water will lead to decay, which means that the bed should be broken near the irrigation source in a well drained area,
- twice in a row for one place beets are not planted, they observe the crop rotation very carefully,
- The preceding plants for this vegetable are onions, garlic, potatoes, tomatoes, eggplants, carrots, squash,
- it is undesirable to plant beets after cabbage and for the second year in a row in one place.
If you have to press any crops in the garden, planting them on poor soil, then you can safely do this with beets. It is possible to ensure its growth by good loosening of the soil, timely watering and fertilizer.
Watering and feeding
After germination, watering beets is often necessary - once every two or three days, alternating watering with shallow loosening, so as not to damage the roots. Spud this root is not necessary. But it is good between the rows of beets to form borovok, which will spill water. In the case of soil erosion, a thin layer of humus is placed on top.
Loosening can be replaced by mulching. A layer of crushed dried grass laid out between the rows will help preserve moisture.
One-time application of mineral fertilizers before planting for beets is enough. To conduct additional feeding makes sense only if the plants are noticeably retarded in growth.
Periodic watering of beets with diluted herbal infusions or yeast fertilizers is suitable as warning supplements.
Two or three times per season, you can water the beets with salted water at the rate of one tablespoon per 10 liters of water. Or use complex fertilizers according to the instructions, for example, McBour.
Root crops are more active than other crops, accumulate nitrates. When growing beets is better to opt for natural fertilizers.
Optimum density of landings
An important point in the care of beets - thinning. It is carried out in several stages so that the owner has the opportunity to evaluate the growing roots and choose the best ones. Before each thinning must be well poured beets.
When the first pair of leaves appears, the weakest plants are removed. Later on, thinning removes diseased specimens; too thick, good roots can be transplanted to a new place or used as food as greenery.
From the initial distance between plants of 5 centimeters, as a result, it is necessary to reach an interval of 15-20 centimeters.
Diseases and pests of beets
The main pests of any root crops are the moles, the bear and the rodents. Also dangerous are beet flea, wireworms and slugs. In addition, the plants are affected by various rot, nematode.
To combat these troubles, first of all, the hygiene of the backyard plot should be maintained - high-quality cleaning, careful deep digging and preventive treatment of plantings with natural disinfectants - wood ash, tobacco dust, and hot pepper powder.
These roots are famous for unpretentiousness and constancy. They are well kept in cellars and vegetable pits, saving nutrients until the spring. Be sure to find a place on your site for beets.
Beet canteen belongs to the group of heat-loving crops, but it is rather cold-resistant. Sowing it in open ground begins with the establishment of a constant soil temperature in the 10-15 cm layer not lower than +8 .. + 10 ° C. When sowing early with the return of cold, beetroot after germination can go to the arrow and not form a high-quality crop. Root vegetables will be small with a dense woody tissue, tasteless or with a grassy flavor. For the emergence of seedlings, an ambient temperature of +4 .. + 6 ° С is sufficient. Early shoots can withstand short-term frost to -2 ° C, but the roots will be small. Do not rush the sowing of beets, or sow in several periods with a break of 7-10-15 days. One of the crops will fall into optimal conditions and will create the desired crop of the expected quality.
Beet. © woodleywonderworks
Light mode for beetroot
To obtain high-quality high yields of any crop (not only beets), it is necessary to know its biology, including its attitude to the light regime. Beetroot is a typical plant of a long day. Cultivars of beets at the level of genetic memory have fixed this biological feature, and the maximum yield is formed during cultivation with a day length of 13-16 hours. The change in the duration of daylight by 2-3 hours causes mainly the growth of the aerial part, and the development of the root crop slows down.
Remember! The shorter the ripening period of the crop, the less beets react to changes in the length of daylight.
Older, resistant beet varieties are stronger than the young ones attached to the light mode and react negatively to changes in the length of light illumination. In order to obtain high-quality yields, it is more practical to buy modern zoned beet seeds, which are most adapted to the length of the light period of the region and that react little to the duration of illumination. In addition, breeders currently cultivate varieties and hybrids that are practically unresponsive to longitude illumination. Therefore, it is better to buy modern varieties and hybrids (F-1) of beetroot.
The ratio of beets to moisture
Beet is sufficiently capable of self-sufficient moisture. But with insufficient rainfall needs watering. Irrigation rates should be moderate, since the excess moisture with a rarefied standing density forms large root crops often with cracks.
Bed with beets. © Olli Wilkman
Beet requirements for soil conditions
Beetroot - a soil plant with a neutral reaction. On acidified soils, the crop is formed insignificant with low taste qualities of the root crop. Culture prefers floodplain soil, light loam, black soil. It does not tolerate heavy clay, rocky, saline soils with high water content.
Beet requirement to predecessors
The best predecessors are worn out crops, including cucumbers, zucchini, early cabbage, early potatoes, early varieties of eggplant and sweet pepper, early tomatoes. Especially important is the time of harvesting the predecessor during the wintering of table beet. The soil must be fully prepared for sowing.
Selection of beet seeds for sowing
As a botanical plant beet interesting way of forming fruits. The beet fruit is a single-seeded nutlet. When seeds are ripening, the fruit-trees grow together with the perianth and form a pair of balls, which also has the second name “beet seed”. In each ball there are from 2 to 6 fruits with a seed. Therefore, when sprouting, several independent, easily detached sprouts appear. When sowing, seedlings of seedlings of beets need thinning. Reception is usually done manually, which is accompanied by high costs of working time and, accordingly, rising prices of products in the cultivation of large specialized farms.
Breeders withdrawn single-seeded (one-edged) varieties of beetroot. According to their economic characteristics, they do not differ from the varieties forming seed seedlings. Their main difference is the formation of 1 fruit, which eliminates thinning during care. Fruits at home before grinding fray with sand. When grinding, seed heads are divided into individual seeds.
Of the single-seed (single-seed) varieties of beets, the most well-known and used in home cultivation are the single-growth G-1, Bordeaux single seed, Virovskaya single seed, Russian single seed, Timiryazevskaya single seed. The above varieties of beets are middle-ripening, high-yielding. The flesh of root vegetables is tender, juicy. They are characterized by good keeping quality, long storage. Used fresh and for winter harvesting.
It is more convenient to buy beet seeds for sowing in specialized stores of seed companies. In this case, there is no need to prepare the seeds for sowing (dressing, loitering, coating, etc.). When buying beet seeds, be sure to read the recommendations on the package. Sometimes the treated seeds do not need to be soaked beforehand. They are directly sown in moist soil. In other cases, the seeds are germinated in wet wipes, which accelerates the germination.
After harvesting the predecessor, it is necessary to provoke the autumn shoots of weeds with irrigation and their subsequent destruction. If the plot is depleted in organic matter, then mature humus or compost of 2-5 kg per square meter is scattered evenly. m. plot area. To neutralize the acidified soil, lime-fluff 0.5-1.0 kg per 1 sq. M. m and mineral fertilizers - nitroammofosku 50-60 g per 1 square. m. Instead of nitroammofoski, you can prepare a mixture of mineral tukov. Ammonium sulphate, superphosphate and potassium chloride, respectively 30, 40 and 15 g / sq. m. mixed, scattered on the site and dredge about 15-20 cm. In the spring, the soil is loosened to 7-15 cm, level the surface with a rake and lightly rolled. Rolling is necessary for uniform sowing depth.
Dates of sowing beetroot
Beets are sown in spring when the soil warms up in a layer of 10-15 cm to + 10 ° С. Approximately sowing in warm regions and the North Caucasus, carried out after April 15. In the Volga region, other nonchernozem and central regions, in Kazakhstan - sowing beets in open ground is carried out in the first half of May. In the Far East - in the last decade of May-early June. The above sowing dates are more suitable for early varieties of beets. Middle and late beet varieties are sown in warm regions in late May. Part of this crop is laid for winter storage.
In the Urals and in the Northern regions, late beets are usually not sown in open ground. In central Russia, due to the temperate climate, it is possible to grow all varieties of table beets - from early ones with the production of root crops in technical ripeness in mid-July to the latest varieties with harvest in September and the first half of October. In these regions of Russia, including nonchernozem, podzimny sowing of beets (late October – early November, November – December) is widely used by cold-resistant varieties characterized by resistance to strelkovuyu. When podzimnii sowing beets relieve early harvest of root crops in late June.
Seedlings beet. © Andrew Quickcrop
Technology of spring seeding of table beet seeds
Sowing seeds of beets in the spring can be carried out dry and more practical germinated seeds. Seeds are sown in furrows on a flat field surface. Germinated seeds are sown in moist soil. In dry soil, almost all shoots die.
Furrows are cut in 15-30 cm. Sowing on heavy soils is carried out to a depth of 2 cm, on light in composition - 4 cm. It is impossible to deepen sowing. The distance in the row is 2-3 cm, which, when thinning, is increased to 7-10 cm, which ensures the production of standard (10 cm in diameter) root crops. On single-seeded crops of beets, thinning is combined with harvesting the beam harvest, and when sowing with seedlings, carrying out 2 thinning.
Planting technology beet seedlings
Seed-beet seedlings are usually grown in a short summer, combining the initial development in greenhouses and greenhouses with further in the open field. Beets can be cultivated on warm ridges, covering 1-2 layers of spandbond from the early cold weather. Seeds are sown in greenhouses or a greenhouse in the prepared soil for 10-12-15 days before the period of planting in open ground. Sowing private. For more seedlings sowing spend glomeruli. The distance in the row is 12–20 cm, depending on the variety, and between the rows is 30–40 cm. In the 4-5 leaflet phase (approximately 8 cm in height), picks are made, leaving 1-2 plants in the nest. Peaked plants are planted in the ground or in separate peat-humus and other tanks for growing, if the weather is not established. When transplanting beets must be very careful with the central root. Its damage will retard the growth of the transplanted plant. Upon the onset of stable warm weather, young seedlings are planted in open ground. Peat-humus immediately planted in the ground with plants. If the pots are reusable, transplantation is carried out by the method of transshipment. With this method, only a small number of non-standard root crops (deformed) are obtained. When transplanting, observe the following rules:
- transplanted on a constant beet seedlings no more than 8 cm in height. The older the seedlings, the more non-standard root crops in the crop,
- for the prevention of marksmanship, it is impossible during repotting to deepen seedlings of beets too deep,
- the distance in the row to leave at least 12-15 cm, and between the rows, in order to reduce shading, to 25-30-40 cm.
Podzimny technology of sowing beets
For sub-winter sowing, the most suitable approach is landing. It provides the spring with a better warming of the soil, and hence obtaining a very early harvest of root crops and early puchkovoy products. Subwinter seeding of beets is carried out in October-November, or rather, when a steady cooling is established, without the return of warm days. At the tops of the crests, the sowing material is sown in the furrows to a depth of 4-6 cm, to save from sudden frosts. The seeds in the furrows sprinkled with 1-2 cm of humus soil, slightly compacted and additionally mulched on top by 2-3 cm for insulation.
Compacted crops beets
If the garden is small in size, and you want to have a large list of vegetable crops, then beets can be grown in compact beds, that is, you can combine several crops in one bed. This technique is especially good in the southern regions, where during a long warm period 2-3 harvests of different early early crops can be harvested from one compacted bed. Spring crops of beets can be combined on the same bed with carrots, onions for greens, radishes, radishes, spinach, salads, including cabbage, leafy, watercress. When harvesting early beets in the first decade of July, you can take the vacated area by repeated sowing of onions on greens, radish, lettuce, and dill. After harvesting greens, you can sow peas or other crops like siderat.
Beet. © rachael gander
The first loosening is carried out 4-5 days after germination. Loosening is done very carefully, gradually deepening the treated layer from 2-4 to 6-8 cm. They loosen the soil between the rows, in the furrows of the ridge, the sides of the ridges after watering and rain. The timely destruction of young weeds slightly injures beet plants and provides the culture with optimal conditions for growth and development. Loosening is stopped after closing the leaves.
Bed with beets. © aaron_01m
Thinning is carried out when planting beetroot sowing with stems (balls). 3-5 seedlings develop from seedlings. Single-seeded varieties, as a rule, do not need thinning, unless a bunch is provided. Thinning is performed in cloudy weather after pre-irrigation. From moistened soil the plant is easier to pull out without damaging the next. Thinning beets spend twice.
The first time is carried out at the development of 1-2 leaves, removing the weakest and underdeveloped plants. A gap of 3-4 cm is left between the plants. Beet is more thinned negatively. When thinning multi-seed crops, 1-2 seedlings are left in place. In this case, the thinning is carried out in a phase of 2-3 leaves. Pull-out plants are used as seedlings, planting plants at the edges or in the sidewalls of high ridges.
The second thinning is performed with the development of 4-5 leaves. In this phase 3-5 cm root crop is already formed in the beet. In the second thinning remove the most tall, developed plants. They reach puberty ripeness and are used in food. At the same time, they monitor the condition of the plants and, at the same time, remove diseased and curved plants. The distance in the row for the normal development of the root 6-8-10 cm.
During the growing season, spend at least two dressings of varieties of medium and late beets. Early beets, with good autumn dressing with fertilizers, are usually not fed. Horticulturists, especially beginners, find it difficult to calculate the right amount of fertilizer. Culture is often overfed, and it has the ability to accumulate nitrites, which determine the carcinogenicity of the culture and nitrates.
The first feeding is carried out after the first thinning or rooting of seedlings. You can spend feeding nitroammofoskoy - 30 g square. m or a mixture of mineral tukov at the rate of 5-7 g / sq. m, respectively, sodium nitrate, superphosphate and potassium chloride.
On depleted soils, it is better to carry out the first top dressing with a solution of mullein or bird droppings in the ratio of 1 part mullein per 10 parts, and bird droppings - 12 parts of water. In the solution, you can add 5 g of urea. Make a solution at a distance of 6-10 cm from the row of beets in 3-4 cm furrow. Use a bucket of solution for 10 meters. Watering is carried out from the watering can close to the soil, so as not to burn the leaves. After making the solution it is covered with a layer of soil, watered and mulched. Top dressing with liquid organics is carried out only in the initial period of beet development. Позже, не успевая переработать минеральную форму в органическую, растения накапливают нитраты в корнеплодах. Первым признаком накопления нитратов и нитритов в корнеплоде при перекорме азотом является появление пустот в корнеплоде.
Вторую подкормку свёклы проводят через 15-20 дней или после второго прореживания. Для подкормки используют суперфосфат и калимагнезию или хлористый калий в дозе по 8-10 г/кв. м (1 чайная ложка с верхом). Mineral tuki can be replaced with wood ash, consuming 200 g per square meter. m area, followed by sealing in 5-8 cm layer of soil.
Beet. © Leonie
It is better to introduce microfertilizers boron, copper and molybdenum in the form of foliar liquid fertilizers by spraying. Elevated mass. You can buy a ready-made mixture of micronutrients or replace the infusion of ash.
In the phase of 4-5 leaves, well sprinkle the beets with a solution of boric acid. In hot water, dissolve 2 g of boric acid and dilute in 10 l of water. This technique will protect the beets from heart-shaped rot. The finished preparation of micronutrients diluted according to the recommendations and treated plants.
If there are no ready-made micronutrients, they will be successfully replaced by an infusion of wood ash. Infusion of ash can be 2 foliar dressing: in the phase of 4-5 leaves and in the phase of active growth of root crops (August). Infusion of 200 g per 10 liters of water before spraying must be filtered.
Approximately 25-30 days before harvesting beets, it is advisable to sprinkle the plants with a solution of potash fertilizers, which will increase their keeping quality.
Do you want beets to be sweeter? Do not forget to salt it with ordinary table salt. 40 g (2 spoons without top) of non-iodized salt dissolve in 10 l of water and pour the beets, consuming a solution bucket per square meter. m area of the site. To reduce the number of dressings, combine the salt solution with the trace element solution, and spray in June and early August.
Juicy roots with tender pulp are obtained with regular watering, especially in arid regions. The first watering is carried out at mass shoots. Water culture 3-4 times a month. In the period of intensive development of root crops watering is increasing. The first sign of delay in watering is the withering of the leaves of the beet. Beet loves watering the leaves. Culture does not tolerate increases in soil temperature. From overheating, constant mulching is necessary before closing the leaves. Watering is stopped for 3-4 weeks before harvest.
Beet. © williambillhall2000
Protection of beets from diseases and pests
The most dangerous diseases of beets are fungal and bacterial damage to the root system and root. The disease is usually affected by weakened plants and mechanically damaged roots and roots. The fight against rot (fusarium, brown, dry) is complicated by the fact that all plant organs are used in food — the root crop, petioles, and leaves. So the use of chemical protection is excluded. The struggle is agrotechnical activities and processing of biological products.
- Sowing is carried out only with healthy seed treated with bioprotectors. It is more expedient to buy ready-to-cultivate seed prepared for sowing.
- All crop residues, weeds, in which mushrooms, bacteria and other sources of diseases overwinter, are harvested from the field.
- Timely lime acidified soil, providing normal conditions for the development of culture.
- They constantly monitor the state of the crop and remove diseased plants from the field.
- They provide culture not only macro but also microelements that protect plants well from diseases.
From biopreparations to fight rot, planriz is used for tillage, and with diseases of the aerial parts of plants - phytosporin, betaprotectin, phytodoctor, agrofil.
The most common pests of table beets are leaf and root aphids, beetroot and mining flies, beetroot shieldchones, beetroot flea, etc.
Dilution of biological products, the dose and period of application are indicated on the packaging or the accompanying recommendations. Biopreparations can be used in tank mixes, after a preliminary compatibility check. Despite their safety when treating plants with biologics, personal protective measures must be observed. Be careful! Biopreparations can cause an allergic reaction (mostly dusting forms - powders).
Beet. © Phil Bartle