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Principles and fundamentals of organic farming in the country

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Currently, the popularity of growing vegetables at home is growing rapidly. Many residents of large cities and megacities are starting to buy country plots in order to provide themselves with healthy food with a minimum content of pesticides. This exercise does not require large investments and the power of every average person. Therefore, every year the number of gardeners and gardeners is steadily increasing.

About the technique

In order for the future occupation to bring good results, it is necessary to take care of the proper preparation of the soil composition in advance. Important, to soil on the selected site was breathable and loose with high nutrient content. In this case, you will be able to grow strong and prolific crops.

If you intend to treat the soil composition with chemicals, then such an action will not just saturate all food with unsafe toxins, but will also start killing valuable microorganisms in the substrate, which will not make the plants fully developed.

An important condition for proper organic cultivation is a comfortable light. For this reason, when choosing a suitable place for planting vegetables or fruit crops, give preference to open areas where the light day lasts at least six hours.

Preparing a bed for the upcoming lesson, it is not necessary to dig the earth. Instead, the ground must be carefully loosened using a pitchfork. To clean the rows from weeds and other unwanted plants you can use a flat cutter.

All preparatory work includes leveling the beds. and the spaces between them in a 1: 2 ratio:

  • The optimum width of the beds is 40 centimeters,
  • row spacing is 80 centimeters,

If you use the same bed, digging up the soil is not necessary, because With the growth and development of crops in the soil will begin to accumulate humus, which will give it friability and moisture.

An important feature of the treatment is the mulching between the rows. In this case, you will have to use:

Organic farming in the country should begin with a small bed, the size of which is constantly increasing.

Where to begin

Begin to engage in organic cultivation of vegetables and fruit crops need to choose the appropriate planting material. To take any seeds you see is extremely discouraged, because you will not have any guarantees in their quality. The selection of suitable copies should be treated with special responsibility.

Do not forget, what are some plant species need complex care and enhanced care. In addition, they are strongly exposed to all sorts of diseases and pests, to get rid of which is quite difficult. Tomatoes are among such plants.

To reduce the hassle in organic cultivation of plants, it is necessary to give preference to those varieties of vegetable crops that can boast of strong immunity and resistance to pathogens of infections and other diseases.

To study the morphological features of specific plants, you can use the training videos or instructions that come with a bundle of seeds. In order for farming to be as successful as possible, it is necessary to provide a number of mandatory dressings for planted green plantations:

  • The best solution for home growing plants is compost or pet manure. Chemical formulations cannot be used,
  • Top dressing is better to make in small quantities, otherwise you simply burn the roots, which can cause their death,
  • Organic is used as a good alternative to chemicals. Such substances do not just feed the soil composition with different nutrients, but also effectively get rid of weeds,

When preparing a good substrate for farming in the country, it is not necessary to use top dressing. When applying a large amount of fertilizer there is a risk of developing many pests, which is associated with an increase in the growth rate of the crop. Slow-growing individuals independently develop strong immunity and are able to withstand many dangers without the additional intervention of the dacha.

Plant rotation

It is known that yields are reduced when growing crops in the same place for several years. This is not strange, because in the place of constant disembarkation, characteristic harmful microorganisms accumulate, which not only worsen fruiting, but also represent a great danger to the plants themselves. To prevent thisit is enough to change the landing site on a particular bed every year

For such purposes, you can apply a special scheme and a table that mentions the sequence of planting plants on the beds. It is known that some green plantings are subject to the same diseases, so they cannot be planted in the same place. For understanding, eggplants, tomatoes, potatoes and peppers are vulnerable to the same problems. The same goes for watermelon, squash, cucumber and pumpkin.

Caring for plants in organic farming in the country

If you intend to see the result of your work in the near future, garden crops need to provide quality care. Mulch is used as a good defense. In addition, this procedure effectively fights weeds and pests. It is important that the mulch layer is within 2.5-5 centimeters.

Especially effectively manifests itself mulch based on organic materials, because it is decomposable. Known that weeds attract all sorts of pestswhich in turn carry various diseases and infections. Weed plantations also reduce the content of nutrients and minerals in the soil, which negatively affects the growth and development of crops. For this reason, every gardener should know how to conduct effective weed control.

An important condition for successful organic farming - balanced watering. It should be carried out taking into account some subtleties:

  • watering should be regular, otherwise the plant will not be able to grow well enough
  • watering is carried out directly under the trunk of plants, because wet leaves and other green parts strongly attract pests,
  • spraying and sprinkling cannot be carried out. Water is better to implement a hose that is placed directly at the barrel,

In order for the flowering of the crop to be complete, and the crop to be maximum, it is necessary to provide the plants with free access to a source of oxygen. This is also done using root dressings. To make the procedure as successful as possible, it is best to plant the plants at large distances from each other. To prevent the development of all kinds of fungal formations is easy. It is enough to observe a good flow of air and regularly weed the bed.

If you plant flowering plants along the edges of the garden, they will begin to attract useful “guests” who will not only protect the crop from pests, but also become good pollinators.

Organic cultivation of vegetable and fruit plants will be successful if it is combined with the planting of marigolds, zinnia, nasturtium, purple echinacea and other flowers. Despite the number of difficulties that may arise, you should understand that the end result justifies all the effort.

Soil mulching

Start growing plants in the country is easy. The main thing is to correctly observe the basic recommendations and not to allow irreparable mistakes. An important principle for the successful development of planted crops is the mulching of the soil. Such an action implies providing reliable protection with covering materials. Mulching does not allow a strong overcooling of the soil and does not allow it to overheat under the influence of direct sunlight. In addition, it protects the soil from moisture evaporation and the rapid growth of weed vegetation.

In natural conditions, the land is always covered with growing or dried grass, leaves and other organic sediments, so it practically does not dry out in summer, and does not lend itself to intense frosts in winter. When using mulch, it is possible to provide favorable conditions similar to natural ones. In the future, the layer used rotts and turns into humus, which increases the fertility indicators of the soil. The selection of good materials should be responsible. It is better to give preference to various natural raw materials, including fallen leaves, mowed straw, sawdust, pine needles, peat, sand and other devices. Humus can only be organic mulch, and the use of a small layer of sand improves the fertility of the soil.

Use of siderats

Do not refuse the use of sideratov - special plants that have a positive effect on the soil composition and can be a good alternative for organic and mineral supplements. They are characterized by high speed. growth and the ability to provide the soil with reliable protection from the damaging effects of direct sunlight and wind. In addition, such plants, as they grow, become food for useful living microorganisms, accumulating a number of certain substances. They also form tubules in the soil through which moisture and air enters. It is better to plant green manure on temporarily vacant sites, before and after planting the main garden crops.

Being engaged in organic farming in the country from scratch, be sure to enrich the soil with microorganisms. In our latitudes, cold climatic conditions reduce the number of such inhabitants, so it recovers only in the middle of summer. With a lack of such substances in the soil, the growth of cultivated plants and yields are rapidly deteriorating. To reliably enrich the soil, it is enough to use special tools based on living microorganisms. Among them, proven over the years and experience many gardeners compost, which contributes to the rapid saturation of the substrate with useful elements. In addition, the active substances from the composition of the compost allow plants to more productively absorb mineral supplements.

Many gardeners and gardeners are accustomed to fertilize the land with organic dressings. For this reason, they often use organic mulch and water the plants with herbal infusions. In the process you can leave potato tops on the beds and prepare compost from all plant waste.

If you wish to engage in organic farming, you need to take into account such a feature as the influence of growing green spaces. It is known that some plant species get along freely with each other, while others do not tolerate such a “neighborhood” and adversely affect the soil and their neighbors.

For the successful maintenance of crops it is necessary to observe crop rotation. It is known that not all plants are able to bear fruit every year at the same place without a transplant.

Let's sum up

Every person can grow healthy vegetable and fruit crops at his dacha. To do this, you need to "roll up your sleeves" and begin to act, despite any difficulties that may arise in the process.

Study the topic in as much detail as possible, watch educational videos and use the advice of professionals. This will surely give its fruits.

General concepts

Discussions about how effective and safe this trend is in agriculture continue to this day. However, despite the controversy, the fact remains - the earth is like a sponge that absorbs everything. And on how rich it will be useful microorganisms and substances, the yield on the cultivated plot directly depends.

To date, to obtain a bountiful harvest, many use chemical fertilizers, which have a negative impact not only on the soil, but also on the quality of the crop. Many gardeners decided to abandon the use of agrochemicals in favor of ecological farming.

Speaking in simple and accessible language, organic farming is the use of natural natural processes, waste products, phenomena and living organisms that contribute to the development of natural processes in the agricultural system in order to produce a healthy, rich and high-quality harvest. With the right approach, you can get not only quality products grown on your own land, but also to protect the environment from human intervention.

Principles of the technique

Despite the fact that ecological farming originated in the distant XIX century, summer residents began to use this trend in modern practice relatively recently. After all, this technique is based on a careful attitude to nature and the resources that it gives to man. It differs from classical farming in that the basis of the direction is the preservation of humus and an increase in soil fertility in a natural way. The principles of organic farming, on which this system is based, help to achieve this result:

  • The first principle is that it is impossible to plow, loosen and plow the soil. It would seem that this is one of the main methods of traditional farming, which has taken root in modern practice for so many decades. However, natural farming offers a complete rejection of this event. The maximum that is allowed is a careful loosening of the upper layers of the beds twice a year - in the fall and spring, and not more than 5 cm. This is due to the fact that if you do not touch the humus, the healthy climate of all soil ecosystems is preserved. And as you know, fertile and healthy soil can independently resist pests and diseases.
  • The second principle is to grow a healthy and abundant crop. This effect can really be achieved if the use of poisons, agrochemicals, artificial fertilizing and fertilizers is completely abandoned. With regard to methods of controlling pests and weeds, here used vegetable and folk techniques.
  • The third principle of natural farming is that the whole earth should be covered with vegetation. In this case, fast-growing siderats, which are specially planted on empty soil after the main planting of cultivated plants, have found wide application.
  • The fourth principle is soil mulching. Everything that covers the surface of the soil - leaves, hay, sawdust, straw, and even weeds should remain on it. The bottom line is that the bare and uncovered land is exposed to external natural influences - overheating by the sun, drying the moisture with the wind, overcooling - this and much more contributes to the deterioration of the quality of humus. Due to the presence of mulch on the soil surface, the earth remains fertile and protected, and also creates favorable conditions for the development of beneficial microorganisms and living creatures in the soil.

Moreover, using this farming system in practice, the load on summer residents is reduced, since in this case, cultivating the land and growing cultivated plants ceases to be hard work and routine and becomes a pleasure.

Main advantages

This method of cultivating the land and cultivating crops has many adherents. And all because natural organic farming has a number of undeniable advantages, which are as follows:

  • Working on your own plot becomes a joy, since the care of land and planting does not require much effort, as is the case with traditional farming. A summer resident who uses this system has more free time - you can always spend it on rest or doing other more pleasant things than weeding a vegetable garden under the scorching sun.
  • The result is environmentally friendly and healthy products grown on their own site.
  • Financial savings, which is achieved due to the fact that the summer resident refuses to purchase expensive and harmful fertilizers, as well as various means to protect plants from diseases and pests.
  • Solving the issue of recycling organic debris, weeds. Instead of throwing, for example, sawdust, straw or hay, they can be spread out in an even layer directly on the beds - this will help to cover the ground and create a good microclimate in the soil.
  • You can repeatedly use organic matter, which plenty is available on their own land.
  • Reasonable feeding of crops and soil contributes not to the destruction of the desired microorganisms and insects, but to their development, which, in turn, saturates the soil and plants with useful and natural substances.
  • Over time, the soil is cleaned and enriched due to the restoration of the natural processes occurring in the humus.
  • Reducing the number of watering. The fact is that the essence of this technique is to ensure that the plants in fertile soil provide themselves with the right amount of moisture. Under natural conditions, it is quite feasible.

У этого способа действительно есть немало явных плюсов, по сравнению с традиционными методами выращивания продукции на участке. Поэтому последователям этой идеи придётся по душе экологическое земледелие.

Главные недостатки

Как и у любой другой методики, у экологического земледелия, помимо достоинств, имеются некоторые недостатки, которые обязательно нужно учесть, прежде чем воспользоваться этой системой. They are as follows:

  • After the transition from the traditional system to the organic one, it will take a long time until a bountiful harvest can be achieved. It may take three years or more for the land to recover and give a good harvest.
  • Often, the rejection of mineral fertilizers in the process of growing products has negative consequences. This is expressed in the fact that many plants simply begin to die as a result of a lack of mineral dressing.
  • Most of the crop can be lost - this is due to the fact that “organists” refuse to fight many pests through chemical components. After all, not all cultures have strong immunity and resistance to various diseases.
  • It is very difficult to predict the amount of crop in large areas due to instability of weather conditions. As a result, the risks of developing new diseases and the appearance of pests increase.
  • Harmful microorganisms and aggressive phytophthora, which can spread on the soil from adjacent areas or together with precipitation, contribute to the infection of humus.

As can be seen, natural farming has a number of serious shortcomings, which are extremely difficult to fight with natural methods.

Therefore, before choosing this method of growing products, the cottager should weigh all the pros and cons, and most importantly, be patient, since this process is very long and unstable.

Rules of farming

Before using organic farming at the cottage from scratch, it is necessary to take note of several recommendations of experienced gardeners who were able to successfully use this system. If you always follow certain rules, it will help in a few years to get a fertile soil and a healthy harvest. So, where to start:

  • You must first choose a suitable culture for cultivation. It is very important not to acquire planting material, which has no guarantees of quality. Moreover, it is necessary to plant those varieties of vegetables and fruits that are most resistant to diseases and pests. The result of all the work will directly depend on this step.
  • Choose a suitable place for garden beds. The width can be arbitrary, the main thing is not to dig up the beds more than five centimeters and only twice a year - in the spring, before planting, and in the fall, after harvesting.
  • Cooking beds can be late autumn or early spring.
  • The soil where the seedlings will be planted should not remain bare, so something must necessarily grow on the beds or it should be mulched with organic matter, for example, green manure: mustard, oats, phacelia and so on. In the summer, mulch beds can be mowed with grass or compost. It is very important that the mulch layer is at least 2.5 cm.
  • Since the main rule is the rejection of chemical and organic fertilizers, only natural ingredients, such as compost or manure, should be used as feed.
  • In order not to burn the roots of plants, fertilizing should be made in small parts, otherwise the plants may die.
  • Productivity will be rich only if every year to change the planting site of crops.
  • An important condition for successful natural farming is competent watering. There are several important nuances here. First, you need to water at the very root of the plants. Secondly, it is impossible to use the sprinkler irrigation technique. And thirdly, watering should not be done too often. Plants in natural conditions should independently provide themselves with moisture. Therefore, the first watering can be done when planting plants, and then - only if absolutely necessary, and only during dry periods.
  • To obtain a healthy and rich harvest, it is necessary to provide the plants with a sufficient supply of oxygen. In this case, the plants are best seated from each other at a great distance.
  • It is best to use mixed crops of horticultural crops, which live alongside well - this helps to improve their growth and also helps protect plants from pests. For example, on one side of the ridge you can plant a radish, and on the other - green peas.
  • In the process of cultivating the land and growing plants, it is necessary to disturb the soil as little as possible so as not to disturb its integrity and natural processes.
  • To saturate the soil with useful substances, it is recommended to seed it with plants that are rich in mineral components, for example, legumes - they contribute to an increase in nitrogen in the ground.
  • In the process of growing crops, it is necessary to completely abandon the use of pesticides, artificial mineral fertilizers and deep weeding. In the event that it is really required to treat plants from pests or diseases, only natural biological preparations are used.

All the secrets of natural farming in one bottle

Usually we “help” the plants to go through the entire growth cycle from shoot to maturity, pulling out weeds, hilling the beds and watering them with drugs, the advertisements of which are broadcast on TV. And few people think about the fact that natural processes themselves are ideal, and you don’t need to invent anything, but you only need to "enhance" natural development in order to get a more abundant crop, which, moreover, will also be completely environmentally friendly. , without the content of chemicals and pesticides in its fibers.

And therefore - look back at nature. Nobody helps her by digging or irrigating with fertilizers. Everything goes in a natural way. By autumn, the plants "die", their foliage falls to the ground, where it is processed by all the "earth" microorganisms - bacteria, microbes, fungi, and after them - worms. All this at the output gives a fertile layer of soil - biohumus, and this happens from year to year. All that has grown is returning to the ground. And the plants themselves decide which nutrients they have obtained during natural processing, they need for full growth and development.

It is this cycle that organics performs that is the creation of the fertility of the earth, and it is indestructible. All natural processes are balanced. And this means that by interfering with them with our paddles and preparations, we definitely lose in the quantity and quality of our harvest. Therefore, let us listen to the natural development of plants, and strengthen the natural processes occurring in nature. Using natural farming can not only grow an environmentally friendly and harmless product, but also increase the amount of the harvest at times! Consider the principles and technology of the method of natural farming in order.

Beds in natural farming

What begins any garden? Of course, from the bed. A lovingly created, loosened and fertilized bed is the ideal of any gardener. But not in natural agriculture. In natural farming with garden beds, nothing is done - they are not digged, loosened or fertilized. These land plots are left in their natural position as they are! If the garden has just been bought, or, for example, the arrangement of the beds does not suit, then the only thing they do is mark the plot (for the first time or again). With the help of pegs, future canvases of the beds are marked, between them with a shovel they make a passage, and the ground is dumped out of the aisle onto the beds. Then rake level the cloth beds and - everything. Most of these tools - a shovel and a rake, we will not need. If they are satisfied with the beds, they don’t do anything with them at all - they don’t dig, loosen, fertilize, and never - either in spring or in autumn.

The only processing point that allows for natural farming is a slight loosening with a flat cutter. Loosening depth - maximum 8 cm! It is carried out only when necessary.

This is one of the options for organizing stationary beds, but there are other “natural” ways so to speak - these are high beds, and beds of Rosum, trenches, and so on. The main thing is that they are constantly replenished with organic matter. And in some cases, for example, on peatlands, to start fertility (at the very beginning), small doses of mineral fertilizers are indispensable.

The role of mulch and mulching in natural farming

With the help of such a simple action as soil mulching, we will reproduce natural processes. We will “give” to the land as much as we want to take from it, and even more.

Top dressing of soil throughout the growing season with organic matter is, perhaps, one of the main points of natural farming. After all, this increases the fertility of the soil, and accumulates the necessary nutrients in it.

So, consider what the mulch is for plants and soil:

  1. Soil protection. Weathering, leaching, and overheating of the earth do not occur.
  2. Weed growth is practically excluded. Firstly, it creates a shadow in which they do not grow much, and secondly, the high layer of mulch (which we create) simply does not allow any weeds to germinate.
  3. Maintain moisture levels. Mulch does not allow the soil to dry out, which means that the plants also have a reserve of moisture.
  4. Loosens the soil. Therefore, it is not necessary to loosen it forcibly, in such a soil the plants develop much more readily and more quickly, since the root system does not need to “break through” in order to find nutrients.

As mulch use fresh grass (both lawn and meadow), weeds, green manure, foliage, hay, etc.

Mulching begins as soon as the seedlings are planted. The grass is laid on the bed between the crops in large enough quantities. But there is one caveat - the grass can tightly touch the stems of garden plants, but it is impossible to put it to the tree trunks - it will cause bark heating.

Organic matter should come to the crops only from the soil, in the already processed form. Impose mulch need, not sparing. During the whole vegetation period, as the grass “mountains” decrease, it will be necessary to report it - about once a week, but this should be looked at at the rate of its reduction. First, as soon as you start this process, it will be difficult to overheat and rot through the mulch for a long time, and then, after a while, faster and faster.

Please note, even roses can be mulched. Who can say that this is ugly?

If the planting of the crop took place with the help of seeds, then, naturally, at first, no mulching - it is necessary for the seeds to germinate. As soon as shoots began to appear, we immediately begin to lay out the mulch around.

As for the state of the grass, it is best if it is fresh and crushed - it will be easier to eat it for germs, fungi, worms, etc. Ideal option - a lawn-mower with a grinder. But if this is not there, then nothing terrible - any grass is suitable as mulch, of any size - from a meadow, from a field, and even ordinary weeds that grow everywhere. But the dry grass soil organisms eat quite reluctantly, so the most important rule is the constant watering of mulch. Yes, grass, laid between the rows, you must constantly be kept wet. It is advisable to check this condition regularly, and if it is dry, repeat the watering. It is important that the layer between the soil and the grass is always wet. Note - watering the plants themselves in natural farming is not carried out - neither at the root nor on the leaves. Water only mulch, which is spread around.

On average, water plentifully once a week under normal weather conditions. If it rains, then we reduce the amount of watering, or stop altogether, but if there is scorching heat, on the contrary - we increase irrigation.

After harvesting from the “natural beds”, as has already been said above, we do not do anything with them - neither we dig, nor we clean. Slightly level with a rake, and impose a bulk layer of new mulch - grass and fallen leaves. And in this state bed bed winters. Another option for preparing the beds for winter is planting siderats, so proceed directly to the next method of organic farming - green manure.

Siderata in natural farming

Here is another almost mandatory item in natural farming. What is green mans? These are oats, mustard, lupine, radish, sweet clover, buckwheat, peas, etc. These cultures structure soil layers very well, since they have a very wide and developed root system. With this system, they create a "breathable" layer for the soil, and it is also saturated with oxygen. Since the green manure roots penetrate deep into the soil, they take out all the necessary nutrients from which the “cultivated” plants simply cannot reach. In addition, these crops reduce the acidity of the soil, inhibit the growth of weeds. And, perhaps most importantly, they feed the soil with organic matter, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus, which is simply necessary for our future plants.

Siderata recommend sowing the beds in early spring - this will be the preparatory stage before planting the main plants. Siderats will prepare the ground for planting, and they themselves will subsequently serve as mulch. We sow them thickly, scattering them on the area, and sprinkle them a little bit with a piece of land or compost, otherwise the birds can eat everything. Before you plant a crop on the garden bed, for 2 weeks, the grown green manures simply prune (do not cut, do not pull out) and leave in such a pruned condition on the garden bed. Then, seedlings or seeds are planted between them.

They sow well to produce and in the winter, as already mentioned, on the beds already harvested. After the crop is harvested, instead of mulching with new grass, siderats can be sown on the beds. It is also perfect for wintering organic beds. The main thing - in any case, do not leave the ground naked in the winter. Sowing sideratov under the winter is carried out thickly. First, most often not all of them germinate, because, after all, September is already, and secondly, forming their roots, they will not allow the earth to freeze through early. After the siderat "dies" it turns into compost, again, having improved the structure and the nutrient layer of the earth and up and down. Many siderats also sanitize the soil very well, so this is the safest method of disinfecting land in a garden.

Perhaps, only rye should be used with caution as a siderata, although it also belongs to this group. The fact is that she completely occupies the territory and does not allow all other cultures that are near to grow - a very allelopathic young lady. It is good when this applies, for example, to weeds, but valuable plants can be hit.

Fertilizers and preparations in natural farming

In the natural method of growing products, fertilizers are used except perhaps the same "natural." No store preparations, no mineral supplements, in any case. All the nutrients the plant must take from nature! Only organic material can be used as fertilizer. And this - humus, compost and the creation of warm ridges.

In natural farming, diseases and pests, as a rule, precipitate little crops, because everything here is aimed at prevention. But if it did happen, then you can only fight with folk remedies that are suitable for a given occasion. So look at the plant protection heading at https://ekosad-vsem.ru/zashhita-rastenij/ and choose a safe tool.

The role of crop rotation in natural agriculture

Another point in natural farming that improves soil fertility is respect for crop rotation.

Crop rotation is a way to maintain the biodynamic fertility of the soil, which does not allow it to deplete. As you know, if one and the same crop is always planted in the same place, then certain nutrient soil elements, which are particularly necessary for this crop, begin to disappear from this piece of land, which means fertility decreases. In addition, the earth "gets used" to constantly plant the plant and acquires those same pathogens that parasitize on it. Also, there are accumulated root plant secretions, called Colin. In order to avoid all this, it is necessary to observe crop rotation - that is, in a certain way, alternate the planting of the plants at the sites by year. For each plant, there are recommendations about how many years it will be possible to plant it again on the same bed.

We should not forget that plants not only consume nutrients from the soil, but also give it some organic elements. For all crops, the number and variety of nutrients consumed and released into the soil is different, which is why there are recommendations on which crops to plant after others. This alternation allows you to maintain soil fertility, and to give good nutrition to plants without additional fertilizers.

We reviewed the main pivot points of natural farming. From all this we conclude - this way of growing products does not require much time and labor, there is no need to dig, weed and loosen, and not in the fall or in the spring! It should only take care of crop rotation, mulching, planting sideratov, plant protection and watering. По сути, это и есть все секреты природного земледелия, и самое главное – в итоге мы получаем не только обильный, но и экологически чистый урожай со своих органических грядок.

Что такое органическое земледелие: основные принципы

Органическое земледелие как направление агротехники возникло с конца 19 века, и до сих пор не утихают толки, споры и дискуссии вокруг этого метода возделывания земли. Внутри самих приверженцев этого направления земледелия также множество подходов, теорий. But the essence is the same: organic farming is, above all, a careful, gentle attitude to nature, the maintenance of natural balance and ecosystems, the abandonment of mineral fertilizers and toxic chemicals.

Organic farming has many interchangeable definitions, synonymous terms: natural, ecological, biological, nature-like, life-giving agriculture.

The basic principles of ecological farming:

  1. Refusal to plow, digging the ground. Thus, it is believed that a healthy balance of the soil ecosystem is maintained. A healthy soil is healthy plants that can resist diseases and pests.
  2. Growing environmentally friendly products. Complete rejection of the use of mineral fertilizers and pesticides. Methods of weed and pest control are reduced to the prevention and use of vegetable, folk methods.
  3. The land should always be covered with vegetation. Siderats are widely used here - fast-growing crops that are planted after the main crops on a temporarily empty land.
  4. Less laboriousness of processing the plot, giving with a greater and better result. Farming is pleasure, not hard work.

Natural Farming Guru

“Die your ardor, a gardener!” - with such words, as a rule, the well-known author of many books on biological agriculture, B.A. Bagel. In the traditional notion of a “correct” garden, many gardeners see such an exemplary garden: ideal even beds and rows of crops, not a single weed, but also - this is a big and hard work.

All these myths debunk admirers of ecological farming. They believe that labor does not have to be slave and exhausting. And it is much more useful for both humans and nature to maintain the natural order of things in the ecosystem. “Pry” nature, learn from it, apply the knowledge and observations in its dacha.

Council If you decide to move away from traditional farming to natural, for inspiration we recommend reading several books on the topic: “The Revolution of One Straw” by Masanobu Foucoca, “Agrarian Revolutionary” Sepp Holzer, “About the Garden for Lean and Lazy” Bublik B.A.

So, Sepp Holzer has 45 hectares of land and works it alone with his wife with a minimum of agricultural equipment: he has only one tractor. B.A. Bublik believes that there is no place in the garden and refuses from shovels, hoes, does not even loosen the soil with pitchforks, but plants it “under the stick”, watering it only with ice water (not higher than 9 degrees). And the well-known in Russia author of many works on natural farming G. Kizima preaches three “not”: do not dig, do not weed, do not water.

The practice of natural farming in spring and autumn

You can switch from traditional to ecological farming at any time of the year. One of the main methods of biological farming is the rejection of deep digging of the earth. It is believed that raising the layer of the earth more than 5 cm, thereby disrupting the ecosystem. The earth, eventually, becomes poorer, in it insufficient quantities appear useful microorganisms, beetles, worms, etc. Which further leads to the need to use mineral fertilizers, which are harmful both to nature and man.

The soil for sowing culture does not dig over, but rises slightly with the help of a fork (ideally no more than 2.5 cm). Some farmers do not even use pitchforks, but put them under the stick. That is, they stick a stick in the ground and plant seeds or seedlings on the site of the hole that formed the hole. After sowing, the ground is mulched with straw, sawdust, peat, rotted compost, etc.

Due to the active use of mulch, which does not allow moisture to evaporate, watering is produced much less. Mulch is also one of the main ways to control weeds. But it is better to use mulching on proven crops: potatoes, strawberries, cucumbers, tomatoes. There are plants that "do not favor" mulching, preferring an open and hot soil: corn, watermelons, and melons.

With the help of mulching the land is cultivated on virgin soil. For this autumn, the beds are prepared as follows:

  1. Mow the grass.
  2. Fall asleep manure: horse, chicken.
  3. Lay a layer of mulch, for example, a straw layer of 30 cm.
  4. In the spring, remove a layer of mulch, pick the remaining roots of the weeds with their hands and plant seeds or seedlings.

You can also cover the beds of dense material, for example: roofing material, pieces of linoleum. It is useful to cover the layer of mulch with a film on top, this will speed up the process of over-aging and rotting of the weed on virgin soil.
All ranked actions can be applied in the country, both in spring and autumn.

Siderats - our everything

One of the agricultural practices that is an integral part of biological farming is planting sideratov on a temporarily empty land. According to many farmers, these crops are the best natural fertilizer. For these purposes, such fast-growing and micronutrient-rich plants are used as:

Siderats can be planted in spring, summer and autumn. In the spring they plant such fast-growing plants that are not afraid of frost, such as: mustard, rapeseed, phacelia. They are sown very early and grow until it is time to plant the main crop. Then the siderats are mown with a flat-cutter a few centimeters below ground level, and the main plants are planted in the soil prepared in this way. The tops, stalks can be used as a shelter for flower beds with crops.

In the fall, rye and mustard are sown most often. Seeding is done after harvesting vegetables. Rye is harvested at the end of autumn, cutting the stems at the base. And the mustard goes under the snow. In the spring it is cut with a flat-cutter and the main crops are planted.

Organic farming is an environmentally friendly production based on respect for nature and human health. There are many techniques and methods of natural farming. But, in any case, each site is individual. There are no absolutely identical plots in terms of soil composition, microclimate, and the list of planted crops. What the fans of organic farming do not get tired of repeating, is this: “Listen, look to your land, to your plants. And apply this knowledge in practice. Nature must always be trusted every day. ”

What it is

The ideas of organic farming is not an innovation that appeared at the turn of the 20th and 21st centuries. Few people know that the basics of this method of working with land were developed at the end of the 19th century by an agronomist and breeder I. Ye. Osinsky. But then the turbulent 20th century, with a bias towards intensive farming, made his ideas irrelevant. And yet the method proposed by the scientist has not been forgotten, and now from the fashionable hobby for a non-standard approach to the cultivation of different crops, organic farming in the country is a practice that has become customary for many gardeners.

The terms "organic" and "natural farming" are often used interchangeably. The difference between the natural and organic methods of cultivation is determined in the case when it comes to the result of the activities of a farmer - the production of environmentally friendly products and their sale.

In order to position products as organic, it is necessary to obtain a certificate for compliance with relevant standards, and not only for the vegetables or fruits themselves. The entire farm and the growing technologies used by it must be certified, as well as the packaging in which the products are packaged, and even the type of delivery to the consumer.

Basics of Organic Farming

The basis of the organic farming system is the fundamental thesis that defines the earth as a living system, an organism, affecting which, a person can completely destroy the soil ecosystem formed over the centuries. As a result, the earth will no longer bear fruit as it can do if it were not for human activity. What do we do as soon as we start working with the land?

Of course, we take a shovel in our hands and go to dig, weed control, and even try to dig a little deeper so that not a single root of harmful plants remains in the garden. Why do we do this? And because everyone does this, they did it before us and will do it after us! And if we knew more facts about how the ground works, how would our behavior change?

Let's give some examples. Example. “500 kg of biohumus per year or a couple of“ KamAZ ”brought manure” Scientists have found in the course of research that about 200 kg of bacteria and microorganisms, about the same number of worms, are in the soil on just one hundred square meters, not treated with chemical preparations. And all these workers for 1 year produce 500 kg of biohumus. We appear, obsessed with the idea of ​​cleaning the garden, digging it under two bayonet spade, with a tank for processing plants from pests at the ready.

In general, the result is clear: with this approach, we will not get even 50 kg. biohumus per year, because no one will produce it. Nothing! We will bring a new land, fill it with manure and ... dig again. Example. "From head to toe" All microorganisms and bacteria are distributed in the earth in separate layers. In the upper layer at a depth of not more than 10 cm, aerobic microorganisms live. To survive, they need a constant flow of oxygen. Thanks to the work of these bacteria, all organic substances are converted into minerals, thanks to which plants are nourished.

In the lower layer with a depth of 10 to 20 cm are anaerobic bacteria, for which oxygen is destructive and high temperature. Their task is to create humus, which is the basis of the nutritional value of the soil. And here again in the country we appear with a shovel. Digging and turning over the earth, happily cutting the inverted lump, clapping him a couple of times with this wonderful tool, wiping sweat from the forehead, we mix the layers, and anaerobic bacteria, hitting the top, die from excess oxygen and high temperature, and aerobic choke in the lower layer and do not maintain a new temperature for them.

We dug up the ground and were surprised that the weeds did not disappear anywhere. Why? When digging in the lower layers of soil moved fresh weed seeds. There they will be until the next digging, and some of them will perfectly transfer such “storage” in the cool lower soil layers. And upward we raised weed seeds from the lower layer, which, having gained access to the light, begin to actively develop and grow. But we did a good job and were very tired!

Example. “Not a speck or blade of grass” Imagine the following picture: a perfect garden, even beds “under the string”, no weeds, rows of cultivated plants. Well, if this is the result of manual labor and patience, and not generous processing chemicals that kill any weed. And here it is - the long-awaited warmth, which everyone waited for. With the onset of a truly hot day, our plants noticeably grow sick, stop growing. It's okay, we polish them generously, add fertilizer!

However, watering, we notice that the water is poorly absorbed, literally, rolling down from the garden, the top layer of soil becomes light shades, dust is formed. Cracks and cracks appear on the tracks. And at the same time in the forest, even with prolonged heat, most of the plants continue to grow rapidly, there is no dust or cracks. The land is covered with a pillow of foliage, branches, and pine needles, and it is impossible to find a single piece of bare soil in the forest. The difference is obvious.

What to do? Continue to dig, carry manure, heroically take it away from the site, overcome difficulties, pour water and heal the back, which took a blow to itself. Or you can stop and think about how to make your life easier. If you stop at least one year to dig and plant a garden, you can see how the earth will begin to recover independently without our help. Once it was called: leave the land "under steam". On this basis, weeds are actively growing. The earth begins to heal itself, because the weed is the shelter of the top layer of soil and the future nutrient medium after it goes into the winter.

But if there is no desire to stop gardening, you can begin to apply the principles of organic farming.

There are not so many of them, but if you follow them, for a couple of years you can put in order the condition of the soil in the country house and at the same time stop spending a lot of time and effort on working with the land. The principle of "DO NOT dig" To implement it, you must:

  • replace the shovel with a pitchfork, because processing such a tool does much less harm
  • buy a flat cutter and learn how to work it, and if you want, you can make it yourself (article about Fokin flat cutter),
  • break the beds and, if possible, install a box of any design,
  • Digging and tillage replace with loosening of the upper layer no deeper than 5 cm.

The principle of "Conduct mulching" Mulch - a protective layer that performs several functions:

  • protection against weathering of the upper soil layer,
  • maintaining the optimum temperature in the soil, its protection from overheating,
  • weed control, as mulch inhibits their growth,
  • the formation of optimal conditions for the vital activity of soil microorganisms,
  • moisture conservation, which significantly reduces the need for watering,
  • when overheating, the mulch layer is processed, turning into organic fertilizer.

As mulch can be used mowed grass, weeds weeded (until the formation of seeds on them) straw, recycled bark, pine needle, foliage, sawdust.

The principle of "Helping the earth, feeding from" green "green manure fertilizers." Growing green manure can replace manure application and chemical fertilizer. They nourish the earth, heal it. Such plants include: mustard, fatseliya, buckwheat, oil radish, beans, lupine, vetch, oats, rye. The features of agrotechnics used in organic farming include:

  • applying the principles of crop rotation and planting planning,
  • mixed planting, in which several types of different crops are planted on the beds, helping each other to develop, scare off pests and form a crop,
  • the use of non-chemical methods of combating diseases and pests,
  • organic chemical fertilizer replacement.

Farming in Ovsinsky

In 1899, I.E. Ovsinsky published the book The New Farming System. He analyzed the experience and results of farming with the use of a deep plowing with a plow, turning over an earthen clod, and gave convincing evidence of the harm from this method of tillage. The book presents indicators of increased yields and soil fertility in cases where interference with the soil structure is minimized. In addition, the scientist proved that the land, if left alone for a year (do not grow any crops), will restore itself. In the future, organic farming was built on these principles.

Kizima method

Those who begin to look for information about the basics of natural farming, are sure to find information about Galina Alexandrovna Kizim. At 80, she continues to farm independently, while calling her plot "a garden for the lazy." Of course, laziness here should be understood not as doing nothing, but as the ability to grow plants, saving one's own strength and not doing extra work.

Galina Aleksandrovna is a practitioner, and her proposals on the rules and technologies for growing different crops are not theorizing, but an assessment and demonstration of the actual results obtained.

Its technology is based on three basic principles: do not dig, do not weed, and do not water. Acting in this way, we not only save our strength, but also help the earth to fulfill its mission: to grow crops. According to the books of Kizima, one can study the principles of natural farming, or, as Galina Aleksandrovna calls him, the biodynamic method of farming, starting from the stage of preparing the beds and ending with the cultivation of individual crops.

Garden beds in organic farming are not just straight rows with beautiful sides. To organize them properly, you need to work a little. Perhaps this stage of work with the land will be the most time consuming, but incomparable with the efforts that have to be applied for digging or plowing.

Firstly, it is necessary to mark the area for the beds, calculating not only the width of the landing area itself, but also making the right paths - the aisle. They should be wide. Of course, not everyone is ready to go for such an “uneconomic” consumption of land, making paths 60-80 cm wide, and the beds themselves 45-50. But still, an increase in the space between plantings of at least 50 cm will allow the gardener to provide the plants with more light, and this will positively affect the general condition of the crops at the time of the growing season and increase the yield.

Secondly, the beds must be prepared in advance: not on the eve of planting the plant, but in the fall. For this you can use several methods. Way Immediately after the harvest, it is necessary to sow the ridges with siderats and not remove them from the surface until spring. By this time, they will either completely perepreyut, or remain as the first layer of mulch, however, quite thin, it will have to be further increased after planting. Way Filling of beds with organic matter is essentially the process of forming warm beds. Для этого прокапываются борозды глубиной не менее 40 см, и это единственный случай, когда придется взять в руки лопату при устройстве огорода. Далее послойно закладываются ветки, органические материалы, свежая трава, грунт, после чего грядку укрывают мульчирующей тканью.

Всё, теперь до весны её трогать не нужно. In the first year of operation we plant melons, cucumbers, tomatoes. Further use of beds using the principle of crop rotation. Such an organic garden can work effectively for 3-4 years. If organic matter is introduced in spring, then soil is added to the planting holes so that the plants do not burn down due to the effect of temperature, which increases as a result of overheating of the organic layers.

Organic farming - what is it

Ecological farming differs from traditional soil cultivation by a gentle approach to natural ecosystems in nature. The use of pesticides, deep processing was detrimental to the earth, reduced fertility, violated the natural circulation of substances, reduced to "no" benefit from worms and microorganisms. Eco-farming is based on the awareness of free interaction between the soil, plants, animals, organic debris, while the person must play the role of a helper, not a pest.

Organic farming - Kizima method

Galina Kizima can be considered a modern authority in the field of research on the benefits of organic farming. Having received the degree of Candidate of Sciences, the woman seriously took up issues of increasing yields due to the correct approach to the practice of cultivation of the soil. Organic farming according to the Kizima method has become widespread, described in books and articles. The basic principle of her garden is three “not”: do not weed, do not dig, do not water. The author introduced the concept of "smart" beds, on personal experience proved the effectiveness of its method.

Organic Farming - Garden Beds

To create conditions for plants on the beds, similar to those that exist in the wild, is intended for agrotechnology of natural agriculture. The objectives of the method: improving the quality, volume of the crop, the preservation of natural fertility while saving time and effort. For the realization of this plan are used:

  • gentle loosening of the upper 5-7 cm of soil in spring and autumn,
  • the use of exclusively organic fertilizers on the garden plot, including compost, manure, humus, green manure, as well as microbiological developments,
  • Biological products, agrotechnical products that protect plants from pests and diseases.

Organic farming - where to start

The question of when and where to start organic farming is increasingly being asked by villagers, owners of garden plots. The answer is encouraging: you can transfer your household plots to a completely new system known as “organic beds” at any time of the year, but the autumn period is considered to be the most appropriate. In practice, the main task of agriculture will be the rapid restoration of the upper fertile layer, the correct selection of means of protection, the maintenance of the natural ecosystem, and the preservation of it in such a state through elementary actions.

Natural farming in the garden - practice

Periodic, deep digging is not permissible if your goal is organic farming in the country. The desire for perfect tillage spoils the earth, produces the opposite effect on it, making it heavy, dry, lifeless, as hard as stone. As practice shows, this can be avoided using certain techniques:

  • split the plot into small beds, depending on the species composition of the plants to be planted,
  • try to cover the soil with natural, organic materials, since the bare ground is unprotected, less barren,
  • regularly mulch the soil to a depth of not less than 10 cm, which will reduce the growth of weeds, protect plants from pests, exposure to ultraviolet radiation, ensure long-term preservation of moisture in the ground.

Organic Farming - Cons

The visible disadvantages of organic farming include:

  1. Low yield in the first time after the transition from traditional cultivation of soil to organic.
  2. The high price for the final products of gardening.
  3. The difficulty of controlling pests that come from another region and have no natural enemies in the local environment.
  4. The presence in the neighboring areas of infections, harmful microorganisms, which complicates the fight against them.
  5. Precipitation, bearing spores of aggressive phytophtoras, from which organic methods are not able to protect plants.
  6. In large areas, it is very difficult to predict the yield because of the instability of weather conditions, the risk of new diseases or pests.

Technology using effective microorganisms

Invaluable assistance in improving soil fertility is provided by preparations of effective microorganisms. The technology of using effective microorganisms was developed by the Japanese scientist Terou Higa and has been successfully used in many countries of the world for more than 15 years.

Effective microorganisms are beneficial microbes and fungi, which, when introduced into the soil, actively multiply, utilize organic matter, process it into a plant-readable form for plants, suppress the bacteria and fungi, fix mineral elements.

With the use of effective microorganisms, a striking effect is achieved: the growth of plants is accelerated, the mass of fruits and the periods of their preservation increase.

Basic agrotechnical techniques

The main agrotechnical methods of organic farming are the improvement of soil fertility, the natural and effective protection of plants against pests and diseases, planting planning, crop rotation, variety renewal, etc.

Shallow loosening of the soil is enough to prepare it for planting, saturate it with air, and prune weeds. And worms and soil microorganisms loosen the earth to a considerable depth, saturate it with biohumus and minerals. They make the earth fertile and nourish the plants.

Two types of microorganisms live in the soil:

  • Aerobic microorganismsthat need oxygen for their vital functions live in the upper layer (up to 10 cm).
  • Anaerobic microorganismswhich oxygen is contraindicated, live at a depth of 10-20 cm.

As a result of the activity of aerobic bacteria, organic plant residues are converted into minerals that feed the plants. Anaerobic microorganisms contribute to the formation of humus in the soil.

With deep plowing and digging, the soil is saturated with oxygen, which causes aerobic bacteria to actively process the humus reserves into mineral elements that are available to plants. And it provides high yields, but for a very short time.

When digging deep, aerobic bacteria get from the warm layer to the lower, cool layer, and they begin to experience a lack of oxygen. And the inhabitants of the lower layer - anaerobes, being on top, "poisoned" by an excess of oxygen. Of course, this leads to a drastic reduction in soil microorganisms.

Well, if the remaining inhabitants of the soil will receive additional food in the form of manure. If there is no such food, the soil treated with the turnover of the layer turns into a dense, structureless mass. Such a depleted soil is most susceptible to erosion, primarily suffering from drought and waterlogging. The yields on it are rapidly declining and fading away.

But nature acts wisely: weeds begin to grow rapidly on depleted lands. When they die, they feed on soil organisms. Gradually, the fertile layer increases, and the earth recovers its strength.

When tillage with a flat-cutter, its structure is not disturbed, since it is loosened and fertilized by "natural farmers" and copes with this work better than any artificial technology!

Features of flat cutting weeding

When the soil is loosened manually with a manual ploskorez, weeds that have grown out of the ground before others fall under the tool blade and it turns them up with a root, cuts, and destroys them in the white thread stage.

The next wave of weeds appears by the end of summer, and they are no longer able to compete with overgrown cultivated plants. After harvesting, when preparing the soil for sowing green manure, such weeds are easily destroyed with the same flat cutter.

Manual ploskorezom perform a lot of work, and not everyone needs a sharp sharpening. When the weeds are still in the white thread stage, the dull flat cutter is just right - the blunt flat cutter pulls more than it cuts off.

For example, it is known that carrots are a tight culture. As long as its sprouts appear, the whole bed of weeds grows over. Walk flat-cut through the rows, while the weeds have just appeared, but at this time and the carrots are not visible.

It is necessary to plant onions in rows of carrots, with an interval of half a meter. Onions will turn green before carrots and will mark its rows, when the weeds are still in the stage of thin threads. It is necessary to walk inaccurate ploskorez on the inter-row spaces indicated by onions twice, with an interval of ten days, and no weeds.

If not to be delayed, then weed, as practice has shown, is needed only with a blunted tool. If, however, to appear at the dacha, for example, a month after sowing, you will have to take a talis and sharpen the tool until the razor sharpness. It really is better to do everything on time!

A sharp flat cutter is required when tilling the soil to a depth of 5 cm and more, especially the entire length of the knife, when forming ridges, mowing weeds when they are out of “childhood” age, and overgrowing raspberries, when hilling, removing strawberry “whiskers”. Slightly less sharp should be the blade when cutting grooves for sowing seeds, thinning thickly seeded carrots, parsley, dill.

How to completely remove wheat grass

Wheatgrass can be completely removed as follows. In the fall, slightly "scratch" the virgin soil with a flat cutter and sow with rye. She will crush the wheat grass. Seed for sowing take double the rate. After scattering the seeds, level the area with a rake or flat cutter.

In the spring, mow rye and treat with effective microorganisms. The cut rye will rot in 2-3 weeks (without effective microorganisms, it will rot at least 2 months). Then treat the soil with a flat cutter. If necessary, this technique can be repeated next fall.

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