Petunia is part of the family of the bouillon. This unpretentious plant can be grown both in open ground and at home. From early spring to the first frost, petunia pleases the gardener with numerous flowers and fragrant aromas. The plant differs depending on the appearance and variety.
Petunia is of two types:
Ampelnoe are an annual plant. Summer residents prefer this look to decorate their land, terraces, and designers use it for landscaping grounds, balconies, cafes and restaurants.
Ampelnaya differs from the cascade:
- Beautiful falling shoots, the length of which with proper care reaches up to 2 meters.
- The branches and flowers of the ampel are developing horizontally. Therefore, these varieties are ideal for growing on balconies or terraces.
Cascade will look great in flowerbeds. Differs from ampelous short shoots. Initially, petunia grows up, then under the weight of young shoots may be leaning down.
Growing this species at home is possible, but requires careful care:
- Flowers are very sensitive to light. Therefore, their location should be in places where there is enough color without direct sunlight.
- Petunia of any kind loves water very much, the soil should always be wet. Watering them often and abundantly. On hot days, watering should be done 2 times a day, morning and evening.
The shape of the flower petunias are terry and simple
Terry are hybridtherefore, they transfer their properties to the next generation only as a result of artificial pollination.
To get this view later flower growers propagate the plant. vegetative way, that is, cuttings.
A simple type of petunias is propagated in a simple way - seed or grafting.
Reproduction of petunia seeds is considered the easiest and most popular. You need to collect them as the flowers dry out. When buying seeds in a store, it is better to choose a trusted manufacturer. The seedlings are planted on seedlings at the end of March. The plant dives when the first leaves appear. Petunia begins to bloom 2-2.5 months after planting.
To the flowers grew well and in time they bloomed planted in flower beds in late May or early June. The plant is best planted in the evening or in cloudy weather. As well as all booze petunias are afraid frost, under the influence of strong cold, the flower changes color, leaves turn black or it can even die. Until a series of return spring frosts pass, seedlings can be put in a greenhouse. This will help temper the plant.
For planting a flower is selected open sunny place. Planting of small-flowered petunias is made at a distance of 10 cm from each other, and for bushes with red flowers, 25-30 cm are needed. Plant this plant well next to roses, it is able to deter pests from its neighbors.
It is possible to multiply petunias both seeds, and shanks. To do this, take apical cuttings with about 5 leaves. They are planted in loose and moist soil, covered with film or glass on top.
Petunia begins to bloom from May and pleases with its beauty throughout the summer until the first serious frosts. However, despite its fragility, flowers calmly stand up to -4 degrees. But when the air temperature drops to -2-3 degrees, the plant changes its shape and color.
To save the favorite flower and further reproduction in the fall, the plant is dug out of the ground. Then you need to put it in a pot and put it on the window. On the windowsill, where there is a petunia should be cool and light. It is necessary to water once a week with a small amount of water.
Petunia begin to "wake up" in February. To do this, the pot must be moved to a warm bright place and watered with warm water every three days. Soon the petunia should put new boring. When these bore holes grow back enough, they need to be cut and placed in warm water for 2 weeks. During this time, the bottom of the germ should be covered with roots and can be transplanted into a pot.
Petunia - unpretentious plantHowever, in order for the plant to grow well it is necessary to loosen the earth in time and feed it regularly.
The land is fertilized one week after transplantation, then every 2 weeks.
Spray petunia, unlike ampelous, responds well to formation. To do this, you need to pin a few leaves off the top. After that, a sprig of petunia begins to branch. In order to achieve constant flowering, it is necessary to remove velvet buds on time.
Petunia is considered one of the most successful plants for decorating gardens or balconies and loggias. With proper care, the plant will delight those around with numerous lush flowers all summer.
What minus temperature is able to withstand petunia in open ground?
It is believed that petunia, as a typical representative of the Solanaceae, does not tolerate freezing. Authoritative experts and experienced flower growers on the Internet report that modern petunias hybrids in exceptional cases can withstand short-term decreases in temperature to -2 degrees, and after -4, turn black and lose flowers. They note that the specimens planted in open ground are more susceptible to frost damage. And for petunias that are suspended in pots or located on the balcony, light frosts are not so bad.
Frost and my petunia: Personal experience
I’ve been freezing petunias in spring, which I’ve been growing for a very long time before I came across it.
- First, I never hurry with moving seedlings to a permanent place. I do it not earlier than the first, and even the second week of June.
- Secondly, my seedlings are perfectly hardened: starting from the second half of April, the night temperature in the greenhouse regularly drops to 4–5 (sometimes to 1–2) degrees.
- And thirdly, I follow the forecasts of meteorologists, taking the necessary measures.
I plant petunias in 10-liter pots, one or two roots each. The petunia garden is covered from the prevailing north-westerly winds by a gazebo and a greenhouse.
Pots set on elevations (bench, hemp, stand). Thus, my petunks are on a slight elevation.
In Siberia, return frosts are not uncommon. If the temperature went down for a couple of hours to -1 or -2 degrees - there were no consequences for already planted crops.
But when it suddenly got cold to -4, it happened that astilba froze, one-year-old dahlias, uncovered tomatoes (they didn’t collide with eggplant and peppers — they are always covered), even young zucchini. And although at this moment you look more who is cold-blackened, the petunias never let down, they withstood steadfast attention to themselves (blackened) they did not pay. Perhaps the frost was "stripe", or was short.
How to reanimate frozen petunia
If the petunks are still frozen, and the damage is not total, you need to try to save the little grass:
- bring the martyr to a comfortable place
- to cut off the affected leaves, you may have to sacrifice and sprigs,
- the main thing is that the trunk and two or three sinuses remain healthy, new branches will quickly grow from them, and the petunia will surely turn into a beauty.
How to protect gentle petunias from frost
Experts strongly recommend hardening seedlings before planting in the ground. I fully support! My seedlings from the first days grow in Spartan conditions. In April, the high sun warms the greenhouse under polycarbonate to a serious 30–40, ventilation does not cope with cooling. At night, 4–5 degrees is a common thing, since the second decade of May I don’t even close the door for the night.
After planting in permanent pots and placing in the garden, I am daily interested in the weather forecast, and not only for “today”, but also for the next 3-4 days. If there is a threat of freezing, I don’t rely on hardening, I try to cover everything I can. In this matter, I prefer to play it safe.
There are still such signs: in the evening the sky is clear, without clouds, and on a thermometer below 5 - frost will definitely be, if dense clouds have run over or it is raining - you can not be afraid of frost.
If the frost is expected to be a weak, sufficiently inverted capacity over a suitable container: a plastic cup or bucket, a cardboard box, an old saucepan, just a bag will do. This is usually enough.
The magic wand in many cases is a garden nonwoven covering material.
In the greenhouse, you can arrange containers (buckets, tanks) with hot water, turn on the electric heater.
It is known from grandmothers that the garden can be protected with smoke, for this, fires are made and a dry mullein, raw logs or grass, peat are thrown up.
Bonfires are lit in the open air, they are contraindicated in the greenhouse! If electricity is not supplied, it is better to dispense with water pots, or arrange a stove with a chimney.
Flower beds can be covered with spruce leaves or a thin layer of branches, for example, willow.
What varieties of petunias are not afraid of frost?
I think that no petunia will survive the severe frosts, yet it is a thermophilic flower, and even nightshade. But I would not call him a sissy.
I noticed that, as the manufacturers promise, modern hybrids are endowed with resistance to extreme conditions. They are quickly restored after a strong wind, drought and rain, worse, in my opinion, suffer the heat.
I plant many varieties, everyone is happy (in terms of endurance). Here are some favorite groups of hybrids:
- terry shrub and cascade (series Duo, Pan-Velvet and others),
- ampelous and cascading (Ramblin, Opera, Imperial, Gioconda, Avalanche, Baby Duck series),
- many-flowered and large-flowered (Picobella, Eagle, Shock Wave, Pikoti, Grandiflora Aladdin),
- Fringed flowerflowers and freillitunia.
All quickly restored after a squally wind and heavy rain. If they want to drink and have already lowered the ears, they almost instantly restore the vigorous appearance after watering. And they quickly withstand transient weak frosts, and spring and early autumn.
I appreciate petunias not only for decorating even a modest garden all summer, they are unique, so different. The main thing for me is that they do not require any special troubles and tolerate our unkind Siberian climate very well. ”
Svetlana Scherbak, Krasnoyarsk Territory
Adding an article to a new collection
Since the threat of recurrent frosts in the middle lane persists until early June, many letniki grow through seedlings and land in the ground in late May. But there are flowers that are uneasy with the cold, and you can safely sow them right away in the flower garden already from the end of April.
Ornamental plants for the garden, which we have put together for you in a small list, will endure cold tests. Take note of the list and surround yourself with colorful flowers, without wasting precious time on painstaking care of seedlings. This is especially true if all the window sills in your house are occupied by vegetable seedlings and there is neither time nor place for flowers.
It is better to prepare the soil for sowing letniki in the fall, in this case a bucket of matured compost or rotted manure is added to the ground during digging (the amount is calculated per 1 square meter). Complex mineral fertilizers (20-30 g / m2) will be useful, although they can be replaced with regular ash (0.5 l). During the May sowing, organic matter is no longer necessary, since it can cause fusarium or black leg in plants.
Dig a plot under the flower bed at least two weeks before sowing, remove the roots of weeds. Most plants will use ordinary garden soil with a neutral pH or low acidity. Using a rake, level the surface of the soil and make grooves for the seeds - a depth of 1-2 cm is usually sufficient for the pilots. their seeds are small.
So, what kind of cold-resistant annuals you should buy for growing in a seedless way.
Agrostemma, or cockle
The agrostemma will delight you with active growth, and therefore, with an early flowering, provided that you sow the seeds in the heated to 13-15 ° C soil. In each nest lower 3-4 seeds, without deepening. The optimal interval between them is 15-20 cm. For seedlings, this field plant will take no more than 2 weeks. Grown up seedlings thin out, leaving only the strongest.
This elegant flower loves to grow in a light and loose soil in a brightly lit area. But the slight cooling of young shoots of the cockle is not at all terrible. This plant will look good in rabatki, rockeries, mixborders and container planting.
A flower tolerates arid weather and does not die from a lack of moisture. And the pleasant sweet smell of its nectar will attract pollinators to your site.
Be careful: the agrostemma is beautiful, but still a weed, and if you allow the flower to grow as he pleases, you will not see a beautiful and well-groomed flower bed.
Astra Chinese, or callistefus
Beloved for their unpretentious temper, the brilliance of lush flowers and long flowering, the light-loving aster also has a “Nordic” character - it is able to withstand frosts up to –3–4 ° С without damage.
Sown in the ground plant blooms just two and a half weeks later than grown through seedlings. But its flowering will be longer and more abundant.
Organics for feeding future asters are used only in the fall, when they prepare the soil for sowing. In the spring, while digging, it is sufficient to add mineral fertilizers to the fertile, non-heavy soil of a neutral reaction (superphosphate in the amount of 20-40 g / m2 and 15-20 g / m2 of ammonium sulfate and potassium nitrate).
Seeds are sown in grooves, buried shallowly (1-1.5 cm), depending on the density of the soil, sprinkled with a loose (1 cm thick) layer of compost or a mixture of soil with rotted manure and carefully watered. Before the emergence of seedlings, the sowing site is protected from cold snaps with plastic wrap, which can then be removed.
Astra one-year-old will be a great decoration for rabatok, curb plantings, will look good in combination with other ornamental plants.
Sweet peas, or fragrant order
Sweet peas - a real orchid with a fragrant smell! The plant is as unpretentious as it is gentle in appearance, although it withstands frosts up to –5 ° С. Annual culture will give odds to perennial in a rich palette of shades and colors inherent in flowers - their wavy petals are white, pink, bright red, dark cherry and even blue. In sweet peas 1000 different varieties! Agree, such a colorful "set" one can make a whole flowerbed.
The plant will be "to the liking" open solar areas, where there is no strong wind. The soil is suitable light, loose, fertile and breathable, with a neutral pH. It is better to prepare the soil in advance (at least in two weeks), adding to it compost, and from mineral components - potassium and phosphorus.
Before sowing, seeds (except for varieties with light flowers) are best soaked in hot water for 2 hours - this will accelerate germination. They are buried in the soil nesting method (2-4 pieces per well, 2-3 cm deep). After two weeks, the seedlings will germinate, and the flowering will have to wait another 2 months, but it will not upset you, especially if you “spur” it every two weeks with liquid fertilizing with minerals. If you cut off the inflorescences that have bloomed, colorful bright flowers will bloom until mid-autumn. Do not forget also about regular and sufficient irrigation, loosening of the soil and all standard procedures to which the plants respond to harmonious growth and development.
Take care that the plant has a vertical support along which it will curl - it can be a fence, a low fence, a fence. Alternatively, you can stretch the twine between the two supports in the form of a grid. And the garter is better to do early, because the stems of the peas are fragile and can easily break.
Sweet peas are suitable for gardening arbors, decorating arches, trellises, creating landscape compositions in a rustic style.
Like other annuals, iberis is not a pretentious, light-loving flower, which will grow well in light penumbra. He is suitable loamy soils and soils containing sand. The peculiarity of Iberis is that it reacts badly to a transplant, therefore, it is sown in a flower garden immediately to a permanent place in order not to disturb any more. Seeds are buried in small (not deeper than 1 cm) grooves and only slightly covered with earth from above.
The first shoots will appear in two weeks. They should be thinned out, leaving a distance of about 15 cm, and after another month and a half we can expect the beginning of flowering. It is usually very abundant, and if you sow the seeds at intervals of two weeks, it will continue until the end of summer. Lush and fragrant umbellate inflorescences consist of many small flowers with petals, painted in pink, white and all shades of lilac and purple.
Iberis is sensitive to fungal diseases, so abundant watering can damage the flower.
Unusual iberis will not only complement the "company" of the motley inhabitants of the rocky flower garden, the curb planting, but it will also look elegant in a bouquet. If you do not want to spend a lot of time and effort on caring for a flower garden, choose Iberis!
Календула хорошо известна многим как растение с целебными свойствами – в заживлении ран ей нет равных. Цветок полезен не только людям, но и огородным растениям, поэтому его часто можно встретить в междурядьях грядок с овощами. Секрет заключается в сильном запахе, которого боятся вредные насекомые – тля, нематода, гусеницы бабочек и даже коварная медведка.
Seeds can be sown in open ground in April - they sprout in a week, short-term lowering the temperature of the seedlings are not terrible. Sowing by rows in shallow (1.5-2 cm) grooves with a distance between seeds of 20-30 cm is practiced. 50 cm or more are left between rows. The seeds are lightly covered with 2-3 cm thick ground.
The plant is open to the sun areas with crumbly, well-hydrated and humus-rich (3-4 kg / m2) soil, two weeks before sowing, it is also a good idea to add urea (30 g / m2) to the ground.
To bloom continued until the autumn cold, the flowering inflorescences are recommended to break off.
Calendula inflorescences come in various shapes: from a simple daisy-like to lush, resembling a terry "ball" with petals of all shades of yellow, from light to dark orange.
Calendula looks great in a mixed and curb planting, next to flowers in blue tones (forget-me-nots, cornflowers, delphinium), suitable for creating rockeries and alpine slides.
There are plants that bloom more abundantly and for a long time not when planted in the form of seedlings, but when sowing seeds directly into the ground. Clarkia is one of them. This is a small shrub (the height of which, depending on the variety, varies from 30 to 60 cm). Its stems are densely covered with white, pale pink or lilac flowers with four petals. Clusters of such flowers resemble lush roses.
As well as for the remaining years, it is advisable to prepare the ground for clariki in the fall (minimum - 2-3 weeks before sowing). The best is the addition of peat and humus for digging (in equal proportions). Light, loose, friable earth with neutral acidity is preferred. Since Clarky seeds are very small, they are laid out in 4-5 pieces. in small grooves of the grooves, without deepening, lightly sprinkled with sand on top.
The plant is so full of vitality that even lowering the air temperature to –3 ° C is unable to stop the growth of seedlings that emerge from the seeds two weeks after sowing. Shoots thin out at an interval of 10 cm. Young seedlings are not afraid of the wind, or bright sunlight, or even areas in the shade, where there is not so much light. Flowering begins 2 months after sowing.
During the formation of buds, Clarky needs potassium-phosphoric top dressing - 1 tbsp. potassium sulfate and superphosphate per 1 sq.m.
Creating bright color spots, unpretentious and hardy Clarky will decorate the rabatka, flower garden, curb planting along the garden path, will make the company other decorative cultures. She is also beautiful in the cut.
Lavater, or Khatma
The inexperienced florist easily confuses the funnel-shaped flowers of the laureate with mallow. Although these are different plants, but the flowers they really are very similar. And the palette of shades is rich - from white to ruby. Caring for a lavater is not difficult at all - the plant is not capricious and does not need special care.
The laureate is growing (in the people it is also called hatma) in sunny places, but it is also quite common in the penumbra. Water hatma need to be careful - an excess of water will not do her good. The composition and quality of the soil for the plant are not particularly important, which can be considered its advantage. But it loves organics, so add humus or compost (10 kg / sq. M) to the ground, in which you will sow the seeds, when digging, and nitrophore (2 tbs / sq. M) will not interfere.
For seeds in the ground, they make grooves with a depth of 1 cm with an interval of 20 cm. Then they are watered with slightly warmed water, and after cooling the soil, they start sowing. Top seeds sprinkled with a thin (1 cm) layer of earth. The sowing area is covered with foil. When a week later the shoots appear, it can be removed. Bushes thin out, leaving between them an interval of 25-30 cm.
If the soil is poor and you did not have time to fertilize it before sowing, you can do it while the seedlings are growing. To do this, water for irrigation) add nitrophoska and urea (1 tbsp per 10 liters of water).
The height of an overgrown bush laden with flowers is more than 1 m in height, so it will look beautiful in a single planting, under tall trees and just on the lawn. Lavater is also good for decorating household buildings and fences.
Leia is graceful
Leia - one of the many relatives of chamomile, but these plants can not be confused. In an unpretentious and photophilous lei, the petals are colored yellow and have a white border around the edge.
Sowing of seeds produced in late April - early May in open ground. Return spring frosts will not frighten the plant. Leya prefers drained neutral loam or sandy loam, and the flower is so undemanding that it grows even on poor soil minerals and does not need additional feeding. As they say - "sowed and forgot."
Seeds are small, sow them 3-4 pieces. in shallow "nests", not closing up, but only sprinkling a thin layer of earth. Shoots appear after 7-10 days. They are thinned out, leaving an interval of 15 cm between the plants. If you want to achieve a more lush flowering, use a dressing for ornamental flowering plants according to the instructions. The rest of the care is simple - watering as the soil dries out, loosening and weeding.
Leia blooms in mid-June, forming numerous bright flowers that decorate borders, rabatki and rockeries. No less impressively sunny and gold elegant flowers will look in flowerpots, wide vases, containers.
In Greek, the name Malopa sounds like "Mallow-like." The similarity between plants, and the truth is great, it is not for nothing that both belong to the Malvaceae family. And both love the sun.
As well as the mallow, blooming on strong stems, malopa forms beautiful hedges and does not need special care. Is that in a strong drought you need to water it. The composition of the soil for malopy is also unimportant, only very scanty before sowing will have to be fed with complex mineral fertilizer. In the fertile land, the plant blooms actively and forms more flowers, in the form resembling "gramophone". The color of the petals is varied - white, pink, lilac, maroon.
Seeds are sown in May in a loose soil, for this purpose they make shallow grooves in it, in which “nests” of 3-4 pieces. scatter seeds. After sowing, the soil is moistened. After two weeks, the first shoots appear, which are thinned, leaving a “stock” of 30-40 cm between the bushes.
In its resistance to disease and pest attack, Malopa, perhaps, surpasses all of its fellows from the "clan" Letnik. But, of course, its most important "horse" - unprecedented cold resistance - the seeds of this plant can be sown even during return frosts.
Malopa is indispensable in the background of flower beds, in a curb landing, looks good along high walls and fences and, of course, as fences. In the "company", they see the same oldniks (antirrinum, iberis, fragrant tobacco, phlox). The color is in harmony with the colors of white shades.
A modest mattiola fell in love with flower growers long ago with its delicate and delicate scent, reminiscent of the aroma of refined French perfumes, which intensifies closer to night. The flower is quite unpretentious - it needs only not too abundant watering and carefully loosening the soil around. Top-dressing with mineral fertilizer in the flowering phase increases the formation of new buds.
Seedlings poorly take root after transplantation, so the seeds mattioly sown immediately to a permanent place. The plant prefers a well-drained soil without stagnation of water - suitable loam or sandy soil in a well-lit corner of the garden.
Seeds mixed with sand (1: 1) are placed in shallow (up to 0.5 cm) grooves, which are slightly moisturized before sowing. The seeds are sprinkled on top, not compacted, with earth and slightly watered again. Seedlings appear after 2 weeks, they do not need shelter, because calmly withstand frosts down to –5 ° С. In phase 2 of these leaflets, the crops are thinned at intervals of 15–20 cm.
Mattiola easily “picks up” cruciferous diseases, therefore, where cabbage and its “relatives” grew, flowers cannot be grown.
It looks plain, with small pale pink flowers that open only in the evening, mattiola will become the “heart note” of your flower garden. And if the crop is repeated every two weeks, the flowerbed will exude a wonderful fragrance all summer long.
Nemesia is a favorite flower of florists - it has a very unusual form, and there are so many options for colorings and their combinations that the plant will look completely different in different compositions. The beauty of all the Letniki is that plants with flowers of all shades of a rainbow can be changed every year, sowing new ones, and combined to their taste not only with other flowers, but also among themselves.
In some varieties of nemesia flowers are characterized by color with a gradient transition from one color to another. Or, for example, multi-colored flowers on the same plant.
Nemesia is a low shrub, however, depending on the variety, the height of its stems can reach half a meter. The soil is suitable for the plant as neutral or with weak acidity, loose and sufficiently moist - dryness of the earth is unacceptable for nemesia. When digging, humic fertilizer (for example, Ideal or Universal) and wood ash (50 g / m2) can be added to the ground. The site for nemesia should be sunny and blown by the wind, but without strong drafts.
Seeds (it is better to choose hybrid ones) are sown superficially in the grooves, lightly sprinkling a thin layer of earth. Seedings appear after two weeks, and after three more you can expect the beginning of flowering. When sown in May, flowering will begin only in August, but you will be rewarded with its abundance, duration (up to frosts) and eye-catching beauty.
In order for Nemesia to bush well and blossom lush, the top should be pinched, and the flowering shoots should be cut off.
If the garden takes you the main strength, and there is almost no time left for a flower garden, sow annuals right in the ground, the care of which does not require much work, but they will fascinate you with flowering. We hope you will definitely choose plants from our list.