The summer season is coming to an end, the harvest has already been harvested, there is a long, boring winter ahead. And who told you that cherry tomatoes on the windowsill grow worse than on the garden? Funny bushes, hung with bright fruits, will delight you all winter, decorate the interior and make a pleasant variety in the menu. Such a simple gardening will delight you and your loved ones, will make a variety of gray everyday life. And how wonderful it is to serve the New Year's table with bright red tomatoes that can be picked right from the bush. Today we will talk about all the features and subtleties of home gardening.
How to grow cherry tomatoes on the windowsill?
The first thing you need is to prepare special containers, buy good seeds and soil mixture. To grow fruit plants in the winter, in conditions of lack of sun and nutrients (the pot is very limited in its resources), you will need specialized fertilizers and additional feeding. Cherry tomatoes on the windowsill grow no worse than in the open field, especially if you pick up a place with sufficient lighting. It is desirable that these are windows facing west or south. The air temperature must be above 20 degrees, otherwise the yield will decrease.
Let's start with how to plant cherry tomatoes. It is better to buy land in the store, necessarily loose and fertile. If you decide to do the soil mixture yourself, then you will need garden soil, leaf humus, peat. Before planting, be sure to disinfect the earth. To do this, you can spill the pots with boiling water with manganese dissolved in it. Some gardeners prefer to ignite the soil in the oven, but this option is suitable if you require a small amount.
Choosing a pot
Cherry tomatoes on the windowsill will grow in any pots that you pick for them. But in order for them to actively bear fruit, the volume of land for one bush must be at least 5 liters. It is advisable to choose containers that are not too deep and wide. Pay attention to the drainage holes for the discharge of excess moisture, without them the roots will suffocate without oxygen.
For every 2 pots, or 10 liters of soil, you need to add a matchbox of urea and potassium sulfate, a handful of wood ash. In such conditions, your tomatoes will feel just fine.
The best varieties for home cultivation
Not all cherry tomatoes are undersized. The varieties today are represented by such abundance that time should be spent to study their features, so as not to accidentally buy a garden giant. There are varieties of Russian breeding, which successfully grow both in open ground and on the balcony. There are tomatoes that bear the fruits of scarlet color, these are the already famous Winter Cherry, Andryushka and Bead. They are successfully grown on balconies and loggias, as well as simply on window sills. Today this company is complemented by red cherry tomatoes. These are varieties such as Sparrows, Queen Margot. In order to diversify the winter table or make a beautiful vegetable platter, you can plant varieties of yellow and orange cherry tomatoes. These are Lemon, Golden Bead and Midday. From the cocktail tomatoes of domestic breeding, we can recommend the varieties Sunny Bunny, Mariska and Rosita.
Growing cherry tomatoes on the balcony, I want the bush to occupy as little space as possible, but at the same time give a lot of fruit. Under these criteria, the Ampel hybrid is excellent. It will grow great in a pot, old barrel or hanging pots. A distinctive feature is the formation of the bush. Instead of stepsons, it forms a brush, so the bush resembles a Christmas tree, which is all hung with bright red toys. Like all the above small-fruited hybrids, it forms fruits weighing up to 50 g, it is notable for high yield and excellent taste of tomatoes. They are delicious, dense and very beautiful.
Cherry tomatoes on the balcony are grown in the most usual, seedling way. So you have the opportunity to observe the growth of seedlings and select only the strongest, strongest and healthiest for picking. By itself, the pick contributes to the development of additional roots and the proper formation of the bush. For growing seedlings, you will need any wide containers with a depth of 8-10 cm. Fill them with earth, water well and place them near the battery. Seeds before sowing need to soak in the growth promoter to achieve more friendly shoots.
Sowing the seeds into the soil, you need to cover the seed tank with plastic wrap. Until the first shoots appear, the pot will be warm, near the battery. After the appearance of the sprouts, the film needs to be removed and the box with the seedlings is moved to the window sill. It is desirable that there was lighter and a little cooler so that the seedlings do not stretch. Approximately 20-25 days this period lasts, and it will end with the formation of two true tomato leaves. Now you have already grown real cherry tomatoes. The seedling is ready for the first picking. Since we are preparing seedlings for cultivation on the balcony, there will be several transplants.
Transplant tomatoes tolerate almost painless, but you need to be careful not to damage the fragile stalk. The first pick is performed in pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm. The tip of the spine is pinned so that the root system develops better. Pots should be placed on the bright window sill, the air temperature should be about 23-25 degrees. Now it is necessary to constantly take care of the seedlings, water, loosen the ground and apply complex mineral fertilizer to the soil every ten days.
During this period, a disease called blacklegged is especially destructive for plants. For prevention, it is necessary to periodically water the soil with a solution of potassium permanganate. The second danger is the lack of sunlight. In winter, daylight hours are short, so tomatoes should be lit, otherwise the seedlings will stretch and die.
Home-made cherry tomatoes are transplanted a second time when the plants form 6-8 true leaves. Now you need to allocate to each seedling an individual pot of at least 5 liters. When transplanting tomatoes should be deepened by 10-12 cm to form a strong root system.
Now the plants have transferred the final transplant to the pot, where they will grow throughout the growing season. Home-made cherry tomatoes need regular watering as the soil dries. In order not to form a crust on the surface, the soil should be regularly loosened. 10 days after transplantation, a complex mineral fertilizer should be applied to the soil. Each plant will require approximately 250-300 ml of solution. Concentration is indicated on individual packaging. Every two weeks you need to repeat feeding to ensure conditions for normal fruiting.
Virtually all varieties with growth form stepchildren - these are lateral shoots that develop in the leaf axils. Low-growing indoor plants form two or three stalks. To do this, leave the top of the central stem and another one or two stepsons. The rest are removed. Ideally, a short-growing plant is a central stem and two stepsons at different levels. In addition to the stepsons, it is necessary to remove diseased and yellow leaves, as well as foliage covering the fruits of the lower brushes. By the way, the number of brushes also need to be limited. On each stalk, you can leave four bunches of ovaries, then pinch the top of the head.
Tomatoes are self-pollinating plants, but you can increase the yield through manual pollination. To do this, during flowering, it is recommended to open the balcony, so that a fresh breeze was walking in the room, or simply to shake flowering twigs. When most of the brushes have formed, the tops and flowering branches are removed so that the fruits can fully develop. To accelerate the growth and development of fruits, use another technique. The plant is taken as the base of the stem and pulled upwards, as if trying to pull it to the surface. It is necessary to tear off small roots. Then the plant is spud and watered. The root system responds with a powerful development of additional roots, and this has a positive effect on the growth and ripening of fruits. Do not forget about the use of fertilizers. With a lack of nutrients it will be difficult to expect a good harvest, because the pot is a closed and limited ecosystem.
Location and lighting
One of the main conditions is good illumination. The best place for growing tomatoes in the winter - window sills windows south. The eastern and western windows are less suitable, and the northern ones are not suitable at all.
But even with the most optimal placement of light may not be enough. A light day in winter is short, and tomatoes need a minimum of 12 hours of light day. It can be extended by highlighting with phytolamps or ordinary fluorescent lamps.
Humidity and watering
In winter, the air in the rooms is too dry, and this does not contribute to the cultivation of tomatoes. Optimum air humidity should be in the range of 60-65%. To achieve it is not difficult. How - read here.
Watering tomatoes on the window sill should be regular, but not watering the soil. With respect to temperature and normal humidity, it turns out - once every 2-3 days.
Sowing seeds and growing seedlings
First of all, you should decide on the variety of tomatoes that you plan to grow on the windowsill. There are a number of varieties that are specifically recommended for indoor cultivation. But even among ordinary tomatoes, you can find suitable ones. You should not choose too tall and with very large fruits. In conditions of limited space, it will be difficult to achieve good results from them. Beginners, we advise you to choose special varieties.
The time when seeds are sown for the winter growing of tomatoes does not matter, you choose it yourself. You can sow them immediately with the onset of autumn, and you can in the middle of winter. To obtain a continuous crop, seeds can be sown in October, and then re-in the middle of winter. That is - there is no time limit.
Sowing is done in individual containers, cassettes or distribution boxes. It is not necessary to deepen the seeds strongly in the ground, otherwise the period of germination will increase. The maximum depth of landing is 2 centimeters. After sowing, moisten the ground. To do this, it is better to use a spray gun so that the seeds with the water do not go deeper into the ground.
Capacity with seeds covered with a film, glass or transparent cap, and placed on a bright and warm place.
The whole period of germination of seeds and growing seedlings, should monitor the humidity of the earth and air, regularly air them, removing the cap. Provide highlighting.
With the pair of true leaves on the seedlings, feed them with a weak solution of mineral fertilizer.
When the seedlings grow well and get stronger, you can begin to transplant in permanent pots.
Growing tomatoes in pots
The size of the pot should be selected based on the cultivated variety. Accordingly, the larger the cultivated specimen, the larger the pot will be needed. The largest varieties are planted in pots of 5 liters, the average size of 3-4 liters, and the smallest, dwarf in 2 - liter.
As already mentioned, for successful cultivation requires sufficient lighting, regular watering without waterlogging and normal humidity.
When the tomatoes on the windowsill are sufficiently adapted, it is approximately three weeks after planting in the permanent pots, they can begin to feed. Mineral fertilizers are suitable for supplements every ten days.
For tall varieties should take care of the appropriate support. Also, tall and medium varieties of tomatoes grown on the windowsill should be stepson.
It should be borne in mind that tomatoes that are grown on the windowsill are not pollinated by insects, for lack of such. Therefore, it is necessary to help them in this. Varieties of tomatoes, designed specifically for indoor cultivation, are usually self-pollinating, but additional help does not hurt, and for ordinary varieties it is mandatory. You can use the time-consuming way - to transfer the pollen from the flower to the flower with a brush, but you can just shake the bush so that the pollen gets where you need it.
If you want to get the fruits of larger sizes, then the brush should be thinned, leaving only 5-6 of them on the stem, and pin the top of the stem.
Harvest should also be a little different from the garden. Do not wait for the full ripening of the fruit. Their maturation is uneven, so those that are beginning to turn pink should be removed and put on ripening. This will release the power of the plant for further development.
Disease and Prevention
As for open field tomatoes, the main danger for indoor tomatoes is late blight. Its main reason is excessive watering. If the plant is sick, then to save him is very difficult. Therefore, it is necessary to take mandatory preventive measures. First of all, do not re-moisten the soil and ventilate the room. Also spray any antifungal drug.
How to plant and grow a tomato in a pot
There is no particular secret, there are few differences from the cultivation of ground and greenhouse fruits. How to grow potted tomatoes:
- Pick up varieties, based on the conditions of cultivation.
- Get healthy strong seedlings.
- Choose the best capacity for planting and the location for its location.
- Water in a timely manner, follow the schedule of fertilizing.
- Shape a shrub if the variety requires it.
- Protect from diseases and pests.
On a note! Tomatoes are grown in pots and in spacious summer cottages, decorating resting areas or testing completely unfamiliar varieties in the greenhouse. Also, this method allows to solve the problem of non-compliance of the conditions of the suburban area with the requirements of culture.
Accommodation in the farm
Growing in pots can varieties that meet the following criteria:
Bush size - height, crown span. If the cultivation of tomatoes in pots is planned on the street - summer cottage, these sizes do not have a significant impact, it will be important only to choose the right amount of capacity. For home cultivation is a determining factor, because the plant needs space.
Important! You can not put in a row on the windowsill 5-6 pots closely - pressed against each other leaves reduce the likelihood of harvest and create additional risks of an outbreak of disease.
The height of the plant also matters - it does not make sense to grow 4-meter-high De Barao on the windowsill, but it would be appropriate to place containers with it around the gazebo in the country house or in the open loggia of a city apartment.
The size of the fruit. It is tempting to plant a giant tomato weighing more than half a kilo in a pot. But only one will ripen, for a larger bush, whose root system is rigidly limited by the container walls, will not be able to. It is optimal to choose such plants whose fruit weight does not exceed 40-50 g. It is not particularly important whether the variety is intended specifically for container cultivation or not, especially if the container will be on the balcony or on the dacha lawn.
If we are talking about the window sill of a city apartment, preference should be given to container varieties of cherry group. They form compact bushes with small-sized fruits weighing up to 30 g.
Illumination. If the intended location of the light is not enough, the choice is to stop at the cherry, successfully ripening and with a lack of lighting. Although all tomatoes belong to the plants of short daylight hours, this does not mean that it is permissible to put them in a corner where the sun is 15 minutes a day.
Important! Tomatoes the length of the day requires at least 12 hours, especially for young seedlings, therefore, it is necessary to immediately provide the possibility of bleaching.
Terms of aging. For the southern regions, the choice is wide - from early (for rooms, balconies) to late-ripening (for growing outside). In temperate climates, choices are limited to varieties that ripen in the early and medium terms (up to 100 days). The same applies to the indoor tomatoes grown in the winter.
The best varieties of homemade tomatoes:
- Pearl Red,
- Yellow Pearl
- Room surprise,
- Balcony miracle
- Japanese dwarf,
- Mini Gold,
- Bonsai Micro.
The list is far from complete, the number of varieties of cherry that can be grown on the windowsill has long exceeded one hundred.
As a balcony culture, small-fruited varieties, such as Snegiryok and Button, are also cultivated for open ground.
On a note! Compact indoor cherries can be planted in a few small bushes in one low pot of large volume, creating a picturesque composition of colorful tomatoes of red, pink, yellow, orange and green colors.
Which pot to choose
First of all, the tank must be stable. Elegant pots with a narrow bottom and a wide top are not suitable for solid tomatoes.
Какой объем горшка нужен для помидоров определяют по высоте куста (указывается на пакетиках с семенами). Самый грубый подсчет — 1 л грунта на каждые 10 см высоты. Правило справедливо для черри, если плоды более крупные, приплюсовывают еще от 1 до 5 л.
Посадка в керамику
Материал горшка может быть любым — пластик, керамика, деревянная кадушка. However, due to the change in the length of daylight, containers often have to be moved to another location. It is rather difficult to rearrange a 20-liter street clay pot or a 50-liter wooden barrel; it is better to choose plastic. And for homemade cherry, you can take ceramics.
Planting tomatoes in pots
First of all, grown seedlings. The process is as usual.
For seeding, it is preferable to use peat tablets. Usually, several specimens are grown in pots, and this will not hit the pocket a lot. You can plant each seed in a separate small cup or use the traditional method - wait for the seedlings to appear in the seedling boxes. The whole procedure is similar to growing seedlings for greenhouses and open ground.
On a note! The dates of sowing for tomatoes in pots on the street and on the balcony correspond to the periods for open ground.
Room timing is determined less strictly. Most often they sow indoor tomatoes in two terms - from mid-July to mid-August, in order to diversify the New Year's table with fresh tomatoes, and from mid-November to mid-December, to supplement the vitamin deficiency in early spring.
Care of the seedlings, their picking, hardening also proceed in standard mode.
On a note! Small-fruited tomatoes are immediately transplanted into permanent pots.
At the stage of 5-6 leaves, and better with the appearance of the first flowers, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place - in containers intended for it.
Soil take universal, adding to it sand, vermiculite or peat (1:10 to the main volume of soil). In order to further avoid diseases in the tomato mini-kingdom, the soil is pre-shed with boiling water or a solution of manganese. Fertilizers are often added, but it is better not to do this: crumbs are actively beginning to grow, gathering powerful tops, forgetting about the formation of floral brushes.
Recommendations for growing tomatoes in pots at home and outdoors
If you plant a grown seedling in a pot, for example, a pot red tomato, it will be clear how to grow it properly, especially if you have experience in cultivating a crop on a plot.
Watered daily in the morning with warm distilled water. Approximate consumption per 1 liter of soil:
- for outdoor tomatoes about 70 ml,
- balcony - 50 ml,
- room - 35-40 ml.
In extreme heat, if in the evening the leaves have wilted, they re-moisten the soil. The amount of water is reduced by 2 times.
After watering, the ground is loosened and slightly spud plants. The procedure is sufficient to hold every 3-4 days.
Harvest on the balcony
Fertilizers are applied weekly in liquid form, combining with irrigation. Feeding options:
- Potassium sulfate - 1 mg, urea - 1 g, superphosphate - 5 g per liter of water,
- Korovyak - at the rate of 1 part of fertilizer on 5 parts of water,
- Bird droppings - 1 part litter per 15 parts of water.
A good result is given by the complex fertilizers “Fertik” (“Kemira”), “Agricola”, used strictly in accordance with the instructions.
It is most convenient to add liquid biohumus once a week to the water for irrigation, which contains the main nutrients in an optimal ratio. On 1 liter of water take 1 tsp. fertilizer.
Important. As the soil settles in the pots they pour fresh, slightly spuding plants.
Protection against diseases and pests
With strict observance of the rules of cultivation, potted tomatoes practically do not get sick. However, some preventive measures need to be taken. As prophylaxis use:
- garlic infusion (watering and / or spraying),
- watering with the addition of several crystals of manganese-acid potassium,
- spraying "Fitosporin".
Prevention is carried out every 10-15 days.
Tomatoes growing in large pots on the street are attacked by the same pests as those grown in the beds. Fight them lead by conventional methods. Pests practically do not threaten balcony tomatoes, unless they are brought by the wind. Usually they get rid of them by mechanical methods - they are collected by hands and destroyed. If the introduction of miners into the leaves of miners is noticed, the affected leaves are torn off and destroyed.
For indoor cherries, the greatest threats are:
- Spider mite, activated in dry air, especially in winter. Prevention methods: maintaining humidity at the required level (60%) using a humidifier or placing a bowl with water next to the plants.
- The midges inflaming at excessive watering against the background of low temperature (whitefly, poura, sciarides).
In a confined space to fight insects, the bio-insecticide “Bona Forte” is used, showing excellent results in combating most of the pests characteristic of houseplants, especially in the initial stages of damage.
How to form tomatoes in pots
As a rule, container varieties of tomatoes are not necessary to showcase. If other types are grown, form them in 2 stalks, the remaining stepchildren are removed according to the usual rules.
Armed with the knowledge of how to grow tomatoes in an apartment, on a balcony or on a summer cottage unsuitable for growing tomatoes, lovers of healthy fruits to some extent decide the issue of providing themselves with vitamins and healthy substances. The harvest from potted tomatoes is not so large as to fully cover the needs of the family, but it delivers more joy and aesthetic pleasure than going to the market.
Growing tomatoes: key features
Growing tomatoes at home is a very exciting and quite simple process. In a short time, the gardener gets the opportunity to successfully grow a prolific crop that will produce an excellent harvest in the first year of his life. Planting is carried out from seedlings, which are placed in special plastic containers, transplant cassettes and other similar devices.
It is important that they are thoroughly disinfected and have special drainage holes in the bottom. Otherwise, the bushes can be exposed to numerous diseases, including a dangerous black leg. Before you start growing tomatoes, make sure that they are provided with normal lighting, comfortable temperature conditions and air ventilation.
When growing, you can use any soil composition, but in a particularly well proven soil based on sand and peat, mixed in equal amounts. It is impossible to land too thickly, because this can lead to stretching of the seedlings, as a result of which it will become weak and thin. When greenhouse sowing should follow the ordinary method that will provide the culture with the most comfortable lighting.
Just before sowing, the soil is thoroughly moistened, and the seeds are amenable to some disinfecting measures, which positively affects their sowing qualities and contributes to the rapid emergence of mass shoots. When processing seed, it is desirable to give it variable temperatures, alternating them. For example, initially for two days the seeds should be under the influence of a temperature of +30 degrees Celsius, and then another three days at +50 degrees.
Dry or presoaked in 1% potassium permanganate solution are suitable for sowing. It is important to put the seeds in a container with such a solution and keep them there for 30 minutes. Then it remains to wash the seeds and sow in the substrate, carefully covering the crops with a film or thin vermiculite. Such a solution maintains a comfortable moisture of the substrate, preventing the development of dangerous diseases.
Until the moment when the first shoots appear out of the ground, crops are maintained under a temperature of 23 degrees Celsius. As soon as they begin to grow actively, the film from the containers for planting is removed to protect the culture from excessive evaporation.
Grow tomatoes: preparation of the seat
If you want to grow tomatoes in your garden, give preference to the southern or south-western areas. Special productive growth is seen near the southern walls of buildings or a fence. It is known that the bushes grow freely in the same place, even if the cultivation occurs 2-3 years in a row. However, for reliable prevention of fungal formations, it is desirable to fertilize the soil with organic agents. The best predecessors of tomatoes are considered to be such vegetables:
As for the members of the nightshade family, including:
After them, growing tomatoes is not recommended, unless, after the expiration of a three-year period. Otherwise, the plant can quickly get sick.
Preparation of the substrate for growing tomatoes in the open field begin in the fall. If the acidity is too high, when autumn digging per square meter of territory you need to make:
- 0.5-0.9 kilograms of lime,
- 5-7 kilograms of organic top dressing (compost, bird droppings, peat and manure have worked well)
- 40-60 grams of superphosphate,
If the soil has been carefully fertilized, when growing other crops, the plot can simply be dug up.
When the spring soil treatment by 1 square. m of land contribute 30-40 grams of superphosphate and potash fertilizers.
Before planting, the soil is loosened, contributing 15-20 grams of potash and 30-40 nitrogen supplements.
Growing tomatoes: how to grow in the open field
Correct and timely planting of quality seedlings determines the further yield and success of tomato cultivation in the open field. Experts recommend starting the action in the first decade of June, provided that any probability of night frost is completely absent. Regardless of the type of surface, whether it is flat or comby, vegetables are placed in rows, maintaining a distance of 30-40 centimeters. In between rows - 30-50 centimeters.
Immediately before planting, holes are made in the site, which are carefully shed with water. One well should have about one liter of clear, settled water. If you are using purchased seedlings, try to buy it for a short time before placing it in the hole. This will prevent wilting, which adversely affects the rooting of the culture and causes the development of various diseases. As a result, vegetables will start to lag behind.
If the cultivation of seedlings was carried out at home, such difficulties will not appear at all. Planting material is planted on the bed immediately after removal from the cups or the greenhouse.
The depth of planting in open ground is slightly different from that used in greenhouse conditions. It is desirable that the seedlings were placed somewhat deeper. To do this, experienced gardeners cut several lower leaves and dig the plant into the ground as much as possible (sometimes even to the middle of the stem). When planting should withstand the north-west direction. The root system is precompressed with earth, taking care not to bend them.
It is important that the ends of the rhizome go to the bottom of the hole. If the seedlings are successfully planted, it remains to carefully water it and sprinkle the hole with a dry substrate.
Excellent yield indicators are different options for growing tomatoes with simple shelters on the basis of polyethylene film, as well as on insulated soil, which is created using steam beds. In this case, the final harvest will be very large, and the rate of ripening will accelerate several times.
Tomato care features
Despite the fact that growing tomatoes at home is a fairly simple and understandable exercise, failure to follow the key recommendations in terms of care after planting may entail not very pleasant consequences, including loss of harvest.
Proper care of these members of the nightshade family consists of the following procedures:
- soil loosening
- regular feeding and watering,
- the formation of the bush
- preventive measures against pests and diseases
It is advisable to carefully loosen the soil between rows and rows with culture, doing this every 10-12 days, but at least several times during the summer season. When growing tomatoes on heavy soil compositions, intensive loosening should be done in the first two weeks after transplanting.
The first hilling of tomatoes is carried out in 9-11 days after the landing events. Before starting work it is recommended to pour a bed abundantly. If hilling is done on wet ground, this will be a good stimulation of the rapid development of new roots on the stem. The second action will be successful if it is done in 16-20 days after the first.
To maximize yield culture needs to be properly and abundantly watered. Under one adult bush will have to pour 0.7-0.9 liters of water. The best time for the implementation of watering activities - the period of active flowering of the first and second brushes, before loosening the substrate and after abundant feeding with the help of dry mineral complexes.
As for the humidity of the air, the tomatoes do not show any moodiness to such a peculiarity. If the humidity is too high, it increases the likelihood of late blight and brown spot.
Throughout the summer season, tomatoes fed with mineral and organic complexes.
The first fertilizers are applied 10-12 days after planting, using a mixture based on fertilizers of mineral and organic origin. The second and third feeding is carried out with an interval of two weeks. The process uses dry mineral fertilizers that are applied to the soil immediately after loosening.
Features of the formation of the bush. Grow tomatoes correctly and beautifully
A serious stage of work is the forming events. As mentioned above, in the distant past, the culture was used not for practical purposes in the form of collecting delicious fruits, but for decorative ones. Properly decorated shrubs look very beautiful, due to which they are a good decoration for flower beds.
All formative activities are regular pinching and pinching the tops of the stem. According to the experience of experienced summer residents, the particular effectiveness of the growth of culture is seen with pruning a bush to one stem, leaving no more than two or three brushes.
Bushes require regular tying to a special rope or to stakes that are placed on the north side of the garden, 9-11 centimeters from the stem.
Such an event can be held in three steps:
- the first is to tie up immediately after transplanting,
- the second and third as the culture grows, at the level of the second and third brush,
Using finished designs and the trellis, every 4 meters clogged pins, between which the thread is pulled.
What pests culture is exposed to
Despite a fairly strong and well-developed immune system, many problems and illnesses can occur when growing tomatoes. We are talking about:
- late blight,
- to the pillar
- top rot.
Of the dangerous pests that can attack a crop:
- gall nematode,
Due to the lack of nutrients in the soil, hives can exhibit a variety of symptoms that depend on a specific element, which is not enough:
- If we are talking about a lack of nitrogen, stem, leaf plates and fruits, and, as well as ripe, and not ripe, start to lose their natural color. The size of the leaves is significantly reduced, and the color becomes yellowish. The fruits harden and shrink,
- If the soil lacks phosphorus, it is accompanied by fast wrapping leaves inside,
- Lack of potassium leads to leaf curl,
- If there is no calcium, young leaves literally fall asleep with small specks of yellow color and become dark green. With such symptoms, the risk of apical rot, which progresses with increased humidity, increases
- If not enough sulfur, leaves get a pale green colorand then actively turn yellow or redden. Starvation makes itself felt on young leaves and stems that are incredibly fragile and brittle,
- The lack of a comfortable stock of boron is accompanied blackening the point of growth of the stem. In turn, the fruits become brown and small.
The main stage is the harvest. It is important that such an event be performed correctly.
Just before the final harvest, about three weeks before harvest, flowering shoots and buds are cut. This contributes to a more productive ripening of the main mass of beautiful fruits. Cleaning is done by sampling. Naturally, it should begin with the ugly and inferior fruits.
To store tomatoes as long as possible, it is important to have time to collect them when they are brown, not red.
Now you know all the secrets. We hope that they will help you grow a truly prolific and attractive culture.
Pros and cons of growing indoor tomatoes at home
A big plus of this method is that plantings are less dependent on the season of the year. Using additional lighting, you can get a harvest even in winterwhen so lacking natural vitamins. In addition, you do not need to spend time to get to your garden - he is always at your side, you can carefully monitor and care for plantings.
The negative side is that the room will not be able to grow a big crop, and the home garden will take up a lot of space.
What varieties are suitable?
Для выращивания на подоконнике лучше отдать предпочтение низкорослым сортам, так как в помещении растения сильнее вытягиваются. Например, помидоры сорта «Флорида Петит» и «Дубок» формируются в компактные кусты с обильным урожаем. Плоды небольшого размера, но вкусные.
Хорошо растут в помещении сорта:
- «Балконное чудо».
- «Балконный красный».
- "Micron NC" and others.
These varieties of bushes grow about 30 cm and they give about 500 grams of fruit.
- "Room surprise".
- Balconi City.
- "Pearl red and black."
- "Russian troika".
They grow by 50-60 cm, and the fruits give a weight of 20 to 200 grams each.
Examples of tall varieties:
- "Tiny Tim".
- "De Barao".
- Red Banana.
- "Gina" and many others.
You should not choose large-fruited varieties. Plants with small fruits will ripen better at home. Also note that the varieties are self-pollinating. It is necessary to land different tomatoes for the first time in order to decide which one will be better to grow in the conditions of your apartment.
If the variety is specially bred for growing indoors, this is indicated on the packaging.
The photo shows tomatoes suitable for growing in an apartment.
The main differences from street cultivation
- Limited space - In this regard, it is better to choose undersized varieties.
- Limited substrate volume - It is better to plant small-fruited plants, and in the process of growth to remove excess flowers and stepchildren.
- Limited lighting - may require additional lighting.
When is the best time to start the process?
The apartment has stable conditions all year round, therefore it is possible to grow tomatoes at any time. The nuances will determine the level of illumination, which is reduced in winter. It is recommended in the winter to use additional lighting that promotes the cultivation of vegetables..
It is customary to single out two periods of tomato cultivation:
- Summer-autumn - Plants are planted in July, and fruits are obtained in November-December. If you want to grow tomatoes without the use of additional lighting, then they should be planted in March.
- Winter-spring - seedlings are planted in November-December, and the crop is removed in March-April.
How to speed up the landing process?
To speed up the sowing process, seeds are best germinated. To do this, they are immersed in a solution of manganese for 10-15 minutes. If the seeds do not sink to the bottom, then they are not suitable for germination. The rest is wrapped in a wet cloth and waiting for germination. It will take 3-4 days.
- For growing seedlings is better to choose plastic cups with a volume of 200 ml. They need to be filled with soil, leaving two fingers above, make a well, put a couple of germinated seeds into it.
- Then close the cup with polyethylene to reduce evaporation and put to germinate in a dark place. The temperature should be + 24 + 26 degrees.
- After 3-4 days, the first shoots will appear. At this point it is better to move the cups to a well-lit window sill so that they do not stretch out.
Move to the pot
When 4-5 leaves appear on the seedlings, this is an opportune time for transplanting plants into a permanent pot. If the variety is dwarf, then you can choose a pot of 4-5 liters. For higher 7-10 liters.
- First of all, clayite or stones are laid on the bottom of the pot, sand is poured with a layer of 2-3 cm and some soil.
- Pre watered seedlings are taken along with the ground and lowered into the tank.
- Free space to fill the ground. To the upper edge should remain 5-7 cm, which will allow to pour the earth.
Lighting and temperature
Growing tomatoes depends on good lighting. Without this, they simply cannot undergo the process of photosynthesis. In winter, it will not be possible to do without lighting up, which can be arranged with the help of fluorescent lamps or specialized fitolamps.
From time to time it is necessary to turn the plants so that they are lit evenly and grow evenly. To protect the tomatoes from burns, you can tinted windows.
Sprouting seedlings better in the heat (+ 25 + 30 degrees). At other times, it is recommended to create a temperature regime for tomatoes of + 22 + 25 degrees during the day and + 15 + 17 degrees at night.
In general, tomatoes do not like excessively moist soil. At the same time they should be watered in different ways at different periods of growth. In the first month of life you need to water daily, but moderately, not allowing excessive moisture. In the future, you can water twice a week, but more abundantly. It is important to prevent the soil from drying out at the time when the fruit is tied. On hot summer days, spraying can be applied to moisten the dry air.
Watering tomatoes is desirable in the evening, but if you need to moisten the soil on a sunny day, then you should not allow water droplets to fall on the trunk and leaves - they focus the sun's rays and can cause burns in plants. Favorable water temperature for irrigation - + 20 + 25 degrees.
Hydroponics is a method of growing plants without using soil.. In this way, you can grow tomatoes. As the soil can be used:
- expanded clay
- coarse sand,
- coke chips,
- mineral wool.
This substrate is filled with pots, which are then placed in a container with a special solution for hydroponics.
- Ideal for feeding home tomatoes - organic fertilizers, such as manure or ash. Manure should be diluted in water at a concentration of 2 tablespoons per liter and water the plants with this solution. Ashes can be sprinkled on the ground around the stem, or a solution can be prepared - 1 teaspoon per liter of water. The use of manure causes the growth of plants and the formation of flowers, and ash contributes to the formation of ovaries, growth and ripening of fruits. Feed should be every two weeks.
- Another option is 1 gram of potassium and urea sulfate and 5 grams of superphosphate per liter of water. Water once every 7-10 days.
- You can use fertilizers for indoor flowers or specialized concentrates.
It is better to limit the use of chemical fertilizers., as they are absorbed by plants in unlimited quantities and the fruits may become unsuitable for food from the abundance of nitrates.
In order for all the nutrients to go on the development of the fruit, it is necessary to conduct pasynkovanie, that is, to remove processes from the leaf axils - stepchildren. It is better to break off them, and not to cut off, to save the plant from infection.
Grown up tomato plants should be tied up, as the stem can break under the weight of the fruit. Varieties of medium height are tied to pegs 50-60 cm long. They are driven in during planting so as not to damage the roots later. As the ropes fit long strips of fabric.
Tie up tomatoes should be careful not to damage the stem and leaves. Dwarf varieties can not tie up.
Specially pollinated tomatoes are not required. You can only occasionally (about once a week), tapping on the trunk, shake the flowers to improve fruit set.
In this way, get a harvest of tomatoes in the apartment is quite real. The principles of caring for tomatoes in a room are not too different from those used in open ground. It is important to create favorable conditions for plants, and bright red fruits will delight you with their taste and appearance all year round.
Popular varieties of tomatoes for growing on the windowsill
When choosing a variety suitable for cultivation on the windowsill, two important indicators are guided:
• The size of the bush. It is necessary to take into account the area that will be allocated to indoor tomatoes, the cultivation of this crop will be problematic if the tomatoes have little space and sun.
• Early maturity and high yield. For cultivation of tomatoes in the winter are suitable varieties, the fruits of which ripen in 90-100 days.
You can choose from undersized varieties of ordinary tomatoes, bushes should grow no higher than 40-50 cm, also excellent indoor tomatoes - varieties of cherry tomatoes:
- Room surprise,
- Balcony miracle
- Japanese dwarf,
- Little Red Riding Hood,
- Bonsai micro.
You can experiment with tomatoes: growing in pots of several varieties will allow you to choose the best sample method.
How to create conditions for growing
Growing homemade tomatoes on the windowsill, it is important to provide the plant enough space for the crown and roots. Cherry tomatoes have enough of a 2-liter pot; for larger varieties, a pot or a container of 5-6 liters is needed.
Ate you chose the balcony tomatoes, for their cultivation the size of the pot can be even larger, 8-10 liters.
In the process of development, some varieties of tomatoes will require support for the stems.
Tomatoes perfectly perceive direct sunlight. Windows are suitable for their placement on the south, south-west side of the house. With natural light, the tomatoes before formation of the ovary are recommended to gently turn the different sides towards the sun so that the bush grows symmetrically. Light day for tomatoes should be at least 12 hours. Growing tomatoes at home in winter requires additional lighting. Lamps for lighting set at a distance of 30 cm from the plants.
Humidity and temperature
For good plant development and high yield of tomatoes, the temperature during the day should not be lower than 22-26 degrees. At night it can be cooler, 15-16 degrees. In winter, cold air may come from the glasses, in which case it is recommended to move the plants some distance from the windows. Favorable humidity of air - 60-65%.
There are several recipes for preparing a soil mix for growing tomatoes on a windowsill.
- Soddy soil, in equal proportion with peat and humus.
- Vermiculite - 1 part, compost and sod - 4 parts, you can add a little ash.
- Earth - 2 parts, peat, sand - 1 part each.
Land from the garden is recommended to pre-pour a solution of potassium permanganate in boiling water to destroy the infection and pests.
In the departments and shops for gardeners sold ready-mix soil. Their composition is optimally selected for tomatoes and peppers. Information on the composition of the soil and the plants for which it is suitable is indicated on the packaging.
Growing tomatoes on the windowsill
In addition to soil and packaging, you need to prepare the seed. There are two options for obtaining seedlings: seed and rooting cuttings. The second method of reproduction of tomatoes during cultivation and care on the window sill allows you to accelerate the yield by saving time for the forcing of seedlings. The lateral and apical shoots of tomatoes, for example, after pasynkovaniya, rooted in a glass of water or directly in the ground. Cuttings should be in a warm place without drafts, you can feed with suitable fertilizers.
Sowing and seed care
Sprouted tomato seeds are planted in cups of earth, 1 piece each, deepening by about 1 cm. It is not necessary to soak the seeds, then they are deepened into the soil by 2 cm, 2-3 pieces each. In this case, weak shoots will then need to be removed, leaving one germ per cup.
Tanks with seeds until germination cover with a film and placed in a warm place. Since it is not recommended to water the seedlings of tomatoes on the windowsill often, you need to wait for the topsoil to dry out. After the appearance of the first leaves of the film can be removed, the seedlings placed in a well-lit place.
How to properly care for tomatoes at home
Tomato seedlings are fertilized on day 20-21. To stimulate growth, before planting tomatoes in pots, the seedlings are “hardened”, slightly lowering the ambient temperature several times. A month after germination, the seedlings are transplanted to a permanent place.
The picking method is the most popular way of planting seedlings of tomatoes, peppers and a number of other crops. It lies in the fact that the central part of the root of a plant is shortened by about one third during transplantation, in order to allow the horse system to grow in width. At the same time, many varieties of miniature tomatoes do not need a picking, they are transplanted by the method of transshipment, without disturbing the earthen room and not touching the root system. Claydite drainage is poured into the pot for room tomatoes at 10-15% of the tank's depth. Then the container is filled with earth, a groove is made for the roots of the tomato, into which the plants are placed, adding on top of the earth. The bottom leaflets should end up 2-3 cm above ground level.
Watering and fertilizing tomatoes
Watering tomatoes in the winter on the window is carried out with warm water every 3-4 days, as the soil dries. Tomato feeding is carried out 3 times a month. If you water and fertilize tomatoes more often, you can get the effect of increasing the green parts, to the detriment of the yield and size of the fruit.
Treatment of homemade tomatoes from pests and diseases
With improper care, indoor tomatoes also suffer from pests and diseases. Late blight is the scourge of this culture. For its prevention it is necessary to observe the mode of watering, avoiding stagnation of water in the pot. Like other types of mold, it does not like fresh air. Regular airing of tomato bushes prevents the development of fungi. Experienced gardeners are preparing a remedy for late blight with their own hands:
• crushed garlic –100 ml, • potassium permanganate - 1 g, • water - 3 l.
Tomatoes are sprayed with this compound for prophylaxis. Increased soil acidity is undesirable. It can be lowered by adding 20 g of ash to 1 liter of water for watering.
Homemade Tomatoes: Harvesting from the Window Sill
During flowering shrubs shake to help tomatoes in pollination. After the fruit has started, 4-6 brushes are left on each stem, the rest are removed. Pinch the top of the bush. If the ovary is too thick, the plant will not have enough strength, and the fruits will be too small. When the fruits begin to turn pink, they need to be plucked and left in the light for ripening, freeing up resources for the fruits remaining on the bush. With this method of harvesting it will be maximum.