- How to prepare the onion sets for planting
- How to soak onions before planting
- How deep to plant onions in spring
Important rules for preplant preparation of onion sets when growing turnip onions:
Check the quality of onion sets
Sevok need to sort and remove the dried, diseased and affected onions. At the same time it is sorted by size. First large onions are planted, then medium and small ones. This is done for uniform shoots.
Warming onion sets
A few weeks before planting, sevok should be heated, which will help avoid marksmanship. This is especially true for purchase purchased, if you do not know the storage conditions. Its sevok, having a large size and stored at low temperatures, also need to warm up. To warm up, sevkah are scattered around a warm battery or carried out on warm spring days in the sun.
We process onion sets from diseases and pests
For 3-4 hours, sevok is soaked in saline. Cooking salt 1 tbsp. spoon with a hill dissolved in one liter of warm water and immerse the bulbs in the solution. So that they do not float, the bulbs can be pre-poured into a nylon stocking or gauze bag. After the salt bath, sevka needs to be rinsed well with clean water, changing the water several times. Some gardeners use a stronger saline solution (a pack of salt for half a bucket of water), but in any case, be sure to wash off the excess salt well. Salt has a detrimental effect on the eggs of onion flies, ticks, thrips. To some extent, this is prevention from diseases.
Washed onion sets are soaked again for a couple of hours in a dark solution of potassium permanganate for diseases, because onions are prone to fungal infections. After 2 hours, sevok again washed with water and slightly ventilated from excess water. Sevok ready for landing. Instead of potassium permanganate, such chemicals as copper sulphate, copper oxychloride are also suitable.
If necessary, sevka can be soaked for stimulation of the roots in a solution of epine, zircon, humate, in a solution of mineral fertilizers. But the onion itself has a large supply of food and does not need such additional treatments.
All bulbs will need to be reviewed. If it is rotted, with a cut or a sign of mold, it should be thrown away and only good sowed should be sown. Now you can cook onion sets for sowing.
Drying is done in 2 stages:
- From 14 to 21 days, the seed must be decomposed and kept in a room where the air temperature is +20 ° C. Sevok, which is purchased on the market, from a neighbor, etc., is surely warmed up like that. Its only in the event that he was lying in the cellar or basement where the temperature is lower.
- Now, 8 or a maximum of 10 hours. Onions should be kept at a temperature from +30 ° C to +40 ° C. It is impossible not to dry longer.
"Important! Dry sevok so that he, with the growth on the garden did not release the arrow. "
When the owner can not dry out, he acts differently. He pours hot water into the dishes and throws the onions in there and leaves them there for 2 minutes. Water drains and fills with cold, keeping them there for another 60 s., Drains the liquid.
The fact that seedlings are processed before planting will cause them to grow faster. Gardeners use such means that activate growth:
If there is no special remedy, the talker is made independently according to this recipe:
- for 15 min soak the seedling in water, the average temperature of which is +45 ° C, and hot is not recommended,
- bulbs dipped for 10 min. into the water where the ice was dissolved
- from 4 to 6 hours onions are soaked in the fertilizer that suits him and is the owner. Doses for the aqueous solution are taken from the instructions.
When the onions are processed, with high probability he is not afraid of the onion fly. This is the worst pest for any onion.
Gardeners often forget about this method of protection against onion flies, but in vain. They may not have enough or feel sorry for the time for the procedure, but it is not superfluous, and will help preserve the harvest. The owner must remember that the efforts to process the seed are inevitable and will not be superfluous at all.
The bad thing is that if onions handle chemical. means, when it grows, it absorbs some of the substances and they will remain in the bulbs. If you process the bulbs before planting, they are these chemical. substances do not absorb. This means that the product will grow more environmentally friendly and tasty.
Now on the market in a specialty store, you can buy a lot of funds that scare onion flies. All chemicals are more or less toxic.
A folk remedy that has been tested by many gardeners is a saline solution. On a bucket of liquid you need only 3 items. L. rock salt. It is dissolved in water and soaked in it sets for 24 hours.
Onions will grow the same tasty, but the onion fly will not take it. She does not like salt and will not eat such seeds.
If the owner for some reason does not want to soak the onion in saline, it can be soaked in hot water. The temperature should be from +50 ° C to +60 ° C, but no more. Now the onions are dried and can be safely planted in the garden.
On the treatment of seed from diseases
Following the instructions, the owner makes a suitable water solution with fertilizer. The procedure is simple, but thanks to her the bow will become stronger and will grow more actively until maturation in the ground.
Sevok need to be processed so that he does not get a fungus. Most often it is placed in an aqueous solution of copper sulphate. On the bucket requires only 1 tsp.
After that, you can proceed directly to the process of treatment against fungal diseases. An excellent proven tool for these purposes is copper sulphate (1 tsp. On a bucket of water) in which onions are placed. After processing, it is well washed with clean water and dried.
"Important! After treatment, the fungus will not only be well protected from the disease from the disease, but it will also rise much better. ”
How to prepare the bow so that it does not go into the arrow
Preparation of onions for planting involves several stages, each of which is very important:
- Sort and check the quality of the bulbs.
- Warming up
- Soak and disinfect.
- Washing and airing after disinfection.
Since planting this vegetable crop for gardeners is a serious and responsible matter, then we should stop at the consideration of each stage of preparation in more detail.
At the very beginning, 3 weeks before planting, it is desirable to assess the quality of the material prepared for it. To do this, you need to carefully sort it out, inspect, and remove the sick, withered and rotten onions.
Then you should sort the bulbs by size. This is done in order to first plant large heads, because they germinate more slowly and are more used for cutting green feathers and growing seeds. Medium-sized bulbs are planted secondarily, and small bulbs - at the very last. It is known that the smaller the bulbs, the faster they germinate and give the best yield in good soil.
Then, dried onions, in order to avoid early formation of arrows, it is necessary to warm up well, scattering around the battery. On warm spring days, onions can be heated under the warm sunshine.
It is recommended to warm the onions for the first 15 days at a temperature not lower than + 20 degrees, and then for 8-10 hours to warm the onions at a temperature of up to 40 degrees. During the last warm-up, it is important to keep track of time, not to overdo it and not to overheat the onions.
This is followed by a procedure for soaking and hardening the future crop. To do this, the onions are soaked in water with a temperature of plus forty - plus fifty degrees for 15 minutes, and then soaked in cool water for the same amount of time. Then you can put onions for 5-6 hours in a solution of mineral fertilizers.
Pest and disease treatment
But the most important goal of the process of soaking an onion set before planting is, of course, its disinfection, the destruction of pests and the prevention of diseases during crop growth.
Onions can be disinfected in this way:
- soak for 2-3 hours in a weak solution of salt, prepared at the rate of 2 tablespoons per 2 liters of water,
- soak for about two hours in a dark solution of potassium permanganate.
After each soaking, the bulbs should be washed in clean water.
Also for disinfection is very well suited the old proven and effective way - soaking in a solution of copper sulphate, prepared at the rate of 30 grams per 10 liters of water. The bulbs should be kept in this solution for about two hours and then rinsed with water.
Soaking onion sets in saline salt has a detrimental effect on pests such as onions, thrips and mites. A solution of potassium permanganate perfectly destroys the spores of fungi, thereby preventing the fungal infection of the bulbs.
Instead of potassium permanganate for disinfecting bulbs, other chemicals used in garden shops (copper oxychloride, etc.) are also widely used.
Often, to stimulate root growth, the bulbs are soaked in various growth stimulating solutions. More common here are solutions of humate and zircon.
At the end of the soaking and disinfection stage, the onions are always washed, dried and aired. Only after that you can begin his landing.
Onions are usually planted in the soil, waiting for the earth to warm up to plus 15 degrees. But also to delay with planting onions is also not recommended.
Video on the preparation of onion seeding for planting
Selection of planting material, preparation
It must be remembered that the conscientious and painstaking observance of all the rules of preparation of the onion sets for planting will ensure its abundant and rapid growth, and as a result, gardeners will be pleased with a rich and high-quality harvest!
Do I need to cook onion seeds before planting in open ground
Seasoned gardeners recall the times when they were not even talking about preparing onions for planting. It was believed that the onion - a plant enough unpretentious, does not require special attention. Was bypassed unless the bulkhead to remove damaged onions.
In addition, each stage of the preparatory process gives the planting material preferential qualities:
- growth promotion
- destruction of harmful bacteria by disinfection,
- strengthening immunity (resistance to a number of diseases and pests),
- turnip rotting warning,
- increase resistance to weather disasters.
Lifting a generous onion crop is not only dependent on proper care. The lion's share of success depends on the quality of the set-up preparation for disembarkation.
How to do preseeding treatment of sevka in spring
It is possible to strengthen the immunity of the seed for resistance to pests and diseases. by soaking. There are a lot of prescriptions for solutions for presowing procedure, you can easily make and choose a convenient option.
Among the popular components:
- potassium permanganate,
- copper sulphate,
- baking soda,
- Birch tar.
The main enemy of the bow is onion fly. To prevent its invasion of the beds will help treatment of sevka salt solution. The same way will save culture from thrips and ticks.
And in the fight against fungal spores has proven itself potassium permanganate. Soaking in a weak solution will help destroy the microorganisms on the planting material, the main thing in time to drain the solution.
For fast growth, various growth promoters are used. Pre-treatment accelerates the germination of shoots for 3-6 days. Among the effective means - solutions of zircon and humate, "Energen".
From pests and diseases
Sevok for planting purchased or used your own, grown from the seeds of chernushki. It is impossible to visually determine the presence or absence of fungal spores and other harmful bacteria in it, therefore it is recommended decontamination procedure.
There are a lot of drugs and various means capable of coping with this task. Each of them has its advantages and disadvantages, which must be taken into account before use.
Many gardeners use the old proven method of processing planting material - soaked it in a weak solution of potassium permanganate for 20-25 minutes. Another method involves the use of nitrate (2-3 grams), which is diluted in a bucket of warm water.
Improve immunity and get rid of harmful bacteria will help ordinary salt. In a bucket of water, 5-6 tablespoons of salt are diluted, after which the sets are dipped for 4-5 hours. Slightly less concentrated salt water is poured over the soil under the beds for the purpose of disinfection.
Onions will protect against fungal infections drug treatment Phytosporin. In a bucket of water diluted 35 grams. Phytosporine and immersed in liquid prepared heads for 20-30 minutes.
To stimulate growth
To sevok quickly grew and gave a good harvest before planting, it is recommended to process it with growth stimulants. The most affordable and popular way is to use wood ashrich in potassium and natural antiseptics.
Procedure in addition to accelerating growth prevents rotting material in the ground. Need to dilute in 5 liters of water 250 grams. ash, then immersed in a solution of the bulbs for 10 minutes. Next, for 2-3 hours you need to dry them.
Effectively copes with the task of the drug Epin-Extra. In the heated water to 50 degrees add 1 capsule. Soaking heads is 10-15 minutes. You can also use other tools: Biostim, Silk. The solution is prepared in the proportions indicated in the instructions.
To reduce arrowhead
Warming up necessary to prevent early arrow formation. Some gardeners perform the procedure in the sun (at a temperature not lower than 20 degrees).
Others send sevok (in a cardboard box) to the battery, where under the influence of heat no more than 40 degrees planting material is kept for about 10 hours. It is important not to overdo onions and overheat.
If there is no time for warming up, and the landing time has already arrived, you can pour onions of a small hatch with hot water (about 50 degrees) for 15 minutes, after which you must pour cold water. Such express processing will not completely eliminate the release of arrows, but will significantly delay the time of their formation.
When soaking is recommended to immerse the onion in the solution in the grid. On top of it you need to lay out a small weighting agent, so that the sevok does not pop up. It is impossible to use too heavy objects, as they will damage the integrity of the heads, which will spoil the planting material.
Preparation before processing
The preparatory process consists of the following steps:
- sorting of planting material
- warming up
- soaking and disinfection,
When sorting, it is important not only to remove the damaged onions, but also to sort the material suitable for planting. in size.
Large turnips are planted first on the beds, after them medium ones are sent to the soil, and the smallest ones germinate the fastest, so their turn is the last.
Sort onions by size before planting
Planting on the beds of the seams of approximately the same diameter is ensured uniform development of seedlings and forcing pen. In turn, the roots will be formed of approximately the same size, which is convenient for subsequent storage.
After soaking procedures, it is important to wash the chains in clean water, changing it 2-3 times. Few people mention this fact, and inexperienced gardeners miss this stage.
Do I need to trim the tip of the onion stub before planting
For large plantations, this is difficult to cut due to large volumes. Head tops removal accelerates the germination of the shoot and creates favorable conditions for a good growing season.
In addition, the correct pruning makes the soaking procedure more efficient, it is much easier for the solution to penetrate between the head flakes. Careful preparation virtually eliminates unpleasant surprises during the cultivation of bulbous culture.
When performing trimming, do not remove too large a fragment of the top. This will cause the planting material to rot, or it will not allow the onion to release greens.
Trimming the top of the set makes the soaking procedure more efficient.
Methods of preplanting onion cutting
When growing onions on a feather with large heads 1/3 of the top cut off. This makes it easy to extract the green when it reaches the desired height. If the goal of agrotechnology is to obtain a root crop, then it is worth cutting off only the tail, not hitting the white skin.
Some varieties (for example, Msergey) are cut on both sides: and the top and bottom. This is done to accelerate growth and the rapid formation of the root system. Such a manipulation gives the result literally the next day, when the process of growing the shoot begins. On the dry bottom, the roots are formed much later.
Having weighed the pros and cons of setting up the planting for planting, we can confidently state the fact that these procedures are necessary. The cost of time and money will require a minimum, and the quality of the bulbs and the entire crop increases significantly.
In addition, it is possible to develop your own recipes for processing planting material, to share them and the results of use with all gardeners. Если целью выращивания ставится получение пера (зелени), то подготовка чаще ограничивается лишь сортировкой.
Зачем готовить лук-севок к посадке
Для тех, кто не знает, лук-севок – это однолетние небольшие луковицы, которые были выращены из семян. Their landing in the ground is made only in the spring. And by the end of the season they get an excellent harvest of onions.
This method of planting is used mainly for spicy varieties of spicy vegetables that are stored longer. On sandy soils in general it is impossible to get a full-fledged onion crop in any other way, in this case only onion sets are going to be planted.
Due to the fact that sevok contains a supply of moisture and nutrients in the bulbs, it requires more rare irrigation and additional feeding than when grown from seeds. The root system of such onions will be more powerful, and the scales have a high density, which contributes to long-term storage.
Planting sevok immediately after purchase can not. First, the bulbs are well dried. To do this, lay out the onions in a thin warm layer in a warm, dry room.
Attention! It is impossible to place sevka on the battery or a heater for drying!
If you harvested onion sets yourself, you need to prepare it more carefully. It should be stored at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. Before sowing the bulbs are heated in a room with a temperature of 30-40 degrees for 10 hours (this period of time can not be exceeded). This is done to enhance growth processes and accelerates subsequent rooting. Such a procedure at the same time prevents possible bracing.
Processing onions before planting
If your onion sets were properly stored, purchased at the company store, you are sure that it is not infected with anything and you are keeping the crop rotation - you can skip the soaking step. But in some situations one cannot do without such preparation.
Let us examine in more detail each method of processing onion sets. What he will give the gardener and how to apply it correctly.
The drug contains bacteria that inhibit the development of pathogenic microorganisms in the soil. Fitosporin is produced in the form of a dry powder, which is diluted before use in water according to the instructions. It is often used for preplant treatment of not only onions, but also other vegetable crops. Fitosporin does not help from pests and their larvae, but it will protect against such diseases as:
- bacterial rot,
- powdery mildew,
Dilution of the drug is necessary in the water, which is defended for at least a day, otherwise chlorine will kill the hay stick contained in herbal medicine. The beneficial bacterium is also sensitive to light, so it is best to treat with the drug in the evening, or in cloudy weather.
For soaking Fitosporin diluted at the rate of 10-20g per half liter of water. Sevok placed in the solution for 5-10 minutes. Instead of soaking, you can simply spray the bulbs with the prepared solution from a spray bottle and allow them to dry.
This treatment is carried out with the aim of disinfecting onion sets. The solution has a detrimental effect both on the spores of the fungus and on the pathogenic bacteria that are dangerous for many cultures. The method is affordable, cheap and effective, so it is still often used, despite the abundance of modern preparations for the disinfection of seeds and plants.
To kill all possible pathogens contained in the bulbs, apply the soaking of the material in the solution, which is prepared from 4g of potassium permanganate per 1 liter of warm water. In such a tub, the seams are kept for 2-3 hours, and then dried. This time is enough to reliably protect the vegetable from diseases and pests.
How to plant onion sets
Before planting onion sets, it is not enough to treat only the bulbs. Land also requires the necessary preparation. For an onion bed it is better to choose an open place well lit by sunlight. It is necessary to take into account the fact that this culture does not tolerate excess moisture at all, therefore, the lower the groundwater lies, the better.
Preparing the beds to do more in the fall. It is necessary to loosen the ground thoroughly and place peat, sand and fresh manure into it. If the soil is acidic, it is ground with dolomite flour or chalk to lower the pH to near neutral values. Sour earth will not allow the onions to assimilate nutrients normally and develop. In addition, in such a soil plants more easily fall ill with powdery mildew.
In the spring, fertilizers are no longer applied, otherwise the onions will release feathers, to the detriment of head growth. Land just loosened and immediately begin to land. Sevok planted on the ridge after the soil warms up completely. In the middle lane landing is possible not earlier than the beginning of May.
Too early planting dates will lead to the formation of an arrow to the detriment of the development of the bulb itself. But you can't be late with this event. In this case, the soil will significantly decrease the moisture content and, moreover, the onions may not have enough time for full ripening. Landing should take place no earlier than the ground warms up to +12 degrees.
The landing procedure itself consists of the following steps:
- Before the landing of sevka on the ridge line outlines. This will allow you to pre-calculate the amount of seed that will fit in this area.
- The bulbs are sorted into large and small ones; they must be planted separately, using their own planting pattern for each bulb size.
- Sevok, whose diameter does not exceed 1 cm, is planted at a distance of 4-5 cm from each other.
- For large onions, the landing distance is increased by 3 cm.
- Between the rows should be left 20-30cm to facilitate the care of plantings. In addition, dill can be planted between the rows.
- It is not worth deeply digging in the bulbs - this will negatively affect the germination process. They are simply stuck in the bottom of the ground and slightly pressed.
- After planting the land in the garden mulch.
If you do everything by the rules, the bulbs will have enough space for normal growth, they will not interfere with each other. Landings will be well ventilated, reducing the risk of disease. In this case, you can efficiently use the area of your garden. In a week, greens will begin to break through the mulch, after another 7-9 days, the mulching material can be removed.
The bed should be weeded regularly and thoroughly. Undesirable proximity to them will cause an excess of moisture in the soil, which can cause bulbs to rot. The first feeding is made 2 weeks after planting, using mullein infusion. The second time a bed is fertilized not earlier than in 3 weeks. Mineral fertilizers can be applied in the form of solutions, or dry. This is done 1 time per season.
In the first half of the growing season, the onions are watered 2 times a week if there is no rain. Since July, the plants are watered less often so as not to harm the bulbs, and 2-3 weeks before harvesting, watering is stopped altogether. After each watering the land must be loosened, facilitating access to the roots of oxygen. On the surface of the beds should not be hard peel. When the bulbs begin to fill, the ground from them should be a little otgresti.
Super solution for planting onion- sevka: video
If you follow all the rules of processing and planting onion sets, you will be able to get a decent harvest, which will supply you with vitamins throughout the winter. Eating onions protects the body from various infections, increases appetite, improves digestion. It is used not only for the preparation of various dishes, but also used in recipes of traditional medicine.
Other recipes for soaking bulbs
Consider various popular recipes:
- If the gardener decides to process the onion in potassium permanganate, then only 10 g will be required for 10 liters of liquid. The solution is made pink, weak. It perfectly disinfects the roots and will be a preventive measure so that some diseases will not develop.
- Help and saltpeter. At 70 liters of fluid requires only 1 tsp. In this solution, the seams are immersed for 20 or maximum 30 minutes. In order for the seed not to rot in the ground, it is treated with an aqueous solution of wood ash. At 10 liters. 0.5 kg of ash is required. You need to take the mesh, place the seedlings in it and dip into this solution, hold in it for half an hour. Now the onions are dried in a sunny place and can be planted.
Cooking seed before planting is troublesome, but when a gardener plants onions and about 90% grow successfully, it is sold, which is not too lazy, and has carried out preliminary preparation of seedlings. In well-fertilized soil onions grow medium and large, smooth and beautiful.
It will be juicy delicious in salads, first, second courses, cakes, which means that all the efforts for the care and preparation for planting were not in vain. Late onion varieties are stored for a long time in the basement or cellar. In winter, raw onion with garlic is the prevention of colds.
Preparation of onion sets for planting
We usually store our bow in a warm enough place. Onions, which are grown on an industrial scale, are more likely stored in cooler rooms. This contributes to the formation of arrows in the bulbs. The first thing you should do before planting is to warm the battery near the battery for at least three days. I usually laid it out two weeks before landing. Warming up at about 400 ° C helps prevent rifle marks.
Then we must sevok sorted into large, medium and small onion. At the same time remove all rotted and germinated. For further preparation, I lay it in gauze bags. This allows you to handle planting material in such a way that does not confuse varieties and sizes. 10-12 hours before planting, soak the onions in bags in a solution of mineral fertilizers. Take a tablespoon of nitroammofoski or complex fertilizer on a bucket of water. Then, put it, without washing, in a solution of antifungal drugs. I buy hom or oxy. We also take a tablespoon in a bucket of water and hold for 10 minutes. At the end we rinse with clean water and proceed to planting.
What are the dates of planting onion sets?
The earth should warm up to 120 ° C to a depth of about 10 cm. This happens in late April and early May. Do not delay. Since for a good growth at the initial stage, the bow requires a lot of moisture. The bed is pre-watered with a solution of copper sulphate. The proportion is the same: a tablespoon on a bucket of water. It will save the turnip from rot. Onions are responsive to the introduction of ash or lime, because they do not like acidic soils. But manure before planting should not be made.
Grooves on the beds do about 25 centimeters. Especially if you use flat cuts, more dense fit is not convenient for care. Plant should be so that the tip of the bulb peeking out. This will facilitate the germination of the plant.
Which onion set is better for planting?
Too large specimens are not beneficial because there will be too few of them in 1 kilogram, and it is unlikely to grow larger than the yield from the average planting material. I don't like small onions. I think that it is not convenient to plant it.
If you dwell on the varieties, then in recent years I prefer the golden eater and the red baron. The spool is well kept. And the red baron is best matured in the Black Earth from red bows.