Unlike most fruit crops, the pear is a fairly independent and flexible tree in its maintenance. Experienced gardeners experiment with it, turning it into shrubs, and beginner lovers rejoice in the annual harvest. For comparison, an apple tree bears fruit at best once every two years. However, it depends on the variety. Anyway, in order to enjoy delicious and fragrant pears, appropriate care is needed. The main activities include feeding pears in the spring, but for the full content it is necessary to provide a number of other procedures that will ensure an adequate level of care for the tree and its future fruits.
To ensure the normal growth and development of the pears, it is necessary to add the necessary additives to the soil during planting. The soil layer needs to be mixed with peat, manure and compost. At the bottom of the recess, in which it is planned to plant a pear, should be phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. It should be borne in mind that feeding a young pear in the spring in the form of mineral deposits should not be in direct contact with the roots. After six months, the near-stemming circle of the tree is dug up and also mixed with manure and peat. These components have a beneficial effect on the structure of the soil system, ensuring its protection for the winter. Next spring, melt water will saturate the earth, and the roots will receive useful trace elements.
Regular spring dressing
Further, spring fertilizers should include nitrogenous supplements, which during the growing season strengthen the tissues of the tree. Ammonium nitrogen compounds are most effective because they have a minimal washout ratio from the soil. Also useful and fertilizing pears in the spring with urea, which belongs to the mineral supplements. To prepare the solution, you will need 10 liters of water, in which 50 grams of urea must be dissolved. In some cases, you can use a spray of leaves, but in a small concentration to eliminate the possibility of burns. As a component that promotes the absorption of top dressing, you can use potassium sulfate. A good addition will be phosphorus, which accelerates the ripening of young shoots.
How to deal with acid soil?
On such a soil a pear can fully develop and bear fruit only if there is an adequate supply of calcium. For this, the ground under the tree must be lime. In addition, calcium deficiency is replenished by ash, which also contains phosphorus, potassium and magnesium. Moreover, such feeding of apples and pears in the spring has an important advantage - the substances arrive in a digestible form and in optimal ratios.
A sufficient amount of ash for pear is 4 cups per 1 m 2. The composition is scattered on the wet surface of the earth, but it is also possible to apply it on dry soil if watering is carried out immediately after top dressing. It is also important to take into account that excessive feeding of pears in the spring with calcium can negatively affect the absorption of potassium and magnesium. This is another confirmation of the need for moderate dosing of fertilizers and the mineral substances included in them.
How to feed?
The peculiarity of the pear lies in the deep position of the root system. This is the main difference, on the basis of which the feeding of apples and pears in the spring and autumn. In order for the fertilizer to penetrate to the level of pear roots, it is necessary to make small wells in the near-ground circle at a depth of about 30 cm. To do this, you can use a normal stake, brace or drill. The distance between the wells should be from 50 to 100 cm, depending on the age of the pear tree. They are filled with a mixture or solution with dressing.
Many gardeners and gardeners do differently. Even during planting, they implant narrow sections of pipes into a hole with a seedling, leaving their upper ends above the ground. In the future, these tubes are used to fill the liquid mixtures and solutions. However, feeding pears in the spring in this way is not always effective - for example, if it is necessary to use the same ash or dry preparation. In addition, the pipes can become clogged - and then this method of feeding the roots becomes completely useless.
Foliar fertilizers are also used for pears. But they should be resorted to only in cases where there is confidence in the lack of certain nutritional components. In addition, it is important to strictly observe the dose of fertilizer. For example, to enhance the supply of wood with nitrogen through foliar nutrition, you can make the same urea solution. The first time spraying should be performed a week after the completion of flowering, and then after 3-4 weeks. Foliar boron pear in the spring is also performed after flowering and during the ripening of the fruit. The composition for the solution of this microfertilizer includes 15 g of boron diluted in 10 liters of water.
In addition to feeding, the gardener should provide careful care for the pear and in other areas. For example, an important event in relation to adult trees (10-15 years) is spring clearance. It is necessary to regularly clean the surface of the old bark, because pests collect in its cracks, fungal polypores, moss, etc. are formed. Disposal of harmful insects and diseases can be considered as the primary care of the pear in spring. Top dressing also contributes to the prevention and general strengthening of the tree, but this is not enough.
Using metal scrapers and brushes will help make the bark smooth and clean. At the same time, all hollows, wounds and places with pogryzis must be cleaned and sanitized. This is done by copper sulphate, which is diluted in a ratio of 50 g per 5 l of water.
Saplings and young pear trees do not need this operation. But for adult specimens, pruning is obligatory, and it should be done before the foliage and sap flow are started. Upon reaching the age of two, the pear is cut at a distance of 0.5 m from the ground, which will contribute to the formation of shoots on the lower buds. By the way, regular feeding of the pear in the spring with nitrogen fertilizers begins from the same period. Moreover, it is a necessary condition both for the formation of the crown and for the support of development as a whole.
The main trunk can be shortened by a quarter of its length, while adjacent branches are cut off under the ring. To preserve the basis for the central trunk, the branches on the sides should be left, but no more than four. They should branch and move away from the stem at a 45-degree angle. Ovaries with shoots bend down, after which they can be left in a horizontal position. The remaining branches of the pear need to bend down and tie rods. This operation is repeated in a year. In the process of its implementation should take into account two rules. First, the growth of the main branches should not interfere with the processes of the second order. Secondly, the space inside the crown should not be excessively thick.
What to consider when feeding fruit trees
Plants, like all living things, need care: in top dressing, pruning, treatment. But you can not act on the same scheme in different periods, with different cultures, in different environmental conditions. Choosing the best way to fertilize garden trees, consider:
- the type and age of the fruit tree (in our case, apple or pear),
- soil type (clay, sandy, sandy, loamy, calcareous, peat, black earth),
- soil condition (structure, water capacity, pollution, fertility, exhaustion),
- climatic conditions (average annual temperatures, precipitation),
- fertilizer type (organic, mineral, microelements),
- the last feeding (when and how they fed, how and in what quantity fertilizers were applied).
Further, it is necessary to diagnose the lack of fertilizers (according to the appearance of the tree and the nature of the soil) and the top dressing plan, since different types of fertilizers are applied non-simultaneously or in different ways.
So, we are talking about spring feeding of apple and pear trees in the middle zone on common loamy, sandy and peaty soils. Any soil is depleted with active use, and therefore needs regular restoration. First, we define what types of fertilizers are used for feeding.
- Organic - bird droppings, rotted manure, compost, humus, peat mixtures, which in various proportions contain all the substances necessary for the plant (potassium, calcium, phosphorus, nitrogen, microelements). This type of fertilizer is preferred in small summer cottages, eliminates the use of mineral compounds.
- Mineral - nitrogenous (urea, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate), potash (potassium chloride, potassium sulfate, potassium salt), phosphoric (superphosphates), complex (nitrophos, ammophos, nitrophos) - for large gardens or in the absence of organic fertilizers. Apply sparingly, as most of them gradually increase the acidity of the soil.
- Trace elements - magnesium, boron, iron, molybdenum and others - contribute as needed.
- Bacterial supplements to improve the structure (nitragin, nitrobacterin, phosphorobacterin) - for poor, depleted, low-dispersed soils.
How to feed the apple trees in the spring
You should start feeding with the growing season, when the first leaves begin to bloom. You can use only root dressing with nitrogen-containing mixtures. Nitrogen fertilizers activate the ability to grow by stimulating vegetative processes. They are made at a distance of 50-60 cm from the trunk. This helps to quickly bring fertilizer to the overgrown root system, thereby increasing the efficiency of feeding.
Top dressing with yeast brew
Important! Any fertilizers are applied only to well-spilled soil and not under the root, but to the area of the circle of the trunk or in a specially prepared for this groove.
You can add to the trunk circle (calculation for 1 tree):
- Urea - 500-600 g., Diluted in 50 liters of water,
- Ammonium nitrate solution: 1 tbsp per 1 bucket of water,
- Nitroammofsk or superphosphate - 30 g,
- Compost or rotted horse manure - 5-6 buckets,
- Korovyak pour water in the ratio of 1: 3, insist 2 weeks. Before application, dilute 1 liter of mullein with 10 l of water,
- Chicken droppings infused similarly to mullein. Dilute with water 15 times before watering.
Attention! Dry fertilizer rash can only be on the threshold of the rainy season.
It is possible to increase the efficiency of the listed mixtures by adding 1 cup of ash per 10 liters.
An effective folk remedy to stimulate growth is a mixture of yeast, ash, manganese, manure and fresh grass:
- Prepare a yeast mash: 0.5 kg of yeast with 3 cups of sugar diluted in 9 liters of warm water. Cover with a cloth and insist week. Before use, dilute 0.5 l of yeast suspension to 10 l with water,
- A weak solution of potassium permanganate is added as a fungicidal fertilizer,
- The mixture of manure with grass in a 1: 1 ratio, pour 20 liters of water and insist for 2 weeks. The resulting concentrate is diluted 1: 5 with water.
Top dressing of a sapling after landing
Immediately after planting, care consists of systematic watering, loosening the soil and weeding. It is recommended, while there is no strong shading from the crown of a young tree, growing sideratov with subsequent incorporation into the soil. Good for this mustard and buckwheat. Clayey and sandy soils need to be dug up and added organic. Pristvolny circle should be regularly tied up with humus or compost, thereby improving the structure of the soil, enriching it with nutrients. Calcareous soils are beneficially affected by potash fertilizers.
Feed the apple tree in the first year of planting
The only option in the first year of fertilizer is mulching of the root circle with organic matter. The apple tree does not need separate supplements, as it has enough minerals in the planting pit and organic matter in mulch.
A feature of the columnar apple is the root system located close to the soil surface. To avoid injury, the mixture should be sprinkled or applied with watering.
Top dressing apple trees in spring
From the moment the snow melts, apple trees need fertilizers that help the flowering and formation of ovaries. Feeding should be carried out according to the scheme in 3 stages:
- before flowering,
- during flowering,
- after the end of the process.
Before flowering, rotted manure left from autumn is used. It should cover the soil within a radius of 1 meter from the trunk at the rate of 5-6 buckets per 1 tree. After opening the leaves, you can use foliar method of fertilizer. To do this, the crown and the trunk of the tree are sprayed with abundant urea solution.
Attention! Spraying can be carried out exclusively in the morning or in the evening.
It is impossible to carry out processing on a sunny day - direct sunlight will burn the treated leaves. You should also refrain from the procedure before rainy days, because the solution will be washed away.
In the absence of manure, you can prepare a solution for irrigation of 12 g of urea, 15 g of ammonium nitrate, diluted in 10 liters of water.
How to feed an apple tree during flowering? In the phase of budding for spraying, Epin's solution is favorable. It is prepared according to the following scheme: 1 ampoule (0.25 mg) for 5 l of water. Epin is a biostimulator with a pronounced anti-stress effect. Treated plants are more resistant to adverse conditions and produce 10-15% more fruit.
Important! Before spraying the whole crown, check the reaction on one branch. If within 1-2 days the appearance of the leaves is unchanged, you can carry out processing of the entire tree.
Spraying Zircon solution (4 drops per 1 liter of water), acting as a fungicide, will reduce susceptibility to diseases such as fusarium, bacteriosis, powdery mildew, phytophthora and others. Processing should be carried out at the beginning of budding and 14 days after the end of flowering.
The following composition can be used as irrigation (per 200 l of water):
- superphosphate - 1 kg,
- potassium sulfate - 800,
- urea - 500 g or 5 liters of bird droppings.
Insist for 7 days, water at the rate of 40 liters per tree.
Top dressing of apple trees in summer
Fertilizing apple trees in the summer helps to increase yields and improve the keeping quality of fruits. Weak or damaged trees should be fertilized immediately after the start of flowering, healthy plants - after the flowers fall.
The fruits begin to set at the end of May, increasing the need for sodium fertilizers. For 200 liters of water, take 1 kg of nitrophoska and 1 tbsp. sodium humate. Use the mixture immediately after cooking, 4 buckets per tree. During the fruiting period, you can make a solution of ash: 1 cup per 10 liters of water. So you can feed every 2 weeks, but a month before harvesting stop. Green fertilizer - an infusion for 3 weeks of green grass with water (1:10), will help the fruit to fill up.
In August, it is necessary to completely abandon nitrogen-containing fertilizers, increasing the norm of phosphorus and potassium. Potassium monophosphate in dry form is poured into a groove around the tree and plentifully filled with water.
By adhering to the proposed scheme, it is possible to ensure the trees proper development and obtain a tasty and healthy apple harvest.
Feeding adult trees
With the passage of time, the needs of wood for mineral and organic substances change. Minerals are used only in case of their deficiency (twisting or falling leaves). Organic solutions are prepared more concentrated. They should be poured into the wells 40-50 cm deep, done by scrap. To improve the delivery of substances to the roots, grooves are dug out, 40 cm deep and 30 cm wide. They lay dry fertilizer and powdered with earth.
Territorial features of apple feeding
Depending on the climatic conditions, the scheme and composition of fertilizers applied varies.
The Moscow Region is characterized by a moderate continental climate with a pronounced seasonality (warm summer, moderate winter). In the absence of prolonged dry and rainy periods, the standard fertilizer application scheme is well suited.
Care for the apple orchard in Siberia includes fertilizing fertilizers and mineral complexes. They compensate the tree for the lack of heat, lighting and other components that are scarce in a harsh climate. In such conditions, apple trees practically do not need watering, if only for a long time there is no dry weather. By winter, the near-stem circle is filled with humus or peat, with a layer of at least 20 cm. The layer should be increased gradually, increasing with each decrease in temperature, so that the plant can quietly go into “winter hibernation”.
In Siberia, fertilizers or fertilizing contribute in spring or autumn. In a prolonged dry period, you can also fertilize with nitrogen-containing mixtures. Organic fertilizers are used as supplemental feed. In this spring, preference is given to nitrogen-containing complexes, and in the fall - to the rest of the fertilizers. Good results are obtained by spraying the crown of the plant with micronutrient solutions.
Joint feeding for apples, pears, cherries and currants
For almost all fruit trees, the feeding pattern looks the same. Подкормка для яблонь и груш весной включает те же удобрения в виде суперфосфатов, селитры, мочевины и золы. Для вишни при приготовлении смесей следует придерживаться соотношения азот/фосфор/калий – 3:1:4.
В весенний период обязательна подкормка и плодово-ягодных кустарников. Для них подходят калийная селитра, мочевина с золой, навозный перегной.
The frequency of feeding in these crops coincides with the apple-tree pattern: during flowering, during fruit set, before wintering.
Attention! According to the advice of experienced gardeners, the trees and shrubs listed above should not be grown in the garden next to the apple trees. This will lead to growth inhibition and lack of harvest.
Summing up, we can say that feeding the apple trees directly affects the quality and quantity of the crop. It is necessary to strictly adhere to the fertilizer plan so that the nutrition is effective. Each dressing should be accompanied by abundant watering, and its composition should correspond to the vegetative state of the plant.
Is it necessary to feed a sapling in spring
Proper care of apple trees in the spring season means not only stopping the branches of trees, but also getting rid of harmful insects. Moreover, it is necessary to feed the apple trees.
To a large extent, fertilizer backfill plan determined by the type of soilin which a tree was planted. For example, if a gardener in the country has a good black soil, then in the first few years it is not necessary to apply mineral fertilizers.
At this springtime, it is better to try to provide apple and pear with abundant watering, fertilizer and freedom from the activity of weeds.
In the event that there is clay soil, it is necessary apply organic fertilizer from the time when the woody plant was planted. If no mistakes are made when feeding the apple orchard, the yield of seedlings should increase, resistance to diseases from the trees will increase.
The basic plan of feeding the apple orchard
The main source of nutrients for plant organisms are natural deposits of mineral components in the soil and water sources. And the apple tree looks for nutrients in a completely similar way.
However, in the spring time, when the fruit tree is marked with the inclusion in the active phase of foliage growth after the winter holidays, there is often a lack of mineral components. This results in need for additional feeding.
Sprinkle minerals is required in three steps. In the most general form, a plan for feeding an apple orchard can be represented as follows:
- the first action: is made before the beginning of the appearance of flowers until mid-March,
- second action: carried out during the flowering period until mid-April,
- Action three: produced until mid-May.
It should be understood that the aforementioned dates of fertilizer in the spring are pretty rough. It is necessary to specify the extreme time when it is necessary to fertilize, depending on the specific climatic and geographical conditions of the area in which the apple trees are located.
All three actions include feeding not only apple plantings, but also around apple soil in diameter up to a quarter of a meter. However here excessiveness should not be allowed: The introduction of excessive amounts of minerals is dangerous to the same extent as insufficient feeding of apple trees.
This rule is especially important for plantings of young apple trees: if there are too many mineral fertilizers, the gardener risks growing a large apple tree with an excessive number of branches, which are unlikely to have many fruits.
Now it is time to consider in more detail about the sequence of actions to feed the apple tree.
Top dressing of apple trees before the appearance of flowers
The first dose of mineral fertilizers should be taken before the onset of the time when leaves and flowers appear in the apple orchard. That is, you need to feed directly at the moment when the first signs of awakening appear in apple and pear trees.
This step is carried out exclusively root feeding. The nitrogen-containing components are mainly used because they are capable of activating the vegetation process in plantations.
The following substances are best suited as an initial spring fertilizer:
- Ammonium nitrate. Here it is necessary to take into account the age of the trees due to the fact that the introduction of this substance is determined by them: when there are mature plantings, it is required to add and stir 40 grams of ammonium nitrate to feed one plant in 10 liters of pure water. If the apple tree is relatively old, 20 grams of such a substance is enough. For pre-spring feeding, it is desirable to use this saltpeter with the presence of 35% nitrogen compounds. In this case, the percentage of the volume of nitrogen can be viewed on the packaging of fertilizer, written as a symbol N.
- Potassium sulphate. It is applied to not old and old plantings. For the preparation of top dressing apples need to stir in 5 liters of purified water to 5 grams of dry potassium sulfate.
- Ammonium sulfate. When the mineral substance is used simultaneously with the above nitrogen-containing components, it is used in a ratio of 15 grams of dry ammonium sulphate to 5 liters of pure water. In the case when this substance is the main means for feeding apple orchard, its weight must be increased so that it is used in a ratio of 25 grams of dry ammonium sulfate to 5 liters of pure water.
Fermenting solutions are included in the composition of the soil during its plowing.
Top dressing of apple trees during flowering
When the apple orchard flourishes, its soil must be re-enriched with the pathogens of the vegetation process, however, using different ratios of substances.
During the second step of mineral water apple It is desirable to use the following substances:
- Superphosphate. Used in the following ratio: 1 gram dry matter per 1 liter of purified water.
- Potassium sulphate. Used in this ratio: 6 grams of dry matter per 1 liter of purified water.
- Urea. Used in the following proportions: 50 grams of dry matter per 1 liter of purified water.
A single mature apple needs about 35 liters of mineralized aqueous solution. If we talk about a young tree, then approximately 17.5 liters of mineralized aqueous solution will suffice.
Organic matter is also used as a nutrient during flowering. If a person does not know how to feed the apple trees in the spring, then you can act as specialists in gardening. Professionals use the waste of ruminants and birds: manure and chicken droppings.
The amount of manure required is required to apply in this ratio: 5 kg of manure per 10 liters of treated water for a treated area of 1 sq. M. m
The main advantage of this mixture is that it not only provides apple and pear with nutrients, but also improves the quality of the treated soil. That is, the solution makes the soil with excessive clay content less clay, and compaction gives a very sandy soil.
Litter that has accumulated in the hen house is required to be applied in this ratio: 2 kg of litter per 1 liter of treated water for the land area being treated with a value of 1 square meter. m. The soil must be fertilized immediately after preparation of the mixture.
Top dressing after flowering stops
The third step of feeding begins when the apple flowers are no longer visible in the garden. During this period, fruit trees gradually begin to form fruits.
What to feed the apple in the spring after ottsvetaniya? For the purpose of feeding the tree in need of nutrition, the following substances are used:
- A solution of nitrophoska and dry sodium humate. The volume content of nitrophoska should be 50 grams, and dried sodium humate only 1 gram. The two components are in turn mixed in a ten-liter container with clean water. The root system of the tree should be watered with a solution of two or three buckets.
- Green fertilizer weight. To prepare green mass for fertilizer, you need to take a large container with freshly cut grass. Further, it is required to pour clean water into it in a ratio of 1:10. Then the container is covered with a polyethylene film with pre-made perforations. In the end, it only remains to wait until the green mixture is well settled.
The third step when feeding can affect both the root system and the external filling of mineral substances in the apple and pear orchard. This is done to ensure that apple trees take additional nutrients through existing foliage. External sleep of mineral elements it is recommended to produce early in the morning.
Thus, we found out how to fertilize apple trees in spring. We also learned that spring dressing of apples and pears is not so difficult as it seemed at first. Although it is necessary to apply a little effort to feed the apple trees in the spring, the yield of fruit trees nevertheless increases well.
If you use the above recommendations on the planning of feeding procedures, you can guarantee accelerated development their apple seedlings, which ultimately will lead to the collection of tasty and healthy fruits for the body.
Feeding periods and age characteristics of apple / pear
Fruit trees need periodic “help” in the form of various nutrients that stimulate the growth of the tree and protect it from various pests. So, apple / pears are usually fed 3-4 times a year. It should be noted that fertilizing should be not only the root (when the fertilizer is laid under the trunk), but also foliar (spraying the crown).
As for the time intervals, the fertilization periods can be divided into the following steps:
- Spring. In the spring season, feeding should begin to be made by about the middle of the season (April). Before fertilizing, be sure to cut the dry branches, because they will take away from the growing tree of the introduced microelements that are so necessary for him. The following dressing should be carried out immediately after the beginning of the active flowering of the tree. And finally, the last, when the tree fades. It is also important to remember and foliar top dressing tree. Spraying should not be carried out too often: 2-3 times per year is enough. First spraying is carried out before flowering. The next two are closer to summer, and the time interval between the last two should not be less than 3 weeks.
Similar to apple trees, pears have similar age periods throughout vegetative growth. In the first period there is a rapid growth of a young tree. Kolchatko at this time almost no (weak gains). During the second period, growth is observed, but not so active as in the first period. Gradually begin to appear collar. And, finally, in the last period, there is almost a full stop of growth and a rapid increase in the growth of the rings.
Council If you want the fruit trees in your garden to get the most out of the supplements you put in, you should make sure that they are worn in the right way. As you know, thin root processes are located underground at a distance of 0.5-0.6 m from the trunk. Therefore, root dressings should be introduced into the soil at that distance from the trunk (not less).
The first spring feeding should be carried out immediately after the tree begins to wake up from a winter sleep - when the first succulent leaves appear on the branches. The mixture must contain the greatest amount of nitrogen, which will contribute to the active growth of the fruit tree. So, you can choose to use one of the following substances: urea (about 0.5 kg), ammonium nitrate, humus.
When the flowering phase comes, you can start making "stimulants" that activate tree growth. Any of them should be diluted in water. The following are activators of apple growth per 10 liters of water:
- chicken manure - about 2 kg,
- slurry - about 5 kg,
- urea - about 250 g
Each fruit tree usually leaves about 3-4 buckets of useful mixture (already diluted with water).
In the period of the appearance of the fruit, the tree also needs nutritional supplements. For this case, perfect green organic fertilizer, which is prepared in advance. For its preparation will need green grass and water. The grass must be filled with water and covered with a film (be sure to make a few holes in it for air circulation). After 3 weeks the fertilizer will be ready.
Do not forget also foliar dressings. For this, ordinary urea, which needs to be sprinkled with the crown of a tree, is quite suitable. But this should be done only after the violent growth of greenery. Otherwise, the desired effect will not be achieved.
In the summer, you can pamper apple trees and pears with a variety of fertilizers. You can start with nitrogen, then go to potassium and potassium-phosphorus. The first dressing should not be made earlier than the second half of June. In July, it will be enough to spray the trees (especially if the summer turns out to be quite hot and dry).
If in your area in the summer there are frequent rains, use the root dressing. Apple and pear will be happy to nutritional potash and phosphate fertilizers.
Council In the hot summer period, it is desirable to give preference to foliar feeding. This will ensure the fastest and most effective saturation of the tree with nutrients. Spraying should be carried out either in the early morning or in the evening after sunset.
Usually in the fall, apples and pears are not fed with anything. You can finally sprinkle urea (no later than September) and, closer to winter, maintain the viability and immunity of the tree with a nutrient phosphate-potassium mixture. You can use the standard complex fertilizer for feeding the apple. It is also good to feed trees with calcium, to soil liming (if the ground is sufficiently acid). As you can see, taking care of apples / pears is quite simple. The main thing is to adhere to some rules and make feeding in a timely manner. Good luck!
Spring feeding of young seedlings
While the tree is not beginning to bear fruit, it does not really need fertilizer.
If, when planting a seedling, rotted manure, compost, ash, necessary mineral additives were added to the soil (for example, loam, potassium magnesia are added to sandy soils, and hydrated lime or dolomite flour is added to acidic soil), then the first 2-3 years of additional fertilizer is required.
Important: experienced gardeners do not recommend fertilizing mineral fertilizers in the pit to avoid direct contact with the roots, which can cause burns and death of the root system.
Excess fertilizer is as harmful as their deficiency.
When the tree is planted in a hurry, in unprepared land, spring dressing is necessary:
- humus or compost (3-5 kg / tree),
- ammonium nitrate (20 g),
- superphosphate (50-60 g),
- potassium salt (20 g).
Fertilizers can be applied dry (slightly mixed with soil, shed with water) and liquid (pour a small border around the fertilized area to keep the solution). They distribute the mixture within the boundaries of the circle around the trunk, departing 40-60 cm from the trunk. This is the case when it is better to underfeed than overfeed.
Annual spring dressing of apples and pears
The end of March - the beginning of April (before the spring pruning of old branches): along with the awakening of the trees, nitrogen-containing fertilizers are brought under the roots. It is nitrogen that starts the vegetation mechanism, stimulates the development of shoots and foliage. The most effective:
- ammonium nitrate 40 g / 10 l of water for adult trees, 20 g / 10 l - for young,
- potassium sulfate 5 g / 5 l of water,
- ammonium sulfate 25 g / 5 l of water.
The above ratios are given for the use of fertilizers separately. It is possible to apply the compositions in a complex way, but then it is necessary to reduce their concentration in the solution accordingly.
Recommended foliar feeding on the sheet (spraying) with a solution of urea 2 tbsp. spoons per 10 liters of water or ash diluted in water in a ratio of 1 cup / 2 liters of water. Irrigation is better with the full development of foliage, but before flowering.
The end of April - the beginning of May (the beginning of flowering): root top dressing around the crown perimeter with nitrogenous and complex fertilizers to form the ovaries. Preference is given to organic fertilizers. They are introduced by a uniform distribution within the borders of the crown for digging or in liquid form (depending on the weather). It:
- humus 4-6 buckets / wood,
- nitroammofosk 30-40 g,
- urea 300-400 g per 10 liters of water
- 100 g superphosphate + potassium sulfate 70 g per 10 l of water,
- chicken manure 1.5-2 l / 10 l of water,
- 5 l / 10 l slurry of water.
The middle - the end of May (the end of flowering and the formation of fruits): basal top dressing with organic, nitrogenous, phosphoric and complex fertilizers to improve fruiting.
- Nitrophoska 500 g + sodium humate 10 g per 100 l of water, 3-4 buckets under one tree,
- “Green” fertilizer (prepared in 3 weeks from cut grass filled with water. The infusion is closed with a film in which several holes are made for air flow, kept outside in the shade. The finished composition is diluted with water 1:10).
At this stage, micronutrient fertilizers and missing elements are introduced, based on the state of the plant, the appearance of the leaves and bound fruits.
If in short supply:
- азот – листики становятся мелкими, слабыми и бледными,
- фосфор ˜– окраска листьев тускло-зеленая с бронзовым или красноватым оттенком,
- калий – листва приобретает бледный голубовато-зеленый окрас, листы становятся вялыми, свисающими,
- кальция – листики белеют, закручиваются, осыпаются (цветочные завязи тоже опадают),
- магний – красная и желтая окраска листьев, но прожилки остаются зелеными,
- iron - discolored yellowing dying off foliage, slow growth of shoots,
- copper - pale green leaves with brown spots, sluggish, dying,
- zinc - leaves shrink, change shape, shrink.
In all cases, the growth of the branches slows down, the fruits become smaller, their taste changes, sometimes the shape changes. For the fastest absorption, the diseased plants are fed in a foliar way, irrigating the crown.
The amount of fertilizer is calculated in grams or liters per square meter. Dry mineral and organic fertilizers are scattered around the trunk within the perimeter of the crown and embedded in the soil by loosening or digging:
- compost, humus, rotted manure - 3-8 kg / m2.
- dry nitrogen fertilizers - 30-40 g / 1 m2.
- superphosphate 100 g / 1 m2
- potash fertilizers - 5-10 g / 1 m2,
- complex compositions - 70-80 g / 1 m2.
Liquid mixtures also contribute to the sub-zone, pouring into circular grooves located no closer than 50 cm from the tree trunk. A solution of mineral fertilizers should be of low concentration: on average 2-8 g / 1 l of water. Liquid organic mixtures are diluted 3-4 times with water, and bird droppings 10-20 times.
An adult apple or pear tree covers about 5-8 m2. Under the same tree poured 3-4 buckets feed mixture. When preparing a complex mixture of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium, the ratio of 3: 1: 4, respectively, must be adhered to, taking into account the percentage of the active compound in the fertilizer.
Processing apple trees in spring
What tree is very common in us for its fertility and the taste of the fruits themselves? Of course, this is an apple tree. Some species of apple trees live almost a hundred years. In order for apple trees to grow well and bear fruit, they need to provide proper care. Processing of apple trees in the spring is also a mandatory procedure.
- Spring pruning apple
- Treating apple trees from pests and diseases
- Spring dressing apple
Each apple must be prepared for the new season, and, therefore, to restore order in the area. To do this, they clean up all the rubbish around, clean the trees from the exfoliated old bark, as either pests or dangerous diseases often stay in these places.
Spring pruning apple
The apple tree must be pruned. This can be done not only in spring, but also in autumn, when there is no frost and the tree is at rest, having neither buds nor leaves. It is important to start cutting off the old diseased branches, and then shorten the skeletal branches. If pruning is rejuvenating, then it is better to shorten each branch by the length of the annual growth.
During the spring pruning take into account the fact that the growth, branching and fruiting of the apple depends on how the branches are located:
- The steeper the arrangement of the branches, the less they bear fruit,
- The erect branches grow most intensively, and since all the power goes into growth, they bear little fruit,
- The closer the branches are to the horizontal line, the more intensively the buds bloom on their upper parts and, as a result, they produce more fruit.
Before the pruning procedure, mummified fruits and leaves, covered with cobwebs, are collected from the autumn and burned. Tree bridges are cleared of dried bark, hollows are smeared with cement solution.
Thinning the crown improves solar illumination and ventilation of the tree, which is a prerequisite for increasing yields and improving the general condition of all fruit trees, including apple trees.
Treating apple trees from pests and diseases
After pruning, they start treating apples from various pests and diseases. It is better to carry out preventive measures to protect the garden in the spring, rather than deal with pests at the stage of fruit ripening, treating them with chemicals that fall into the apple. Such fruits cause the body more harm than good.
Prevention begins with spraying the crown of the tree on the buds of buds. It is desirable that during the procedure the temperature in the daytime was at least +3 degrees. For spraying, a solution of Bordeaux mixture is prepared: 250 g of quicklime is dissolved in 10 liters of cold water, and 250 g of copper sulfate is dissolved in 2.5 liters of warm water. Lime solution is filtered, and a solution of copper sulphate is poured into it. Thoroughly mixed and sprayed apple trees.
A good spring feed is mullein. The required amount of manure is 4-8 kg per 1 square. m of soil. With its regular use, you can improve soil structure. Sandy soils begin to retain moisture better, while clay soils become loose and lighter.
Bird droppings can be used dry or diluted with water. Before making dry bird droppings in the soil it must be crushed. If it is necessary to dilute with water, then the proportion should be as follows: 1 part of the litter to 15 parts of the liquid. The resulting solution should fertilize the garden immediately and not leave in reserve.
Compost is made from dry sawdust, leaves, and all kinds of waste. Thanks to organic matter, the earth is saturated with many of the plant’s essential nutrients, and its structure is changing: the soil becomes loose, leaks water better.
These include nitrogen-containing fertilizers: potassium sulphate, ammonium sulfate, and micronutrient fertilizers.
Each type contains a certain amount of the active element, which is usually indicated on the package in the form of symbols from the Periodic Table of the Periodic Table (for example, N is nitrogen, K is potassium). As a rule, minerals are partially digested by trees.
Nitrogen fertilizers affect yield. Make them necessary in early spring. With a lack of nitrogen will decrease the quality of the fruit. Apple enough 12 grams of this element per 1 square. m square. Ammonium nitrate contains up to 35 percent nitrogen. Fertilizing the soil, you need up to 30 g of this substance per 1 square. m. And if we want to fertilize a young garden with a liquid fertilizer, then only 20 g of saltpeter is enough for a bucket of water.
What to feed the apple and pear
- 1 When to fertilize fruit trees
- 2 Age periods of apple and pear
- 3 How to "feed" trees
- 4 Spring fertilizer
- 5 Summer and autumn fertilizer
- 6 And a little about the secrets of the author
- 7 Recommendations from our Readers
In order to harvest a rich harvest of juicy ripe apples in autumn, you need to take care of the trees all year round. As people and animals need food, so fruit trees need periodic feeding. It is not enough one watering, that the plant was reserved with forces for the birth of a crop. Minerals and elements that are lacking in the soil are needed. A proverb is very popular among gardeners: “There is no bad land - there are bad owners”.
Fertilizers for apple and pear need to be chosen carefully and deliberately. The health of the plant can affect not only the shortage of nutrients and minerals, but also their excess. Often, gardeners overdo it, filling the soil around apple trees with humus and filling it with mineral fertilizers. The plant can "get sick" and stop fruiting with a lack of only one or two of all the necessary trace elements.
When to fertilize fruit trees
Apple and pears are not sufficiently “fed” only in spring. Fertilizing trees should be made at least three times a year. Top dressing can be root and foliar. With root fertilizer, manure or a specially prepared solution is poured under the barrel so that all trace elements are absorbed into the soil and reach the root system. Foliar application - the usual spraying of the ground part of the tree.
Root nutrition is most needed in spring apple trees, it consists of 3 stages:
Some gardeners strongly recommend making the fourth recharge of apple trees. This should be done in the fall, after harvest. The consistency of the feed is determined by the weather: if it is rainy autumn, use dry food. If moisture is not enough - dilute the fertilizer with water.
Age periods of apple and pear
There are 3 stages of apple growth:
- Shrinking branches, increased growth of new tops and fruiting.
How to improve the yield?
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Of particular importance is fertilizer seedlings (the first 2 years). This will not only increase the growth of the tree, but also facilitate the wintering. Young seedlings suffer from frost. For the winter you need to flavor the soil with essential minerals. This will have a positive effect on the state of the plant not only in the winter, but also in the spring, during a period of violent growth. Some gardeners advise planting greenhouse siderats (annual lupine, clover, alfalfa, soybean, beans) near the trunk of young stock. They fix nitrogen and minerals underground in the roots of the tree.
Nutrient management rules
The old apple tree, which has ceased to rampantly bear fruit, also needs to be fed. This should be done only after you find out what it is missing. Often the plant itself indicates a lack of certain substances:
• With a lack of nitrogen fade and shrink the leaves,
Phosphorus deficiency is indicated by bronze foliage,
With a lack of iron, the leaves discolor and turn yellow,
Not enough calcium - young leaves twist and crumble,
The lack of copper is characterized by the appearance of dark spots on the foliage.
How to "feed" the trees
To activate the vegetative processes in fruit trees, in early spring fertilizers containing nitrogen are introduced into the soil.
The mixture should be applied to the soil near the trunk after loosening. Do not pour fertilizer under the trunk itself - it must be applied to the soil along the perimeter of the crown of an apple or pear tree. It is in these places that the suction tips of the roots are located.
For the first feeding the following substances are suitable:
- Urea (urea) - 600 g,
- Humus (cow dung, chicken manure) - 3-5 buckets,
- Ammonium nitrate - 30 g
For feeding during flowering a single adult pear or apple requires 40 liters of fertilizer. During this period, use the following means (per 10 liters of water):
- Urea (urea) - 300 g,
- Divorced cow dung - 5 liters
- Divorced chicken manure - 2 l,
- Superphosphate - 100 g
In the period of fruit pouring (after flowering) pears and apples are flavored with the help of:
- 150 g nitrophoska + 3 g dry sodium humate per 30 liters of water,
- "Green fertilizer", diluted in a ratio of 1:10.
Basic rules for nutrient input into the soil
During the fertilization of fruit trees in the spring should not be limited to the root dressing. Spraying the crown with urea fertilizes the plant and helps fight pests that appear in the spring. Such processing should be carried out only when the tree acquires foliage (it is responsible for the absorption of nutrients).
To make the proposed fertilizers, gardeners advise making furrows up to 50 cm deep in the ground. They are dug out along the perimeter of the tree crown. A particular feature are the columnar varieties of apple and pear trees. Their root system does not go deep into the soil, but is located practically on the surface of the earth. Gardeners do not advise digging furrows around them. It is better to scatter dry fertilizer on the soil and water the tree so that minerals and useful substances are absorbed into the ground with water.
All proposed options are designed for fertilizer of an adult developed tree. If you are caring for dwarf or columnar apple trees or pears, the amount of the mixture poured into the soil should be 30% less. When making urea, there are special rules. The younger the tree, the smaller the concentrate should be urea mixture.
Summer and autumn fertilizer
Do not be limited to fertilizing fruit trees only in spring. In the summer, it is necessary to cultivate plants not only with nitrogen-containing mixtures, but also with fertilizers containing potassium and phosphorus. Between fertilizer nitrogen and minerals, pause for at least 14 days.
Due to the lack of rain in June-July, experts advise to produce foliar feeding. Foliage will absorb all the substances needed by the tree within 2-3 days. The solution should be sprayed evenly over the entire crown. This is permissible to do only on dry days, it is advisable to carry out the procedure in the early morning or at the onset of twilight.
In autumn, the apple tree should be flavored with a potash-phosphorus mixture. This can be done after harvest. The mixture is prepared as follows: 1 tablespoon of potassium and 2 tablespoons of superphosphate in granules diluted in 10 liters of water. Feed with the calculation of 1 bucket of mixture per 1 square meter of soil.
Liquid fertilizer for apples and pears
For care and timely care, the garden will surely thank its owner with a rich harvest. Care for trees in spring, summer and autumn. Then they will easily survive the winter and continue to give you juicy ripe fruits.
Preparing an orchard for winter
And a little about the secrets of the author
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Attention, only TODAY!
- Choosing proper nutrition for seedlings in the autumn
- How to choose fertilizers for pears and apply them
- How to grow a pear from a sapling: planting, watering and fertilizing
- How to feed a young apple
Feeding a pear with what and when to feed a pear tree
Only the correct application of fertilizers replenishes the nutrient reserves of the tree and does not harm its health. Seasoned gardeners advised to make feeding regularly, which makes it possible to collect a stable crop.
Some gardeners do not fertilize under fruit trees if they are grown on fertile soil. This is fundamentally wrong! Each soil is depleted over time, the supply of nutrients is reduced. It is necessary to feed the tree, otherwise the lack of useful substances will affect fruiting.
On this basis, the first feeding of the pear must be done before it is planted. How? Before planting, seedlings spend tillage, make mineral fertilizers and dig up well. In the future, the introduction of nutrient mixtures carried out twice a season. As a rule, this is done in autumn and spring.
Why feed a pear in the fall?
Autumn feeding of fruit trees is carried out in the area of the tree trunk circle. It allows the tree to store all the necessary nutrients for a long winter. This dressing is done after harvest, when the leaves on the tree turned yellow by more than 30%. Young seedlings feed on another technology. Fertilizers make digging.
Important! Feeding trees begin with the second year of cultivation.
Young pears do not need additional nutrition if the pre-planting tillage was done, and the pit was filled with fertilizers according to all the rules. The supply of nutrients should be enough for a tree for two years.
How to feed a pear orchard in the fall?
In the autumn, fertilizing should saturate the tree before winter, but not cause rapid growth. Therefore, the use of nitrogen-containing mixtures during this period is contraindicated. As a rule, in autumn pears are fertilized with minerals. Of them prepare nutrient solutions that are watered wood.
The recipe of mineral dressing №1
• Potassium chloride - 1 tbsp. lt
• Superphosphate - 2 tbsp. lt
• Water - 10 liters.
All components are mixed in water, the finished solution is carried out watered pears.
Tip! Add 150 grams of ash per 1 square meter for autumn digging. m. soil. Pear is very responsive to such fertilizers.
In the autumn, fertilizing with complex mineral fertilizers is important.
The recipe of complex feeding №2
• Urea - 1 tbsp. lt
• Superphosphate - 2 tbsp. lt
• Phosphate flour - 1.5 tbsp. lt
• Potassium sulfate - 1 tbsp. lt
• Potassium chloride - 1 tbsp. lt
• Wood ash - 500 gr,
• Ammofosk - 3 tbsp. l
Experienced gardeners use peat and humus as an autumn dressing. Winter mulching of the tree trunk with organic matter not only preserves the root system of the tree, but also feeds it. The thickness of the mulch layer must be at least 15 cm.
At the end of the summer you can conduct foliar feeding trees. It will help the wood to mature well and lay new buds for future harvest. For these purposes, use of potassium and phosphorus.
Autumn feeding garden is very important but an oversupply of nutrients is just as harmful as their lack. All substances in mixtures need to be balanced. Calculation of fertilizers is done based on the area of nutrition and the root system of the tree. Saplings from 1 to 4 years old have a food area of not more than 5 square meters. м. У деревьев до 8 лет площадь увеличивается до 10 кв. м.
Как удобрять грушу весной?
С наступлением теплых деньков у садовода много задач. Проснувшиеся деревья нуждаются в дополнительном питании и пополнении запасов. В этот период удобрения вносят как в жидком, так и в гранулированном виде.
Если весна дождливая, то питательные вещества лучше внести под перековку. The granules are buried to a depth of no more than 10 cm. Dry weather conditions oblige the gardener to prepare nutrient solutions with which root and foliar dressings are carried out.
Spring dressings are carried out in several stages:
• before bud break,
At different stages of the development of the tree, he needs a different feed.
How to feed a pear in the spring?
The first dressing is carried out with nitrogen-containing fertilizers, which contribute to the active growth of young shoots. Well proven urea, nitrate, chicken droppings.
Recipes of the first spring dressings
1. 2 tbsp. l nitre diluted in 10 liters of water. The solution is used for root dressings of fruit trees.
2. 100 grams of urea is diluted in 5 liters of water. Nutrient mixture is designed for one tree.
3. 500 grams of chicken manure diluted in a bucket of warm water and allowed to stand for about a day. This solution is watered basal zone.
In the post-flowering period, the pear needs feedings that increase the quality of the fruit. During this period, apply green fertilizer, which is buried to a depth of 10 cm. In addition, it is useful to feed the tree with nitroammofoskoy. It is diluted with water in a ratio of 1: 200, i.e. 1 kg of the drug is needed for 200 liters of water. A pear is poured over with a solution at the rate of 3 buckets per tree.
When the fruit is tied, the pear is fertilized with phosphorus-potassium mixtures. The lack of these elements leads to the fact that the ovaries shrink, fall off, and the leaves lose their color. If the spring is cold, it is useful to spray, which have a positive effect on plants. The fact is that in cold, rainy weather, the roots no longer absorb nutrients from the soil. You can help the plant with foliar dressings.
Experienced Gardeners Tips
• It is necessary to add organic matter under a pear regularly, as a rule, it is done every three years.
• Do not apply different types of fertilizers at the same time. For each season developed their own feeding. If you do not adhere to this rule, you get a burn of the root system, which will lead to the death of the plant.
• When planting a pear seedling, only mineral fertilizers are put in a hole. Adding potassium or nitrogen drugs causes damage to the root system.
• Determine which element is missing a tree can be on its appearance.
• Underdeveloped and faded leaves tell about the lack of nitrogen.
• Excess nitrogen in the soil leads to a decrease in winter hardiness of the tree, poor aging of the bark.
• In mid-September, complete all supplements with the use of nitrogen preparations.
• Flower buds are not laid and flowering is late? This indicates a lack of phosphorus.
• Lack of potassium appears on the leaves, they quickly dry out and shrink.
• Leaf spotting indicates a lack of calcium in the soil. Under a pear regularly contribute ash.
• Ash solution is used as foliar fertilizing pears, which not only nourishes the tree, but also helps in the fight against harmful insects.
• Liquid organic fertilizers are used only after fermentation. Chicken droppings, manure insist at least 5 days.
No matter how useful fertilizing, their use is justified only if it is necessary. The main task of the gardener is to properly use fertilizers and apply them carefully. Excess nutrients lead to diseases and affect yield.