Linden flowers are used for ARVI (symptomatic treatment), sore throat, bronchitis, colds, with increased nervous excitability in adolescent patients and the elderly. Linden inflorescence extract is also used for mild digestive disorders and metabolic processes, for gastritis.
Outwardly, linden is used for burns, ulcers, inflammation of hemorrhoids, rheumatic and gouty pains in the joints, eczema, erysipelas, and furuncles.
Linden flowers are included in some fees.
As a medicine, an infusion of crushed flowers can be applied to children from birth, following the instructions for use.
In modern cosmetology, linden flowers and honey are used: honey masks and creams, poultices and compresses from a decoction of flowers are used to care for the skin of the face, rinse and bath - to strengthen the hair roots and with freckles. Linden flower essential oil is a part of some perfumery products.
Outwardly hot infusion of linden flowers in the form of poultices is recommended to eliminate facial and neck wrinkles. Steam bath with lime color is used for oily skin.
Linden bark was used by our ancestors for the manufacture of bast, walking on mats, matting, scouring pads.
Lime rich honey. Golden yellow lime honey, transparent and fragrant is considered one of the best among other varieties of honey. From a single middle-aged tree under favorable climatic conditions, bees produce from 15 to 30 kg of honey. 1 hectare of linden forest gives more than a ton of linden honey. Linden honey is produced in Bashkiria, in the Far East.
Linden wood is used in woodworking and furniture manufacturing. The linden is easily processed with a knife, therefore wooden houses are not built from it. Products from linden trees used in the decoration of the house (trim, interior doors, corners, baseboards, etc.), clapboard from linden sheathe baths and saunas. Linden is also appreciated for its "elasticity", the ability to bend without cracking. For example, for the manufacture of intricately curved carriage body parts, the craftsmen used lime.
Linden wood is an excellent ornamental material. It is very light, almost white, easy to process.
High acoustic qualities and beautiful tone of linden have found application in the production of musical instruments, in particular, guitar decks are made from linden.
The family of lime (lat. Tiliaceae) has about 45 genera and up to 700 species. Most of the genera live in tropical and subtropical regions of Asia, America, Africa and Australia, and only one genus - linden (lat. Tilia) - grows in the northern temperate latitudes, reaching 60-62 º s.
About 50 species of plants belong to the linden genus. In medicine, 2 types of linden are widely used:
- lime heart-shaped or small-leaved (lat. Tilia cordata Mill.)
- Linden broadleaf (lat. Tilia platyphyllos Scop.)
The linden is a deciduous tree, up to 30 m high with a sprawling spherical crown. The trunks of trees are powerful, reach a diameter of 80 cm, covered with dark bark with deep cracks. The leaves are alternate, on long thin petioles, heart-shaped, unequal, with a long sharpened tip, sharply serrated, dark green above, bluish-green below. The flowers are yellowish-white, fragrant, with a diameter of 10 mm, gathered in half-umbrellas, 3-15 pieces each. Bracts leathery, light green, oblong-lanceolate, almost half-fused with a common long peduncle. Linden blooms in June and July. Fruits - nuts 4-8 mm in diameter, spherical, felt-pubescent with woody or leathery shell.
The heart-shaped linden tree has smaller leaves and more flowers in the inflorescence than the broad-leaved, it blooms two weeks later and is more common. In addition, the pubescence on the lower side of the leaf, in the corners, where the lateral veins of the heart-shaped linden are reddish-yellow, and the broad-leaved linden is whitish.
Formula of linden flower: * CH5L5T (5) + (5) + (5) P (5).
The linden is common in the forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part of the CIS, in the Crimea, in the Caucasus, in the western foothills of the Urals, in Western Siberia, in the Voronezh and Lipetsk regions, in Bashkiria, Ukraine, Belarus and Moldova.
The tree grows on fertile soils in deciduous forests, forms forest plantations that are pure and mixed with other species. In large quantities is found in parks, in forest plantations, on the streets of settlements.
Preparation of raw materials
As a medicinal raw material in medicine, linden flowers (inflorescences) with bract (Tiliae flores) are used. Collection of inflorescences is carried out in dry weather from wild and cultivated trees at a time when most of the flowers have blossomed, and the other part is still in buds. You can not collect damaged by rust and pests inflorescences, as well as wet after rain or dew. Linden color is dried in well ventilated areas in attics, under canopies or in dryers, at a temperature not higher than 45 ° C. In the sun, raw materials can not be dried, because it loses its light yellow color. Drying should not be long.
In addition to flowers as a medicinal raw material, more buds, leaves and less often linden bark are harvested. Also used for medicinal purposes lime honey.
The buds are harvested in spring, in dry weather, otherwise they lose useful properties when dried. Dried buds in the open air or in dryers.
Bark harvested only by permission of forestry or gardeners in early spring before flowering, or in late autumn. Dried in the dryer.
Linden flowers contain flavonoids (kaempferol, akacetin, afzelin, kampferitrin, tilirozid, quercetin, gerbacetin, protoantocyanides), hesperidin and tiliacin glycosides, ascorbic acid and carotene, essential oil (up to 0.05%), asporbidic acid and carotene, essential oil (up to 0.05%), as a resultant, also, as a resultant, also, as a unit, is composed of the limit of the transient, which is composed of the limit, also consisting of the limit, also, in the same way, it is contained, also, it is contained, also, it is contained, also, it is contained, also, it is applied, and it is The flowers also contain tannins, saponins, phenolcarboxylic acids, polysaccharides, mucus, macro- and microelements.
Linden fruits contain up to 60% of fatty oil.
The leaves contain ascorbic acid, a lot of protein, carotene.
Bark and wood contain tannins, triterpene compound tiladin, oil (up to 8%).
Lime honey contains water (up to 20%), glucose (about 36%), levonosis (about 40%), fructose, vitamins, macro-microelements. Also, lime honey is characterized by a high content of maltose, about 6-8%.
Lipa has a diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, emollient, antipyretic, expectorant effect. Infusions of linden flowers delay mainly exudative phase of inflammation, contribute to an earlier separation of the inflammatory process from the surrounding tissue.
Preparations from linden blossoms increase diuresis, increase gastric acid secretion, increase bile formation and facilitate the flow of bile into the duodenum, have a mild sedative effect on the central nervous system, slightly reduce blood viscosity, accelerate the processes of regeneration and the formation of granulation tissue. Water extract from linden flowers, enhances the formation and secretion of protective mucus, which is advisable to use to restore the protective barriers of the upper respiratory tract.
The medicinal properties of linden flowers are associated with flavonoids - quercetin and kaempferol, which determine the anti-inflammatory effect. Tiliacin has phytoncidal activity, acts diaphoreticly.
Sugar of linden honey is easily absorbed by the body in its original form, without requiring energy expenditure. Maltose contained in the product has a beneficial effect on digestion.
Since linden preparations increase the function of the sweat glands, increase perspiration, which is largely due to the expansion of the superficial vessels of the skin, as well as some increase in heart rate, they can be included in the group of cardiovascular drugs.
Healing properties of linden
Linden flowers and leaves fine-leaved effective drug. In linden flowers, mucus, essential oil, glucoside, carotene and vitamin C are formed, and tannins and phytoncides (killing bacteria) form in the leaves.
Help from Wikipedia
Linden flowers contain an essential oil, the smell of which is caused by the presence of farnesol alcohol, hesperidin and tiliacin glycosides, saponins, tannins, carotene, ascorbic acid, sugars, bracts - mucus and tannins, fruits - fatty oil (in purified fruits - up to 58%) similar in quality to Provencal, and in taste to almond or peach, in the cortex there is triterpenoid tiliadin, in the leaves - carotene, ascorbic acid, mucus, over 12% of carbohydrates.
Lime blossom has anti-inflammatory, diaphoretic, sedative, antipyretic and diuretic effects. In medicine, it is used for colds as diaphoretic and antipyretic, as well as bactericidal for rinsing the mouth, pharynx.
Linden blossom (flowers and bracts) is used as a flavoring in the perfumery industry, in the production of cognacs and liqueurs, as well as a substitute for tea.
Linden tea - an infusion of dried flowers - used in folk and scientific medicine for inflammatory diseases of the respiratory system, tuberculosis, pyelonephritis, cystitis, urolithiasis, rheumatism, as antitussive, with migraine, epilepsy, flu and sore throat, parotitis and measles, atherosclerosis and sugar diabetes, with gastrointestinal colic, externally linden flowers are used to strengthen the hair, and chopped buds, leaves and flowers - as an emollient for compresses during furunculosis.
Linden inflorescences are harvested in large quantities (from one young tree growing on the edge, it is possible to collect 0.7-1.5 kg of fresh inflorescences,
As a diaphoretic agent, a lime blossom is used, mixed in half with raspberries for greater efficiency.
In folk medicine, lime blossom is used for:
- pain in the abdomen.
Linden tea has a healing effect. Photo: 2Tea.pro
Preparations of linden blossom mixed with sage are effective for measles, mumps, cramps and the presence of sand in the urine.
Linden fruit used externally (in powder form, or pounded in vinegar) for bleeding from wounds, nose, mouth, etc.
Tormented buds or leaves used as an emollient for boils.
Linden cambium (a layer between bast and wood) is recommended for burns.
Method of application of decoction from linden flowers: 20.0– 200.0 (one and a half tablespoon) of finely chopped flowers to boil in one glass of boiling water, leave for 20 minutes, strain and use inside 1-2 cups at night (as diaphoretic), for rinsing Add 5 grams of baking soda to a glass of broth.
Coal, produced from linden wood, is also used in folk and scientific medicine.
In folk medicine, charcoal is used in the form of powder for jaundice, diarrhea, flatulence and liver diseases. Powder should always be used freshly ground.
The method of application of coal from lime. For jaundice and diarrhea, simple charcoal should be taken one teaspoon 2 times a day with water.
Linden flowers - flores tiliae
Small-leaved linden (L. Heart-shaped) - tilia cordata mill.
Planimetus (l. Large leaf) - tilia platyphyllos scop.
Sem. Linden - tiliaceae
Other names: darling, urinal, lubnyak.
Both kinds - large deciduous trees up to 30 m high with a spreading crown.
Young branches covered with smooth, old - deeply cracked bark of gray-black color.
Leaves long-petiolate, rounded-heart-shaped, slightly unequal, with a long sharpened tip, with a serrate edge, dark green, bare at the top, bottom with tufts of hairs in branching veins.
Flowers fragrant, five-membered, with light yellow bracts, collected in cymoid umbellate inflorescences.
Fetus - spherical walnut (pyrenarium) (fig. 4.27.).
Blooms in June - July, the fruits ripen in August - September.
Large-leaved linden blooms 1-2 weeks earlier. Distinctive features of both types are shown in the table.
Whole raw materials
Inflorescences umbellate, consist of 5-15 (heart-shaped lindens) or 2-9 (flat-leaf lindens) flowers on elongated pedicels, sitting on common peduncle accreted in the lower part with the main vein of the bracts.
Flowers correct, 1-1.5 cm in diameter.
Cup of 5 oblong-ovate sepals, densely pubescent along the margin and on the inner side.
Corolla of 5 loose egg-shaped petals, longer than calyx.
Stamens numerous, fused in 5 bunches.
Pistil one with the upper globular ovary, densely covered with fluffy hairs. There are flower buds and unripe fruits.
Bract membranous, with a dense network of veins, up to 6 cm long and up to 1.5 cm wide, oblong-elliptical in shape with a blunt tip, cohesive in the lower half along the main vein with a peduncle.
Petal color whitish-yellow, sepals - greenish or yellowish gray, bracts light yellow or greenish yellow.
Smell weak, fragrant.
The taste is sweetish, slightly astringent, with a sensation of mucous.
A mixture of flowers, pedicels and pieces of bracts of various shapes ranging in size from 0.5 to 20 mm.
Petal color whitish-yellow, sepals - greenish or yellowish gray, bracts light yellow or greenish yellow.
Smell weak, fragrant.
Taste sweetish, slightly astringent, with a sensation of mucous.
When examining the bract from the surface, slightly convoluted epidermal cells are visible. The stoma is only on the lower side, oval, with 4–6 near-oriental cells (anomocytic type). The hairs are found mainly in the middle part of the bract, near the place where it grows together with the peduncle. The hairs are of two types: capitate - with a multicellular oval head on a short 1-3-cell stem and stellate, consisting of 3-7 long, tortuous cells, fused with bases. The mesophyll is very loose, such as aerenchyma, with drusen, prismatic calcium oxalate crystals, especially numerous near the veins. Petals and sepals are characterized by the presence of drusen calcium oxalate and the same hairs as on the bract. In addition, at the base of the sepals, on the inside, there are long, straight hairs, consisting of two parallel cells that have fused together with bases, and on the petals are forked hairs from two tortuous cells that have fused together. In the petals are visible large containers with mucus.
Harvesting and storage of raw materials
Stocking The collection is made only in dry weather, during flowering, when most of the flowers have blossomed, and the rest are still in buds. Collect the whole inflorescences together with the bract. Raw materials collected at a later date, when some of the flowers have already bloomed, when drying turns brown, crumbles strongly and becomes non-standard. Usually the collection of raw materials lasts about 10 days.
In addition to the official species of linden, the collection of inflorescences of other species is practically allowed: Tilia caucasica Rupr. - in the Caucasus, Tilia argentea Desf. - in the south-western regions of the European part of the country, Tilia sibirica Fisch. - in Western Siberia, Tilia amurensis Kom. - in the Far East.
Security measures. It is forbidden to cut and break branches, as well as to collect inflorescences from trees growing near apiaries.
Drying. Linden flowers are dried in ventilated areas or in attics in the shade. In the sun, raw materials are discolored. Due to the fragility of the axes of the inflorescences, it is better not to agitate it, but for drying it should be laid out in a thin layer (3-5 cm). When drying, the pleasant smell of flowers almost disappears. Drying is stopped when the flower stalks become brittle. Can be dried in dryers at a temperature not higher than 40-45 ° C.
Standardization. GF XI, vol. 2, Art. 12.
Storage. In a dark, dry room. In pharmacies - in closed boxes, in warehouses - in piles, bales. Raw materials are easily crushed, so care should be taken when storing. Shelf life 2 years.
Characteristics of linden tree
A linden tree is a beautiful and in many respects useful tree, whose height reaches 40 meters in some cases, referring to deciduous trees. The leaves are alternate, shaped like a heart, jagged, asymmetrical at the edges, pointed apically.
The diameter of the crown can be up to 5 meters, the crown itself is dense, giving a magnificent shade, perfectly amenable to molding.
Flowers have a fragrant aroma and valuable healing properties. In July, when it blooms, a buzz is constantly heard near it - the bees collect honey. Lime honey is considered to be one of the most valuable types of honey. The fruits are small nuts with one seed inside.
The root system is very powerful, penetrating far into the depths. Trees are considered fairly resistant to pests and diseases, they adapt well to environmental conditions, many species are tolerant to shade.
The described qualities allow using it in plantings created for decorative purposes.
Where does linden growthe soil improves there: its leaves rot very quickly, thus returning a large number of valuable elements contained in them to the soil.
American linden (black) (Tilia americana)
It lives in the east of North America, has a bark of black color, for which it received the second name. Height can be up to 40 meters. Крона имеет форму широкого овала, диаметр кроны достигает 22 метров. Побеги голые, зеленые или коричневые. Листья имеют форму широкого овала, иногда достигают 20 см в ширину.
Пик цветения выпадает на середину июля, цветки по 8-15 штук формируют соцветия, плодами являются круглые орешки без ребрышек, до 1 см в диаметре.
The tree is unpretentious to the soil and light, calmly applies to frost, and to drought, and to the wind. Growing in no hurry, for the year adds a height of 60 cm.
American linden is a good solution for alleys and parks, as well as for single plantings.
Decorative linden shapes:
Amur Lipa (Tilia amurensis)
The homeland of this species is the Far East. Loves mountain slopes and river valleys. Height of 25-30 meters, the diameter of the trunk reaches a meter. The bark has a reddish-brown color, an oval-shaped crown. Shoots pubescent.
The length of the heart-shaped oval leaves is 7 cm, in the spring they have a light green color and bright red stipules, in summer the green color darkens, in the autumn the leaves become light yellow.
It blooms closer to the beginning of August, depending on the temperature, flowering time may vary. Inflorescences have from 5 to 15 cream flowers. Fruits are elongated, smooth, slightly pubescent.
It is resistant to shade, frost, wind, loves wet soil. The exceptional qualities of Amur linden:
- abundant honey plant,
- value of tree species
- decorative value.
The first quarter of a century is slow, then it accelerates. Otherwise, it (according to the description and biological characteristics) resembles a small-leaved linden. On average, lives 300 years.
This species is protected by the state and banned for industrial logging in the Amur region, Khabarovsk and Perm region.
Felt linden (silver) (Tilia tomentosa)
Places of growth of this species - Asia Minor, Ukraine, the Balkans, Western Europe. Bred it also in the Baltic States and the Crimean-Caucasus region. He likes to coexist with ash, oak, maple.
In height can grow up to 30 meters. Her crown of the correct form, pyramidal, later - oval. The barrel has a regular cylindrical shape. The bark is dark gray, smooth to the touch, cracks appear later, shoots are pubescent, later the pubescence disappears.
The leaves are oval, pointed at the top, 7-8 cm long. Yellowing in autumn, they do not leave the tree for a long time.
A ten-day bloom occurs in the second half of July. Cream-colored fragrant flowers are collected in the half-umbrellas. Short-pointed nuts reach a length of 1 cm.
He loves the light, the shadow also tolerates easily, as well as drought. Loves dry, fresh soil, slow growth. The lifetime of this species is up to 200 years.
The tree has a decorative value, especially during the flowering period, it is good to plant trees, private ownership, alleys.
Ornamental varieties of felt linden two: "Varsaviensis" and "Brabant".
Linden - general description
Linden (Latin Tilia) is a tall (up to 30-40 m tall) deciduous tree with a thick spherical or cylindrical crown. It has a long lifespan - about 300 years. In folk medicine, sometimes can be called Lubnyak or urinals. The bark of the linden tree has a characteristic dark gray tint; in old trees along the trunk there are longitudinal cracks. The leaves have a rounded shape, pointed at the end, grow on thin long petioles, from above the surface of the leaf is dark green, from the bottom is light green with a bluish tinge.
Linden blooms in the first half of summer, by August the fruits begin to ripen. The flowers of the plant have a yellowish-white color, they are collected in inflorescences in the form of upward-facing half-umbrellas, have a pleasant aroma. The fruit is an oval nutlet with one or two seeds. Duration of flowering ranges from 1 week to 2-2.5 weeks (in forests). Lipa is widely used in medicine and is also used as a honey plant.
Linden - types and places of growth
In the world there are a large number of linden species. These are small-leaved linden, Japanese, large-leaved, Amur, common, Manchu, American (black), Caucasian, European, Siberian, felt (silver). In addition, each species is divided into several varieties, so the family Lime (Latin Tiliaceae) can be called one of the most common hardwood.
On the European territory of Russia, the most often is the small-leaved linden tree, otherwise called heart-shaped (Latin Tilia cordata). In addition, it grows in the Caucasus, the Crimea, Western Siberia and the southern regions of the Urals. It prefers fertile soils in shady broad-leaved forests, can form pure tracts, and can grow as part of a mixed forest. Does not tolerate excess moisture.
Description and characteristics
The tree is usually attributed to the family of fake. Lipa (Tilia) has several subspecies, one of the popular types of Tilia is Tilia Platyphyllos or broad-leaved linden. A tree is popularly called a chaber or urinal.
The tree is quite large, reaching a height of about 40 meters. The crown of Tilia platyphyllos is pyramid-shaped or dome-shaped, very thick. Every year the root system becomes more powerful and stronger. The trunk is straight, with a rather thin, light gray bark. As they grow older, the bark becomes brown, and the crust is covered with cracks. Branches Tillia velvety to the touch, an unusual brown-red hue.
The leaves of Tillia are of an unusual shape, they have a faintly shaped heart. Top slightly tapering. Leaf streaks are clearly visible. The color of the leaves is peculiar, the top is of a darker shade, the bottom is lighter by several tones. Young leaves have stipules of a reddish hue, as they grow older they disappear. On the inner side of the leaves slightly pubescent.
Flowering Tillia platyphyllos (linden broadleaf) begins in mid-summer. The tree blooms for a short time, not more than 10 days. The flowers of Tillia platyphyllos (large-leaved linden) exude a delicate aroma, mostly light yellow. Flowers are collected in inflorescences like an umbrella, only 5 pieces in one inflorescence. Large-leaved linden has the ability to bear fruit, fruit in the form of a lionfish with a small nut size inside.
The tree is frost-resistant, quickly grows. Fertile and good soil is preferred for growth. He is not afraid of shade, he feels good in shady places, but belongs to light-loving trees. In urban parks and squares well acclimatized. Seasonal pruning of linden does not bring large-leaved harm. The tree is considered to be a long-lived, it grows about 600 years. Many gardeners make linden haircuts, giving it a variety of shapes.
Large-leaved linden is found in many parts of Europe, in the southern and northern regions. On the territory of Ukraine and Russia is found almost everywhere. There are single instances, often linden grows in groups. You can meet linden broadleaf in the cliffs, on the mountain slopes, it gets along well with coniferous, deciduous trees.
Planting young seedlings
Before planting linden is necessary choose the right plot and ground. It should be remembered that the large-leaved linden belongs to light-loving trees, so it is better to choose the areas covered with sunlight. The soil can be any, but always drained. Suitable sandstone, flavored with humus.
When planting should take into account the large size of the tree, the site should be extensive.
The tree is unpretentious, but the life of a linden depends on the correct planting of the seedling. The most favorable period for planting linden seedlings is the autumn season. You can plant in the spring, but only after the cessation of frost. The plant may die from the cold.
The tree can be grown from seed, but in most cases lime grow from seedlings. Before boarding, it is recommended to prepare everything you need:
- dig a hole (50x50 cm),
- prepare drainage and soil mixture,
- prepare water for irrigation.
The recess for planting should be 50 cm in depth and width. At the bottom of the pit is recommended to pour drainage. Perfectly crushed stone, pebbles or small fragments of bricks. On the drainage pouring humus. The seedling is placed in the pit, the top is filled with soil mixture (turf, humus and sand in a ratio of 1: 2: 2).
When planting several seedlings, it is important to keep a distance between them. It is recommended to plant linden at a distance of 3-4 meters from each other.
After planting, seedlings are recommended to water plentifully. Pristvolnaya hole is required, so water will accumulate right at the rhizome.
Adults can endure a short drought. If the dry period is prolonged, the tall beauty should be watered regularly. For proper flowering and natural crown thickness, the tree must be regularly fed.
For these purposes, experienced gardeners recommend cook a mullein. The composition of the top dressing includes the majority of useful trace elements, it will accelerate the growth of lime. Based on a mullein (1 kg) with the addition of urea (15 g), ammonium nitrate (25 g) a mixture is prepared, which is diluted with 10 liters of water.
In autumn, the plant is fertilized with 15–20 g of nitroammophobia.
Proper and quick growth of a sapling slows down the presence of weeds. Parasite plants must be removed, preferably with a root. Simultaneously with weeding, the soil must be loosened to ensure the flow of oxygen to the roots. To loosen the soil should be regularly, 2-3 times per quarter.
Diseases and pests
Representative species tilia platyphyllos prone to various diseases. These include:
- perforated and black spot,
- white rot.
When spotting is found, it is necessary to destroy the fallen fruits and leaves. They are considered carriers of the infection. The infected tree is treated with a 1% solution of Bordeaux mixture. When diagnosing rot patient specimen treated with copper-containing drugs, in particular, copper sulfate.
The following parasites are dangerous for a tree:
- bed bugs
- pyramidal scoops
- gall mites,
- pipe beetles,
- peppered moths
- lilac hawk moths.
To get rid of pests using insecticides. Birds and rodents can harm the seedling. Mice and shrews can damage the roots, birds often damage the trunk.
European linden (Tilia europaea)
This species got its name from the place of growth: it lives in the territory of Western Europe. It grows to a height of 40 meters. Her crown is thick, tent-like. The trunk in diameter can be up to five meters, the bark is gray, covered with cracks.
The leaves are oval, heart-shaped, the top of the leaf is dark green, the bottom is greyish white.
It blooms in June for two weeks. Ribbed nuts, fruits ripen in August.
Differs in winter hardiness. Life expectancy is 150 years, although long-livers are found almost ten times older than this period.
Decorative species of European linden: split and vine-growing.
Caucasian linden (Tilia caucasica)
A common species mainly in the Caucasian and Crimean forests, is found in Asia Minor. In some cases, the tree reaches 40 meters in height, the trunk has a diameter of 2 meters. Crohn round or egg-shaped. Young sprouts have a reddish color.
The leaves are large, up to 15 cm, the upper part of the leaf has a dark green color, the lower part is gray, in the corners of the veins there are bunches of hairs.
Flowering time may be at the end of June or mid-July. The flowers are yellowish, abundant, fragrant, drooping inflorescences.
A heat-loving drought-tolerant tree, preferring, however, moist fertile soil, Caucasian linden grows faster than small-leaved, and lives up to 300 years.
The tree has a decorative value, used for gardening alleys.
Ornamental species: dark green and begoniole.
The species is common in the deciduous forests of the Crimea, and is a natural hybrid of the Caucasian and small-leaved linden.
The height of the tree is up to 20 meters. The krone is oval, dense. Branches wilted.
The leaves are 12-centimeter, oval, dark green from the outside and dull from the inside, in the corners of the veins tufts of brown hair.
Flowering time - the beginning of June, the duration - two weeks. Flowers have 3-7 pieces in inflorescence.
A young tree grows slowly, as it grows, growth accelerates.
It is resistant to frost and drought, easily tolerates shade.
Large-leaved linden - (Tilia platyphyllos Scop.)
Distributed in the forests of Europe, Ukraine, Moldova, the Caucasus. The trunk height of up to 35 meters, reaches a diameter of 6 meters. The crown is spreading, has the shape of a wide pyramid. Young shoots are brownish-red, pubescent, young - naked.
Oval 14-centimeter leaves fleecy, dark green on the outside, light from the inside, in the corners of the veins hairs.
Flowering occurs in July, the flowers are yellow or cream, from 2 to 5 pieces in the inflorescence. The fruit in the form of a nutlet, round, ribbed.
The tree grows quickly, the soil loves fertile. Moderately resistant to frost, gas.
Decorative species of large-leaved linden: golden, vine-growing, pyramidal, dissected-leaved.
Manchu Linden (Tilia mandshurica)
It grows in the southern regions of the Far East. The tree grows up to 20 meters. It is often multilateral, the bark is black, in cracks.
The crown of his has the shape of a wide oval. It has extremely large, up to 30 cm, leaves pubescent from the underside.
It blooms in July, bloom lasts about three weeks. Flowers 1-1.5 cm in diameter, powerful inflorescences, 8-12 flowers, drooping.
Densely pubescent nuts with a diameter of 1 cm ripen in August.
Very decorative tree with high frost resistance.
Small-leaved linden (heart-shaped) (Tilia cordata Mill)
It grows in the Crimean-Caucasus region, in the European part of Russia, as well as in Siberia, and Western Europe. Another name - Linden heart - received for the shape of the leaves.
It reaches 30 meters in height, the trunk is more than a meter in diameter, of cylindrical shape. The young bark is gray, smooth, the old darkens, becomes rough.
The diameter of the crown 10-15 meters.
The leaves are small (3-6 cm), heart-shaped, the upper part is green, shiny, lower - gray.
It blooms about two weeks in late June or early July. The flowers are small, yellow-white, in each inflorescence from 5 to 7 pieces. Fruits, round smooth nuts, ripen by August.
Extremely cold and drought-resistant tree, likes fertile light soil, however, it improves it.
It grows slowly at first, 30 cm per year. Used for planting along the alleys, in parks, good for single plantings and as a hedge.
Life expectancy is more than 500 years.
The small-leaved linden and large-leaved linden have much in common in their biological characteristics, however there are some differences:
- the leaves have a small leaf bloom two weeks earlier,
- small leaf blooms two weeks later
- the flowers of the large-leaved are larger, but their inflorescence is smaller,
- small-leaved less demanding on soil fertility and quality,
- krupnolistnaya better tolerates drought,
- krupnolistnaya more suitable for urban environments.
Linden (Tilia x vulgaris Hayne)
This species is a natural hybrid of small-leaved and large-leaved limes. According to its characteristics, it resembles the first one, but has some differences:
- blooms two weeks earlier than the small-leaved linden,
- grows faster
- more resistant to frost
- better city conditions
- leaves are larger, the crown is wider.
Siberian linden (Tilia sibirica)
It grows on the territory of Western Siberia, likes solitude, but sometimes forms “lime islands” in forests, the description of which mentions the presence of fir and aspen. Growth reaches 30-meter, at a trunk diameter 2 - 5 meters. The young bark is brown, with scales, the old one is dark, with cracks.
The leaves are small, up to 5 cm long, rounded, the top is green, the bottom is light, with hairs.
Flowering takes two weeks at the end of July. The flowers are white with yellowness, constitute a spherical ovary. Fruit - pear-shaped nut, having from 1 to 3 seeds, ripens in September.
He likes wet sod-podzolic soil with lime and light, tolerates shadow. Completely incompatible with wetlands. City conditions accepts favorably.
It grows slowly, refers to the long-lived: can live a thousand years.
Japanese linden (Tilia japonica)
It grows on the territory of East Asia, in deciduous subtropical forests. The height of the tree is up to 20 meters, the young bark is smooth, brown, old in the grooves, dark. The krone is highly located, has the oval form, compact.
The leaves are small, 5-7 cm, oval, often symmetrical, green outside, gray-gray inside with veins in the corners of the veins.
Flowering occurs in July or August for two weeks. The flowers are small (1 cm), collected in large numbers in drooping inflorescences.
Fruits - round smooth pubescent nuts - ripen by September.
Japanese linden grows slowly. It has frost resistance, it is exclusively a honey plant. Tea containing leaves of Japanese linden is very valuable.
It is impossible to put everything within the framework of one article that you should tell about linden - a wonderful and amazing tree, literally all parts of which benefit people. There are more than 40 varieties of it. The cultural linden, the species of which are described in this article, is selected and used for various purposes in urban plantings and private farms.
Lipa - healing properties
The healing properties of linden are successfully applied both in traditional and in official medicine. A wide range of its action is due to the chemical composition of flowers, which include glycosides, tannins, carotene and ascorbic acid (vitamins A and C), saponins, flavonoids, coumarin, and essential oils and trace elements.
Galenic compounds increase the secretion of gastric juice and bile, help to improve diuresis and have diaphoretic properties. Препараты на основе липового цвета способны мягко успокаивать нервную систему, а также оказывать противовоспалительное и жаропонижающее действие за счет наличия в составе биофлавоноидов. Помимо этого липовые настои ускоряют процессы регенерации кожных тканей.
Липа — лекарственные формы
В народной медицине применяются почти все части растения. Порошок из угля используется для лечения метеоризма и диареи при отравлениях и кишечных расстройствах. Деготь применяют в терапии кожных заболеваний. A decoction of bark is a folk remedy for the treatment of hemorrhoids, burns and gout. Lime buds and leaves in the form of a decoction or powder from freshly picked raw materials help with boils, burns, mastitis, ulcers. But most often for medicinal purposes, linden blossoms are used, from which decoctions and infusions are prepared. They are used for gargling, for colds, as a diaphoretic, as well as for headaches, rheumatism and migraines.
Lipa - recipes
Infusion of linden flowers is prepared at the rate of 3 tbsp. spoons of dry powdered lime (sold in a pharmacy) in a glass of hot water (200 ml). The mixture is heated in a water bath for 15 minutes, then closed with a lid and cooled. After cooling, the volume of the infusion should be brought back to 200 ml by adding boiled water. Take the infusion you need a hot glass 2-3 times a day. Shelf life in the refrigerator - no more than 2 days. It is an excellent diaphoretic, diuretic and antimicrobial agent.
Infusion for external use is prepared similarly, but using 6 tbsp. spoons of lime color in a glass of boiling water. This tool is intended for rinsing or compresses for oily skin.
Decoction of linden flowers is prepared from 20 g of lime blossom, boiled for 10 minutes in 200 ml of water.
In addition, the young leaves of linden can be added to salads, make soft drinks from them, and add lime color to tea. This will serve as a tonic and tonic.
Linden - contraindications
Linden is contraindicated only in the presence of an allergy to honey plants. In other cases, its use should be moderate in nature, since lime decoctions and infusions have a strong diaphoretic and diuretic properties. It is not recommended to use teas or other drinks from lime blossom often, and all the more constantly, in any case.
Linden inflorescences - "lime color" - used in the form of hot infusion as antipyretic and anti-inflammatory agent at
- respiratory and catarrhal diseases
- infectious diseases in children,
- cystitis, etc.
Infusion is also used as a bactericidal agent for rinsing the mouth and throat with sore throat.