Adam, sapphire or dragon tree - all these are the names of a single plant, in the botanical classification known as Paulownia of the same genus and family. It is a real leader among the hardwood for the growth rate, has high-quality wood. However, gardeners and landscape designers do not appreciate it. Paulownia is a tree with an incredibly exotic and beautiful view, especially during the flowering period. It is unpretentious in culture, it grows rapidly, but it is thermophilic. How to grow it from seeds, features of planting in the ground, the rules of care - all this you will find in the article.
The tree owes its sonorous and unusual name to a German scientist: botanist J. Zuccarini and medic F. Zibold. Having discovered and described the plant for the first time after a trip to Japan, they gave it a name in honor of the Queen of the Netherlands, Grand Duchess of Anna Anna Pavlovna. The homeland of the tree is Southeast Asia, Laos, Vietnam, Taiwan, in Russia it is found in its natural environment in the Far East. The genus includes four species, an imperial (or felt) variety has been introduced into landscape gardening culture.
Deciduous paulownia tree has a straight trunk with a spreading broad crown, the leaves are large (up to 25-30 cm in length), are located opposite on long petioles. The shape is vaguely reminiscent of birch. Blade three-blade or deep-toothed with solid edges, without stipule.
The decorativeness of the tree is especially impressive in spring, when a lot of large pale lilac tubular flowers bloom on it, gathered in a upright whisk that resembles candles. Thick aroma fills the space around, attracting insect pollinators. It is recognized that paulownia (Adam's tree) is a good honey plant, along with acacia. Honey has a pronounced aroma, transparent, light in texture, light shade.
According to current data on the nomenclature of modern and fossil species, which belong to the plant kingdom, the Paulownia genus includes seven species. Let us dwell on the description and features of each of them in more detail.
Its scientific name is Paulownia kawakamii. It is characterized by a fairly rapid growth, by the age of three reaches a meter height. The flowers are painted in sapphire blue rich color with a yellow middle. It is very light-loving, the more sun there is, the better the plant will develop. Choose well-lit landing spots. Resistant to weather conditions, lowering the temperature to -17 ° C and at the same time heat-resistant wood. Paulownia of this species prefers well-drained clay soils with a reaction medium ranging from 5.5 to 8.5.
Spectacular tree, reaching a height of 12 meters, the birthplace - China. The trunk is straight, crown branching, wide. Heart-shaped large leaves are located opposite. The flowers are collected in paniculate inflorescences, a characteristic shade - cream with a dark middle. After flowering pods are formed up to 5 cm in length. It is known as a home plant, it develops in the form of a decorative “fluffy” bush. The care is unpretentious and adapts to external conditions. This type of heat-loving prefers mild winters with a maximum decrease in air temperature to -9 ° C.
This is a tall and fast-growing tree. Paulownia elongate, like other species, has a developed branched root system. Flowers with a characteristic pale lavender or white shade and yellow center. The flowering period is long - up to 6 months. A tree with a slender, straight trunk, branched and spreading crown. Air temperature range from -10 ° С to + 48 ° С. The leaves have a characteristic heart-shaped, light green color, on a long petiole, without stipules.
In appearance and characteristics, this species is something between a pavlovnia of elongat and a felt one. The plant is a champion in growth rate among hardwood trees. Annual growth under favorable environmental conditions is up to 4 meters. After 3-4 years paulownia reaches sizes that are characteristic of other trees at the age of 20 years. Flowers in shape resemble digitalis, large, with folded petals. The color ranges from pale lilac to almost white. The leaves are characteristic, heart-shaped, with smooth edges and a long petiole.
Popular in the production and culture of the tree. Paulownia felt or tomentosis is a valuable landscape gardening species that is most actively used in areas with hot and humid climates. Flowers delicate lilac shade, large, collected in erect paniculate inflorescence. The fruit is a rounded biconvex box. It is appreciated not only for its decorative qualities, but also for soft and durable wood. In Japan and China, it is actively used to create musical instruments, sports equipment, knick-knacks, souvenirs, etc.
A less well-known species in landscape gardening. This paulownia is a tree (photo above), which is commercially significant and widely cultivated. It is assumed that the species has a hybrid origin of kawakamii and Forchun. At least since its discovery in 1975, this assertion has found quite weighty evidence: features of the morphological structure, similarity of a set of enzymes. Growth rate is high - up to 4 m per season under favorable conditions. The crown is uneven, sprawling. Flowers lilac shade with a dark purple middle.
Paulownia tree: planting and care
Representatives of the Paulownia family are very similar to each other and the care for them is generally the same. All of them are long-livers in the garden and can grow for over 100 years. Trees are not demanding on soil fertility and can grow on soil even with lime content up to 2%. The question is different. If you want to get a beautiful, slim and flowering plant, it is best to provide him with a moderately moist, well-drained soil with pH = 6, clay. The tree does not like extremes: drought and waterlogging.
Seedlings are planted in the ground in autumn (after leaf fall) and in spring. You should first prepare a landing pit, the size of which depends on the root system (average 0.6x0.6x0.6 m). At the bottom, make a drainage, then pour a small layer of soil, flatten the roots of the plant, the root neck should remain at the same level as the soil, and gradually fill it with the prepared fertile soil. An exotic paulownia tree (described above) should be planted in well-lit and open areas where light shading occurs for several hours, protected from cold winds in winter and drafts in summer. It has fragile wood, therefore it is easily damaged. All species have moderate cold resistance. Surely withstand short-term lowering of the temperature to -20. -25 ° C, but the flower buds freeze out. In the first years after planting in the winter, the tree should be slightly warmed.
Watering and fertilizing
The tree is thermophilic and moisture-loving. It requires regular watering, especially at a young age (the first two or three years) and at high summer temperatures. The sprinkler moisture distribution system for paulownia is undesirable because it will stimulate the development of a superficial root system, which will spoil the appearance. Water the tree deep. Do not use in the immediate vicinity of various kinds of insecticides, as the plant is very sensitive to them. The need for mineral and organic fertilizers exists at a young age and on the condition of infertile, depleted soil. In all other cases, paulownia develops normally without supplements. This is due to the ability of the plant to adapt to the soil composition and the specific climatic conditions.
Adam's tree (paulownia): reproduction
Reproduction is possible in three ways: seeds, cuttings and root suckers. In the first case, all amateur gardeners should be warned. In specialized stores paulownia seeds are not common, but still happen. It is important to remember that they retain good germination only in the first six months, and then begin to rapidly lose their ability to germinate. To buy and wait for the result were not in vain, take into account the time specified on the packaging. Sowing is carried out in early spring in a shallow container. Seeds are neatly distributed over a moist surface and only slightly sprinkled with earth, covered with glass and placed in a warm and bright place. Seedlings appear after 4-5 weeks. When they will have 1-2 pairs of true leaves, they should be planted in separate pots.
Cuttings and root offsprings from a tree can be taken in spring or autumn. In the first case, the twig should not be too long. When planting, bury the cutting to the level of the soil, or leave it 3-4 cm above the surface. Otherwise, the new trunk will twist. If from the root of the shoots go a little, leave the strongest, and others cut off with a pruning shears.
As already mentioned, paulownia is a fast-growing tree; moreover, it is the leader in terms of this indicator among hardwoods. In this regard, the commercial benefit from its landing will be obtained after three years. The lion's share of sales falls on Southeast Asia, since it is the natural habitat of the plant, it has been used by man in this region for about 1000 years. They make everything from wood: from building materials to surfboards and biofuels. Firstly, it is lightweight and takes the second place on this indicator after balsa. Paulownia - like aluminum in the world of metals. Secondly, it has outstanding strength characteristics, including tensile strength. Thirdly, it is a good heat insulator, fire-resistant. In Japan, long since, chests were made of its wood, in which they stored only the most valuable things in order to protect them in the event of a fire.
Description of the pavlon tree
The paulownia felt tree is considered to be a large-scale deciduous plant capable of growing up to 20 meters in height. A significant part of the varieties used for home cultivation, has a height of 10-15 meters. Big and sprawling paulownia crown has a spherical or slightly oval shape. Colorful branchy branches are placed on a strong trunk with a diameter of 50 centimeters. Sometimes its thickness reaches 80 and 90 cm.
The representative of tropical vegetation belongs to the group of low branching trees, with smooth bark, which is painted in gray, slightly brownish tones. The diameter of large leaves reaches 30-40 centimeters, and the color is represented by bright green shades. Due to some similarities of the lower leaf plates with the felt material, the plant became known as the felt pavlon. The first leaves are formed at the end of spring, and at the end of autumn they fall. The period of development of peduncles begins with the blooming of the leaves, and sometimes earlier. For this reason, there are times when a tree becomes flowering while remaining bare.
Flowering is represented by bright purple flowers with a variety of shades. They can be light, dark, and sometimes blue. The shape of the flowers looks like like an elongated big bell. Their diameter reaches 5–7 centimeters. The flowers form large inflorescences that resemble a broom with a length of 35–40 centimeters.
The main advantage of the paulownia tree is the surprisingly pleasant aroma, which is especially distinct during flowering. This period begins in the spring and lasts until the middle of summer. Bolls finally ripen in October. Often they keep on the branches throughout the cold season.
Many varieties of the pavlon tree are common in:
- The countries of the Far East,
In addition to decorative and landscaping purposes, unique musical instruments, sports equipment and furniture elements create paulownia from soft and light wood. Found in the composition of the seed oil is an indispensable component of paints and varnishes.
Proper care of the flower at home
In order to successfully grow a truly beautiful, lush and exquisite tree, it needs to provide proper care. To do this requires taking care of such procedures:
- top dressing
- providing reliable protection against pests,
Taking into account such features of care, you will be able to ensure a stable and full growth of the tree. In fact, take care of the tree much easier than it might seem at first glance. Even an inexperienced florist will calmly deal with all the upcoming procedures, so he should not worry that he faces an impossible task.
As for pruning, such a procedure ensures the rapid development of new branches and shoots. Also pruning contributes to the normal formation of the crown at a young age. In order for the sapling to grow strong and even, the lower shoots need to be cut. This will allow you to normally control the further growth of the crown. Pruning is carried out for trees with a height of 5–8 meters, since cutting ten-meter specimens is very problematic.
Features of watering are to provide moderate moisture. Artificial watering is necessary only for young individuals during planting and in the first year of their life, when a new plant needs increased soil moisture. Up to two years old The tree is watered once a week, pouring 2 buckets of water under the rhizome. When performing such a procedure, care must be taken that moisture penetrates directly under the root. Watering is divided into two parts, waiting until the water is fully absorbed into the soil.
As for mature trees, their root system is very well branched, so the required amount of nutrient moisture comes from the deep layers. Already at the age of three a flower can be saved from watering.
When performing any action, it is necessary to ensure good drainage, which helps to prevent stagnation of water. It is known that pavlonia perfectly tolerates strong heat and drought, but an overabundance of moisture in the soil can be detrimental.
Application of dressings
With a good fertile substrate, the tree will grow quickly and efficiently and without mineral fertilizers. However, if the soil does not have the necessary amounts of nutrientsIt is better to fertilize it with the help of special mineral or organic fertilizers. With their help, you can significantly accelerate the growth rate of paulownia. At the same time, the flowering period can begin as early as the second year after planting.
Wood prefers nitrogen fertilizers, since they are characterized by an excellent ability to form large and healthy leaves. Choosing organic feed should pay attention to the infusions of chicken manure. Such a slurry will be useful for feeding the tree in autumn or spring. Use it correctly, and the result will justify all the effort.
Providing reliable protection against pests and diseases
Young saplings of pavlonia undergo rapid overgrowing with various weeds, which can significantly impair their growth in the early stages of development. It is important to remove any such vegetation manually without using chemicals. The fact is that the composition of such preparations is overflowing with substances dangerous to the tree and toxins that can become detrimental to the further growth of the flowering tree.
Juveniles are strongly affected by pests such as the whitefly, aphid, and the cabbage scoop. To rid the tree from such dangerous guests, it must be regularly processed using special soap solutions. Such funds are available in specialized stores. In addition, they are easy to prepare with your own hands.
If the length of the seedling reaches one meter, its size will grow steadily. As a result, most pests will simply leave the tree and never return.
Features planting paulownia felt
The reproduction of pavlon takes place in several ways. Among them:
- using cuttings
- basal shoots,
Each method is characterized by its features, difficulties and advantages. In any case, all three methods provide a quick time of growing the finished seedling for its further transplantation into permanent soil.
If we talk about the seed breeding, it involves the collection of the finished planting material from special boxes, which are finally formed in the month of October. Seeds are stored for 6 months, after which they become unsuitable for further use.
- Seed propagation. It is necessary to grow a tree from seeds at the end of winter, placing them in containers prepared in advance, where there is a suitable substrate. With proper care, the first shoots will be felt in a few weeks. In the summer, seedlings are transplanted in the open ground, and then back. Если же их размеры выглядят внушительно, можно переместить дерево в постоянное место.
- Размножение черенкованием представляет собой срезание молодых побегов ранней весной. Подходящий черенок включает в себя три здоровые почки, из которых вскоре будут развиваться листья. Когда у черенка сформируется собственная корневая система, его можно сажать в грунт. В большинстве случаев, такое действие проводят осенью «под зиму».
- Размножение прикорневой порослью. Very often, a large number of young shoots with their healthy rhizome sprout near the mother tree. It is enough to undermine such parts and separate them from the parent plant. Such planting material can immediately be put on a permanent place.
Each breeding method is characterized by its own characteristics, but there are practically no significant difficulties in choosing one of them. Many gardeners are accustomed to using paulownia seed for successful cultivation, and this is not strange, because this method is considered the easiest and most affordable.
Features of a successful landing
Full-fledged tree growing is possible subject to the basic rules of planting.
First you need to deal with the right place, preferring places with good lighting conditions. In their quality it is better to choose an open area with a vast territory. This is due to the large size of adults. If the seedling grows to two or three meters, other crops can be planted next to it.
Further it is necessary to prepare the soil composition. It is believed that this tropical resident does not show high requirements for the choice of substrate. However, for growth to be most successful and productive, the primer needs to be properly prepared. To carry out activities need to dig a suitable pit for planting seedlings. Its dimensions are 70x70x70 centimeters. The bottom is laid out with a drainage layer based on stones or rubble. Not bad manifests itself gravel or broken brick.
The excavated soil is pre-mixed with peat, sand or humus. In the process, a good mineral complex should be added to the soil.
The planting technique includes the landing of a young seedling with a rhizome formed in the prepared pit. At different stages such an action is important to observe increased caution, carefully straightening the roots and filling them with fertile soil substrate.
It is best to plant a tree in early spring when new leaves have not yet cut through. The planting method in the fall has a good impact, but in this case it should be cut off at ground level and protected from cold with peat or sawdust. Such simple actions will make the growth of the stem productive, and its shape will be smooth without splitting and nodes. As for planting in the fall, it is carried out 2 weeks before the onset of the first frost.
Features watering seedlings
Water the seedling that was grown with the help of a seed or seedling should be abundant, but moderately. Flooding roots can be disastrous. That the task was performed successfully, it is desirable apply when landing special preparations for the soil, which take away excess moisture, and under dry conditions, deliver it back to the roots.
A good solution for productive irrigation are special pipes. One end of this design is set at the bottom of the landing pit, and the other - on the surface of the earth. When watering in this way, water will flow directly to the roots, allowing them to grow and develop more productively.
Follow these tips, and you will realize that a properly maintained small seed can be the basis for the growth of a large tree with lush flowering and unrivaled decorative properties. Do it all at the beginning of the life cycle paulownia. As you grow, the need for strict compliance with the basic rules of care will decrease. The tree will be strong, healthy and incredibly beautiful.
Description and photo
Paulownia or Adam's tree is a deciduous plant from the Pavlovniy family. It is mainly grown in Japan, Korea, Vietnam and China. It can also be found in the south of Russia, Ukraine, Europe, North America and the Caucasus. A fast-growing plant, the average height is from 9 to 15 m, and some species can reach 22 m in height.
The crown grows to 6 m. The diameter of the trunk is 110-115 cm. Paulownia has large deltoid leaves, 25 cm wide and 30 cm long. The flowers of the tree bloom in spring before the leaves appear. They are pale purple with a yellow center.
The flowers have a bell-shaped form and grow 20-30 cm in length. The fruit is an egg-shaped box with a large number of winged seeds.
Adam's tree lives up to 100 years. Paulownia is used to make furniture, musical instruments and other items made of wood. Its advantage is soft wood.
There are from 5 to 7 species of adam tree. Let's look at the description of the most popular types of paulownia tree with photos.
Paulownia felt or Imperial tree. The habitat of the species covers China, Europe and North America.
This type can reach 20 m in height. The plant does not tolerate winter temperatures below -20 ° C, so it is not suitable for cultivation in the northern regions. Grown as a landscape tree, because large leaves give a good shade.
Paulownia Farghez. Cultivated in the mountainous provinces of China and Vietnam. This species grows up to 20 m. It is distinguished by its white flowers. Leaves 30-35 cm long, 25 cm wide. Flowering begins in early spring. It tolerates drought.
Pavlovnia Farghezu can be confused with the Catalpa tree, because both plants have white flowers in the form of a bell and large leaves. But the catalpa flowers bloom in late May, when a dense crown of leaves has already been formed.
Also, catalpa fruit is a pod that can reach 50 cm. But both trees have a similar habitat.
Paulownia oblong or Paulownia elongated. Habitat covers China. It grows up to 10 m in height. The leaves are egg-shaped, have pubescence on the underside. Paulownia oblong forms inflorescences of purple-pink color.
Paulownia Forchuna. The species grows in the highlands of China, but is also known in Taiwan, Vietnam and North America. An adult tree can be 30 m tall. The leaves are large, as with any type of Pavlovniev family.
Lighting and location
Any of the above types of paulownia should occupy a sunny place. The optimum temperature in the spring-summer period is + 24-33 ° С. Paulownia can withstand wind up to 7-8 m / s, but no more.
Particularly susceptible to strong gusts of young trees, the trunk of which is not sufficiently stiff. Therefore, if possible, grow it in windless areas.
Paulownia is transplanted to a permanent place when the seedling is already 1 year old.
The plant is not fastidious to the soil. It will grow well on sandy, drained soils. Hydrogen indicator is allowed from pH 5 to pH 8.9. But the best will be around 6.5 pH.
Avoid heavy soils, for example, high clay content. In this case, the soil will not flow well and the tree will die.
Planting technology depends on the climate in which the plant will develop. In temperate latitudes, it is difficult to grow paulownia from seeds, since there may be no material.
After all, an Adam tree usually does not set fruit under uncomfortable temperature conditions. In such a case, grafting is an excellent option. Growing paulownia from root offspring can also be difficult. Despite the rapid growth of the tree in height, the root system develops slowly.
If you have a ready sapling, then it will be planted along with a land clod. The pit should be 3-4 cm in diameter more than the earth bed, so that there is room for backfilling the soil mixture.
And it is prepared from 1 part of sod land, 2 parts of peat and 2 parts of sand. After you have rammed the ground, you need to water the seedling plentifully. Note that when planting a seedling, the root neck should be at ground level.
If you decide to grow paulownia from seeds, then you cannot bury them in the ground when planting. Paulownia, like rhododendrons, is sown directly on the soil. You can do this in various ways.
1 way: using a napkin.
To do this, you will need any plastic container with a small lid. At the bottom you need to put a regular napkin. Preferably loose. Then moisten with spray water.
Upon expiration of the capacity must be moved to a sunny place and leave for 10 days. Air tank every 2-3 days. From 10 to 14 days the seeds begin to germinate. It is at this time you need to put them in a pot with nutrient soil. After that, sprinkle the germinated seeds with a small amount of earth, but be careful, they cannot be completely covered with earth. Pour over water. The tree grows quickly, so this sowing of seeds is done in the fall, so that in the beginning of summer it was already possible to plant a small tree.
To do this you will need a small pot of nutrient soil. It must be poured to such a level that the water still remains in it for at least 10 days. That is, to make a kind of "swamp".
Then sift the seeds there and wait 10-14 days until the seeds sprout. But do not forget that you need to cover the pot with cling film and air the seeds every two days. The advantage of this method, as well as the first, is that you do not need to monitor the seedlings. Enough to give the optimum amount of sunlight and moisture. But the second method includes one minus: with an excess amount of water that is not absorbed within 14 days, the seedlings will die.
Cuttings are best taken from a young tree (which is 2-3 years old). They are buried in a loose, moist soil completely. Sometimes you can leave a small part of the cutting above the ground (2-4 cm).
When several shoots appear already more than 10 cm, the strongest and highest are left, while others are removed. Cutting recommended in the early spring.
From root offspring
Paulownia is rarely grown from root shoots because the plant has a weakly branched root system that slowly develops. Therefore, it is often not possible to get quality material.
However, the tree can produce additional shoots that are connected by the root system to the mother tree. In this case, you can dig out the shoot and separate it from the mother tree (cutting the roots with a shovel). Recommend to hold it in the fall or spring.
Adam tree care
Paulownia needs regular watering, despite its drought tolerance. Watering a young tree (1-3 years) should be done every 10 days with 10 liters of water. A more mature individual requires watering every two weeks to 15-20 liters.
But try not to flood the plant, otherwise it will weaken its immunity. Adam's tree is not whimsical to fertilizers, but like many plants it responds to feeding chicken droppings or peat. They can be made in the fall and spring. Also, the plant is well tolerated vermicompost.
Trimming for the adomai tree is not obligatory, because its crown is branchy and because of this it is very beautiful. But paulownia also tolerates any kind of scrap.
Diseases and pests
Adam's tree is susceptible to fungal diseases and is not resistant to such pests as aphids and scab. To avoid fungal diseases, try not to overwet the soil, do not multiply paulownia on the ground where such diseases used to be.
Also, before planting, seedlings are recommended to pour biofungicides on the ground, which will prevent the appearance of fungus. After all, young trees have weak immunity. Insecticides will help you to get rid of shitovki and aphids. They recommend paulownia to spray after winter to get rid of eggs and other pests.
Having learned what an Adam tree looks like, many gardeners want to plant it on their plot. And you can safely do this if you live in an area with a warm and humid climate. Remember that the correct landing site will determine how it blooms and multiplies.
Types and varieties of paulownia
Any gardener who sees a once-flowering paulownia tree will certainly wish to see this plant in his area. Very beautiful flowers and powerful, lush crown of the tree, does not leave anyone indifferent. In our article about the most popular varieties and types of this wonderful tree.
- Paulownia Shang-tong is a hybrid between Felt and Feltuna. These species are crossed, because of their endurance and frost resistance. The plant is characterized by rapid growth, straight stem and small crown. Because of this, more trees may be planted on one plot,
- Paulownia Felt - very resistant to cold and severe frosts. Cultivation is common in Europe as an ornamental tree. Growth is slow
- Paulownia Elongated - thermophilic look, crown spreading is average. Suitable for cultivation in warmer countries: Italy, Spain. It grows quickly, tolerates heat well,
- Paulownia Forchuna is a very thermophilic look. The growth of the trunk is straight, the crown is narrow. It grows mainly in the southern regions of China, Europe and Africa. This variety has very high quality wood. This quality is used in industrial production.
- Paulownia Katalpolistnaya - this kind of paulownia, very slowly growing is suitable for the most patient gardeners. The thickness of the increase appears only after 3-4 years. In a year the gain makes 1-2 sm. Thanks to such features, from this tree it turns out good plywood. For this reason, the price of paulownia products is very high. This species tolerates low temperatures,
- Paulownia Elongata is a fast-growing species, the annual increase may be two to three meters. Flowering in late May, early June. The flowers are lush pink-purple. Strong wood,
- Paulownia Kawakami is most often grown in China, in the southern regions. Lifetime reaches up to 100 years. Paulownia is considered the tree of the future. All parts of the plant are used as a potential source of income. The trunk of a tree can be cut down many times, and it will still grow.
Paulownia wood is considered one of the strongest and at the same time one of the lightest and most flexible in nature. The average mass of one cubic meter of paulownia is about 300 kg, which is several times lighter than oak wood and twice as pine. This is very important in some cases. Paulownia is very resistant to moisture and resists deformation perfectly. Wood has a high fire resistance, which is not unimportant in the construction and manufacture of furniture.
In ancient Japan, chests and cabinets were made, namely from paulownia wood, to save their property from fire. Epoxy resin, toxic varnishes and paints - paulownia does not absorb all this, except that the wood from this plant has a low water permeability, which makes it indispensable in the manufacture of boats. The wood from paulownia, is easily amenable to any treatment, construction firms engaged in the manufacture of furniture, choose this material. Musical instruments are also made from paulownia.
Thanks to its rapid growth, lush crown and rich, colorful flowering, paulownia trees are used for decoration in landscape design: in parks, gardens, sites and squares. The leaves of paulownia is a powerful absorber of carbon dioxide. For the year, the leaves on one tree absorb up to 22 kg of gas, and release up to 6-7 kg of oxygen per year.
In some countries around the world, paulownia has become an indispensable species for planting in public places. Foliage is used for feeding animals. In quality and composition, it is similar to alfalfa. Paulownia is also a popular honey plant. Honey from the flowers of this tree is very fragrant and transparent, in its qualities, similar to honey from acacia.
What cultures does paulownia combine with?
You can grow a tree together with other plants. Between the rows of trees, you can plant crops: corn, peas, soybeans, wheat, vegetables and medicinal plants. Paulownia trees create a healthy microclimate, it has a good effect on the soil, which has a beneficial effect on all life around.
How to choose a sapling
If you choose a seedling in the market or nursery, pay attention to the roots and leaves. Roots should be with well developed system, not less than 30 cm, without fractures and kinks. The leaves should not be stained - this is a sign of the disease. Seedlings should be adapted in greenhouses and only after that can be transplanted in open ground. The bigger the plant, the better.
Land for planting choose easily permeable to water and air, it should not be clay. Young seedlings need abundant and regular watering. If drip irrigation is provided in the first two years, the plant will grow very quickly. The pit should be 60-100 cm deep. The seedlings are planted from November to April.
How to care for paulownia
Regular watering, especially in the early years of the plant, is a must. As soon as the root reaches the desired size, there will be no need for frequent watering. Best of all, if you organize drip irrigation on your site. Danger for young seedlings, weeds. With cereal weeds you need to fight with herbicides, and with leaf, to pick manually.
How to plant
For planting paulownia, suitable for two methods - seeds and vegetatively. Seeds are obtained from the fruit. Fruits can be stored on the tree all winter. Fruiting in paulownia begins approximately 4-5 years after planting. If you decide to grow a tree with seeds, you should know that a plant planted this way will grow slowly. Поэтому такой вид размножения среди садоводов не популярен.
Размножение черенками, даёт искривленный столб. Черенки перед высадкой положено держать в воде, из-за этого, есть риск гибели корня. В настоящее время, большую популярность набирает метод размножения через тканные культуры. Thanks to this method, the plants develop better and they will have an increased resistance to temperature extremes and diseases.
Pruning and shaping wood
Paulownia tree - from an early age is formed like a standard tree. Up to a height of 1-1.5 meters, cleaning is best done by removing the buds before the shoots develop. On an adult plant, only frozen or dried shoots are pruned. Paulownia is resistant, even to very strong pruning. The procedure should be carried out in early spring.
Botanical description of the plant
Sheet size Paulownia felt ( Paulownia tomentosa ) 30 cm in diameter - not at all uncommon, but maybe more. The flowers, which are collected in large panicles, also look great. It blooms in early spring, even before the leaves blossomed on it and on other plants.
At this time, the tree stands out bright blue-violet cloud. Noteworthy paulownia is also a record growth rate. Yes, a normal increase for the year is 1 m, but with good care and a suitable climate - 2, or even 3 meters!
Paulownia, in addition to its unusual beauty, may well be grown as a technical plant. With the right agrotechnology, by the age of seven Paulownia gives excellent material - thick, not less than 10 cm in diameter and even trunks that can be used in construction, for household needs and handicrafts. Moreover, such cutting of trunks of paulownia can “endure” six times.
In nature, paulownia is found in the Far East, in China, Vietnam, and Laos. But, at the same time, it can be grown in the open spaces of Russia and the near abroad, however, in more southern regions. To more definitely - to zone 5a inclusive. It can withstand temperatures down to -30 ° C.
To find out which zone your region belongs to, read our article “Plant Frost Resistance Zones - which are and why should they be known?”
By the way, paulownia is named after the daughter of Paul I (son of Catherine II), Grand Duchess Anna Pavlovna, the wife of a son and heir to the king of the Netherlands. German botanists, wanting to make her happy, decided to name the newly discovered new plant genus Anna. But, to their regret, such a genus already existed (a small genus of dwarf shrubs of the family Gesnerievye, including 3 species). Having accepted the patronymic name of Princess “Pavlovna” for her second name, it turns out that they actually named the new plant in honor of the All-Russian Emperor Paul I.
Whatever it was, Paulownia felt - a tree, of course, beautiful and can be successfully grown with us. By the way, another useful feature: it is able to actively clean the polluted air of city streets and enrich the soil. Why is it so rare to meet in parks and private gardens?
The blooming of paulownia is a very spectacular sight.
The difficulty of breeding paulownia
There are certain difficulties with the reproduction of this plant. But, as experience shows, a little patience and everything will work out.
Paulownia can be propagated vegetatively. For example, planting scions. But they are formed at the tree is extremely rare and small. You can try to root green cuttings, but this method is not very productive.
Reproduction remains seed. The problem is that there are regions where paulownia grows and produces seeds, but these seeds do not have time to ripen, and, naturally, do not germinate.
You should know that paulownia seeds quickly lose their germination, so they need to be sown within a year. That is why the paulownia seeds purchased in their homeland, in China, often do not germinate - they have simply been stored for a long time. For this reason, the very first thing to start with is to get seeds that have germination. Next, I will describe the way how, in fact, I propagate and grow paulownia saplings.
How I grow paulownia from seed
So, you found paulownia seeds, bought ready-made, or collected from a "familiar" tree. Fully prepared seeds are collected in a kind of dark-colored boxes. Opening such a box, you will find inside a huge number of small seeds (1-2 thousand).
These seeds, which will give life to huge trees, are placed in an ordinary transparent jar and filled with water. It is better to take water not tap, but soft, filtered. The seeds of paulownia should float freely in it. We put this jar on a well-lit south window-sill, in the sun.
About two weeks later, at room temperature (+ 20 ... + 25 degrees), small white tails will begin to appear at the seeds of paulownia, these are the beginnings of roots. And a week later - two cotyledon tiny leaves.
Fully ripened paulownia seeds are collected in peculiar boxes of dark color. © Igor Bilevich Inside the paulownia seed pod there is a huge amount of small seeds (1-2 thousand). © Igor Bilevich After two weeks, small white "tails" will begin to appear in the water at the seeds of paulownia, these are the beginnings of roots. © Igor Bilevich
It is in this state that the germinated seeds are very carefully (literally, a toothpick) caught and placed in a prepared cartridge with soil mixture. Each paulownia seedling now has its own individual “living space”.
Seeds of paulownia. © Igor Bilevich
What kind of soil mixture is needed? In principle, any purchased for seedlings or independently prepared from garden-ground and peat disinfected with steaming. Both components take approximately equal amounts. This mixture will provide nutritional and friability, and moisture will retain well. After all, paulownia seedlings should never be allowed to dry. They require regular watering.
It is best to do this with a spray bottle, gently moistening the earth around the plant. The cassette is put here on a well-lit and heated south window sill. If the sun heats very well, then water it twice a day.
The cultivation process is worth starting as early as January., then by about the middle of summer you will have full paulownia saplings. Although such an early seeding is likely to require additional illumination.
Early sowing of paulownia is likely to require additional illumination. © Igor Bilevich
At first, paulownia seedlings practically do not grow, only the seedbed leaves grow in size. But after about 30 days, the first true leaves appear and growth accelerates.
In a cassette, paulownia seedlings should be kept until the leaves of neighboring plants begin to touch. It will take about 2-3 months. And only now it is time to replant the seedlings into full-fledged containers with a capacity of 200 ml (cups) and put them in the open air.
Seeds of paulownia are transferred to the open air about three months after sowing. © Igor Bilevich
Important: Young plants of paulownia react poorly to wind and draft, therefore place them in a protected place.
Gradually, the growth rate of paulownia increases, and after about a month they will require transplants already in two-liter containers with a soil mixture consisting of neutral peat and vermiculite.
How is nutritional benefits achieved? Due to regular watering (once in two weeks) with nutrient solutions: sodium humate and complex nitrogen-containing fertilizers.
But keep in mind that already in August, the use of nitrogen fertilizers is not recommended, because winter is ahead. Already in the first autumn, grown Paulownia seedlings should be transplanted into the open ground: their root system grows very quickly and it is desirable to give it space.
Despite the seeming difficulties and difficulties, the process of growing paulownia from seeds is very interesting and can be instructive for your children.
If the process of growing paulownia from seed scares you, now many nurseries grow this amazing, ornamental and useful plant, the interest in which is growing all over the world.
Paulownia (Adam's tree). Growing on the plot
Good day to you, dear friends!
I will tell you today about the cultivation of paulownia in the garden.
An unusually beautiful flowering is characteristic of paulownia, for which many gardeners love it. In Adam's tree (this is also called paulownia), the rounded, spreading egg-like crown.
The leaves are large, wide attached to the branches with long petioles. Flowers have a purple color, which are collected in the inflorescence - a panicle. They have an indescribable fragrance that attracts bees. Because of this, paulownia belongs to the melliferous species. The tree grows to 20 meters, and the trunk has the shape of a cylinder.
The homeland of the Adam tree is considered to be South-East Asia and the Far East. On the territory of Russia it grows in the southern regions, preferring the territory where there is a humid, warm climate.
How to plant paulownia
The tree can reproduce with the help of seeds or root shoots. For the plant is very important a lot of moisture in the first time after planting. The optimal time for planting - after the leaves pass. If there is no snow and slush in winter, and the soil is not frozen, you can safely plant a tree. Otherwise, the seedling is retained using a cool, dark place. (see the article “How to store seedlings in winter”). Landing is made with the onset of spring.
For paulownia (the second name of Adam's tree) you need to dig a hole to a depth of 85 cm, and put mixed fertilizers on the bottom, which are mixed with the ground. During the landing, it is necessary to take into account that the trimmed stem must be no higher than the ground level than 3 cm., Or be at the same level as the soil.
To plant paulownia you need to choose a place with good illumination, where the shadow lasts only a few hours a day. In addition, it should be protected from the cold wind in the winter and summer draft. For the first wintering, the tree should be slightly warmed.
It is common for a young tree to grow from a cut down place. If the cut stem is left high when planted, then the trunk of the paulownia will be crooked. During spring disembarkation, it is important to remember that the tree needs good watering. In the autumn and winter months, there will be enough natural rainfall for the plant.
Some gardeners plant an Adam tree in summer, for this they will need shoots that have been grown in a pot. The young plant must be carefully removed from the container along with the ground, if possible, to avoid damage to the root system. Put in a prefab hole.
The growing season is not associated with the landing time. Its beginning is in the middle second spring month and ends in May. With the onset of frost shoots can get frostbite, however, with the onset of a thaw, new shoots appear at the tree. Such damage can slow the growth rate by up to 10 days.
If there are several shoots, then when they have a height of about 10 cm, you need to leave only one, the strongest, the rest are cut off. Small seedlings need to be weaned off by hand.
Conducting paulownia growing in the garden, it is necessary to feed the tree with artificial or organic fertilizers while it is young or if the soil is poor and infertile. And so Adam's tree will be great to grow without dressings. Paulownia has a peculiarity - easy adaptability to the soil composition and climatic conditions.