Japanese quince - undersized ornamental shrub. She will decorate any garden in springwhen a lot of huge (for its small growth) orange-red flowers with a diameter of up to 4 cm, with which all the branches are covered, are blooming on it.
In the summer, the plant attracts the eye with its glossy foliage with flowing fruits. In the autumn it is covered with small yellow fruits.resembling small apples.
May shrub bloom and, due to the uneven opening of the buds, bright blooms stretch for 2-3 weeks.
Spirea, forsythia and magonia will be her worthy partners in garden compositions.
Quince has the ability to grow in breadth due to abundant root shoots, and this is its quality very often used to strengthen the slopes (it holds the soil).
With shrubs need to be careful, as in some varieties there are sharp spines.
Henomeles (Japanese quince) due to its frost tolerance (it can withstand temperatures as cold as -25 ° C) suitable for cultivation in the Moscow region. When frosts below - 30 ° C can freeze the kidneys, but the bush does not die.
With proper cultivation, shrubs grow to 40 years.
Japanese quince, or henomeles:
Planting and maintenance
Quince is not demanding for growing conditions, but there are several conditions that must be considered when planting a seedling:
- the planting place should be sunny, because in shading the shrub grows and blooms poorly,
- in order to avoid freezing of bushes in harsh winters, landings should be carried out in places protected from northern winds,
- soil acidity should not exceed 6.5pH (slightly acid),
- having a taproot deep in the soil, the plant transports from place to place poorly, we plant immediately and forever,
- the distance between the bushes is 1–1.5 m, while the formation of a hedge is 0.8–1 m.
- in the excavated planting pit (60 * 60 * 50cm) we pour out about a bucket of humus with wood ash added in it (0.5 kg) and superphosphate (0.3 kg), mix it with a spade with a small amount of earth,
- we have a seedling in the hole in such a way that the root neck is at the level of the soil,
- we fall asleep the roots of the plant with earth and water well,
- the soil around the bushes is desirable to mulch (sawdust, chopped wood bark, peat).
Further care of the young seedling consists in watering.However, soil overmoistening cannot be allowed to avoid rotting of the roots, regular loosening of the soil around the bushes.
Since during the landing all the necessary batteries were introduced, no need to feed the plant for two years after planting.
Adult plants in the spring, after the snow melts, feed about 20 g of ammonium nitrate per bush. In the summer they give liquid fertilizing with organic matter (diluted mullein or bird droppings). In the autumn make superphosphate.
To do this, you can use a spruce fir branches or cover small plants with a covering material (spandbond or lutrasil) and put wooden or plastic boxes on top and sprinkle them with the fallen leaves.
Fruiting quinces annual, starting from the third year after planting.
Henomeles plant cross-pollinatedtherefore, for better pollination and higher yields, 2-3 shrubs should be planted nearby.
Features landing chaenomeles:
Japanese Quince Breeding Methods for Transplanting
There are several ways of breeding Japanese quince.
Due to the fact that during seed reproduction, varietal qualities are not preserved, it is used in the cultivation of rootstocks with further re-grafting.
Seeds collected from fruits are stored in wet sand at a temperature of about 0 ° C all winter (so they undergo stratification).
Seeds are sown in planting tanks in February - March, after 1.5 months they are swooping into separate containers and in late May and early June, seedlings are ready for planting in open ground.
Until the autumn, conduct regular watering and fertilizing., for the winter, the seedlings are still not completely cured and insulated with fallen leaves.
Germination of such seeds is excellentsince they have undergone natural stratification, in spring the dense shoots need to be thinned out, leaving the strongest ones. By autumn, seedlings are ready for transplanting to a permanent place of growth.
It is best to collect the seeds in the fall and immediately plant in the beds, covered with polyethylene
Green cutting is carried out in early June.. Annual cuttings with a “heel” (a piece of last year's wood) are cut. Sections are processed "Kornevina" for better rooting and planted in shkalku tilted.
To maintain moisture cover planting plastic wrap. By autumn, seedlings are ready for transplanting to a permanent place, but it is better to do this in spring.
You can cut up the ripe cuttings in the fall, prikopat under the bush at a depth of 20-30 cm, be sure to mark the place.
During the winter, callus forms at the ends of the cuttings, and since the onset of spring, the cuttings are planted immediately to a permanent place.
In quince often creeping shoots grow, prikopat that you can get seedlings for later reproduction.
You can bend down and prikopat horizontal layers of Japanese quince
Henomeles pruning rules
The shrub tolerates pruning very well, but most gardeners do not make it in vain because of the thorniness of the plant. Quince pruning needed to improve the growth and shaping of the crown for decorative purposes.
There are three types of pruning:
- Sanitary - dry, frozen and broken branches are removed in early spring.
- Formative - it begins to be done from the age of 4, when the branches begin to branch. Shoots growing inside the bush and thickening it are cut, remove excess root shoots, leaving no more than 2-3 young shoots per year to avoid a strong expansion of the bush in breadth. Creeping shoots are also removed, they take food on themselves and thicken the bush.
- Rejuvenating - it is produced from the age of 8 when the annual growth becomes less than 10 cm. Thin and elongated shoots are removed, leaving the strongest 10-12 in the bush. When thinning, you need to remember that the most productive shoots are 3-4 years old, older branches should be removed.
In order to avoid the penetration of diseases into the plant, all cuts should be treated with garden pitch.
Aive pruning is necessary to improve the growth and shaping of the crown for decorative purposes.
Pests and diseases
Chaenomeles is not damaged by pests and is highly resistant to diseases, but in a cool and rainy summer, diseases such as are possible:
- leaf necrosis - the appearance of a gray plaque on the edge of the leaf with a further spread over the entire surface of the leaf, the leaves dry up
- cercosporiosis - manifested as dark brown round spots lightening with time,
- ramulariasis - the formation of brown spots on the leaves.
Varieties for cultivation in the Moscow region
In central Russia, stunted varieties are grown to a height of 1 m, with arcuate branches and spreading crown.
Of the domestic varieties the most common are:
- Fragrant - shrub up to 1.2 m, winter-hardy, fruit weight 50-60 g, with a pleasant aroma,
- Nikitskaya - early ripening, medium growth, winter-hardy,
- Vitamin - winter-hardy, compact bush, bright yellow fruits weighing up to 100g,
- Muscat - large-fruited variety (fruits up to 200 g), self-pollinating, winter-hardy,
- Teplovskaya - variety of late ripening and long storage of fruits.
The most famous foreign varieties:
- Gayardi - variety with large orange flowers,
- Malardi - magnificent pink flowers with a white border,
- Papel - An interesting variety with yellow flowers and pink border around the edge of the petal.
Harvesting in the fall, fruit storage
Quince fruits are small, firm and sour in taste, but very fragrant. and with a high content of vitamin C. They are collected in September - October, before the onset of frost.
They are stored at air temperature of 1-2 ° С for 2-3 months. As a result of maturation, they become softer, sweet flavor increases.
Another of the fruits of henomelis prepare jams, jams, added to stewed fruit. Due to their high iron content, chopped fruits darken rapidly.
Japanese quince. Northern lemon:
For 1 kg of quince you need: 2 kg of sugar and 1.5 cups of water. Quince wash, dry, remove seeds and hard white partitions, cut into small slices.
Put slices into boiling syrup, boil over low heat for 10 minutes, remove the froth, then remove from heat and leave for 12 hours. Boil the jam again for 10 minutes, etc. until the quince slices become transparent.
We put the prepared jam in sterilized jars, leave it until winter. In winter, fragrant jam will remind you of the beauty of flowering shrubs and the approaching warm summer.
Japanese quince is unpretentious in growing, it is undemanding in attention and it is easy to care for it, but at the same time it is beautiful in bloom and useful in application.
What is interesting Japanese quince
The features of this plant are as follows:
- Shrub begins its flowering in May days. Its buds open not at one time, but gradually. Due to this, the plant remains bright for two to three weeks.
- Fruits appear in the summer against the background of bright foliage with a glossy coating. Japanese quince ripens in autumn, when it is strewn with fruits of yellow color - similar to apples, but small.
- As a rule, henomeles is bred as an ornamental shrub. Usually it is planted in two - three plants in flowerbeds or alpine hills. Japanese quince is often combined with Magonia, Spirea, forsythia.
- Quince has a very developed root system, which compacts the soil. This feature is used to strengthen the slopes.
- Certain varieties of chaenomeles are covered with very sharp spines, which makes it necessary to be careful in caring for them.
- Quince refers to the cold-resistant plants. Due to the fact that it can survive in frost up to 25 o, it can also be grown in the Moscow region. If the frost descends at 30 o, then only the kidneys will freeze a little, the bush itself will remain alive.
- Chaenomeles is a long-liver. If properly care for this plant, it can “hold out” for up to 40 years.
Although the Japanese quince is an unpretentious plant, there are a number of rules associated with its planting:
- Chaenomeles will only grow well in sunlight. Otherwise, its flowering will be weak.
- In order for the bushes not to freeze in winter, they should be planted in places that are not blown by the north winds.
- The soil for planting should be chosen with a weak acidity - with an indicator not higher than 6.5 pH.
- This shrub needs to be planted once, because due to the impressive length of the central root process, it does not tolerate the transplant.
- The distance between the bushes should be large - about one - one and a half meters. If you want to get a hedge at the exit, the gap should be reduced to 80 cm.
- Planting Japanese quince is better in the spring season. If you plant in the fall, it may not have time to gain a foothold in the soil roots and eventually will freeze.
Instructions for planting Japanese quince
Plant a Japanese quince in the following order:
- Dig a landing hole measuring 60 x 60 x 50 cm.
- Take one bucket of humus and add a pound of wood ash and 300 grams of superphosphate.
- Stir the contents of the shovel, after adding a little earth.
- Arrange the seedling in the hole so that the beginning of the rhizome coincides with its upper edge.
- Fully fill the roots with soil.
- Water abundantly.
- Pour the soil around the shrub with sawdust, small bark, peat, hay - to prevent its weathering and leaching.
Note! Chaenomeles is characterized by cross pollination. In order for it to be carried out most successfully, and the quince harvest was higher, it is advisable to plant two or three bushes next to it..
When caring for chaenomeles, there are also a number of features:
- Water the seedlings need moderately. In no case can not overwet the soil, so as not to begin to rot the roots. And also you need to periodically loosen the soil around the bushes.
- Feeding may not be carried out for two years after planting, since all the necessary nutrients were included in the soil in advance.
- Fertilize adult plants should begin in early spring, as soon as the snow melts. They need ammonium nitrate, approximately 20 grams per bush.
- In the summer, organic fertilizers are used, such as the waste of domestic animals or birds. In the autumn superphosphate is added.
- Despite the frost resistance, young plants in areas such as the Moscow region, it is still better to warm. For this purpose, you can use fir paws or special materials - lutrasil, spunbond. It is recommended to put boxes of wood or plastic on top of a covering material and sprinkle them with dry leaves.
On a note! With proper care, the Japanese quince begins to bear fruit from the third year after planting, and then bears fruit every year..
Japanese quince breeds in several ways.
Important! When propagated by seeds, henomeles loses some of the qualities inherent in this variety. Therefore, this method is used for growing rootstocks for subsequent grafting..
On seed multiplication, you need to know the following:
- After the quince gives seeds in the fall, they should be placed in wet sand for the whole winter. At the same time, the ambient temperature should approach zero. In such conditions, the seeds are stratified.
- It is necessary to sow seeds in February - March in special planting boxes.
- After a month and a half, the seeds are distributed into separate containers.
- By the end of May - the beginning of June, landing in open ground is carried out.
- During the summer, sprouts are watered and fertilized.
- In the winter, it is necessary to warm the seedlings with dry foliage.
- Germination of chhenomeles seeds is good. Therefore, seedlings require thinning. In this case, you need to remove the weakest of all.
There is another way of planting - without overwintering in wet sand. Seeds can immediately be planted on the beds, covered with earth, covered with polyethylene and a layer of fallen leaves.
Note! Stratification is a process that mimics the natural conditions of winter in order to increase seed germination. For the Japanese quince, it is shown if the seeds are planted in the spring. When planted in the fall, natural stratification occurs..
Reproduction by cuttings
The process of propagation by cuttings is called grafting. It is carried out in early summer as follows:
- First you need to cut the cuttings, having an age of one year, together with the so-called heel. The heel is a piece of wood left over from last year.
- Slices in order to better rooted the cuttings, it is required to process the "root". This stimulating preparation for plants contains acid, which, by irritating the tissues of the integument, promotes the appearance of callus. Calluses are growths that form from living cells closest to the wound.
- Next, the cuttings are planted at an angle into the shkolku - a mini-bed, on which grows plants with different growth periods.
- In order to maintain the desired level of humidity, planted cuttings are covered with polyethylene.
- In the fall, the seedlings are determined to a permanent place. Sometimes it is done in spring.
On a note! You can cut the cuttings and fall. In this case, they are buried under a bush at a depth of about 25 cm. In this case, you need to remember to mark the place. In winter, callus forms at the tips of the stalks, and in spring they land permanently..
Other breeding methods
Among other methods of breeding henomeles, there are such as the division of the bush and horizontal cuttings.
Reproduction by dividing the bush is the easiest way for the Japanese quince. To implement it, the root growth of the mother bush is taken - young plants that have grown from buds located on the surface roots. From the root shoots are separated shoots, which have well-developed roots, and transplanted into the ground.
In henomeles often grow shoots that spread along the ground. If you bury them, then seedlings will grow from them. They are used for further reproduction. And you can also tilt close to the ground and those shoots that grow in the horizontal direction. Then they are also added dropwise, as well as creeping ones - for obtaining seedlings.
How to trim a Japanese quince
This plant tolerates pruning. But it is "poorly tolerated" by some gardeners because of the sharp spines of henomeles. Therefore, they do without pruning. But this decision can hardly be called correct. In order for the quince to successfully grow and form a beautiful crown, she needs pruning.
There are three types of quince trimming:
Sanitary. This type of pruning involves the removal of such branches as broken, dried and frozen. It is practiced in early spring.
Formative. Она делается, начиная с момента, когда растение доживёт до четырёх лет. В этот период у него начинается процесс разветвления. Формирующая обрезка выполняет несколько задач.
- Во-первых, это воспрепятствование сильного разрастания куста в ширину. For this, excess root shoots are removed, and no more than three young shoots are left.
- Secondly, thickening is avoided - by cutting out shoots growing inward.
- Third, in order not to take away the nourishment of the bush, shoots are removed, creeping along the ground.
Rejuvenating pruning is done after the bush reaches 8 years of age, when in one year it grows less than 10 cm. It is necessary to remove shoots that are the thinnest and longest, and leave the strongest ones that reach 10 cm. When thinning the bushes, we must not forget that leave should be 3-4-year processes, and more adults - to remove.
Important! All cuts must be smeared with garden pitch to prevent contamination of plants..
What is sick henomeles
Chaenomeles is remarkable in that he is not afraid of harmful insects, as well as many diseases.
However, if summer is rainy and cold, it can get sick:
- Leaf necrosis. When this disease first appears grayish plaque on the edges of the leaves. It then covers the entire sheet completely, causing it to dry out.
- Ramulariosisin which large brown spots are formed on the leaves.
- Cercosporiosis. It is characterized by the appearance of round brown spots, which eventually become lighter in color.
In order to successfully fight against the diseases of the Japanese quince, it is recommended to spray the shrub with copper sulphate, dissolving it in water in the proportion of 1:10. And also it is possible to apply the dissolved foundation with a concentration of 0.2%.
What varieties are grown in the Moscow region
In Russia, in temperate latitudes, varieties are cultivated, with low growth - up to one meter. They have branches, resembling arcs, and lush spreading crowns.
Of the varieties growing in our country, the most common are:
- Fragrant. It grows up to one and a half meters, cold-resistant, the fruits have a pleasant smell and weigh up to 50 grams.
- Vitamin. It is also resistant to frost, different bright yellow fruits, weighing up to 100 grams, and a compact structure of the bush.
- Muscat Quince. This variety has especially large fruits - up to 200 grams. It is winter-hardy and self-pollinating.
- Nikitskaya ripens very early, grows moderately, resistant to cold weather.
- Teplovskaya treats varieties with late ripening and long storage of fruits.
Of the foreign varieties the most popular are:
- Gayardi. This variety has large orange flowers.
- Malardi can be recognized by pink flowers bordered by a white stripe.
- Papel. This species has yellow flowers and a pink edging, “running” along the edge of the petal.
How to save the crop chaenomeles
- The fruits of chhenomeles are mostly small. They are hard and sour. But at the same time they have a delicious aroma and contain vitamin C in large quantities. However, there are them in this form - a dubious pleasure. Harvesting takes place in September - October, always before the arrival of frosty days.
- Keep fruit in a cool place, the temperature in the room should not exceed 1-2 degrees. To maintain such a regime is necessary for three months. After the quince is otlezhitsya, it will become soft and sweet, and its aroma will gain even greater strength. In this state, this fruit and eat.
- One way to store quince fruits is as follows. Fruits should be cut into small pieces and grate or chop in a blender. Then sugar is poured in a one-to-one ratio. Stored mass in the refrigerator.
- Drinks are prepared from this preparation, it is added to tea. And also from the henomeles they make jam, jam, compote. It should be borne in mind that in a chopped state, fruits quickly acquire a dark shade, as they contain iron.
Despite the fact that this plant is unpretentious to the soil and climatic conditions of cultivation, try to choose zoned varieties for your area.
The best varieties of quince for the Moscow region should have good winter hardiness and disease resistance.
- Nyvalis. Tall shrub, reaching 1.5 height, densely leafy. Blooming magnificent. Crown decorated with white flowers.
- Simonii. Ornamental shrub with a beautiful and lush crown. A shrub of this variety is blooming with red flowers, like a Japanese quince. Fruits yellow-green fruits.
- Geysha Gerl. Tall shrub - up to 1.5 m. Crohn spreading. Blossoms double flowers peach or cream color.
- Pink Ledi. Srednerosly, fast-growing shrub that easily and easily tolerates pruning. It grows well in both sunny and shade area. Blooms pink or crimson flowers.
- Charm (Beauty). One of the most decorative types. Crohn powerful, sprawling, flowers purple color. The height of shrubs varieties charm - 1.5-2 m.
- Muskat. Samoplodny variety that does not need trees pollinators. It is highly resistant to frost. Maintains a drop to -35 ° C.
- Teplovskaya. It is characterized by late ripening. Srednerosly tree with high yields and long-term storage of fruit.
- Common. One of the most common varieties suitable for cultivation in the northern zone and in the suburbs. It belongs to tall varieties - reaches 5 m in height, yields are high - up to 50-60 kg of fruits from one plant.
Planting and caring for the Japanese quince in the suburbs begins with a careful selection of the location for the seedling. The future growth, flowering and fruiting of the tree will depend on this.
This shrub grows well under the sun, where there are no drafts. In bright light, it will bloom and thinner a pleasant aroma.
This culture is undemanding to the soil. It can grow on loamy or sandy sandy earth. The main thing is that the soil acidity level is neutral.
Planting is performed in a place with a deep passage of groundwater, otherwise the risk of rotting of the roots is high.
Selection of planting material
Given that the quince very quickly develop roots, for cultivation should take seedlings no older than two years. You can use seedlings with both closed and open roots. When buying plants with open roots, conduct a thorough inspection for damage and disease of the roots. Saplings with closed roots root more easily and are comfortable when planting.
Variety Nyvalis has a beautiful white bloom and reaches 1.5 meters in height
- Quince should be planted in the spring after the heat stabilizes and the soil warms to 10-12 ° C.
- If you plan to group plant, observe the distance between the trees. Plants intended for fruiting and garden decoration should be planted at a distance of 1-1.5 m. If it is a hedge, then trees can be planted at a distance of 0.7-0.8 m.
- To plant a Japanese quince, you should dig a hole about 40 cm deep and up to 50 cm in diameter.
- During planting, the pit is filled with a nutrient mixture of garden soil, 5 kg of humus, 1 cup of wood ash and the same amount of superphosphate.
- To prevent roasting of the roots, the nutrient composition is powdered with 5 cm of a layer of garden soil.
- Seedlings are planted vertically, the roots straighten and sprinkled with earth. The root collar when planting should be flush with the soil surface.
After planting, the soil in the area of the wheel circle is compacted, then the plant is watered abundantly (1 bucket for 1 specimen) and mulched with peat or humus.
Care in a period of rapid growth
Japanese quince requires competent and timely care in the process of growth, otherwise you will not be able to achieve a good harvest and decorative flowering in the future.
This culture likes abundant watering. During the spring and autumn period, it must be watered several times. The first soil moistening is carried out at the beginning of the growing season (in early spring). The plant is re-watered at the stage of the formation of flower buds and after it has faded.
In abundant watering the tree needs during the formation of ovaries and pouring fruit. The last moistening of the tree trunk and roots is carried out in late autumn - a month before the expected frosts. Several pails of water are poured under one plant, thus providing it with increased resistance to winter frosts.
Despite the fact that the Japanese quince belongs to winter-hardy plants, the young shrub is still required to provide good protection for the winter. Pristvolny circle sprinkled with mulch - peat, rotted manure, fir spruce or sawdust. Crown trees covered with cardboard or wooden box.
Quince shrub care involves an annual haircut. After planting, all shoots of the plant are shortened by a third in length to stimulate the emergence of new branches.
The following year, the frozen, broken and dried shoots are cut, as well as those that thicken the crown and grow at the wrong angle. Sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring, and formative - in the autumn.
Quince bush can be given any shape
The first bushes are fed two years after planting. First, organic fertilizers are applied under the shrub (compost, rotted manure or a solution of bird droppings). Such a top dressing is carried out in early spring and autumn after leaf fall, then the soil is digged.
Mineral components make three times per season:
- at the beginning of the growing season - a month after making organic,
- before flowering,
- two weeks before the start of the formation of the ovaries.
Potassium salt and superphosphate are used as mineral fertilizers. Bring in the field of the circle of the trunk circle, then produce abundant watering.
Preventive measures are as follows:
- regular inspection of plants for the invasion of parasites and the appearance of diseases,
- keeping the site clean (timely removal of weeds, seasonal digging),
- autumn processing of pristvolny circles with hydrated lime,
- pruning of all rotten, withered and frostbitten branches,
- spring and autumn treatment of the crown with insecticides and fungicides.
"Fundazol" - a common fungicidal agent
The most dangerous pests for this tree are the shepherd, moth and weevil. If plants are planted next to other fruit plantations, they are often exposed to the invasion of spider mites, aphids, peppered moths and other parasites. You can destroy such pests with the help of fungicides of systemic action. Three-time treatment of the crown and soil around the tree circle is carried out at intervals of 10 days.
Often this fruit tree affects bacterial and fungal infections. In this case, apply the drug "Fundazol" and Bordeaux mixture.
Different kinds of rot provoke the rotting of flower buds and ovaries. To prevent this process, the crown is irrigated with drugs - “Horus”, “Kemifos”.
The Japanese quince ripens in the Moscow region in late October - early November. Harvest should be before the onset of the first frost. Otherwise, the frozen fruits will not be stored for a long time and will soon begin to rot.
After harvesting, the plants are subjected to formative pruning, fertilized, watered abundantly, and mulch pristvolny circle. All crop residues after pruning are burned in order to prevent the appearance of parasites.
Is it possible to plant a Japanese quince in the suburbs?
Although this low shrub came to our country from the East, it can perfectly take root in the middle lane our country, as well as in the suburbs and regions close to it.
Breeders have done a great job of breeding varieties of this shrub that could produce good yields, would not have a thorn on the shoots.
In total, there are about 480 varieties of Japanese quince in the world, but most of these varieties are not very frost resistant. Therefore, in our country, these varieties are not cultivated.
But still there are a number of varieties that are able to withstand frost resistance in the central regions and conditions of the Moscow region. Moreover, calling the shrub a Japanese quince, in fact, buyers are faced with four completely different types of fruiting shrubs.
Shrubs in height can reach 2.5 - 3 meters. Foliage changes its color with age: young trees have a bronze shade of foliage, but the older the tree, the greener the leaves become.
Quince flowers are large (about 4.5 - 5 cm), red in color, in the Moscow region appear on the shoots before the foliage. The following interesting detail should be noted: buds start to bloom unevenly, and the bush blooms a total of more than a month.
The first buds appear at Henomeles in the first decade of May. The fruits of the shrub are edible, their color is yellow, bright, ripened fruits in diameter reach 5.5 - 6 cm.
The shoots of the bush do not cover, even if the thermometer drops to -28 -30 degrees. True, the upper buds may suffer from such cold, but the quince itself as a whole will not suffer.
Shoots of this shrub grow slowlyduring the season they can grow by 4 - 5 cm. Propagate the bushes with root suckers, seeds, layering or cuttings.
In landscape design, Japanese quince is used as a hedge, also used in single or group plantings.
The most famous varieties of this shrub are Papel, Gailli, Malardi, Cameo.
Selection of seedlings
For spring planting is better to take enough adult seedlings (older than 1.5 years). Usually young plants are sold with a closed root system, so when they are planted, the root system is almost not damaged, and the Japanese quince is quickly rooted in a new place.
The dimensions of the landing hole should be as follows: in radius 25 cm, and in depth - 80 cm.
Landing in the ground
The landing process is as follows:
- In the landing hole first fall asleep nutrient mixtureconsisting of 10 kg of humus, 500 g of ash and 300 g of phosphate fertilizer.
- From above the mixture is covered with a layer of earth (7–8 cm thick).
- The seedling is carefully placed in the hole so that the root collar is at ground level.
- Then fill the pit with soil. to ground level.
- Under each bush should be made 10 liters of water.
Spring follows release quinces from cover. The first two seasons of the shrub does not need additional feedings, but in the third year 1.5 tablespoons of ammonium fertilizer should be added to each bush.
Bushes practically are not damaged by pests and do not suffer from diseasestherefore, preventive spraying of the shoots is usually not carried out.
In the autumn after harvest, phosphate fertilizers should be applied to each quince. And pruning scrub if necessary.
Under the conditions of the Moscow region, quince bushes usually do not cover for the winter, but young saplings still need to be taken care of - the bushes are covered with lapnik branches for the first few years after planting, and wooden or plastic boxes are covered from above. From above you can fall asleep foliage or sawdust.
Shaped pruning Chaenomeles begin to carry out with the fourth season, as only at this age the shoots from the bushes begin to branch. Cut out the shoots that grow inside the bush, the excess shoots growing from the roots, leaving no more than 3 young stems annually. Stems that grow along the ground are also pruned.
Remove all weak and thin branches, leaving in the bush no more than 10 shoots. In the process of pruning should be left fairly young branches (which are 4 years old), older plants should be removed.
Japanese quince is a beautiful ornamental shrub, which also produces tasty and healthy fruits. With the right care, it can grow in one place up to 35 - 40 years, delighting with its flowering and good yields.
Despite the fact that the eastern guest came from Japan, the Japanese quince feels great in the Moscow region and in conditions of central Russia. This small shrub belongs to the genus Chhenomelos, family Rosaceae. The extraordinarily attractive decorative appearance of the plant in combination with tasty fruits quickly made it one of the most popular crops not only in gardening, but also in landscape design.
The bush possesses magnificent flowers differing in a form and a color palette, and not less attractive various leaves. Quince flowers are quite large, with a terry structure. The color and shape of the inflorescences depends on the variety, as well as the external characteristics of the leaf plates. Depending on the climatic conditions of the growing region, the bush can reach up to 3 m in height. In the conditions of the temperature zone of our region, most often there are small bushes, about one and a half meters high, with unusual bright flowers and leaves.
Quince shoots are flexible and elastic, depending on the variety can be covered with small spikes. As the plant grows and develops, the color changes from green to brown. Fruit ripening occurs in autumn. Bright yellow large fruits with a hilly skin are also called “northern lemon”. And the truth is, in terms of the content of ascorbic acid, the fruit is only slightly inferior to citrus. The tart taste and firm, almost juice-free pulp deprives the fruit of the attractiveness of fresh consumption, but quince jams and compotes turn out to be simply delicious.
Japanese quince skoroplodnaya and self-pollinating, bears fruit regularly. В основном сорта культуры теплолюбивые, но некоторые могут выдерживать довольно низкие температуры.
Выбираем сорта и саженцы
Today in the world there are about 480 varieties of Japanese quince, but only a small number of them are suitable for cultivation in mid-latitudes. For the Moscow region varieties of quince should be chosen based on the ability of shrubs to tolerate cold and frost. Interspecific hybrids are good for the region. The best varieties: Nivalis, Pink Lady, Geisha Girl, Simony, Piccadilly, Nikolin. These fast growing, well lined shrubs of medium size have an attractive appearance and lend themselves well to formation.
Quince has a fairly extensive and deep root system, so seedlings need to choose young, not older than two years. Ornamental varieties are usually sold in special containers or pots. But other plants are better to choose with closed roots. So you will not only ensure the integrity of the roots and protect them from drying out, but also contribute to the rapid rooting and adaptation of the seedling.
Preparing a place for landing
It is recommended to plant a quince in spring, at the end of April, when the air and the soil are warm enough. First of all, you need to choose the right place. Often the shrub is planted in shaded places, which affects its development and subsequent fruiting. Therefore, the place should be sunny, protected from drafts, with a deep occurrence of groundwater.
Optimally chosen place guarantees lush color, bountiful harvest and sweet fruit.
Special soil for the plant is not necessary, but the acidity should not exceed the average. It is also better to choose areas with loose soil, which will ensure normal air circulation and evaporation of moisture. If the groundwater lies too close to the surface, then you need to take care of quality reliable drainage.
The soil is recommended to prepare in the fall. To do this, they dig up the land in the plot, clean weeds and other plants, sprinkle with leaf earth and sand and fertilize with organic and mineral fertilizers. If the acidity level is higher, then slaked lime or lime flour is additionally added.
The process of planting a Japanese variety is no different from planting a quince. You need to follow the following rules, and all you get:
- If you plant several shrubs at once, keep the necessary distance: fruit-bearing trees at a distance of 1–1.5 m, for decoration - up to 1 m.
- The dimensions of the hole should not be less than 40 cm in diameter and half a meter in depth.
- For a better growth, ⅓ pits need to be filled with a nutrient mixture consisting of ash, superphosphate and humus.
- The roots of the plant should not be in contact with fertilizers, so the dressing is filled with a layer of soil.
- The seedling is placed in the middle of the pit so that the root neck is flush with the surface.
- The roots gently straighten and fall asleep soil, slightly tamping.
- After disembarkation, the bush must be plentifully watered
- If there is a need, then the trunk zone is mulched.
Although the quince tree is rather unpretentious, it needs regular maintenance. Timely and properly carried out agrotechnical procedures contribute not only to the development of the bush, but also its productivity.
First of all, you need to take care of regular and sufficient moisture. Quince loves moisture, so it needs abundant watering. Especially in the heat and in the absence of precipitation. There are varieties that tolerate frosts up to 30 ° C, but during severe winters, the plant is better to cover, after bending the shoots to the ground. For the shelter you can use spruce branches or special covering material.
Do not forget about sanitary and formative pruning. For the formation of a bush can be cut several times a season, sanitary pruning is carried out in the spring, before the sap. Also regularly need to cut dry and affected shoots. In the first year, feeding a quince is not necessary: it will be enough fertilizer made during planting.
But starting from the second year, the plant is fed with different types of fertilizer, according to the growing season. Liquid fertilizers are not suitable for Japanese quince, therefore it is better to use wood ash, leaf humus, granulated or dry mineral mixtures (nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium). For mulching, you can use peat and sawdust.
Basically, all varieties of quince are resistant to all sorts of diseases and pests. However, if your shrub grows with other fruit trees, it is unlikely that you will be able to avoid the attack of parasites.
Apple shchitovka, weevil, leaf-worm, aphid and mites can easily destroy not only the crop, but also the plant as a whole. Therefore, you should regularly carry out preventive measures that will save the tree from fungal infections and parasites. Bordeaux liquid and fungicides effectively cope with this problem. You also need time to remove the leaves, dry and damaged shoots and rotten fruit, dig the soil.
We hope that our recommendations will help to make your garden more perfect.
Japanese Quince Characteristic
Among other plantations, chaenomeles bushes stand out due to their bright colors. At the same time they serve as a garden decoration, blooming up to 3–4 cm in diameter in flowers, very often of the original color, with double petals. Hue, like the shape, mainly depends on the variety, so when choosing plantings to make it dominant on the plot, it is necessary to take this factor into account.
Petals of Japanese quince inflorescences can be:
- pear shaped,
Often there are varieties with toothed at the edges of the petals, which, taking into account the size and color of the inflorescences looks original. The branches of the plant may have spinous processes, scaly, adult shoots as they grow acquire a dark, black-brown color. Possessing a good immunity and resistance to most diseases typical of culture, the planting grows and develops for several decades.
After planting in a permanent place, the first fruits ripen in 3-4 years. Fruiting shrub uniform, on average every year with good care can collect about 3-3.5 kg. Harvest ripening occurs in the autumn months; in appearance, quince in size resembles an apple familiar to everyone, differing from it in a hilly skin and bright yellow color. The fruit pulp is tart with a sourish flavor, therefore, in most cases, the henomeles harvest is used to create jam, candied fruit, marshmallow, jams.
Japanese quince: varieties for the Moscow region
The form of shrubs is sprawling, branches grow magnificently, like arches. Japanese quince and its varieties for the Moscow region:
- Vitamin - a compact structure, the fruits are yellow, resistant to frost, prolonged cold.
- Aromatic - the weight of the fruit may exceed 50 g, cold-resistant, height reaches 1.5 m.
- Muscat quince - large fruits up to 200 g, self-pollinating, winter-hardy.
- Teplovskaya - ripens late, the fruits are well preserved, the plant is unpretentious.
- Nikitskaya - bushes grow moderately, ripening early, long storage of fruits.
Also a good choice would be bred interspecific hybrids of the Japanese quince, especially characterized by winter hardiness. They are guaranteed to take root and bear fruit in the suburbs:
- Simony - flowers expressive, slightly muted-red, fruits of a gentle greenish shade, bush shady.
- Nivalis - strong shrub with dense foliage, which reaches a height of about 1.5 m, white flowers.
- Geisha Girl - a plant high, pompous, peach-colored inflorescences, it is also possible the manifestation of a light cream shade.
- Pink Lady - go fast in growth, compact form, crimson or soft pink inflorescences, tolerates pruning, holds a given shape, can grow in a shaded place.
When and how to plant a Japanese quince in the suburbs
Choosing the right place - the main point that you need to pay special attention. Chaenomeles prefers to grow in an area that meets the following requirements:
- lack of drafts, strong wind,
- loose light soil
- low humidity
- acidity is not higher than pH 6.5.
On a sunny sheltered area, the shrub grows beautifully, its flowers will be especially bright, and given to many more fragrant and sweeter.
Japanese quince has strong roots that penetrate deep into the soil. Therefore, seedlings not older than 1.5-2 years old are used for planting or transferring to a new place. It is desirable that the root system was closed or the young plant was in the pot. Such conditions guarantee the simplicity of planting and provide the bush with an opportunity to easily transfer the procedure due to the presence of a “native” substrate on the roots.
Recommendations for planting Japanese quince in the suburbs
Planting seedlings requires compliance with certain conditions, without which the bush can die:
- Standard pit sizes are about 45–50 cm deep and 35–40 cm in diameter.
- Planting can be carried out after the soil is fully heated, somewhere in the 2-3 month of spring.
- If henomeles is used to create an original hedge, the distance between sprouts is 0.7–0.8 m, for decorating the garden and fruiting - 1–1.5 m.
- The landing pit must be filled with a mixture of ash (500 g), humus (1 bucket) and superphosphate (300 g).
Then the plant is established vertically with the location of the root collar parallel to the soil, the roots are straightened and sprinkled. In conclusion, the layer of earth is slightly compacted. It remains only to pour out carefully under the root of 10–13 l of water, it is possible to carry out the mulching of the trunk circle.
Different types of pruned Japanese quince
The sharp spines of the Japanese quince sometimes hurt hands during pruning, therefore, in order to make the work less painful, you need to buy protective gloves. Pruning shrubs begins in the spring, and it is classified as sanitary. From the gardener is required to remove not survived the winter dried and broken branches.
After the quince reaches 8 years of age, it is time to rejuvenate pruning. Visually determine the need for the procedure will help the slow growth of the bush, over the course of the year it no longer drags up so actively, the branches grow 10–11 cm from strength. During rejuvenation, thin, weak and too long shoots are removed. During thinning only 3-4 year old branches are left, older and younger material is cut off.
Formative pruning also requires considerable attention, on which the aesthetic appearance of the plant depends. It can be done only after 4 years, when the bush begins to branch out. Root growth is cut, making the bush more slender, not allowing it to grow in breadth, as well as internal fruitless shoots. It is desirable that all sections still fresh, in order to exclude the possibility of infection, can be treated with special means, it is possible to use a garden cook.
Breeding methods for quince bushes
There are several breeding options for the Japanese quince. Knowing about them, each gardener can choose the most suitable method for him.
The use of seeds in this case is considered quite impractical, since the daughter plant, especially if it is a hybrid, loses most of its characteristics. The method is effective, but it is mainly used for growing rootstocks, which are recaptured a little later.
Planting material can be simply buried in a suitable protected dry area, covered with fallen leaves and polyethylene. The place is marked with a flag or pegs and awaits the appearance of shoots. Seeds can also be sown in small boxes in early February, growing them like seedlings, not forgetting to stratify before this if spring material is used.
After incomplete 1.5–1.7 months, the material is transplanted into cups, then with June warming, plantings can be transferred to the site. This is followed by a series of treatments: watering, fertilization, winter warming foliage. Since the germination is typical for henomeles, thinning of seedlings is inevitable.
They are engaged in cuttings in June – early July, performing the following operations:
- Cut the cuttings with a piece of old wood, the so-called "heel".
- All sections are soaked with the stimulating drug "Kornevin" with the presence of acid, due to which accelerated engraftment occurs.
- A mini-bed of the school is created, where the cuttings are carefully planted. Terms of growing depend on the intensity of growth of stands.
- It is necessary to create high humidity, film coating helps to achieve this effect.
In autumn, but best of all in spring, sprouts can be transplanted. A simplified variant of grafting is cutting of planting material in the fall and planting them under a native shrub. The place is indicated in the spring with a good survival rate of the plant can be seated permanently.
A very simple and affordable method to avoid risks and ensure that the Japanese quince (varieties for the suburbs) completely inherit the characteristics of the parent bush. It is enough to take the root growth of an adult plant and transplant it into the ground. In fact, these are ready-made young bushes, requiring at an initial stage only standard care, which consists of feeding, mulching and watering.
Creeping shoots on the ground surface is not always necessary to cut. Such shoots are used for the reproduction of the bush, burying them. After some time, seedlings with independent root system appear from the material, and they are transplanted. In the same way, to obtain otvodok come with the lower horizontally growing shoots.
Typical quince diseases and pests
Chaenomeles has an excellent immune system, can resist most pests and diseases. But since the Japanese quince is adjacent to other plantations, the confluence of negative circumstances may affect. Particularly dangerous is rainy weather, high humidity provokes the development of the following fungal diseases:
- Ramulariasis - is characterized by the formation of brown spots on the leaves,
- cercosporiosis - dark brown unsightly spots appear that gradually brighten,
- necrosis - drying of the leaves due to the appearance of gray bloom along the edges.
The neighborhood with fruit trees threatens to infect with an apple shield; fragrant buds attract a moth or weevil. Ticks, peppered moths, as well as other most common and tenacious pests are possible.
Protection of plants from such a scourge in the first place can provide preventive work in the spring and before hibernation, during which the Japanese quince is sprayed with special solutions. Against bacteria and at the same time diseases provoked by a fungus, treatment with copper sulphate or Bordeaux liquid helps. You can also use specially developed plant fungicides (Fundazol). Rescue flowers from rotting provide drugs Horus and Kemifos.
If the Japanese quince is planted exclusively for decorating or dividing the site into zones, and its fruits are not consumed, spraying of bushes is carried out repeatedly, if necessary several times during the season. After the ripening of a diseased plant, fruits are collected and pruned, removing diseased and overly damaged branches completely. It is also preferable to thoroughly clean the ground to burn the fallen leaves in order to prevent the larvae of pests and disease spores from spring to attack the henomeles again.
How to ensure the safety of the fruit of the Japanese quince
The fruits of Japanese quince are valuable in high content of vitamin C, because of this they are sour, but they have an excellent aroma, firm. In early October, when the crop ripens, it is important to ensure its safety, especially as the bushes bear fruit every year without fluctuations in quantity.
In general, the quince is laid in boxes, trying to avoid blows, not to damage the skin. The temperature in the room or basement, where they will be located, should be kept within 1-3 ° C. In 3–3.5 months a similar regime will await a surprise for the hosts; the fruits will become sweet, soft and even more fragrant. Now they can be safely used, used for compotes, creating delicious preserves.
Those who prefer sour taste of fruits and do not want to wait for their transformation can recommend the following storage method:
- Clean and wash the resulting crop.
- Cut and core.
- Grind or grate until smooth.
- Mix with sugar in proportion 1/1.
The resulting mass is packaged in containers and stored in the freezer or refrigerator. It is used for baking, boiling jams, compote, as a delicious additive to tea. Darkening of the pieces immediately during processing is not a sign of the poor state of the workpiece. This is a normal process and it occurs due to the high iron content in fruits.
The benefits of Japanese quince
The high content of vitamin C, PP, A, E, group B and many others in fruit, as well as pectin, carotene, fiber, essential oils, tartronic acid, iron, magnesium, allows for regular use of:
- stabilize the bowels,
- strengthen the vessels, especially the capillaries,
- cleanse the body of heavy metals, other harmful substances,
- strengthen bones, improve teeth and gums.
Inclusion in the diet of processed or raw Japanese quince fruit normalizes cholesterol levels, strengthens the immune system, ensuring resistance to inflammation and cold.
Будучи переваренными в компот или варенье свежие плоды нормализуют стул, служат натуральным мочегонным. Отвар показан больным с проблемами ЖКТ, избавляет от малокровия, используется для выведения мокрот, лечения гнойничков, в качестве примочек для усталых глаз.
Однако в некоторых случаях употребление фруктов не приветствуется. В рацион детей их включают только с 3-х лет из-за опасности вызвать аллергическую реакцию. The rich content of henomeles requires careful handling, it can not be consumed very much, especially not fully matured specimens. Although quince help to strengthen immunity, fight tracheitis, colds and infectious diseases is invaluable, it is advisable not to use it for people involved in singing, declaring, whose work requires a large load on the vocal cords.
It is also worth exercising caution, with a tendency to constipation, to further aggravate the situation. Frequent use of quince blood thickens, which threatens to cause significant harm with a tendency to thrombosis. Homemade fruit-based cosmetics also require careful handling. Before you apply a cream or mask, be sure to test for the possibility of an allergic reaction.
Video "Growing Japanese Quince"
From this video, you will learn what a Japanese quince is and how to grow it.
Japanese quince, or henomeles (Chaenomeles) - not only decorative, but also a fruit plant. It is a shrub with a thick crown and beautiful glossy leaves. Chaenomeles japanese (Ch. Japonica) can grow up to 2 and even 3 m, and henomeles Mauleya (Ch. Maulei), also called low Japanese quince, up to 1 m. In May, the bushes are covered with numerous large bright flowers rare red-orange flowers. There are varieties with other original flower color. For example, the description of varieties of Japanese quince, such as ‘Nivalis’, is characterized by white petals, and ‘Pink Lady’ is pink.
Japanese Quince varieties: photos and description of shrubs
Chaenomeles develops and blooms better in the open, but it also tolerates partial shade. When planting a Japanese quince, you need to take into account the fact that in severe winters the branches above the snow cover are covered with ice. Chhenomeles are propagated with green cuttings, offspring and layering, species - by seeds.
Chaenomeles planted in groups on the lawn
Japanese quince shrub looks good as a tamping to higher plants.
For example, the henomeles can cover the exposed barrels of the pince-necks.
Those who decide to plant this plant should pay attention to some very important features in the description of the Japanese quince. First of all, henomeles is a heat-loving plant, therefore experts consider regions with a mild climate to be favorable areas for its growth. If planting and caring for Japanese quince in northern latitudes, where the temperature can drop to -30 ° C, is assumed, it should be taken into account that the part of the shrub that will be under the snow will surely bloom in spring, but the annual shoots or buds above the level of snow cover is unlikely to give a lush color.
However, even such a bit capricious and demanding characteristics in the description of the Japanese quince shrub do not stop skilled gardeners, because the plant has a number of other features and advantages:
- for example, smooth, small, lush green leaves are characteristic of chhenomeles,
- however, besides the leaves of the quince there are also spines, reaching up to 2 cm in length,
- fruits, resembling pears or apples, are not very large in size - about 3-5 cm - and are located on the surface of the shoots,
- in landscape design, the Japanese quince will delight the eye from May until about mid-June (flowering lasts about 20 days), when pink, white or red-orange buds will bloom.
After reviewing the description, look at the photos of the Japanese quince shrub in order to understand what forms and colors this plant has:
Due to the fact that today there are many varieties of Japanese quince, these gardeners and just wanting to decorate their land, can choose the kind of plants that will appeal.
You can see in the photo a variety of Japanese quince, which is distinguished by its beauty and is very popular among connoisseurs - this is “Pink Lady”. It is characterized by a wide crown and pink or saturated pink flowers. And the height of the shrub is only 1.5 m.
In May and at the end of the summer - August - henomeles “Nivalis” becomes covered with wonderful white buds. It can grow in width and in height to 2 m.
Pay attention to the picture of the Japanese quince «Hollandia»: This plant has red-orange flowers, dark green leaves and a broad crown. The henomeles can bloom twice - in May and in August.
Such a plant variety as “Vesuvius” is considered to be very miniature: it does not grow above 1 m. Despite this, his fire buds delightfully fit into any garden.
If you look at a photo of a Japanese quince bush called "Crimson and Gold", then also join those people who consider it one of the most beautiful varieties. The color of the flowers in the plant is simply gorgeous - rich scarlet buds with yellowish stamens. And this beauty is most often used by real gardeners to create a hedge, as this variety does not require pruning.
But the henomeles "Jet Trail", unlike Crimson and Gold, it spreads along the ground and decorates any lawn with wonderful white flowers. Moreover, the variety is completely devoid of spines.
French breeders tried very hard when they brought out the variety "Simone". This shrub has red-crimson flowers, brings green fruits and differs lambing shoots almost round shape.
And if you want to get the most real bonsai tree in your garden, stop choosing the variety “Rubra”. Just keep in mind that in order to do this, you will have to carefully monitor its appearance and regularly trim it when caring for a Japanese quince.
Resistant varieties of Japanese quince for the Moscow region
Given the climatic and soil specificity of the Moscow region, experts advise a careful approach to the choice of a particular variety of this plant. For the Moscow region, Japanese quince varieties should differ, first of all, in their resistance. Therefore, one should pay attention to interspecific hybrids of henomeles and breeding varieties.
For example, a Japanese quince called Zubutlinskaya would be a suitable option for residents in the Moscow region. It brings large fruits, is frost resistant and resistant to various diseases. In addition, the plant is not afraid of the northern winds. And, by the way, very tasty jam and juices are made from fruits.
In addition to the named variety, you can still experiment with the cultivation of Japanese quince, which is called "Nicoline". Since it is very resistant to low temperatures and gives a lush bloom in the form of scarlet flowers, this type of henomeles will be an interesting solution for your landscape design.
Another frost-resistant option, which is distinguished by a beautiful pale pink color, is the Pink Lady variety already known to you. Adult plant reaches no more than 1.2 m.
Growing and caring for Japanese quince in the open field: how to plant a shrub
To know how to plant a Japanese quince, carefully read the following recommendations from experienced gardeners. In principle, henomeles is distinguished by a certain capriciousness and exactingness only at a young age. During this period, the plant is very necessary moderate moisture, which implies the absence of stagnant moisture.
Further similar difficulties should not arise. True, we must still take into account that in poor light the plant may not bloom so luxuriantly and will hardly bear fruit.
How to plant a Japanese quince so that it pleases you with its delicate flowers? As you may have guessed, you should choose a place for landing sufficiently lit.
Next, do not forget that in the winter time the plant should be under the snow. Therefore, find a place where a massive snow cover is formed. And if you have snow storms are very frequent guests, do not forget to cover the bush with spruce branches or fallen leaves.
A very characteristic feature of the plant is that it can grow well and grow on almost any soil. So if you plant a shrub on wet clay or poor sandy soil, Japanese quince will be fine and will give a lush color. But this will happen only if the land is moderately wet, as mentioned earlier, and rich in humus.
Only on such soils as calcareous and saline, henomeles will not be able to grow. Note that alkaline soil will cause leaf chlorosis.
It is best to plant a Japanese quince on the site, which is located on the southern side of a country house, or in a secluded corner, which is well protected from the north winds.
Pay attention to the photo of the Japanese quince: if the planting was done correctly, your plant will give a similar fertile color:
It is necessary to remember that if you decide to plant a shrub in the spring, you need to prepare the soil in the fall. To do this, completely clear the area of weeds, if any, and keep the selected area under the black steam until planting. Fertilizers such as peat-vodka compost in a volume of 10kg / m2, potash and phosphorus fertilizers in a volume of 40 g / m2 are necessarily applied to the soil. This contributes to the creation of the necessary water and air-permeable ball of the earth.
If you want to decorate your garden with a plant with an open root system, and plant it in a permanent place, select the time for planting in the spring, when the soil is already thawed, but the buds do not start to bud. In the fall, it is also possible to plant a Japanese quince, but since henomeles is thermophilic, he may suffer or even die.
Be sure to consider a photo of a Japanese quince, whose care and planting assumes that the shrub will be planted in small groups or along the paths in order to form a low hedge:
In such cases, each plant should be located at a distance of one and a half meters from each other, if they are collected in a row, and at a distance of up to 1 meter, if the quince forms a group.
Planting Japanese quince in the open field is considered to be wrong: the root neck of the shrub must be located at ground level, but the root should never be bare! It is also important that the root neck, which is too deep in the ground, does not contribute to slowing the growth of henomeles.
Remember that this plant responds very badly to transplantation, and an experienced gardener will never disturb him again. It is known that in one place quince can give a lush color up to 60 years.
Well, when henomeles is already planted, it's time to think about how to grow a Japanese quince healthy and beautiful.
In order for the plant to bloom magnificently and in the summer, around it carefully loosen the soil at a depth of about 10 cm. This procedure is combined with the destruction of weeds.
For an even more effective result, which you will see if you look at the photo, in the care of Japanese quince, they use such a method as mulching - that is, covering the ground with a layer of mulch (peat, sawdust or crushed bark) to protect the shrub:
To apply this method, it is better to stock up with all necessary things in late spring and carry out the procedure while the ground is still quite wet, but it is already well warmed up. In the autumn, mulching is performed only when a constant low temperature has already been established.
In the cultivation and care of the Japanese quince, which was planted a year ago, gardeners do not recommend the use of liquid dressings that can easily injure young roots. And without the use of these funds, the plant will have enough nutrients in the planting fossa. And now, in the second or third year, when spring comes and the snow melts, experts advise to apply organic and mineral fertilizers.
They will contribute to the lush color and fruiting, which you can observe in the photo of the Japanese quince, the cultivation of which was also carried out using fertilizers in the form of liquid dressings:
Reproduction of Japanese quince with seeds and cuttings
It is the seeds that are considered the simplest and proven by tens of generations of gardeners to reproduce the Japanese quince. You need to know that when already ripe fruits are sent for processing and clean the core, large brown seeds can not be disposed of, but left for further sowing. They are sown in the soil in the fall.
This method is so loved by many people, because, thanks to him, it is guaranteed you can get dense shoots next spring. But if you failed to realize your plans in the said period, you will have to plant seeds for stratification - a long aging (2-3 months) in peat or moist soil at a temperature of + 3 + 5 ° C. In the spring, the seeds, of course, are transferred to the ground.
You can resort to another method - reproduction of Japanese quince cuttings. However, experts say that this method is considered less effective. In most cases, the cutting procedure is used to preserve the varietal qualities of chaenomeles.
Pay attention to the photo so that the cultivation and care of the Japanese quince in the future will not become a problematic and unloved task for you:
Remember, these green cuttings are usually harvested in early June, while the weather is dry but not hot. Be sure to cut them early in the morning. Gardeners say that the most effective rooting - 80% guarantee - are cuttings cut with a small piece of last year's wood. They are also called "with the heel." To stimulate growth, a solution of indolylbutyric acid with 0.01% is used.
The cuttings must be planted obliquely in a mixture of peat and sand (the required ratio is 1: 3). If the temperature outside is kept within + 20 + 25 ° С, then rooting can easily occur in 40 days.
How to propagate a Japanese quince with scions
Since the plant always gives a lot of root offspring, you can use them. How to propagate the Japanese quince in a similar way, experienced gardeners have long known. For this, shoots of about 10–15 cm are selected. They are at least 0.5 cm long and must be made sure that the rhizome system is well developed in offsprings. Then they are vertically planted and watered regularly so that the soil retains the necessary moisture. Then they resort to the already familiar mulching procedure - they cover the soil around the plant with chips, shavings or humus. True, one disadvantage of henomeles grown in this way is: it has been observed that the plant produces fruits of a smaller size than its counterparts, propagated by seeds or cuttings.
But there is a special plus in this situation: with this method of breeding, the Japanese quince very often then spreads in different directions and at the age of 20 years can occupy an area of up to 2 m2. This is very beneficial in those cases if you want, for example, to hold the soil on any slopes.
Cultivation of the Japanese quince in the Moscow region: planting, care and pruning
A very valuable feature of the Japanese henomeles is that he loves to “perk up” very much. Truth, gardeners are in no hurry to approach the plant spines. They do this only when they arm themselves with thick garden gloves - leggings.
The Japanese quince in spring is in need of sanitary pruning: during this period all dry shoots that have died from frost should be carefully removed. To do this, you can use ordinary well-sharpened tools - garden saws and pruners. After the procedure, be sure to handle the place cut garden pitch.
But how to cut a Japanese quince, if it is associated with the formation of a bush that begins at the age of 4-5 years? First, the procedure is carried out in early spring. Annually cut part of the root growth.
Only 2-3 scions are left for further growth. It is desirable that these be exactly horizontal shoots that are at a height of up to 40 cm from the ground. Other shoots, spreading along the ground or growing vertically, are boldly removed.
Another type of pruning, which is indicated in the description of planting and caring for Japanese quince in the Moscow region, is a rejuvenating procedure. It is used when the plant reaches the age of 8-10 years. Gardeners understand that the time has come for this pruning, when the annual growth is reduced to 10 cm.
The procedure is carried out as follows: the shrub is thinned, all thin and weak branches are removed, and only a dozen strong shoots are left.
Look at the photos of beautiful varieties of Japanese quince, the description of which is presented above - for them such a pest as aphid is the most terrible threat:
If you find these monsters on the plants that are in your garden, immediately use special tools.
No less vicious and dangerous enemy for henomeles is wet, cool weather, which causes many fungal diseases:
- if the plant has necrosis and numerous spots have appeared on the leaves, this is a sure sign that the Japanese quince may soon die,
- in cases where henomeles is affected by cercoplasia, all sorts of brown spots appear on it, turning pale with time,
- brown spots are a sign of ramulariasis.
What, then, must be done to save the plant? Необходимо срочно воспользоваться наиболее действенным средством – опрыскать кустарник раствором фундозола (0,2 %) или применить медно-мыльную жидкость, которая делается путем добавления в 10 л мыльной воды 100 г медного купороса.
Данные средства считаются достаточно опасными, поэтому существует еще один вариант: можно сделать настойку из репчатого лука, а для этого нужно настоять 24 часа 150 г шелухи в 10 л воды. Отфильтровав препарат, им сбрызгивается растение в течение целого лета через каждые 5 суток.
Кустарник японская айва в ландшафтном дизайне (с фото)
After reading the description of the Japanese quince and looking at photos of various varieties of this plant, which are presented below, you can make sure that the henomeles can be considered one of the most magnificent ornamental shrubs:
Each variety is distinguished by its unique color range of buds (from delicate snow-white to massive fiery-red), which literally shimmer in the sun. And the fruits that reach the Japanese quince, resemble either outlandish pears, or amazing fabulous apples.
Moreover, the henomeles of many avid gardeners are attracted by the fact that it retains its regal appearance for a long time. Certain varieties can live up to 50 years! An amazing plant blooms in spring, pleasing the eye and bringing pleasure to the inhabitants of a country house, and in the summer and autumn shares its succulent fruits.
Japanese undersized quince is very often used for landscaping garden paths. This species does not grow above 1 meter. In addition, in May and early June, chaenomeles begins to be covered with orange-red flowers, which look very advantageous in any garden.
To create hedges Japanese quince also fits perfectly. It can be seen and single-seated, and collected in small groups, which very often create the most genuine artistic compositions.
In the garden henomeles looks great on a trunk - a vertical or inclined element in the shape of a letter. To obtain the desired result, the plant should be grafted with cuttings on a pear or rowan.
Look at the photo of the Japanese quince in landscape design: when you design a territory, be sure to consider the following points:
- for example, to create an alpine slide, you can combine henomeles with dwarf spruce, varietal thuja or slate pine,
- if you plant shrubs along the garden path through every one and a half meters, you get a whole picturesque ensemble,
- in combination with daffodils and Carpathian bells, Japanese quince helps to add bright colors to the landscape design.
In fact, there are many options for composite solutions with the landing of the Japanese henomeles. Much depends only on the fantasy of the gardener. So - do not be afraid to experiment!