Foliar nutrition - one of the most important procedures in the care of tomatoes. What they have in mind is that they get all the necessary nutrients through the leaves. To do this, use the methods of wiping and spraying the ground part of the plant. They are relevant to both open and closed ground. The foliar feeding of tomatoes is carried out in these two cases in completely different ways.
What do fertilizers apply for?
Fertilization in this way allows you to strengthen the stems, accelerate the formation of ovaries and increase their number. This is especially necessary if the bush is very weak. This is a great alternative to ineffective ground irrigation with mineral solutions, because even the roots are poorly absorbed by the roots, not to mention the nutrients themselves.
This method helps to quickly revive the hive, eliminate and prevent the following diseases:
- gray rot
- late blight,
- necrosis of the stem,
- black leg, etc.
Most of the newly planted seedlings need top-dressing. Its effectiveness is quite high due to the ingress of the solution directly on the stems.
Due to the composition of the leaves and the stem, the fertilizer is not washed out during irrigation, due to which the growth of the bush is markedly accelerated and the fruitage improves, the tomatoes become more tasty, juicy and beautiful.
When is held
Fertilization in this way can not replace irrigation, it is used only as an additional method of providing the necessary minerals for tomatoes. This problem is especially acute for bad soil, when its acidity is significantly increased (pH
The best time for such procedures will be the end of May - the beginning of June. It was during this period that the plant most needed fertilizer.
It is necessary to use them not more often 4 times a month. With fruiting frequency is reduced, enough and 1 dressing. It is desirable to spend it in the evening when the sun is no longer so active. This will avoid burning the leaves.
VIDEO: Schedule of making useful compositions
What minerals are necessary for normal tomato growth?
Tomatoes are in need of nutrition with phosphorus, potassium (ash) and nitrogen (urea). They are necessary to strengthen the roots, stems and leaves already at the stage of growing seedlings. Due to this, the yield increases by more than half. To foliar fertilizing really helped the tomatoes, you must provide them with all the minerals listed. In the abundance of them contains superphosphate granules, in which there is also calcium, magnesium, sulfur.
The growth of the crop and the amount of the crop depend on the complex of micro and macro elements introduced.
Here are what minerals are needed and what they give:
- copper - improves metabolic processes,
- manganese - accelerates the formation of ovaries,
- boric acid - stimulates the growth of buds and fruits,
- magnesium - protects the plant from aphids and other pests,
- Potassium - when it is deficient, green streaks appear on tomatoes,
- nitrogen - its deficiency leads to cracking of fruits and deterioration of their taste.
A combination of potash, nitrogen and phosphate fertilizers is allowed.
When performing foliar feeding, it is very important to strictly observe the indicated dosages, because even a slight excess of them can lead to leaf burn. You should also consider the following recommendations:
- Spraying should be carried out in a respirator and special glasses.
- The air temperature should not be less than 20 ° C and not more than 26 ° C. In this case, the plant will dry out more slowly.
- Before mass solution, it should be tried on 2-3 bushes.
- Concentrate should be prepared no earlier than 1-2 days - preferably, he infused. At this time it is necessary to stir.
- Spraying the bushes is required at room temperature fertilizer. Before that, you need to hold it in the sun for 30 minutes.
If we are talking about potassium nitrate, then you need to work with it away from the fire, because this substance is flammable. It is also necessary to store it away from direct sunlight, in a cool room, and even better to acquire the volume required for 1 procedure. It is also necessary to use rubber gloves.
Need to work in gloves and respirator
It is desirable to produce at least two foliar dressings, the first - during the appearance of the leaves, and the second - around the end of May, during the period of active flowering and the formation of fruits. The drug should be presented in liquid form (solution).
Application of the drug on the inflorescences and the ovary should be avoided, otherwise the chemicals can enter the human body by consuming tomatoes.
How to cook concentrates
For processing 200 square meters of tomato plantations need about 10 liters of solution. If necessary, watering a larger area the amount of solution increases in direct proportion. It is prepared 1-2 days before use and then stored in a warm place. Water should be at room temperature, you can warm it up a little. The fertilizer is dissolved in water poured into a plastic bucket. At the bottom there should be no sediment, for which the concentrate is stirred at this time.
Dry formulations are stirred in water until the residue is completely dissolved.
To feed tomatoes in the greenhouse, the dosage should be less by 0.1-0.3%, since tomatoes in this case absorb trace elements in much larger volumes. During the flowering period, you can prepare a solution of several components - 1.5 liters of mullein infusion, 2 tsp. superphosphate and 200 g of freshly cut grass. All this is poured 15 liters of warm water and insist two days.
Table with the right proportions for open ground:
Proportions (water and fertilizer in grams and liters)
After planting seedlings
Weak root part, a lot of aphids
In the flowering phase
Small number of ovaries
Litter (stale, otherwise you can burn the plant)
First, prepare the concentrate - 3: 1, and then 1 l of infusion is combined with 20 l of water
Anytime, especially in heat
Increased stems dryness
Before the advent of tomatoes
Slow formation of ovaries and aphid invasion
Beginning of the growing season
Mealy dew and aphid
Table of essential trace elements and their proportions:
Proportions (amount of drug and water)
Mealy dew and fall of foliage
Before the appearance of flowers and fruits
Weak growth of shoots and leaf underdevelopment
10 drops to 2 liters
Only during flowering
Pale and rotting leaves
Necessary trace elements are not able to replace organic and inorganic fertilizers, they only complement them.
How to feed tomatoes
To successfully complete the procedure, you will need a hand sprayer, goggles and a respirator to avoid inhaling corrosive fumes. The procedure is carried out by spraying the upper part of the bush, without affecting the roots. Before use, the solution is shaken. It is applied evenly in a circle on the crown of the bush, until the leaves on both sides are wet. Since they are thinner on the lower side, the absorption of fertilizer here is much faster.
The implementation of feeding tomatoes in the greenhouse is possible every 2-3 weeks. The first substances contribute to the 20-30 day after landing in the ground. At this time, it is best to use urea and potassium permanganate (how to prepare them, see the table above). They are sprayed with the prepared solution so that both the stems and the leaves are completely covered with it. After this 2-3 days should not be carried out any other watering. That is how long it takes the plant to fully absorb all the nutrients.
Repeat the procedure carried out 2 weeks after the first. In this case, it is recommended to use iron vitriol. In the finished solution moisten the sponge and pass it on each sheet, and then on the stems. Next, the bush is left alone for 2-3 days.
The third dressing falls on the flowering period. At this stage it is necessary to use wood ash. To do this, near the bush, at a distance of about 5 cm, make a small hole with a depth of 2-3 cm and apply fertilizer to it. Sprinkle it with earth on top. Walk through all the beds, then pour the ground.
The last time, already in the period of active flowering and fruiting, the bushes are sprayed with a solution of boric acid or superphosphate. At this time, you need to ensure that the tool does not fall on the inflorescences and fruits. The beds can be watered the very next day, but only at the root.
VIDEO: How to feed tomatoes through the leaves
In the open ground
If the bush is very weak, then you will need 4 dressings. The first is carried out immediately after transplanting into open ground. You will need nitrogen fertilizers (chicken or cow manure). They are in an amount of 50 g diluted in 5 liters of warm water and insist day. The next morning, the plant is sprayed with a solution, and in the evening, wash off its remnants with clean water.
A week after the leaves are treated, droppings can be sprayed with ammonium nitrate. This will help strengthen the root system and accelerate growth. Perform this procedure after 5:00 pm, when the sun does not bake much again. Two weeks later, it is necessary to moisten each bush with urea diluted in water (proportions in the table above).
The last feeding is carried out approximately 3 weeks after the third. Here you can use a solution of superphosphate, herbs and mullein infusion (see the section “How to prepare a solution”). In between the procedures, tomatoes can be sprayed with a solution of boric acid, ferrous sulfate, manganese and iodine.
If the seedlings look healthy, you can skip the first 2 feedings. This is due to the fact that in this case the leaves will become more and more, but the ovary will not be able to form properly.
Recall that a tomato is such a vegetable crop, for the care of which it is not enough just top-dressing. Here it is necessary to combine traditional methods, watering and spraying. If the plant is strong enough, does not hurt anything and looks good, then without fertilizing through the leaves, you can do without it, or use the minimum dosage to prevent the appearance of pests.
VIDEO: How correctly, what and why are tomatoes being fed?
Why do we need foliar nutrition?
It would seem, why sprinkle tomatoes in the greenhouse, if they do not like humidity, and there is enough organic and mineral fertilizers in the soil?
In fact, with tomatoes it is not so simple: their root system does not immediately begin to assimilate useful elements from the soil, moreover, even with the introduction of complex preparations, you cannot always ensure that plants really need the substances for them.
The advantage of spraying is that the leaves of tomatoes absorb only those elements that the plant really needs at the moment.
They absorb them like a sponge and instantly transfer them to those areas where there is an acute shortage. Foliar feedings allow you to:
- during the day, eliminate the identified deficiency of certain elements, while with the traditional root method, the result will be only in 1-2 weeks,
- stimulate the active development of the aerial parts of tomato,
- increase plant resistance to adverse conditions, diseases and pests,
- stimulate tying and thereby increase yields.
Using the method of foliar fertilizing, you can use both mineral and organic fertilizers, including folk recipes. Fertilizing solutions are spent when spraying is much more economical than when irrigating, and the result will appear the next day.
Optimum spraying frequency
How often can foliar top dressings of greenhouse tomatoes be produced? To fertilize tomatoes in this way at any stage of plant development:
- before planting seedlings in the greenhouse,
- during the active growing season,
- before flowering,
- during the formation of ovaries,
- during the fruiting period.
In my opinion, overdoing with foliar fertilizing does not require that these manipulations do not lead to a dangerous excess of nutrients.
A lot is not always good. I spend spraying only with the appearance of specific signs of deficiency of certain elements that appear on the leaves of tomatoes, as well as planned before flowering.
Greenhouse Tomato Needs
Before making the solutions and spraying the tomatoes in the greenhouse, you need to decide on what microelements and fertilizers the plants need. The list of them is quite standard for garden crops:
- Nitrogen. Necessary for the growth and build-up of green mass on the bushes. Its deficiency leads to the stuntedness of tomatoes due to lack of photosynthesis.
- Potassium. He takes an active part in the formation of stems and photosynthesis processes.
- Phosphorus. Plays a dominant role in the formation of the ovaries and root system. The deficiency of this trace element is associated not only with the inhibition of these processes, but also with a decrease in nitrogen absorption.
The lack of these elements in the soil leads to a general weakness of tomatoes and negatively affects the yield. To diagnose a shortage of beneficial minerals can be on tomato leaves.
Diagnosis of deficiency
Lack of certain minerals can be identified as the foliage of tomatoes growing in the greenhouse. It is important to regularly inspect the bushes, evaluate their color in order to help tomatoes in time with foliar nutrition:
- Purple leaves, stalks and veins on the plates - a signal of phosphorus deficiency. Spraying a solution of superphosphate will help solve the problem quickly.
- Twisted inside the leaves speak of a calcium deficiency; spraying a solution of calcium nitrate will help to eliminate it.
- Vertex rot on fruits is also a signal of a lack of calcium.
- Yellowing bushes badly need nitrogen. Herbal infusion, solutions of urea or complex fertilizers containing this microcell will help here.
Careful and regular inspection of tomato bushes in the greenhouse, as well as timely diagnosis and application of foliar dressings will help you to get a high-quality and abundant crop in the greenhouse.
It is better to introduce foliar dressing only before the formation of the ovaries and when a deficiency of certain microelements is detected. In each case, you should apply certain aqueous solutions.
Urea spraying is an effective way to deliver nitrogen as quickly as possible, which will help strengthen the root system, increase the rate of foliage formation and increase the duration of the fruiting period.
For foliar fertilizing applied a solution of 50 grams of urea and 10 liters of warm water. It is important to strictly observe the specified proportions so that the fertilizer does not lead to burns of tomatoes. The solution of urea is used only in the initial period - before the formation of ovaries, otherwise it will cause the active growth of the bush at a loss to fruiting.
Inexpensive powder - a real magic wand for gardeners. Boric acid contributes to the activation of flowering in tomatoes, protects against decay on the background of high humidity and prevents the shedding of the ovaries.
You can safely spray tomatoes in the greenhouse with a useful solution before and during flowering, as well as during the growth of the fruit.
The solution is prepared at the rate of 1 g per 1 l, the powder should be dissolved in hot water. It is necessary to use structure after full cooling.
With signs of potassium and phosphorus deficiency, as well as with the risk of developing fungal diseases, you can add foliar nutrition using potassium monophosphate solution. Apply the composition can be before the formation of buds and at the stage of fruiting.
A solution of potassium monophosphate for spraying tomatoes is prepared at the rate of 5 grams of powder per 10 liters of water. Between two additions foliar feeding should take at least 2 weeks.
The solution of this drug is applied strictly before the budding of tomatoes. In addition to calcium, nitrogen is included in its composition, which stimulates the growing season, and against the background of the start of fruit ripening, these processes will be redundant.
2 grams of calcium nitrate dissolve in 1 liter of water; tomato bushes are generously sprayed with the resulting solution a week after planting in the greenhouse. The composition has a complex effect: the root system of the seedlings is strengthened, the resistance of plants to temperature differences, pests and fungal diseases is increased.
Phosphorus deficiency will quickly and effectively eliminate foliar feeding with superphosphate. 2 tbsp. granules need to dissolve in 3 liters of hot water, and then 150 ml of this solution diluted in 10 liters of water and add 20 grams. nitrogen. Without the last trace element phosphorus cannot be digested by tomatoes.
Top dressing with superphosphate is made at the stage of formation of ovaries, because tomatoes need phosphorus to form fruits. Too frequent with this fertilizer is not recommended: its surplus will negatively affect the development of plants.
Epin - the latest tool, which is a synthetic phytohormone. The solution of the active substance has a strengthening effect on plants and helps tomatoes in the greenhouse to withstand the negative factors - humidity and temperature extremes.
Фитогормон за один сезон можно использовать несколько раз: при посадке, в период бутонизации и при цветении первой кисти. Для приготовления раствора в 1 л воды растворите 6 капель препарата, в среднем 3 л средства хватает на обработку 100 м 2 .
The wood ash solution is effective for increasing the resistance of greenhouse tomatoes to adverse factors, and also feeds bushes with a whole complex of important and rare trace elements. 100 grams of ash must be dissolved in 10 liters of water and insist liquid during the day. Then the solution must be thoroughly drained and poured into the sprayer.
Ash-based foliar top dressing is used during cold spells and during flowering, boric acid can be added to the solution to enhance the effect.
You will learn more about the signs of micronutrient deficiencies in tomatoes, the choice and preparation of solutions from a useful video:
To foliar fertilization brought the maximum benefit of tomatoes in the greenhouse, follow the rules of processing:
- spray tomatoes in the evening or in cloudy weather, otherwise burns will appear on the leaves,
- strictly follow the dosage of drugs to prevent leaf burn,
- do not mix several solutions in a single top dressing, especially mineral and organic fertilizers,
- when using chemical solutions, observe safety rules - protect eyes and respiratory organs, and also completely cover your body with clothes,
- Tomatoes do not like humidity, so after spraying the greenhouse must be aired, so that the droplets of the solutions are dried.
Following these guidelines, you will help the tomatoes in the greenhouse to adapt to new conditions and feed them with the necessary trace elements. Responsive care tomatoes are sure to thank you for your hard work with high-quality and abundant crops.
Types of dressing tomatoes
Starting with the ninth feeding, you should feed the plants only with a solution of potassium sulfate. If the soil for tomatoes has been prepared insufficiently fertile, then you may need another 1-2 fertilizer mullein. But it should be borne in mind that from the middle of the growing season, the application of nitrogen fertilizers for tomatoes can lead to negative consequences: the harvest will ripen, and the fruits will be of lower quality. A positive effect is given by spraying the plants once a week with the “New Ideal” preparation, which will serve as additional foliar nutrition and stimulate the protective forces of the plants. In addition, during flowering, foliar dressing has a positive effect with a solution of boric acid (1 g per 1 l of water). It improves fruit sticking. Usually 2-3 such feedings are sufficient with an interval of 10 days.
It is better not to wait for the symptoms of fasting on the leaves and shoots. It is necessary weekly, starting from the moment of planting in the greenhouse, to carry out their foliar dressing. In this case, you will not lose a day for the formation of the harvest. But at the same time, daily monitoring of the state of the plants is also extremely necessary, because you do not carry out chemical analysis of the soil and do not know the amount of nutrients it contains. Therefore, you need to instantly respond to the slightest negative changes in the development of your plants and introduce the required element into the nutrient solution.
But its most important purpose is to increase the intensity of the development of the plant, to obtain the maximum yield, as well as prompt assistance to pets in the event of a shortage of any elements.
The second fertilization is carried out 10 days after the first feeding. For it is dissolved in 10 l of water 1 tsp of potassium sulfate.
Or rotted manure, sawdust per m2. If the soil is "poor", then you need to make an order
Boron, copper, manganese.
I like the result of such an organic top dressing very much - the plants are always green, they look healthy, tolerate bad weather, grow very quickly, set fruits a lot and, it seems to me, they began to hurt less, that is, their immunity increased.
Extra root top dressing of tomatoes
People often ask: is it permissible to feed tomatoes during fruiting? I answer: after the ovary has appeared, top dressing is only at the root, that is, the root.
Trichopol (10 tablets) + 1 small bubble of Zelenka + 10 liters of water.
Tomatoes grade Yupator
Cauliflower is additionally sprayed with a solution of ammonium molybdate (5 g per 10 liters of water) in the event that the complex fertilizer you use does not contain molybdenum. This operation is carried out at the initial moment of formation of the flower head.
Many of the currently popular heterotic cucumber hybrids belong to the so-called intensive type hybrids. This means that they require fractional application of higher doses of fertilizers and at the same time delight us with a huge harvest. Fractional fertilization is provided by a series of continuous dressings. The first three weeks after planting the plants are usually sufficiently advanced in the soil fertilizers. But then you should proceed to regular feeding. The delay with only one of them can lead to the fact that the cucumbers on a certain tier simply do not tie up. Better to feed once a week. When using liquid dressings per 1 m², 5-6 liters of the prepared solution are usually required.
- The lack of copper is most clearly manifested in newly developed peatlands during droughts and hot weather. So part of the Ural gardeners should face this phenomenon. I have a garden on a mountain, and God pardoned me for the lack of copper.
- The disadvantages include the fact that foliar feeding does not allow to give a lot of nutrients at a time, because with increasing concentration of the working solution there is a real danger of burns of the leaves. Whenever sprinkling plants, extraordinary care must be taken. Otherwise, healthy young shoots will turn black almost overnight (and perhaps not only young ones). In this case, not only the concentration of the solution is important, but also the type, age, condition, varietal characteristics of the sprayed plants, weather conditions, etc. Agronomists, in order to establish the optimum concentration, first carry out a trial spraying of individual plants with solutions of different concentrations and only after that they recommend a certain dosage. I, given the possible danger, I prefer to make the concentration of the fertilizer solution “for every fireman” a little less than the recommended one. As they say, "God saves the best."
- 12 days after the second feeding, feeding is carried out with a solution of 2 tbsp. spoons of wood ash and 1 tbsp. spoons of superphosphate in 10 liters of water.
- 7 kg of humus
- Nitrogen-containing fertilizers for tomatoes in the greenhouse are necessary for plants in after they adapted and went to growth, up to the beginning of flowering. Then fertilizing with nitrogenous fertilizers will be necessary after the bulk of the fruit began to form.
- This solution can be carried out root and foliar feeding. Outside root usually spend on young plants planted in open ground or greenhouse. Watering at the root - every 10-12 days.
- Off-root spraying do during the first half of the growing season. That is, as soon as I noticed that the first tomatoes were tied up, I stopped feeding them with a spray. And the root continue to do the entire period of the growing season (development) of tomatoes.
- 1 teaspoon of boric acid, copper sulfate, urea (cabamide) per 10 liters of water.
- So, it took two weeks, as you planted tomato seedlings in a greenhouse or open ground. It's time to feed the plants. Top dressing of tomatoes in an open ground or greenhouse - is there any difference? What types of dressings do exist? Recent years, gardeners (those whom I know) prefer organic, trying less to use mineral fertilizers, but they are not completely abandoned. Self-made cheap, but very effective "green fertilizer" is very popular. But about him, just below. Go
Top dressing fertilizer maghbor especially important for color, Brussels sprouts and broccoli. Both magnesium and boron are necessary for tying flower heads in cauliflower and broccoli. In Brussels sprouts, magnesium and boron greatly improve its taste.
Approximate scheme of dressings:
But almost every year I observe vertex rot on tomatoes (I will not say that a large percentage of diseased plants, I just, remembering this possibility, take appropriate measures in advance). Calcium deficiency provokes apical rot, and foliar top dressing with ash extract is very effective as an operative method against vertex rot in tomatoes.
Root top dressing of tomatoes
For foliar feeding plants are sprayed. So that the solution on the leaves does not dry quickly, which will impede the flow of nutrients into the sheet, spraying is carried out late in the evening or in cloudy weather when the humidity is higher. During the day, you can spray only in cloudy (but naturally not rainy) weather, while in the sun the nutrient solution on the leaves dries quickly, which significantly reduces the effect. The effectiveness of foliar dressings is significantly higher if they are held in the evening or morning. When foliar feeding try to achieve uniform and complete wetting of the leaves, processing, including, and the lower side of the leaf blade.
For each plant you need to use 1 liter of working solution.
Or manure and 1 cup of peat or wood ash per m2.
Nitrogen stimulates the growth of green mass of tomatoes, often to the detriment of the setting and development of fruits. That is why nitrogen fertilizer should be applied moderately.
- I have enough of this solution for a long time. But all, of course, depends on the number of plants planted. If I feel that the "green fertilizer" is not enough, then after it remains in the barrel less than half, I fill the barrel with new grass. Nothing more than water I do not add there. I am waiting for 10-15 days - a new nutrient solution is ready.
- The second popular question: feeding the seedlings of tomatoes after picking - what and when. The first time should be fed tomatoes 10-12 days after transplanting. And what and when read above.
- Weak manganese solution.
- There are two types of dressings. Root and foliar.
- Svetlana Shlyakhtina,
How often should be feeding
The number of foliar dressings is different and depends on the degree of soil fertility in your area. According to the recommendations of our specialists, the minimum allowable number of dressings is two per season: the first time - during the beginning of the intensive formation of the leaf apparatus, and the second time - during active flowering and fruiting. On the other hand, if you are guided by Dutch or Finnish technology, then spraying with nutrients is best done once in 7-10 days. I have been using this option for a long time and I can honestly confirm that the results are simply overwhelming. Plants grow rapidly, extremely beautiful and delight with excellent yield.
Important: if in the greenhouse in the previous season, crops were grown under which a large amount of fertilizer was added, namely organic, then humus should be discarded. It must be remembered that excessive application of organic fertilizers for tomatoes in the greenhouse will contribute to the formation of a large number of leaves, which will worsen the setting and development of fruits.
Also, for the normal growth of the roots and the development of fruits and seeds, you need to make phosphate fertilizers for tomatoes in the greenhouse.
This "green fertilizer" works well against late blight. At least, it seems to me that after I started using it, there were almost no cases of phytophtoras appearing on the leaves. In 2013, only a few fruits of tomatoes (pieces 5), growing in the open field, thrown from one bush. The rest of the bushes did not notice any signs of phytophtora. And for the next two years, my tomatoes also did not have phytophtora. Although I suspect that the reason for this is not only top dressing, but also a dry hot summer.
It is desirable, I would even say, foliar and root dressings are obligatory when the flowering of tomatoes begins. Do not miss the deadlines - the number of ovaries and the harvest will depend on it.
Lactic acid solutions (whey) with the addition of 0.5 cups of sugar (10 liters).
Than to feed tomatoes in the greenhouse or open ground
Root top dressing is used by most gardeners. It nourishes the plants through the root system, that is, it is watered with a nutritious mineral or organic solution under the root.
2nd dressing - add dry superphosphate and ash,
Of course, you can immediately argue that foliar feeding will require additional fertilizers and preparations, and you will have to invest a lot of forces. But it depends on which side to approach our problem.
How to cook organic "green fertilizer" by yourself
There is another scheme for how to fertilize tomatoes in a greenhouse, using organic fertilizers.
Before planting tomato seedlings in the ground, experienced gardeners recommend shedding the soil with a pink solution of potassium permanganate (potassium permanganate). To prepare such a solution, you need to take 1 g of potassium permanganate and dissolve in 10 liters of hot water, the temperature of which should be
Tip: do not apply fertilizers containing phosphorus at temperatures below But, for example, the 2014 garden year began with rainy weather. Humidity, that in the greenhouse, that in the garden increased. I, in order to prevent the occurrence of late blight (tomatoes), powdery or downy mildew on cucumbers, zucchini, I additionally process plants with whey solution (1 liter per 10 liters of water), to which I add 10 drops of iodine. This solution is particularly beneficial effect on tomatoes. Iodine helps to increase the number of ovaries, and whey inhibits the growth and development of pathogenic fungi.
In the greenhouse or open ground feeding is carried out as follows. It is necessary to feed individually each plant. If the soil under the plants is dry, then before dressing it is necessary to slightly moisten the soil. Water the tomatoes with clean water, the temperature of which is not lower than 20-22ºС. When watering in the greenhouse, try to keep the water from falling on the leaves - there is no moisture to it. Water in the morning - after that, be sure to air the greenhouse. And after watering, pour half a liter of nutrient solution under each tomato bush.
All these solutions for foliar feeding are very effective for nourishing and protecting tomatoes from diseases, especially from phytophthora and other fungal diseases. About foliar know many, but use it less often, but in vain.
Better than none
3rd dressing - watering the soil with mullein,
The results of numerous studies and recommendations of experts on the effect of fertilizers on the yield and quality of the harvest of various vegetable crops vary considerably in terms, doses, forms of fertilizer application in specific soil and climatic conditions. But the basic principle is absolutely indisputable - it is necessary to ensure the supply of plants with a whole complex of various nutrients that are applied with a variety of fertilizers.
If, in terms of the cost of fertilizers and the amount they are applied, then, firstly, the doses of fertilizers applied during foliar feeding are so small that it does not affect the family budget in a perceptible way. Secondly, by switching to the active use of foliar dressing, you will be able to reduce the doses of fertilizers applied in the usual way to the soil, which are far from being spent entirely and completely, and all the more so on our Ural soils. And this is a significant savings in your budget.
For dressings, rotted manure or slurry is used, which is diluted at a ratio of 1: 100 (1 kg of manure per 10 liters of water), or any bird droppings. His take 200-250 g per 10 liters of water. All these solutions need to insist at least a day, and you can two or three, and then watered at the rate of 2-3 liters per plant.
For the prevention of late blight treatment alternate. One time with a solution of whey, and the other with a solution of Fitosporin. This drug not only protects tomatoes from the development of late blight, it also feeds plants with bioactivated trace elements, especially its new modification - Fitosporin-M. Sometimes I miss the lactic acid treatment, but I will definitely replace it with Fitosporin solution, which suppresses the development of fungal and bacterial diseases on plants well.
I try to do foliar spraying of tomatoes in the greenhouse in the morning so that the nutrient solution is absorbed in the evening. At night, the plants must be dry.
It is necessary to use them not at the same time, but, or in turn, as it is written, or choose those that, in your opinion, will bring the greatest benefit to the plants. With the accumulation of experience, you can determine for yourself what is yours.
Extra root - this is when we apply the same nutrient solution directly over the leaves, branches of plants. This type of feeding tomatoes with mineral or organic fertilizers has several advantages. Firstly, it saves fertilizer. Because when we bring them under plants, a significant part of the nutrients is washed out with irrigation, during the rain, not all the nutrients get to the plant.
Вот здесь есть весьма полезная и уникальная статья о помидорах. Всё доступно и понятно. Урожай будет удивителен.
4-я подкормка - провести жидкие подкормки удобрениями магбор и «Байкал-ЭМ1» (эти растворы не смешиваются).
- При этом использование удобрений только перед посевом или высадкой рассады, даже при их высокой дозировке, как правило, не дает нужного результата (а возможен и отрицательный результат).
Чем удобрять помидоры в теплице, чтобы получить богатый урожай
As for the complexity of the process of weekly spraying, then there will have to consider two aspects. On the one hand, the labor intensity is reduced several times in the case of using modern sprayers that are convenient and easy to use. On the other hand, today we have access to a very large amount of liquid or highly soluble powdered fertilizers and preparations intended, first of all, specifically for foliar dressings. By adopting any of these fertilizers and preparations, you will generally spend no more than two minutes to prepare the solution and 15 minutes on the spraying itself. In other words, it’s okay to be in 20 minutes. Agree that "the game is worth the candle", because, having spent the extra 20 minutes a week, you will get a higher quality crop in earlier periods. Here, in my opinion, it is even worth thinking about.
The first additional feeding with a smaller amount of solution can be carried out immediately after the transplanting to the greenhouse. In the future, feeding is carried out regularly, every 10-15 days.
What minerals do tomatoes need?
- . You can also use any prophylactic drug by diluting it in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions on the package.
- , As it is poorly absorbed and can accumulate in the soil. Phosphorus is also poorly absorbed by plants growing on acidic soils.
- Do not forget that moisture, high humidity in greenhouses or in the garden during the rainy period is beneficial for the development of phytophthora, other fungal and bacterial diseases. Be sure to handle your seedlings, do not wait for the first signs of the disease. If the disease began to show itself, then it is too late to fight it and it is almost useless.
- If you have a little time to take care of the tomatoes or it is difficult to find all the components of fertilizing that Anna Nepetrovskaya advises, you can use fertilizers based on humates. Go
- Alternate foliar feeding with root. Below is the experience of our reader from Novokubansk.
And when we bring the solution to the surface of the leaf, then all the nutrients pass through the leaf inside the plant. And it happens very quickly. Therefore, foliar effect is much faster than the root. Secondly, it is used to quickly help a plant that suffers from a lack of a trace element. I try more often to use foliar feeding for seedlings, for plants recently planted in open ground or greenhouse, that is, for younger seedlings.
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Then, every week until the end of active fruiting, it is necessary to alternately feed with ash or a liquid solution of potassium sulfate (1 tbsp to 1 bucket of water). And once every two weeks add to the solution fertilizer maghbor. If possible, at the same time, it is not bad to carry out 1-2 additional fertilizers with “Baikal-EM1” fertilizer and 2-3 additional fertilizers with the “Ispolin” fertilizer, alternating them evenly. In parallel with this, one should follow the peculiarities of an increase in the vegetative mass of plants and the shape of the fruits. At the slightest growth retardation, blanching of the leaves or the formation of ugly fruits in the form of carrots, you need to recall the nitrogen fertilizers and pour the soil under the bushes with mullein or scatter the urea. With the formation of ugly pear-shaped fruit, it is necessary to increase the dose of potash fertilizers. Additional fertilizing phosphorus usually cucumbers do not require. Top-feeding of cucumber plants with weak solutions of nitrogen fertilizers, unlike most other vegetable crops, can be carried out until the end of the growing season. The only thing that needs to be remembered is that it should be done only if by the appearance of the plants themselves you register signs of nitrogen starvation (otherwise accumulation of nitrates in the fruits is possible). A positive effect is given by spraying the plants once a week with the “New Ideal” preparation, which will serve as additional foliar nutrition and stimulate the protective forces of the plants.
The most important condition for the normal development of plants is to ensure a constant, balanced nutrition. At high concentrations of fertilizers, the plants are inhibited until they die. In this case, they say about the "burn of the roots", although, strictly speaking, there is a strong dehydration of the plant. Thus, a plant, like a person, cannot be “fed” immediately for a month or a year.All over the world today recognized the extraordinary effectiveness of foliar dressing. To use them is really very profitable, because foliar dressing has a huge impact on plants.After the tomato plants are fed, the soil under them must be mulched with treated sawdust.
In case you have loamy or clay soils in the greenhouse,
In order for fruits to form and develop, tomatoes need potassium, and in fairly large quantities. Potassium is also responsible for the resistance of tomatoes to various adverse factors, such as temperature fluctuations, various diseases (see Diseases of tomatoes in the greenhouse: their varieties and how to deal with them). If plants lack it, then it "signals" by folding the leaves.
So, the answer to the main question. What fertilizers, what top dressing are the best for tomatoes? Mineral or organic?
I used Kuznetsov's GUMI (natural fertility elixir) - the plants responded to it with a good appearance and harvest. 10 liters of water - 2 tablespoons of elixir.
Autumn and spring preparation
Anna advises that before every fertilizer, under the root, water the tomatoes with clean water - separated water or rainwater.
For foliar application, lower concentration of the solution is used than for root, in order not to cause leaf burn. For it use fertilizers that completely dissolve without sediment, which do not contain chlorine. These are usually liquid forms of fertilizer mixtures, no matter what they are - mineral or organic. Try for the preparation of nutrient solutions to use non-chlorinated water - rainwater or at least a settled water supply.
Do not forget to put a point before RU
Top-dressings begin with the beginning of flowering of plants and spend in two weeks. At the same time, about 800 g of fertilizer solution is poured under each plant. The fertilizer solution is prepared on the basis of the “Ispolin” fertilizer, but already from the second dressing, 2 tablespoons of potassium sulfate are added to the nutrient bucket. Once to improve the taste of the fruit is to feed the planting fertilizer Mambor (1 tbsp. Spoon of fertilizer to 1 bucket of water). And at the moment of intense fruit filling, two handfuls of ash should be poured for each plant. With sufficient initial refueling of the soil, moreover, only one additional feeding with the mullein will be required at the moment of reducing the intensity of formation of new leaves and shoots (this usually happens in the middle of fruiting). If the growth of the vegetative mass is not active enough, then fertilizing with mullein may require more. There are other situations where the leaves are more than enough, but there are practically no fruits - for example, few female flowers appear. In this case, required phosphorus-potassium fertilizer. A positive effect is given by spraying the plants once a week with the “New Ideal” preparation, which will serve as additional foliar nutrition and stimulate the protective forces of the plants.Have to feed dosed - in small portions. In addition, torrential rains and meltwater mercilessly take valuable nutrients from the beds (this is especially true for potassium and nitrogen) - that is, fertilizers have to be applied again and again. In other words, without work, gardeners and gardeners will not be left - willy-nilly, and they still have to organize plant feeding. How? The options may be different - depending on personal preferences, the presence or lack of time and effort, etc.They strengthen the sheet apparatus, increasing its resistance to adverse factors. Increase growth rate and provide the best development of plants.
- To do this, dissolve 200 g of urea in a bucket. This solution is poured three buckets of sawdust, preferably fresh. Mulch prevents the evaporation of moisture from the soil, and also inhibits and inhibits the development of weeds. Closed mulch soil retains heat well at night, saving the plant roots from hypothermia.For every 1 m2,On sandy and sandy soils, such a fertilizer for tomatoes in the greenhouse as magnesium sulfate is needed, especially for setting, growing and developing fruits. For most modern greenhouse varieties of tomatoes, foliar fertilizers should be made with magnesium sulfate.I would answer so. For young seedlings - foliar, complex. For tomatoes during the second half of the growing season it is best to use natural mineral fertilizers (ash, compost) and organic (based on humates, "green fertilizer"). In order not to overfeed the plants, fertilizing is carried out infrequently - 2-3 times a month - in the first half of the growing season more often, and in the second half - less often.But you can start from the range of its stores for gardeners and gardeners. Not bad to use Gumat-80, Gumat + 7, Gumat-Universal, Emerald, Ideal. At 10 liters of water enough 1-2 tablespoons of fertilizer. Add 1 tablespoon of instant mineral fertilizer (for example, Fertik Universal) here.
The first root dressing - no earlier than 10 days after transplanting.
- Both root and foliar top dressing are equally useful for tomatoes in open field and for greenhouses. During the first half of the growing season it is better to alternate them. In the second - go to the root. Greenhouses with high humidity should be more often ventilated, especially after spraying. In order for the plant to get the maximum benefit from any fertilizer, you need to know when - in the morning, in the afternoon, in the evening - they are best carried out.Tomatoes can be fed infusion of nettle with manure (1 bucket in a bucket of water), can be a solution of boric acid to form the ovary and the growing season of the plant. And more than anything, the way everything goes into greens, there will be powerful tomatoes, and the ovary is small.With our summer in the Urals, the pumpkin behaves quite whimsically. And if in a rare hot summer its harvest can also be obtained with a minimum amount of fertilizing, then in a typical summer one can remain without a crop. Therefore, unlike other (more favorable) climatic zones, without additional dressing, it is only good to fill the ground from the very beginning, and it is not enough here. For liquid dressings under the plant, you will need to pour up to two liters of fertilizer solution. By feeding begin at the beginning of the rapid growth of whips. Before you need to carefully examine the plants themselves. If the lashes are not growing actively in them (the lash should grow up to a meter in a day), then it is necessary to feed them with a diluted mullein. Provided proper preparation of the soil is usually enough 2-3 nitrogen fertilizer.
- As is known, in practice it is common to use two types of dressings - root (usual dressing, when fertilizer enters the soil and is absorbed by the roots) and foliar (when fertilizer is introduced through leaves, stems, and sometimes even through shtamb). Root top dressings are the main ones, since the main dose of fertilizers is always applied through the soil. If you read different books on gardening and horticulture, you can find dozens of schemes for summer root feeding. They can be taken as a basis, making discounts on the initial filling of your site with fertilizers (it is yours, since all gardeners have different situations), on the state of plants and weather conditions. As an example, I will give an indicative scheme, which itself has been guided for many years when feeding various crops on its site.Stimulate early flowering and early yield formation.An important role in the growth and development of plants is also played by foliar dressing, in the course of which leaves and stems are sprayed with a weak nutrient solution of fertilizers, spraying it.
When and what to feed tomatoes?
Just before landing, you need to make another 1 tbsp. a spoonful of potassium sulfate and parasol spoons of any nitrogenous fertilizers and a glass of any deoxidizing agent, such as dolomite flour or ash. Then carefully dig the soil.
Tomato leaves with a lack of potassium in the soil
How to organize feeding and fertilizing tomatoes in the greenhouse
For each plant, 0.5 liters of solution is sufficient.
- The second is 15 days (two weeks) after the first.
- One reader of our blog - Anna Nepetrovskaya from Novokubansk - shared her experience in using foliar and root top dressing of tomatoes. Experience, as far as I can appreciate, is priceless.
- It's like a man-fed naturally or through a probe
If the edges of the leaves are brightened, yellowed or even dried, then fertilizing is necessary with a liquid solution of potassium sulfate (2 tablespoons of fertilizer per 1 bucket of water). For the entire season, it is usually enough to feed with three fertilizers. In cold rainy summer, the amount of potash supplements may increase to 5-6. Once to improve the taste of the fruit is to feed the plants of zucchini fertilizer maghbor (1 tbsp of fertilizer per 1 bucket of water). And at the moment of intensive fruit filling, it is necessary to pour out two small handfuls of fertilizer “Giant” and two handfuls of ashes for each plant. With a large number of fruits, such an operation can be carried out 2-3 times with an interval of ten days. A positive effect is given by spraying the plants once a week with the “New Ideal” preparation, which will serve as an additional foliar feeding and stimulate the protective forces of the plants.
- The first three weeks after planting the plants, except for timely watering, nothing is required. But then you should proceed to regular feeding, as all hybrids of tomatoes, peppers and eggplants belong to the cultures of the intensive type. Better to feed once a week. When using liquid dressings for one plant of tomatoes or eggplant, usually 1-1.5 liters of the prepared solution is required, and 0.5 liters of solution is enough for pepper.
- Increase resistance of plants to adverse environmental factors.
- At the time when there is a mass setting and ripening of fruits, for root stimulation, both foliar feeding and foliar feeding of 1 teaspoon of superphosphate dissolved in 10 liters of water can be used to stimulate both fruit and fruit ripening.
In the event that there is a lack of potassium in the soil of the greenhouse, the probability that the harvest will be rich is unlikely. If you make nitrogen-containing fertilizers for tomatoes in the greenhouse, then the situation with potassium starvation can only be exacerbated. In order to avoid various mistakes in the process of fertilizer application, it is best to use a standard feed dressing scheme during the growth and development of tomatoes.According to recent studies, fertilizers for tomatoes in the greenhouse, especially for foliar dressings, must contain boron, copper and manganese. The fact is that copper and boron stimulate both flowering and fruiting, and manganese promotes faster ripening of fruits.
The article is supplemented with information on March 20, 2016.
It is better to underfeed tomatoes in open ground or greenhouses than to feed them. Therefore, when planting seedlings from mineral fertilizers, I use only ash and compost. After planting - fertilizer based on humates with Fertiku Universal. And that's all. The following dressings are only organic.
The third dressing will be most effective during the beginning of flowering, namely during the flowering of the second brush. On the first blooming brush, many gardeners advise to pick off the first terry flower, since the fruit on it is often fastened ugly, different from others. (But I would not call this recommendation mandatory - I very rarely saw such a flower on my tomatoes).
Look at the tomato alleys of Anna! Is this not proof that the strategy of dressings chosen by her right!
On the right - when planting under the root of the humus to lay down. and feeding spoil the fruits ..
Foliar and root top dressing: what is more important?
I like the positive reaction of my tomatoes to the “green fertilizer”. How do I cook it? Very simple. There are a lot of recipes for such “green manure”. Its basis is mowed green weed grass.
One tablespoon of ammonium nitrate + 10 liters of water. Ammonium nitrate can be replaced by infusions of chicken or cow manure. The proportions are as follows: 0.5 liters of chicken infusion or 1 liter of cow manure per 10 liters of water.
Technology of foliar top dressing
1st feeding - fertilizer "Kemira" or any other complex fertilizer, simply sprinkling it in handfuls between the bushes (the amount of fertilizer per 1m2 is indicated on the package of the package), then pour it with a mullein,
Increase the total amount of the crop, and in some cases even twice.
Foliar fertilizing is carried out once a month, in the evening, or on an overcast, not sunny day.
О том, как удобрять томаты в теплице, написано множество книг, статей и заметок (см. Подкормка томатов в теплице, какие удобрения и когда использовать).
Что же все-таки дает внекорневая подкормка?
Подкормка огурцов в теплице или отрытом грунте удобрениями — минеральными и органическими
- У меня есть старая металлическая 200-литровая бочка. But the metal barrel is not advised to use for the preparation of this fertilizer, apparently, the process of oxidation of the metal adversely affects the quality. I don't have a plastic barrel. You know that there are almost no hopeless situations. I bought huge 300-liter plastic bags. I put one bag into another (for strength), put them inside the barrel. Filled 1/3 with water to straighten them. The polyethylene heated up a little by the sun, became elastic, stretched, the bags were tightly dressed outside on the edge of the barrel. I got a metal barrel with a plastic liner.
- Composition - 0.5 liters of infusion of chicken manure + 2 tablespoons of superphosphate + 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate + 10 liters of water. Note that superphosphate is very poorly soluble in water. Therefore, it is necessary to start preparing this solution at least a day before use. First dissolve the superphosphate - let it stand for at least 24 hours, and then add other ingredients to it. By the way, superphosphate can be replaced by monophosphate (phosphate fertilizer).
- To begin feeding the tomatoes should be a week after planting.
- It is best to make foliar feeding, sprinkling tomatoes with a solution of gummat - acts very quickly and efficiently
- Approximate scheme of dressings
Basic rules that should be followed
2nd feeding - fertilizer maghbor (pre-dilute 1 tbsp of fertilizer per 1 bucket of water),
25 years ago, a talented American explorer, farmer Carlson (do not confuse with a familiar childish character) created a special method of 100% increasing the growth and productivity of any plants (vegetable, grain and melon crops, ornamental, fruit trees). The basis of his method was foliar feeding of plants through the leaves and, however strange it may seem, playing melodious music near the plants.
All the many methods that describe fertilization can be divided into three groups:
During autumn digging, if the soil is not very fertile, apply organic fertilizers, such as humus or rotted manure. As an organic fertilizer can serve as a mulch, which served the season.
Tomatoes, which most of us call tomatoes, are a favorite vegetable of our gardeners and gardeners. This culture is quite demanding on soil fertility, very responsive to fertilizer and various fertilizing. So how to fertilize tomatoes in the greenhouse to get a rich harvest? Let's look at all the stages of soil preparation and fertilization in the greenhouse for growing tomatoes.
So, I already had a little water in the barrel, I add mowed grass there. Experienced gardeners are advised to fill the barrel with beveled nettles. But I didn’t have that much nettle, so I sketched almost a full (2/3) barrel of different weeds, nettle was also there.
Ingredients: 0.5 liters of chicken manure or cow manure infusion + 1 tablespoon of potassium sulfate + 7 grams of boric acid + 10 liters of water. Under each bush, pour out 1.5 liters of the solution, not forgetting to water the plants with clean settled water.
These are the compositions of foliar dressings she uses:
It doesn’t matter, but when the weather drops sharply, the leaves are better.
1st feeding - three weeks after disembarking - hilling with earth, sprinkling last year’s manure and old sawdust (instead of old sawdust, you can take fresh and add nitrogen fertilizer),
What better feed for tomatoes. root or foliar.
Bifungin (birch mushroom (chaga) - sold in a pharmacy - diluted in water by eye to a dark color.
Remnants act faster.
5th top dressing - in ten weeks after disembarkation - top dressing with fertilizer solution “Ispolin” in a complex with ashes (pour 2 handfuls of ashes under each plant),
7th dressing - fertilizer maghor and potassium sulfate (1 tbsp of each fertilizer per 1 bucket of water),
Magnesium deficiency is very often here in mid-summer: light green spots appear on the leaves between the veins, which later on usually turn yellow, while the veins of the leaf remain green for a long time. Tomatoes, for example, suffer greatly from a lack of magnesium. The lack of boron provokes the fall of the ovary, the cracking of fruits, the deterioration of their taste, etc. Every summer, a shortage of boron in the Urals is manifested in the second half of June in solanaceae, as well as in a number of root crops, especially beets and radishes.
The main advantage of foliar nutrition is that nutrients introduced through the leaves are absorbed much more quickly by the plant. Off-root dressing can be safely used in cases when the plant is weakened and it is dangerous to fertilize it through the roots. Foliar application is very effective in adverse (dry or cold and rainy) period during the growing season.
Nutritional infusion in a barrel turns out a little more than half. Top up the barrel to the top. I take the prepared infusion (500 ml), add it to the watering can with water (6 liters), water the tomatoes, cucumbers, eggplants, pumpkins - half a liter of solution for each bush. Yes, I almost forgot. The effect will be better, and just feeding will not bring harm (there will be no burn of the roots) if the soil under the plants is wet. That is, before root dressing you must pour tomatoes in open ground or greenhouse with separated water, if you use tap or rainwater.
Usually they ask the question, how often should we feed tomatoes with mineral or organic fertilizers? The short answer is not very often. And, more precisely, I spend them, both root and foliar after 10-15 days. That is, about 2-3 times per month. I alternate them. One time - foliar, next time - I feed my tomatoes under the root.
One teaspoon of boric acid, copper sulfate, magnesia (boric acid and magnesia are sold in the pharmacy) + manganese at the tip of the knife + coarsely rubbed soap or 3 tablespoons of liquid soap dissolved in 10 liters of water.
In cloudy weather foliar, in hot-root
6th dressing - eleven weeks after disembarking - to improve the taste of the cabbage, dressing fertilizer Maghor (1 tbsp per bucket of water),
8th dressing with a solution of “Ispolin” fertilizer with addition of potassium sulfate (1 tbsp to 1 bucket of water),
I personally did not encounter a lack of zinc on our soils. This is usually the privilege of lime-rich carbonate soils. But, according to experts, the lack of zinc is most clearly manifested in May and June. We have such a situation can occur if re-liming of the soil is allowed, when the dose of the lime you have applied has turned out to be too large.
Approach to foliar feedings
Plant nutrition directly through their root system has been used since the beginning of the cultivation of the land and the development of agriculture. If more or less everything is clear with local fertilization at the root and dressing of the soil, then the question of foliar fertilizing still causes controversy and controversy.
The essence of the scientific approach to this topic is as follows: if the plant feeds through the root, then fertilizer should be applied, creating direct contact of mineral and organic substances with the roots. In this case, the reason why many gardeners use (by the way, quite successfully) the nutrition of tomato plants on a leaf is not entirely clear.
Reasons for foliar feeding
In fact, there are a lot of reasons for this type of feeding of tomatoes, but the main ones are worth understanding in more detail:
- Low soil temperature. If within the layer of soil where the root system of tomato is located, low temperature, the plant begins to suffer from a lack of nutrients. The fact is that at low temperatures, the roots of a tomato are poorly absorbed by nutrients from the soil, even if there they are in sufficient quantity.
- Saving fertilizer applied. At spraying of plants the introduced substance is very productively used. It falls directly on the leaf plates, and, as a result, irrational losses are practically excluded. In addition, the consumption of the working solution for processing plants will be significantly less than when applying fertilizers at the root.
- Quick effect. Batteries contained in fertilizers come much faster when you apply the drug by spraying. The essence of this speed is that the movement of trace elements through the plant is carried out from top to bottom, and the substance that falls on the leaf is immediately included in the metabolic processes of the plant.
- High humidity. The minus of root feeding is that part of the nutrients is washed out of the soil with irrigation and rain. Therefore, in the period of prolonged rains, it is at least inexpedient to feed the plant through the root. For processing on a sheet, it takes only a few hours of no precipitation in order for the entire fertilizer solution to be absorbed into the plant cells.
Choosing a sprayer for feeding
When feeding, the main task of the gardener is to efficiently distribute the prepared solution on the surface of the plant. When spraying, the substance in the solution should carefully settle on the visible vegetative organs of the plant. This responsible function and takes the garden sprayer.
The best thing for these purposes is a garden sprayer with a small spray that reproduces smaller sprays, which allows the solution to spread on the leaves with non-flowing drops and, accordingly, to avoid plant burns. This is a basic requirement when choosing a sprayer for processing tomatoes.
Solutions for feeding tomatoes
The question of feeding tomatoes in the environment of gardeners causes a lot of controversy. It is known that with an excess of nutrients it is difficult to obtain a high-quality harvest from this garden crop. When overfeeding the plant stops taking care to reproduce the offspring, it rampantly builds up the green mass to the detriment of the setting of the fruits of the tomato. But even with nutrient deficiencies, one should not even dream of a good harvest. For this reason, it is very responsible to consider the choice of dressings for this culture.
Why fertilize the leaves
For tomatoes, root and foliar supplements are used to better saturate the plant with the elements necessary for normal growth and development. Spraying with fertilizers accelerates fruit ripening and strengthens the plant, which can independently resist diseases and pests.
Not everyone thinks about the fact that the plant takes food through the roots and leaves. According to scientific data, forty percent of the tomato crop is created by the vegetative activity of leaf blades, as well as the upper cover of branches. Roots and nutrients that they absorb, remain the main source for the life of the plant. Leaf feeding of tomatoes can achieve a faster and more effective result if the plant is in a critical situation.
Foliar nutrition is beneficial for tomatoes, because the culture was originally formed in the region of the planet where there is a high percentage of sunlight. Growing in places where it often rains, zoned tomatoes still feel a lack of light and react to a decrease in the quality of the fruit's taste. In time made fertilizing on a leaf of tomato, where the necessary components of the fruit are synthesized, will significantly improve their taste properties.
Advantages and disadvantages of the method
Foliar application of tomatoes is gaining more and more supporters due to the impressive number of advantages it provides.
- Acceleration of the period of transportation of nutrients that are immediately absorbed by the leaves - after 4-6 hours. Root top dressing is first absorbed by the roots, passing through the whole plant in 2-4 days.
- Improving the efficiency of assimilation of beneficial substances in foliar feeding tomato compared with fertilizers applied to the soil. Of the soil, some of the minerals are not absorbed by plants.
- Promoting intensive recruitment of the desired green mass.
- Improving leaf endurance to resist diseases and pests.
- Formation of a larger number of flowers and ovaries. Yield increase up to 15-20%.
- Stimulation of ripening: tomatoes are ripened for 7-10 days earlier than usual. This improves their taste.
- Support for weak plants.
There are almost no flaws in the foliar feeding method. Gardeners call only one: a small amount of mineral elements that can be used for one top dressing. Increasing the dose of fertilizer can cause burns on the leaves. Therefore, it is necessary to spray carefully, not exceeding the specified dose of fertilizer in the solution. Sometimes, having made a solution, you need to try its effect on one or two plants.
When do leaf fertilizers are used?
Extra root top dressing of tomatoes is recommended in several cases when application of fertilizers to the soil clearly does not bring the desired result.
- High acidity of the soil or high salt content prevent the plants from obtaining the necessary mineral elements, especially potassium, calcium and phosphorus.
- The appearance of the tomato bushes indicates a shortage of a certain substance, which, however, was introduced in the form of fertilizer into the soil.
- The budding period is favorable for foliar fertilizers. Alternating foliar dressing of boric acid and urea will bring particular benefits.
- Excessive soil moisture does not allow for fertilizer in the usual way.
- Tomato root system is weakened by pests or mechanically injured.
How to fertilize
Most gardeners understand what foliar feeding tomato means for plant stability and yield. Sheet top dressings are planned and situational. Scheduled treatments are carried out after root dressings, and in case of adverse weather conditions or pest attacks, as needed.
- Spray the tomatoes after fertilizing the soil after 4-6 days. During this period, the plants already process the substances obtained from the soil, and they especially need potassium.
- They process the plants at a slow pace, evenly sprinkling the leaves not only from above, but also from below. It is necessary to take a spray that forms the smallest spray, like mist. Apply various adhesives.
- It is advised to process the tomatoes in the evening after sunset or on cloudy days so that the drug does not evaporate from the surface of the leaves. At night, the leaves will fully absorb the feeding, when the breathing process occurs.
- In the case of prolonged heat, spraying begins in the early morning at dawn. They do this because the plants gain strength after the exhausting sun in the first night hours.
- After the morning dressing, wash the leaves over the leaves after a few hours. Ensure that the jet was not strong, and drops immediately rolled off the leaves. This procedure is mandatory if an oil based adhesive is used.
- The number of foliar dressings depends on the fertility of the soil. Two spraying fertilizers are minimally allowed: the period of growing foliage and the formation of ovaries.
- Modern intensive technologies of growing vegetable products are designed for the use of foliar applications in 7 or 10 days.
- Usually fertilizers on the leaves are carried out until the last days of June, when the ovaries have already begun to form.
Preparation of the solution
Studying how to properly foliar feeding tomatoes, you need to remember that it is done in three stages for three days. The number of drugs listed below was calculated for 100m 2 plantings of tomatoes.
- On the first day for spraying the tomatoes, ammonium nitrate in the amount of 80 g is diluted in 10 liters of water.
- On the same day, a solution is prepared for the second stage from superphosphate, because it dissolves for a long time. In 10 l dilute 150 g of the drug. Superphosphate is placed in a bag of cloth and put in a bucket of water.
- On the third day, 70 g of potassium chloride are taken in 10 liters of water.
There is another option for preparing a solution for foliar feeding of tomatoes with superphosphate. Gardeners believe that 10 liters of solution is enough to feed 50 or 70 bushes of tomatoes.
Three tablespoons of the fertilizer are ground: crushed or frayed, poured into a container with 1 liter of hot water and insisted for a day. The resulting liquid is poured into a bucket, stir an additional 5 g of potassium sulfate and one microfertilizer tablet, add water to 10 liters of total volume. The remaining drug, which is not dissolved, is dried and used, buried in the soil.
Why are foliar fertilizers useful when they are needed?
As you know, plants are able to absorb nutrients not only through the roots, but also can absorb the nutrients of the leaves. In tomatoes, this ability is quite well developed.
Foliar feedings, in a sense, serve as an ambulance for plants. In this case, the finished food immediately gets on the leaves, is quickly absorbed and you do not have to wait until the batteries with water get into the root layer of the soil and the plants are absorbed by the roots.
Отдельные огородники полагают, что опрыскивания по листьям раствором удобрений необходимо только в фазу цветения или в период плодоношения. Но это не так, томаты хорошо растут и развиваются, когда в период всей вегетации происходит чередование внекорневых подкормок с корневыми.
Помимо быстроты усвоения питательных веществ, внекорневая подкормка томатов имеет ещё такие преимущества:
- хорошо развивается вегетативная часть растения,
- The immunity of tomatoes to diseases and unfavorable growing conditions increases;
- contribute to the emergence of a larger number of ovaries, which positively affects the yield,
- low fertilizer consumption compared to the root method,
- foliar top dressing is economically more efficient than root because less fertilizer is consumed,
- This method requires less labor and time than root-dressing,
- the possibility of using complex fertilizers, as well as organic and folk remedies.
However, this method of application has disadvantages:
- Do not use fertilizer solutions of increased concentration, as this can lead to burns of leaves,
- for foliar fertilizing it is necessary to use water without chlorine.
How to carry out the procedure, what you can not do
Foliar nutrition for tomatoes is not less important than watering. For its implementation using nutrient solutions that are sprayed on the leaves of plants.
Conducting foliar dressings is justified in the following cases:
- if the soil composition is acidic,
- in the case when tomatoes grow on heavy soils with weak water permeability,
- plants are severely deficient in certain nutrients,
- at the beginning of the budding phase and during flowering,
- if the root system was damaged during transplantation of tomato seedlings,
- with the onset of the initial symptoms of tomato disease,
- with high soil moisture.
Foliar top dressing of tomatoes is carried out by spraying. To perform the work, it is necessary to prepare the necessary tools, a sprayer of any type, a container for dilution of the preparation with water, and additional nutrients.
Then we perform actions according to the following algorithm:
- by the appearance of tomatoes, taking into account the phase of their development, we determine how and what we will feed the plants,
- perform work on the preparation of a nutrient solution for feeding, if you need to insist it,
- we process tomatoes in the early morning and late evening, as well as on an overcast day in order to minimize evaporation of the applied preparation from leaves and stems,
- during the spraying process, we ensure that all the leaves of the tomatoes are moistened with the preparation on both sides.
Among experienced gardeners there is an opinion that during the growing season of tomatoes they should make at least 3 foliar dressings in the following phases of plant development:
- in phase 2 of these leaves of tomato seedlings,
- in the flowering process,
- in the period of mass fruiting in the second half of the summer.
In principle, the use of foliar dressings on tomatoes is in no way limited, they can be performed every 10 days during the whole growing season, alternating with root dressings.
The most common formulations for foliar dressing
Gardeners, when growing tomatoes, use different fertilizing solutions for foliar feeding, due to the phases of the development of the culture and its need for a particular nutrient.
Leaf treatments are carried out using fertilizers and home remedies. Below are the most commonly used formulations for feeding tomatoes.
Urea contains 46% nitrogen, without which the process of photosynthesis is impossible. When nitrogen deficiency slows the growth of tomatoes, their leaves become yellow in color, poorly tied fruits.
Urea spraying favors the growth of the vegetative mass of the plant, the strengthening of the root system and the prolongation of the fruiting period. The granules of the drug dissolve well in water. At observance of a dosage solution of urea does not lead to burns.
To prepare the working solution should be dissolved 50 g of fertilizer in a bucket of water. This amount will be enough to sprinkle tomatoes on 1 acre of tomatoes.
Urea spraying should preferably be performed before the fruit ovary appears. At a later introduction of nitrogen from the fertilizer will be directed to the growth of shoots, and not on fruit filling.
Top dressing Epinom
Epin is a phytohormone and a good anti-stress agent. The substance strengthens plants and increases their ability to withstand stressful situations, such as:
The use of epin increases the yield of tomatoes, even on soils with low fertility. The first treatment with epin should be carried out on the second day, after the transplanting of tomatoes to a permanent place. This treatment will help the seedlings to take root well. The second and third treatments are carried out, respectively, in the budding phase and at the time of flowering of the first brush.
To prepare the working solution, 6 drops of the drug should be dissolved in 1 liter of water. For processing 1 hundred of tomatoes, you will need 3 liters of the preparation solution.
Top dressing with superphosphate
This phosphate fertilizer is also often practiced for foliar fertilizing of tomatoes, but for this you need to know how to prepare the extract of superphosphate and apply it in practice.
The use of superphosphate for dressings contributes to:
- increase the total number of ovaries,
- faster ripening of fruits
- to prevent falling off of the ovary,
- increase yields by 1.5 times.
The superphosphate extract is prepared as follows:
- take 2 tbsp. l crushed product and fill them with 1 liter of hot water,
- composition insist 26 hours,
- light part of the solution, poured into a bucket,
- 1 tablet of microfertilizers and 1 tsp are added. potassium sulfate,
- add clean water to the bucket and mix the whole composition.
Cooked 10 l. extract superphosphate, with the addition of potassium and trace elements, will be sufficient for processing by spraying 50 tomato bushes.
The use of folk remedies for dressings
You can feed tomatoes with essential elements using folk remedies. Gardeners give them preference because they are completely safe and easy to use. The most popular foliar dressing of tomato nutrient solutions using ash, garlic, whey and herbal infusions.
Wood Ash Solution
Wood ash contains a lot of potassium, magnesium and other nutrients. The nutrient solution is prepared according to the following algorithm:
- take 100 grams of wood ash,
- Pour material 10 liters of water
- insist 24 hours
- we filter the composition.
After these manipulations, the solution is ready for use. Spraying this composition is best carried out in the flowering phase of tomatoes.
Important! Ash top dressing tomatoes are especially effective after a long period of cold snap or a series of rains.
It has been established that the ash spraying of tomatoes deters aphids and thrips, and also increases the resistance of the culture to powdery mildew.
Serum from sour milk, in addition to the content of nutrients, has in its composition a useful microflora that protects tomatoes from fungal diseases. After processing, a film remains on the leaves, which is an obstacle for pathogens.
To prepare a whey-based nutrient solution, you must perform the following steps:
- take 3 liters of whey,
- dilute the product with the same amount of water
- mix thoroughly the composition
As a preventive measure, it is recommended that tomatoes be sprayed with this compound from phytophthora three times a month, every 10 days.
This treatment fills tomatoes with phosphorus, nitrogen and potassium, and also protects the planting from phytophthora.
To prepare the working solution do the following:
- take 100 g of bulbs or garlic leaves,
- grind the product to fine components,
- the resulting mass is poured 200 ml of water,
- insist the mixture for 24 hours,
- The resulting infusion is diluted in 10 liters of water and 1 g of potassium permanganate is added.
Spraying in the flowering phase can be done every 10 days. Instead of garlic can be applied infusions of nettle, blackberry or dandelion.
When conducting foliar fertilizing, it is necessary to observe the specified proportions in order to avoid harming the tomatoes.
What types of foliar dressings are used at different stages of tomato development?
Tomatoes at each stage of their development require a certain number of different nutrients.
- At the initial stage of growth, seedlings mostly need nitrogen, which is contained in urea.
- Boric acid will be needed to better set the ovary.
- With the onset of the flowering phase and further, potash fertilizers will be required to form and pour fruit.
Feed in the flowering phase
During this period, tomatoes begin to consume significantly more nutrients than before. With a nutritional deficiency, plants shed flowers and fruit. To eliminate this bias in the diet, you need to spray tomatoes with a solution of boric acid every 10 days during the entire flowering period, at the rate of 1 tsp. Of the preparation per 10 liters of water.
To increase the number of ovaries and their quick loading, spraying with an aqueous solution of superphosphate should be carried out. To do this, dissolve 1 teaspoon of fertilizer in a bucket of hot water. After cooling the solution, proceed to spraying.
A good strengthening effect on plants has spraying tomatoes infusion of young nettle. To do this, do the following:
- chop fresh nettle,
- finely chop it with a knife
- fill with water - 9 l,
- insist 24 hours
- strain and pour into the spray tank.
The resulting solution process planting tomatoes. For foliar feeding of tomatoes, you can use ready-made fertilizer compositions that are commercially available. Perfect fertilizer "Ovary".
Fertilizing during fruiting
Even more attention will require tomatoes from gardeners, during the transition to the fruiting phase. For prophylactic purposes, from vertex rot and fungal diseases it is necessary to spray Fitosporin with the preparation, spreading it according to the instructions.
With a lack of calcium, the leaves curl in tomatoes, and dark depressed spots appear on the fruit. These are symptoms of top rot and it is urgently necessary to feed tomatoes with calcium nitrate, at the rate of 2 g per liter. water.
When the tomatoes suddenly stopped growing or do not add to the growth at all, this means that they feel an acute nitrogen deficiency and will have to apply urea to the leaves.
When leaves are purchased, tomato has a dark green color and leaf plates have dark streaks, which means that plants are deficient in phosphorus. Tomatoes should be sprayed with a solution of potassium monophosphate or superphosphate.
Extra root top dressing of tomatoes in the greenhouse
Tomatoes growing in the closed space of the greenhouse have a completely different microclimate and require a special approach. The yield of tomatoes in the greenhouse, as a rule, is 2-3 times higher than the yield in an open garden.
This means that nutrients in greenhouse conditions are consumed faster and you need to react very quickly to the lack of one or another element.
Plants themselves will indicate a change in the color of the leaves, what kind of food they lack.
As usual, foliar feeding of tomatoes in the greenhouse is carried out only in the flowering phase. But it may be necessary to perform spraying for prophylaxis in order to prevent the occurrence of fungal diseases. For this purpose, they are spraying with Phytosporin or copper sulfate solution.
Important! The best time of day for greenhouse spraying is early morning. It was at this time that there was minimal evaporation of moisture from the plants and all the food applied to the tomatoes was absorbed by its leaves.
Extra root top dressing of tomatoes of an open ground
Tomatoes growing in the open field also need to be sprayed on the leaves, but to a lesser extent. Almost always, gardeners fertilize the root method under the tomatoes after planting them to a permanent place, in order to make them grow better.
To spray tomato start when the plants finally settled down in a new place.
At the beginning of the growing season, these are usually nitrogen supplements with urea for the rapid growth of the vegetative mass. The effect of spraying occurs after 3-4 hours. Even if you are late with dressing and the plants have had time to weaken - it's okay, with the help of spraying you can quickly correct the situation.
The composition and concentration of nutrient solutions for fertilizing in the greenhouse, and garden use the same, but the drugs are selected such that are not able to cause a burn, unlike fertilizers, which are applied to the soil.
Experienced gardeners are advised to adhere to the following rules when preparing nutrient solutions for foliar dressings of tomatoes:
- carefully prepare the working solution and never exceed the prescribed concentration,
- in the selection of tools for the preparation of the solution, closely monitor the color of the leaves, so you can understand what is missing plants,
- with magnesium deficiency, light green spots appear on the leaves - spraying of tomatoes with magnesium sulfate is required,
- if there is a lack of boron, then the fall of the ovaries begins, and the fruits crack;
- when potassium deficiency occurs on tomatoes, apical rot - treat plants with potassium sulfate,
- chlorine should not be in the supplemental solution, all ingredients should be dissolved without sedimentation,
- inspect tomato bushes daily and respond quickly to negative changes.
Signs of nutritional deficiencies for tomatoes
The best fertilizers for leaf dressing of tomatoes are called, along with potassium preparations, superphosphate and nitric agents, boric acid and wood ash. Gardeners are closely monitoring the development of tomatoes, and if they notice signs of a shortage of a substance, they must be given appropriate fertilizing. Plants themselves signal what element they lack by changes in the leaves and fruits.
- In normally developing tomatoes, the leaves on the tops are slightly twisted, but at night they are straight, evenly colored, with many bright yellow flowers on the tassels, the fruits of regular shape, without flaws.
- The leaves of the tomatoes turn yellow, the lower ones fall, the bushes look wilted, if they do not get nitrogen. These symptoms are also characteristic when there is an excess of moisture in the soil and a too low temperature.
- The shade of purple is inherent in tomatoes, which are poorly developed roots and have a phosphorus deficiency. This element contributes to the development of the root system, the formation of ovaries, fruit ripening and good assimilation of nitrogen compounds.
- With a lack of potassium, tomatoes are almost without buds. Element contributes to the processing of carbon dioxide. Therefore, when it is deficient in the leaves, there is an excess of ammonia nitrogen, which leads to their fading.
- A small amount of calcium provokes apical rot on the fruit and leaf curling inside. More often suffer tomatoes in greenhouses.
Features of processing in greenhouses
Indoors, you need to carefully monitor the status of tomatoes. Maximum fruiting can be achieved, often and abundant fertilizer in the soil. Do not refuse in the greenhouse and from foliar fertilizing of tomatoes. Popular fertilizer superphosphate at the beginning of fruiting, which accelerates the ripening of vegetables.
Prevent the appearance of apical rot by foliar feeding of tomatoes with ash. An effective method would be to mix wood ash and superphosphate in one treatment. It is necessary to prepare uterine, concentrated solution of both substances for 2-3 days before spraying, so that they are well dissolved.
In a 3-liter jar pour 100 g of wood ash and superphosphate, pour 1 liter of water. When insisting the solution is periodically stirred. Before processing, the infusion is filtered and water is added to obtain a total volume of 10 liters.
Active growth of tomatoes will provide foliar feeding with urea. Its use is limited to the flowering period. Further drug can not be used. Prepare a solution of 50 or 100 g of urea per 10 liters. This volume is enough for a 100 m 2 plot with tomatoes.
Popular feeding and prophylactic mixture of fungal diseases. Dissolve 20 g of urea and 1 g of potassium permanganate in 10 l of water.
The use of natural stimulants
Every gardener is interested in foliar dressing of tomatoes without chemistry. Domestic industry offers natural growth stimulants - Epin and Immunocytophyte. Immunocytophyte levels the general condition of tomatoes after frosts and diseases, hot June days, sharp temperature drops in late spring and early summer.
The same result gives and foliar feeding of tomatoes Epin. It is useful for them to process the tomatoes after transplantation so that the plants take root faster and acclimatize.
Sheet top dressing is not labor intensive and brings significant and quick benefits to the crop.