Today, more than 2 thousand different varieties of peppers are known, However, it is the bitter pepper that takes the first places.. And this is not surprising, because you can not only grow it at home or on the land, but also enjoy spicy dishes made from natural ingredients for a whole year. This variety of pepper is distinguished not only by its low fertility, as compared with other crops of vegetable type, but also by long ripening periods. However, these features do not prevent him from taking leading positions among other vegetables.
Sailors of Portugal and Italy were the first to discover the taste of bitter pepper.. There was this discovery during the development of new lands. Having got to the island called Indian pepper, and having tasted the culture that its inhabitants grew, seafarers decided to bring this sort of pepper to their own lands, thus, after a while, spreading it around the globe. Today, in addition to the main name, bitter, pepper has many accompanying ones - chili, hot, hot, paprika, and sometimes just red pepper.
Bitter is a relative of sweet Bulgarian pepper and tomato. Pepper incorporates the substance capsacin, which gives it the same sharpness that other cultures of this family do not have. Nowadays, breeders have been able to develop a special scale that determines the level of pepper sharpness and by which you can adjust the required indicator.
Features of growing
- Before starting to plant the pepper, it is necessary to choose the right variety, as this crop is quite thermophilic and the variety is of great importance.
- If there is a need to grow seeds with large fruits, it is best to give preference to using a greenhouse as an object for cultivation.
- Before planting is also important to take care of a place to grow. To ensure proper and proper growth, it is worthwhile to organize the correct drainage. This vegetable loves soil that has a large amount of nutrients and a high level of soil moisture.
- When growing it is also important to approach the choice of watering, as the leaves of this plant adversely affect the ingress of water on them.
To install the boxes, it is best to choose places where there is good illumination, however, there is no direct sunlight, which adversely affect the plant. Priming It should be prepared in the autumn, as it needs to be well drawn and warmed up. In general, the technology of growing this variety does not differ from the cultivation of the usual sweet. In the opinion of breeders, it is best to grow from seed and plant already well-grown seedlings into the ground.
Before planting, it is recommended to soak the seeds for at least 2 days in a weak solution of potassium permanganate. In order for the seeds to fully and quickly grow, it is necessary to ensure the temperature regime. When the temperature does not exceed 25 degrees, on the 7th day you can see the gathering of seeds. In general, the growing season to pour about 50 days, after which you can start planting seedlings in a greenhouse or soil.
Hot Pepper Boxes
While the seeds sprout time to do the preparation of the boxes. At the bottom it is necessary to put a drainage, which can be made as independently from bricks, a small creamer and foam plastic. To carry out mixing of these materials is in equal proportions. At the top of the drainage it is necessary to pour a mixture of compost and turf, which is worth stirring in proportions of 1 to 2. If there is, you can add a bit of ordinary sand. After leveling the surface, not more than half a centimeter depths are made and the earth is slightly compacted.
Planting in boxes
Planting seeds is only pre-moistened with water.. Boxes must be covered with glass or film, however, it must be done in such a way that there is no access to air in the box. Boxes in this form should be left for a day in the warm place of the room. At night, there is a need to move the seedlings to a room where the temperature is not more than 16 degrees, because these conditions are most favorable for growing seedlings of bitter pepper.
Later it is necessary to remove the glass and move the seedlings to a place where there is good lighting and stable temperature conditions. Do not forget that the seeds grow quite quickly and as soon as the first leaves appear, there is a need to pick the plants. It is necessary to do this with the help of a sharp knife, it is necessary to pry the seedlings and transplant them one by one into special cups or pallets at a distance from each other. Watering seedlings of bitter pepper is only necessary with warm water, which should be defended before watering for several hours. Pepper is a rather tender plant and requires careful maintenance approximately once every 14 days it is necessary to feed the plant using the infusion of ash..
If the temperature is maintained and the right care is taken, seedlings will appear in 6 days, and you can plant the plants in the ground after 45 days. In addition, after the picking, the seedlings of bitter pepper are best placed on the windowsill, since there is only a maximum of light. It is also recommended to periodically turn the plants in the direction of light, this will allow the seedlings to be stronger and more even.
After performing the picking, the seedlings are watered no more than once every five days. If yellow leaves of pepper appear, it is time to feed. For her, you can also use liquid fertilizer character. When the seedlings of hot pepper reach at least 35 centimeters in height and 5 to 10 leaves form on the plant, it will be time to transfer to the ground.
How to plant bitter pepper
The basic rules for landing in the ground consist of several sequences, observing that you can get a high yield of this crop..
- To plant a plant in the ground is necessary only when the earth warms up to at least 14 degrees.
- Before transferring the plants to the wells themselves, it is imperative to irrigate them, this will allow the roots of the pepper to be straightened and soon to settle down in a new place. In addition to water, fertilizer must be applied to the wells. You can use any fertilizer, but without chlorine.
- It is imperative to maintain a distance between cultures of not less than 50 centimeters, and between rows 30 cm. The depth of the hole should not be more than 3 centimeters.
- The soil near the seedlings should be compacted and watered on top.
- In order to seedlings froze at night, you can build an arc of film, which is covered mainly at night.
- During planting, it is not advisable to put a bitter plant next to sweet peppers, since crop pollination may occur.
Care and its features
It is important to pinch the tops of the plant, as soon as it begins to grow upwards, this will allow not only to get a compact bush, but also more fruits. During the formation of the fruit, you need to leave only the right amount, and remove the rest, this will allow the pepper to be large and have a more bitter taste. In addition, those who believe that pepper is an annual plant are deeply mistaken. To check this, it is enough to transplant it in the fall in the pot and pick it up in the house. After some time, you can get the fruits that will delight their masters until the spring.
At the end of the season, if the pepper did not have time to completely blush, it does not matter. It is enough just to pick green fruit and put them in a bag, in time they will get the necessary taste and color.
Growing peppers in open field
Hello, dear readers! So, the seedlings of peppers are grown, planted in the ground and have even grown up. What's next? I propose to learn more about the peculiarities of growing peppers in the open field, as well as what kind of care must be provided to the peppers in order to get a rich harvest.
To begin with about specific requirements. Pepper (both sweet and spicy) is an exceptionally light-loving and heat-loving culture, very demanding on soil moisture. Pepper does not tolerate both drying and waterlogging.
For cultivation of pepper in open ground most suitable soil of the following types: sandy, medium loamy, floodplain and chernozem, having a light mechanical composition and a weak acid or neutral environment. Pepper does not like sour soil.
Once planted pepper seedlings take root at the main stem is recommended to remove the tip (pinch). This technique causes the growth of lateral shoots, and the plants eventually acquire a compact form.
The next trick is pasynkovanie. No more than 5 upper shoots are left on the plant, on which the harvest is formed. The remaining stepsons are removed.
You can do without pinching the main shoot, but pasynkovanie - a mandatory event especially in the hot rainy summer.
Pepper needs care
Growing peppers in the open field requires some care. Pepper care is to create the following conditions:
The optimum temperature for growing peppers is + 20 ... + 25 ° C.
At + 13 ° C and below, pepper is covered with a film or a special material. The appearance of lilac shades on the fruit indicates a violation of the temperature regime.
Watering is desirable to carry out rain or settled warm water by sprinkling. The temperature of the water used for irrigation should be + 24 ... + 26 ° C.
The irrigation scheme depends on the stage of plant development:
- Before flowering - 1 time during the week, in hot weather - 2 times. The irrigation rate is up to 12 liters per 1 m2.
- During flowering and fruiting - 2-3 times per week. Irrigation rate - up to 14 liters per 1 m2.
During the flowering period, the following solution is used as a top dressing. On a barrel of 100 l take:
- 5-6 kg of sliced nettle leaves, coltsfoot, woodlice, dandelion, plantain,
- 10 liters of rotted cow dung
- 10 art. spoons of ash.
Barrel poured water. The contents of the barrel are mixed, infused for a week and used for watering (1 l per 1 plant). The remaining solution can feed other cultures.
During the fruiting period use another solution. On a barrel of 100 l take:
- 5 l of bird droppings,
- 10 liters of cow dung.
The barrel is also poured with water, the contents are mixed and infused for 4-5 days. The resulting solution is fed pepper (5-6 l per 1 m2).
During the season, 4-5 root dressings are carried out, which are carried out on wet soil. The interval between them must be at least 10 days.
In addition, in the period of flowering and fruiting, dry fertilizing with wood ash is carried out, using 1-2 cups of ash per 1 m2 of soil.
The roots of the pepper are located in the surface layer, so loosening is carried out to a small depth (up to 5 cm) simultaneously with hilling of plants and weeding.
And remember about mulching, which will provide additional protection against drying out of the soil and keep the growth of weeds. Only mulching of peppers is recommended after the soil warms up, as this culture is thermophilic.
Additional pollination of flowers
Carried out in dry, windless weather by gently shaking the trellis with flowering plants.
Bulgarian pepper has brittle shoots that break easily, so they are tied to pegs. And around the beds planted tall crops that create scenes and protect the landing from the wind.
Problems with growing peppers
The main problems faced by gardeners in growing peppers are:
Possible reasons: increased air temperature (above + 32 ° C), lack of moisture in the soil, as well as a lack of light.
Possible reasons: low air temperature (below + 13 ° C), watering with cold water, lack of light.
Reason: incomplete pollination of flowers.
Useful tips or small secrets of growing peppers
Sweet and bitter peppers are grown on separate ridges (and even better after 1-2 beds). When co-cultivated, they pereopilyatsya, resulting in sweet pepper acquires the bitterness characteristic of hot peppers.
Manure activates the growth of stems and leaves, which occurs at the expense of fruiting, so it is brought under the previous culture.
Good neighbors pepper can be called basil, okra, coriander, onions, marigolds. The last three plants are good as aphid protection. But a trap for aphids can serve as a nasturtium. Okra helps protect against wind.
A bad neighbor of pepper - beans. It is advisable to avoid their neighborhoods, since they have a common disease - anthracnose (with this disease soft black spots appear on the fruit).
Diseases and pests of pepper
Pepper can be affected by the same diseases as other vegetable crops of the Solanaceae family: tobacco mosaic, late blight, powdery mildew, various rot, etc. The causative agents of diseases are bacteria, fungi, viruses.
The most common diseases of pepper are: damping (“black leg”) and fading disease.
"Black leg" affects mainly pepper seedlings. To combat it, it is usually sufficient to adjust the temperature and humidity.
Wilt disease is observed in adult plants. It can be of three types: bacterial wilt, verticillary (verticilliose) wilt and fusarium wilt. The disease manifests itself in a change in the color of leaf blades, dropping leaves and browning of stem vessels, which ultimately leads to the death of the plant.
Measures of prevention and control of diseases consist primarily in the acquisition of quality seeds and seedlings, the control of pests and weeds, the observance of crop rotation, the removal of diseased plants.
Aphids, mites and slugs are The main pests of pepper.
For the prevention and control of pests, you can use proven folk remedies.
Bitter pepper growing care
Planting germinated seeds, always pour them with water. Cover the boxes with seedlings with glass or tightly wrap the film. But it is still better to use glass: it is much easier and more economical. In this form, and leave the boxes for the day in the warmest place in the house. And at night they should be rearranged, since the temperature regime should reach no more than 15 degrees, it is with this temperature that you will get good seedlings in a short time.
Then the glass must be removed, and the boxes with the seedlings should be moved to a warm and well-lit place. Do not forget, the seedlings will grow very quickly and with the appearance of the first leaves you will need to dive the plant. This is done as follows: with the utmost care, using a knife, pry out shoots, rescue them from the ground and pinch off the very tips of the roots. Half done. Now you can transplant bitter pepper in peat pots. We water the seedlings only with warm water, which is previously advised to stand for a few hours, since it will be wasteful to use purified water.
Bitter pepper requires constant and high-quality care. Observe the temperature, humidity, well, and do not forget about good lighting.
Pepper planting and care in the open field cultivation technology with photos
During all the time when the Bulgarian pepper grows, it is necessary to pluck excess leaves and twigs. This provides better sunlight and air access to the stalk.
Pepper loves soft, well loosened earth. Therefore, no hard crust should be allowed. During loosening, the soil is enriched with oxygen, the plant grows faster, the activity of beneficial bacteria improves. At the same time, weed control is underway. The first loosening should be carried out no deeper than 6 cm. Further, it is useful to loosen the soil after each watering or rain.
Since the peppers are heat-loving plants, they can hardly tolerate adverse weather surprises. Protect peppers from frost as follows. Shelters are made of cardboard, warm fabric over the beds. If the cold nights continue for a long time, it is better to cover with foil.
Additional nutritional components
Bulgarian pepper cultivation is not complete without the introduction of nutrients. The frequency of fertilizer should be every 12-14 days. Fertilize the plant should be at least three times. Especially acutely pepper needs to be nourished during flowering and fruit formation.
The first nutrient feeding occurs 14 days after disembarkation. During this time, the peppers take root, and get used to a new place. The best formulations at this stage are those that contain mullein. Water is added to manure in a ratio of 1: 5, infused and stirred with water 1: 2 before watering.
When the flowers appear, you can use the following recipe based on herbal infusion and mullein. Nettle, the leaves of the plantain and dandelion pour water, add mullein and insist during the week. Add the finished solution to the root of each bush. You can repeat watering every 2 weeks. Obtained during this feeding nutrients contribute to the growth of growth and the formation of better fruits.
Чтобы привлечь в период цветения насекомых, которые опыляют, можно воспользоваться раствором с сахаром. В воде растворяют сахар и борную кислоту. Полученным составом опрыскивают кустики. В результате быстрее формируются завязи.
Во время формирования плодов можно ухаживать с помощью удобрения на основе куриного помета и нитроаммофоски. The components are mixed and left to infuse for the entire week. Fertilizer is transferred between the rows to the garden bed.
For Bulgarian pepper can be treated with nettle infusion. An infusion of nettle alone stimulates the growth and development of pepper. Best for the infusion of young nettle. It contains magnesium, iron, potassium and other essential micronutrients. The stems are crushed and infused in a barrel of water, covered with a lid for two days. Before feeding the solution is diluted with water at a ratio of 1:10.
Before you make organic or mineral dressing, beds should be watered with plain water. Such care will allow you to evenly distribute nutritional components and avoid root burn.
Agricultural technology of growing peppers does not allow the use of fresh manure as a fertilizer. Manure contains a lot of nitrogen, so the risk of overabundance of this element increases. Begin to gain mass and strength of the stem, the leaves, and the fruiting stops.
Occurrence of problems
If it was noticed that the leaves change shape, color, stems look sluggish or other signs appear, often the reason is a lack of mineral components:
- With a lack of potassium the leaves curl, and their tips dry and turn yellow,
- It is time to apply nitrogen fertilizers when the leaves have lost their saturated green color and become gray,
- If the leaves are pressed against the stem and become bluish, it means that there is not enough phosphorus,
- White spots speak of magnesium deficiency,
- Leaves and ovaries fall off when there is an excess of nitrogen.
For the cultivation of sweet pepper you need to create conditions. With improper care, he is subject to the development of various diseases. The most common disease is blackleg, which develops in too moist soil. You can notice the problem on the dark part of the stem with a patina that passes near the ground. If you do not take action, all roots give in to rotting and the plant dies.
For information, the risk of developing black stem seeds are planted only in the treated soil, only strong, healthy seedlings are transplanted into the open ground. The distance between the bushes must be large, it will reduce the rate of spread of the disease. In addition, close-planted bushes will be bad for air, light.
Phytophthora is a fungal infection that affects the green part of the plant. You can find out by the appearance of brown spots on the stem and leaves. To avoid this disease, care must begin with the seed. Before planting, they are soaked in potassium permanganate, foliar spraying of seedlings in open ground is carried out with protective solutions. You should also avoid the neighborhood of pepper with tomatoes and potatoes.
Another common fungal disease is white rot. The lower part of the stem is covered with a whitish bloom, while the inner part of the stem turns black. As a result, the stem loses its strength and the plant dies. To avoid problems, seedlings of pepper in the ground transplanted well warmed by the sun. Do not forget to remove lethargic leaves in time and water the bushes only with warm water. At the early stage of the appearance of the disease, you can try to get rid of it with a solution with wood ash.
How to grow pepper in open ground rules
As soon as you plant the seedlings of pepper in open ground, you need to take care to protect plants from frost. As a great protection against cold, it is recommended to use tents, which are made of wooden blocks, cardboard, burlap and other materials. These tents need to cover the pepper in the evening and open in the morning. If the cooling drags on, it is better to use a portable temporary film cover.
Another long-known means for protecting plants from frost is sprinkling and smoking. It is better to select a material for burning that which can provide thick smoke. Sprinkler installation should provide a fine spray of water. So get the greatest effect.
Pest and disease control
Peppers can be subject to the same diseases as other vegetable crops from the family of solanaceous plants. Pathogens can serve a variety of viruses, bacteria and fungi. The most famous diseases of peppers are wilting and “black leg”. "Black leg" is associated with the defeat of pepper seedlings. To solve the problem of this disease you need to adjust the temperature and humidity. Adult cultures are subject to withering. The manifestation of this disease occurs in the change in the color of leafy plates, dropping leaves and browning of the vessels on the stems. In the end, all this leads to the death of plants.
Measures to combat diseases and prevention are primarily the purchase of quality seeds and seedlings, the elimination of pests and weeds, respect for crop rotation and the removal of diseased plants. The main pests for pepper are ticks, slugs and aphids. To combat them, the good old proven folk methods will do. This solution can be overcome by aphids: 200-250 grams of wood ash is taken into a bucket of water (+ 50 ° C). To protect peppers from spider mites, you can apply chopped onion or garlic (200 grams), as well as dandelion leaves (200 grams) in a bucket of water. The above solutions need to insist at least a day. Before use, they need to mix and strain. To increase the effect to the solution, you can add a little liquid soap (30-40 grams). Regular loosening and soil treatment with dry mustard or crushed red pepper will save you from slugs (one tea per 1 m2 is false). Mulch from straw can also help.
As you can see, to grow a good quality crop of pepper in the open field is quite simple. Only you need to follow the recommendations outlined in this article. We wish you a rich harvest.
For the chili bushes to bring a bountiful harvest, the beds for them need to be done in the right place. Hot pepper loves heat, sudden changes in temperature are destructive for it. It develops best on light and at the same time reliably protected from drafts areas. In extreme heat, plant leaves can suffer from sunburn. Therefore, on hot days, and especially at midday, planting in the open field should provide shading.
Bitter pepper needs moist and nutrient-rich, non-acidic soil. In the damp ground, the roots of chili quickly rot. To its cultivation did not end in failure, stagnation of water in the beds can not be allowed. After watering its drops should not remain on the leaves and stalks of bushes. Bitter pepper is contraindicated for wetting by sprinkling. If the groundwater lies close to the soil surface, high ridges are poured for planting.
Greenhouses are more suitable for growing chillies than outdoor conditions. For its development, it is important that the temperature and humidity levels remain unchanged. On the beds to provide his bushes such constancy is impossible. As a result of temperature fluctuations, albeit insignificant, the growth of bitter pepper slows down. But in the open field it will bear fruit. If you plant a plant on the correct site and competently care for it, its powerful bushes can reach a height of 1 m, and their stems will be densely covered with vegetables.
Sowing on seedlings
Hot pepper belongs to the most thermophilic cultures, therefore its cultivation is usually carried out by seedling method. Sowing time depends on the climate of the area. In the southern regions, where the temperature of the soil rises to 15 ° C as early as May, the seeds are planted in boxes in the middle of winter (from January to February). If plants are placed in open ground at the end of spring, pepper is sown in the second half of February or in March. On the beds of chili planted at the age of 40-50 days. By this time, 6 leaves will form on the plants, and the seedlings will be 15 cm tall.
Growing seedlings is conveniently carried out in wooden boxes. You can use plastic boxes, but they always make holes for drainage.
The ground for sowing hot pepper seeds is prepared by mixing two components in a 3: 1 ratio:
In the resulting nutrient substrate add a little wood ash.
To disinfect the humus, it is first steamed on a fire and only then mixed with other components.
Shoots of bitter pepper will appear faster if you plant already sprouted seeds. In order for them to slip, they are wrapped in wet gauze, which is pre-folded in 5-6 layers. During this period, warmth is especially important for chili. If the temperature does not fall below 25 ° C, seeds will germinate in a week. When this happens, the bottom of the landing boxes is covered with a drainage layer. It can be done by connecting three components in the same proportions:
- broken brick
- fine clay,
Then the box is filled with fertile substrate, which is desirable to warm to 40-45 ° C. The thickness of the soil mixture should be 8-10 cm. Planting chili seeds is carried out in shallow (1-1.5 cm) grooves. They are made with an interval of 5 cm. Spreading the seeds 2 cm apart, they are sprinkled with substrate. Rows of bitter pepper planted are shed with a solution of growth stimulant or liquid fertilizer. Complete the seeding, slightly compacting the soil. You can do it by hand or use a plank.
Sprinkles hot pepper in warm and humid conditions. After sowing, the boxes are covered with glass or tightened with a film. In the daytime, they should be in the most warm place. At night, germinating seeds need a cooler temperature (about 15 ° C), so the tanks with them will have to be rearranged twice a day. So the seedlings will be stronger and more viable.
When young chili seem out of the ground, the shelter is removed. Boxes with seedlings rearranged to a warm and bright place, where they keep up to the landing in the ground. After the shoots will release 2 true leaves, they dive. 2-3 hours before the procedure, the soil in the container should be watered well. Then the seedlings of bitter pepper gently removed from the ground, pulling with a knife, slightly shorten their root and placed in separate containers, better - peat pots. Their planting ends with abundant irrigation, for which warm water, at least a couple of hours separated, is used.
In the early stages of development, hot pepper needs a long (not less than 12 hours) light day. If it gets dark early, then it is artificially lengthened artificially with a lamp until it dives in the seedlings. Young chilies are watered regularly, preventing the soil from drying out. To keep the stems from lying on the ground surface, a little potassium permanganate is added to the water. Bitter pepper will benefit and feed. They are held twice a month. Chile responds well to supplementation:
- liquid fertilizer for seedlings,
- infused wood ash.
Prepare a nutritional composition as follows: 2 tbsp. l substances are stirred in 3 liters of water and left for a day. The present solution is carefully filtered. You can use gauze for this by adding it up in 4-5 layers. Then they water the seedlings.
The room on the beds
Chile planting on the beds is carried out when the air and the soil warms up well (average daily temperature will be 13-15 ° C), and the probability of frosts will be minimal. For the procedure, you should choose cloudy weather or move it to the evening hours. Seedlings are placed in open ground with a soil clod. To remove the seedlings from the tank it was easier, at first they were poured abundantly.
Holes for hot pepper do at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other. The row spacing should be 50-60 cm. Landing can also be carried out in a cluster way:
- according to the scheme 60x60, when 2 seedlings are placed in one well,
- according to the scheme 70x70, when 3 bushes will grow in each well.
Growing chili next to sweet peppers is highly undesirable. If you arrange the beds with these cultures closely, they pereopilyatsya and taste of the fruit will suffer from this. The distance between the areas where the Bulgarian and hot peppers are growing should be at least 3 m.
Chile stalk is weak, so after planting it is better to tie it to a support immediately. Soil under the plants mulch. If night frosts are still possible, the beds should be protected from them with a film. Drop of temperature to 2-3 ° C hot pepper can not move. They take shelter when the frost is over.
Determine whether the time has come to place the seedlings in the ground, can be empirically. To do this, a few days before the procedure, 2-3 pots with seedlings are put on a cold window sill or an unglazed loggia. If they calmly survive the experiment, you can continue to grow them in outdoor conditions.
Agrotechnics bitter pepper is simple and does not require special skills from the gardener. It will be necessary to perform simple manipulations:
- water the plantings often,
- periodically feed the bushes,
- timely weed out weeds,
- regularly loosen the soil under the plants.
Freshly planted chili will grow slowly. Their development will accelerate when it takes 2 weeks from the moment they are placed on the beds. In order for seedlings to settle down faster, oxygen must flow freely to their roots, so frequent soil loosening during this period is especially important. It is also desirable to spray the leaves of plants with a solution of growth stimulant. Growing chili will be successful if the air is heated to 20-32 ° C. At lower temperatures, the growth of its bushes slows down. And if it gets cold to 10 ° C, it will stop altogether. In extreme heat (at temperatures above 32 ° C), plants can drop buds and flowers that are already flowing.
Bitter pepper prefers moist soil, so watering planting will have often. Use for this warm water. Its lack will adversely affect the harvest. The number of irrigations and the volume of applied liquid increase in the following cases:
- when the plants pick up the buds,
- when the ovaries appear on them,
- if it is hot and dry weather.
Fertilizers for hot peppers are chosen depending on the phase of its development. Before flowering, he needs nitrogen, phosphorus and magnesium. When the ovaries are formed, make phosphorus-potassium compounds containing a minimum of nitrogen.
In hot weather, in the absence of wind bushes will need to help pollinate. To do this, they are slightly shaken. Incomplete pollination spoils the presentation of vegetables: their shape is bent.
If the pepper bushes grow well and have already picked up the buds, they are stepsons. The flowers on the top of the chili are removed to make its shape more compact. When the peppers are 25 cm high, the central shoot is shortened, slightly trimming its top. This stimulates the intensive development of the side branches, from which you will need to leave 4-6, carefully removing the rest, and the rapid growth of the entire bush. One chili can produce up to 25 large fruits. If the ovaries are formed more, the excess ones are cut off so that they do not pull forces out of the plant.
Hot pepper - spicy vegetable, won the love of gourmets around the world. Chili comes from the tropics of the Americas, so it is quite capricious, requiring a lot of heat for its development and sensitively reacting to the lack of moisture. But its cultivation is possible in the gardens of the middle band, it is only necessary to observe the terms of placing the seedlings on the beds.
On the breeding of this culture are solved few gardeners. Meanwhile, in its agricultural technology is nothing complicated. Watering, loosening the soil, removing weeds, feeding, pasynkovanie - that's all the basics of care for bitter pepper. Plant spicy chili on the site, and the abundance of bright fruits with memorable taste will be a worthy reward for your efforts.
- 1. Listen to the article (soon)
- 2. Bitter pepper - a description
- 3. Growing from seed
- 3.1. Sowing
- 3.2. Growing seedlings
- 3.3. Picking
- 3.4. Growing at home
- 4. Landing
- 4.1. When to plant
- 4.2. Priming
- 4.3. How to plant
- 4.4. Growing in a greenhouse
- 5. Care
- 5.1. How to grow
- 5.2. Watering
- 5.3. Top dressing
- 6. Pests and diseases
- 6.1. Treatment
- 7. Collection and storage
- 8. Types and varieties
- 9. Properties
- 9.1. Beneficial features
- 9.2. Contraindications
Planting and care of bitter pepper (in short)
- Landing: sowing seeds for seedlings - in February-March in areas with a cold climate and in January-February in an area with warm. Seedlings are planted in open ground during the budding period, when the average daily temperature in the garden rises to 15-17 C.
- Lighting: bright sunlight.
- The soil: light, permeable.
- Watering: frequent and abundant, especially during flowering and fruiting: the soil in the area should not dry out. In the heat will need daily watering, and in drought will have to water the beds twice a day.
- Top dressing: At the beginning of the growing season, fertilizers containing phosphorus and magnesium are introduced into the soil, and as the fruits ripen, the amount of nitrogen must be reduced.
- Reproduction: seed.
- Pests: aphid, spider mites, colorado beetles, whiteflies, moths, thrips, and black bear slugs.
- Diseases: white, brown and black spot, black leg, tobacco mosaic, late blight, bacterial carcinoma, strick, gray, white and top rot, verticillis, fusarium and peronosporosis.
- Properties: The plant has medicinal properties.
Bitter pepper - a description
Red hot pepper is a shrub up to 60 cm high with branchy and woody stems in the lower part. Its leaves are elliptical, petiolate, pointed toward the apex, the flowers are large, grayish with purple or white. Fruits of the pepper of the trunk or spherical shape are berries with a small share of the pericarp. The color of the fruit can be different shades - from yellow or red to dark olive. Острый стручковый перец является близким родственником томата, поэтому и правила, и условия выращивания этих культур между собой очень схожи.
Посев семян перца чили.
The cultivation of hot pepper begins with sowing seeds for seedlings in February or March in cool regions and in January-February in warm ones. The soil mixture can be purchased in the store, and you can make your own: mix non-sour peat, humus and river sand in equal proportions. The seeds of hot pepper also need to be prepared for sowing: first lower them for half an hour into a weak solution of potassium permanganate, and then wrap in a damp cloth and wait at 25 ºC until they are folded. After that, the seeds are very careful not to break off the sprouts that appear, close up to damp soil to a depth of 5-10 mm, keeping at least 5 cm between them. Sow the seeds in boxes or peat pots, which are covered with film or glass and placed before germination in a warm place.
Growing seedlings bitter pepper.
Seeds of different varieties of bitter pepper germinate at different speeds, but as soon as shoots begin to appear, the crops need to be rearranged to light. If the plants lack the light, they should be placed above them at a height of 25-30 cm fitolampa or another lighting device: the light day for normal seedling development should last at least 18 hours, otherwise the seedlings will stretch out painfully. And do not forget to keep the substrate in a slightly wet state, at the same time not allowing it to be overwetted. From time to time between seedlings, it is desirable to loosen the soil.
A pick of hot pepper.
At the developmental stage, the seedlings of two pairs of true leaves need to pick out seedlings in shallow pots with a diameter of 8-10 cm - if you plant them in deeper dishes, then by the time the seedlings are planted in open ground the root system will be developed more than the fertile ground part, and this it is desirable not to allow. Before starting the procedure, seedlings are watered. When picking, try not to damage the seedlings' root system, but if the central root is too long, shorten it.
Before planting in the ground, hot pepper seedlings are fed twice - two weeks after picking and two weeks after the first feeding. Fertilizers are applied in the form of a solution of Chalice, Agricola, Mortar, Fertica Lux or other suitable preparation.
Growing bitter pepper at home.
If you intend to grow peppers at home, during a pickling, transplant seedlings into a pot in which a layer of drainage material is laid under the soil mixture. Place the pepper pots on the south, southeast, or southwest window sill, but if there is little light, arrange for the plants to artificially highlight them. When straightened plants reach a height of 20 cm, pinch the top of them to enhance tillering.
Caring for hot peppers at home includes regular watering and periodic feeding. Pepper is poured over with distilled water at room temperature, which is poured not onto the surface of the soil, but into the pan under the pot. As soon as the water from the pan disappears, you need to pour more.
During spring and summer, paprika is fed with complex mineral fertilizer for house plants. Do it on wet soil after watering. When airing the room, make sure that the pepper is not in the draft.
When flowering begins, the pots of pepper should be shaken slightly to allow pollination to occur. In winter, when heating devices work intensively, it is advisable to cover radiators with a damp cloth - this measure prevents excessive air drying. The plant, which turned one year old, needs to be transplanted every spring into a new soil and a larger pot.
When to put hot pepper in the ground.
Planting of hot pepper in open ground is carried out at the stage of formation of seedlings of the first buds. A prerequisite is also to establish the average daily temperature at 15-17 ºC.
Two weeks before planting, hot pepper seedlings undergo hardening, which consists in the daily “walking” of seedlings in the open air. You need to start with 15-20 minutes, but gradually the duration of the session is increased until young plants can spend the whole day on the air. Once the plants become accustomed to the environment in which they are to grow, they can be planted on the garden bed.
Ground for chili pepper.
Neither bitter, sweet pepper does not carry heavy cold soils, so peat and humus should be brought into the clay soil for digging to the depth of the spade bayonet. If your soil is light and permeable, fertilize it from the fall with rotted manure at the rate of 2 buckets of organic matter per m² plot. Although it is possible to fertilize directly into the hole when planting seedlings.
How to plant hot peppers in open ground.
Make a hole in the soil at a distance of 30-40 cm with 60 cm row spacing. You can plant peppers in the nesting way, according to the 50 x 50 cm scheme, placing two seedlings in one well. The depth of the hole should be such that the seedling plunges into it to the root collar. In each well, place a tablespoon of complete mineral fertilizer, mix it well with the ground, carefully remove a seedling with an earthy clod from the pot and roll it into the hole. Cover the hole with soil by half or a little more, pour into it a third of a bucket of water, and when it is absorbed, fill the hole with soil to the top. After planting, grind the bed with peat and, if necessary, tie the bushes to the supports. If at night the air temperature is below 13-14 ºC, cover the bed with peppers with non-woven material, throwing it onto the dug-in arcs. Seedlings should be planted on a cloudy day or in the late afternoon, after sunset.
Growing chili peppers in a greenhouse.
Experts say that chili grows much better in greenhouses than in open ground. This can be explained by the fact that in greenhouse conditions it is easier to control the temperature, and the level of air humidity in the greenhouse is more stable than in the garden. Pepper seedlings are planted in closed ground, when the seedlings reach a height of 10-15 cm, and night temperatures are set at 10-12 ºC. Before planting, the seedlings are hardened by the method already described by us.
The optimum daily temperature for growing chili peppers in a greenhouse is 16-18 ºC. In a heated greenhouse, the plants are watered frequently, but not abundantly, in an unheated greenhouse in cold weather, watering is reduced. Moisturize the soil with warm water. After watering, do not forget to loosen the soil around the bushes and remove weeds. Since the formation of the fruit, the plants are fed once a week with liquid fertilizer for tomatoes. Shrubs tall varieties tied to supports. If at the end of summer the ripening of fruits starts to slow down, hang the bushes pulled out of the soil onto the eaves of the greenhouse “upside down” - this measure will accelerate the ripening.
Keep in mind that in greenhouse conditions it is better to grow self-pollinating varieties, but if you have planted peppers that require pollinators, you will have to do this procedure yourself. To do this, you will need a soft brush to transfer the pollen or a fan, but sometimes shaking the plants is enough.
The last harvest of fruits is carried out before the onset of severe frosts, after which the bushes are transplanted into flowerpots and transferred to a heated room on the window sills. With the onset of spring, they can again be planted in a greenhouse or in open ground.
How to grow a hot pepper.
When the seedlings reach a height of 30-35 cm, they pinch the tops. After that, the bushes acquire a compact form, side shoots appear on them, which will also give fruit. If you want to grow large peppers, remove a few flowers on the bush, then the remaining fruits will be larger. The optimal number of fruits on a bush is 25, the rest is better to remove. When the air temperature is above 30 ºC, the hot pepper stops pollination, and in order for it to happen, you should shake the bushes a little. By the way, do not plant Bulgarian peppers next to bitter chillies: these cultures easily pereopylyatsya among themselves, therefore the distance between them should be at least 3.5 m.
Watering chili peppers.
Pepper is a moisture-loving culture and it especially needs moisture in the period of flowering and fruiting. Do not allow the soil to bed strongly dry. Be prepared to water the pepper in the summer every day, and in extreme heat even twice a day. Water for irrigation should be warm. To do this, in the garden in the bright sun sets a large container and filled with water. During the day, the water can settle and warm up. After watering, you can loosen the soil between the plants and remove weeds.
Pests and diseases of hot peppers
Of the pests, the most dangerous for solanaceous crops are aphids, spider mites, Colorado beetles, whiteflies, moths, thrips, bear and bare slugs. However, pepper is a more sustainable plant than a tomato, and is therefore not so often damaged by insects.
Of the diseases, hot pepper affects the same ailments from which tomatoes and eggplants suffer: white, brown and black spot, black leg, tobacco mosaic, late blight, bacterial cancer, strick, gray, white and apical rot, verticillis, fusarium and peronosporosis.
Processing chili peppers.
We have repeatedly told about all these pests and diseases, so we will not describe them again - you can find information about them in the articles posted on the website about growing tomatoes, eggplants and sweet pepper. Recall in brief that fungal diseases in emergency cases are treated with fungicidal drugs, among which Abiga-Peak, Bayleton, Bordeaux mixture, Gamair, Maxim, copper sulfate, Oksihom and others are most often used, and bacterial and viral diseases are incurable. As for pest control, the best insecticidal and acaricidal drugs are Agravertine, Akarin, Aktellik, Karbofos, Karate, Kleschevit and others.
However, the use of pesticides can lead to disastrous consequences for your health, so try to get rid of the problems of folk remedies - although they do not act so drastically, they are much less harmful to their health. And if you observe the agrotechnical conditions of a crop and properly care for it, you will be able to reduce the risk of plant diseases or their occupation by pests to a minimum.
Collection and storage of hot peppers
Red hot peppers can be used both in the stage of incomplete maturity, and after full ripening, therefore, if necessary, it can be collected as soon as the fruits are formed. If you plan to put the pepper for long storage, then wait until it is fully biological ripening, otherwise it will be poorly stored: the storage time for red hot pepper depends on a special substance, the amount of which in the fruit increases as they ripen. That is, the fruit is more ripe, the more bitter substances are in it, which manifest themselves as preservatives during storage.
Red hot pepper has pronounced signs of ripening:
- - the pods should turn red, yellow or orange,
- - pepper leaves turn yellow, and dry on the lower part of the bush,
- - if you rub your hand with pepper, a slight burning sensation emanates from the ripe fruit.
Usually, chillies begin to collect at the end of September. It is very simple to prepare it for storage: for several minutes, pepper is placed in a basin with warm water, washed from dust and dirt, rinsed with cold water, wiped with a towel and dried.
There are different ways to store hot pepper - the choice of method depends on how you are going to use it. You can store the fruits of chili, hanging them on the stalk on the rope - with such a garland you can decorate the kitchen. It is important that the peppers do not touch each other. Well dried fruits are put in bags of thick cloth or in glass jars, covered with parchment and stored in a dry place. Pepper can be dried by spreading it on a window sill on parchment paper - with regular turning, the fruits dry out in three weeks, but if you want to speed up the process, cut the peppers in half.
You can grind the peppers in a meat grinder, put the mass on a baking sheet and dry in the oven at 50 ºC. When the pepper has cooled, it is placed in a bag. Some housewives dry the peppers for a couple of hours in the oven at 50 ºC, pre-baking the paper with the paper and turning the peppers over from time to time.
Many housewives prefer to preserve pepper in sunflower oil. To do this, put the peppercorns washed and freed from the seeds into a sterile glass jar, pour them with sunflower oil, lightly salt it, roll the jars with a sterile lid and store in a dry, dark place for 2-3 months.
Canned pepper and marinade. Whole or sliced fruits from which the seeds are removed are put into sterile jars, filled with a sourish-sweet marinade and sealed with sterile caps. You can add your favorite spices to each jar - cherry or currant leaves, garlic, basil, cloves. For normal storage is enough one teaspoon of vinegar per liter jar.
Excellent taste for salted pepper: put dill, celery, a few cloves of garlic in a jar of pepper, and pour in brine (50-60 g of salt per 1 liter of water). Store salted peppers needed under a capron lid in a refrigerator or a cool cellar.
There is another way that will seem simple and reliable: hot pepper is placed in the freezer, where it does not change its color, attractive form, does not shrivel, and most importantly, retains all its valuable qualities. The fruits of red pepper are washed in cold water, soaked with a towel, laid out in bags, sealed tightly and placed in the freezer. You can freeze and chopped fruit. They are laid out in one layer on a pallet, frozen, then transferred to plastic bags and again put in the freezer - for storage.
Types and varieties of hot pepper
There are more than 3000 cultivated varieties and varieties of chilli. The classification of hot pepper varieties takes into account such characteristics as color, aroma, shape and degree of stinginess, which is determined by the scale of the American chemist Wilbur Scoville and is estimated at ESSh (Scoville unit). A unit of stinginess indicates the amount in one or another variety of the plant alkaloid capsaicin. We offer you an introduction to the most popular varieties and varieties of hot pepper:
- this family has a pleasant sharpness, an original type of fruit and a persistent fruity aroma. Grades:
- – Trinidad Small Cherry (160 000 ECU) - fruits of plants of this series look like orange or red round berries with a diameter of not more than 2.5 cm with a characteristic cherry flavor. Of most interest are the late-ripening varieties of the Moruga Scorpion Red and Moruga Scorpion Yellow series.
- – Trinidad scorpion (855 000-1463 700 ESSH) - These small bright yellow peppers are grown for the production of tear gas and paint that protects vessels from the growth of mollusks. They are so burning that they collect and recycle this pepper in chemical protection suits,
- – Family 7 Pot - this series is represented mainly by late-ripening chili varieties. The fruits of these varieties are distinguished by an unusual, as if crumpled form, a characteristic fruit aroma and a high content of capsaicin. These are close relatives of the Trinidad scorpion. Of the varieties, the most popular record holder for the pungentness of taste is Primo (800,000-1,000,000 ECU) with bright red fruits and Gigantic - a variety with very large fruits of the same pungentness.
Naga Jolokia (970 000-1 001 304 ECU)
- This pepper is grown by the Indian tribe Naga, and it is used for the manufacture of pepper smoke bombs. But there are edible varieties of this group:
- – Naga Morich, or Dorset Naga (1,000,000 ECU) - a grade for gastromazohists,
- – Bhut Jolokia (800 000-1 001 304 ECU) - until recently, the hottest pepper in the world listed in the Guinness Book of Records, but in 2013 it gave way to the Karolina Reaper variety (1 569 300-2 200 000 ECU). Pepper Bhut Jolokia is used to make grenades used by Indian police,
- – Bhut Jolokia Chocolate - the same hot pepper, but Indians cook with it some varieties of curry dishes.
Brief characteristics of culture
Today, almost 2000 varieties of pepper are bred. Bitter pepper is a vegetable culture that has a distinctive spicy taste. The seeds and internal laminae containing alkaloid capsaicin give a hotness to the vegetable..
Some varieties of hot pepper are so burning that one touch to them is enough to irritate the skin.
Culture is characterized by a long vegetation phase: 90-180 days. The plant reaches a height of 60 cm. The shrub has spreading branches, oval leaves, large gray or whitish flowers.
The fruits are low-cut: their color varies from red and yellow to black-olive, the shape - from spherical to trunk-shaped. Sharp fruits are taken to dry, then separate the seeds and grind the flesh. In the process of drying, the pods acquire a dark red or orange-red shade.
Hot pepper is considered to be an annual plant. In fact, this is a fallacy.. If you dig up a bush in the fall, transplant it into a wide container — the plant will continue to bear fruit even until spring or even longer.
Bitter pepper is widely grown both in open ground and in containers. Небольшой кустарник с красивыми яркими плодами часто служит украшением сада или элементом декора помещения.
Семена горького перца, выращивание которого планируется в открытом грунте, необходимо сеять в начале января. Семена комнатного овоща можно сеять в любой сезон, но нужно обеспечить им дополнительный источник света. Освещение требуется до момента окончания фазы пикирования. Depending on the region and climatic conditions, the cultivation of hot red pepper is recommended at the end of May - early June.
The necessary conditions
Consider the basic conditions that must be provided for the successful cultivation of chili peppers. This plant requires a good and regular care. Keep temperature, lighting, and air and soil humidity at the correct mode. Seeds require sunlight or artificial light for 12 hours a day. Garden soil and humus are steamed on fire before use. Direct sowing should be carried out on the soil substrate heated to 40 ° C.
Independent preparation of seeds consists in their separation into fractions and immersion in a special solution (30 g of salt per 1 liter of water). Keep the seeds in this fluid for 10 minutes: worthless seeds will float to the surface, and quality will sink to the bottom. Drain the surfaced seeds, rinse and dry the quality seeds.
Then the seeds are laid out on a damp cloth, covered and kept for about a week at room temperature. To protect young seedlings from diseases, the grain is disinfected.
Also, in order to improve immunity, seeds can be hardened in a standard way for 3-5 days. However, only dry, sprouted grains are quenched.
How to choose the soil and capacity
While the seeds germinate, choose a seed container and substrate. With a 5x4 or 6x3 sowing scheme, 500 seedlings are obtained from one square meter of usable area. If you need a little vegetables, you can sprout seedlings at home - in small cups.
The nutritional composition of the mixture includes the following components:
- leaf or turf ground (2 parts),
- high-moor peat (2 parts) or humus (1 part),
- sand (1 part).
The collection is stirred and disinfected by freezing, steaming or calcining.
We moisten the prepared soil mixture in the seedling container, impose a grid with the prepared sowing scheme on top. If you do not have a lattice, then with the help of ordinary sticks we loosen the ground on the squares (according to the scheme). Place 1-2 grains in the center of each square.
Cover with glass or film and transfer to a warm place. Seedlings grow in containers 30-32 days. With the advent of 1-2 leaves of seedlings transplanted into a new container. Immerse the seedlings in the wet soil mixture to the cotyledons. Next, transfer the container in light penumbra. Seedlings in individual containers are not sparking.
Key principles of growing crops
How to grow bitter pepper so that it will bear fruit on time? You need to know how to properly and when to plant seed. For early ripening of the fruit, you can start planting seeds in mid-January.
But the standard agricultural cultivation involves planting in late February - early March. Pepper seeds must be carefully selected, rejected inappropriate. High-quality and large grains immediately before planting should be soaked in a weak solution of potassium permanganate.
Next, rinse them under running water, dry. After that, can be sown hot pepper on seedlings. This vegetable crop prefers growth in a fertile soil substrate. You can buy it in finished form or make it yourself, using peat and humus in equal proportions (you can also add a small amount of river sand).
For the destruction of germs, you can hold the seeds for a few minutes in a hot oven or in a microwave. Thanks to such a procedure, pathogens, fungi are destroyed, the amount of weeds is also reduced. Before planting, it is recommended to additionally carry out the treatment with a growth stimulator or mineral-based fertilizer.
Also, the seeds are checked for the presence of empty - dipped in a container with water. Those that are hot, are rejected. If you get a lot of proven grain, you can not plant everything, leave until next year. They are beautifully stored for five to six years.
For proper planting of planting material, you must first take care of the preparation of containers in which seedlings will develop. Lay a drainage layer on the bottom of the drawer. For these purposes, you can take:
- small pebbles
- broken brick
- pieces of foam.
On top of the drainage layer, it is necessary to cover the bed of rotten compost in combination with sod. You can pour a small amount of sand. Seal the layer, make small depressions - no more than half a centimeter. They put prepared seeds in them.
How many days do seeds sprout after planting? If seed preparation and planting have passed according to all the rules, then they should ascend after a week and a half.
Duration of seed germination lasts about 5 years. It is important during planting of hot pepper to provide seedlings with optimal lighting. For seedlings, the daylight hours should be at least 12 hours. If necessary, artificially spread the seedlings, setting the light source at 8 centimeters from the seedlings.
Cultivated material should be planted in warm soil, the temperature of which is not less than 40 ° C, going down one and a half centimeters. Observe the interval between rows of at least five centimeters. After the seeds have sunk into the ground, pour a layer of soil on top, slightly tamp.
Top with a special solution - growth stimulator (Agricola, Kemira). When the seeds are planted, containers with them should be put on a warm place, with good access to sunlight. When the seeds have risen, and the first pair of these leaves appeared (about a month later), you will need to dive the pepper.
Moistening of young sprouts appeared as the soil dries out. It is important to ensure that the soil is not too dry. Periodically, several crystals of potassium permanganate can be added to the water for irrigation. For irrigation use only water heated to 25 degrees.
When the required number of seedlings sprouted, the first pair of true leaves appeared on the sprouts, a dive procedure is carried out - planted in separate cups. It is recommended during the dive to shorten the young roots slightly, this will help to stimulate the active growth of the root system. It is recommended to fill the seedling container well before seating.
Indoor pepper is grown according to the same principles. Only indoor pepper does not need a dive, since its disembarkation is carried out immediately in a separate container. The cultivation of bitter pepper on the windowsill is a very simple task - it is enough to water the room pepper in time, sometimes to fertilize, finish lighting if necessary.
Room pepper, of course, has a small size, but it is well suited as a spicy additive to your favorite dishes.
In addition, the indoor flower can be grown for a long time, after fruit ripening, it can grow further. House pepper produces fruits depending on the variety, on average twice a year.
Features landing in the ground
How long can you plant seedlings in open ground? After 60 days after the appearance of the first shoots, the seedlings are ready for transportation to the open ground. Pre-recommended to check sprouts - move the container with them to the balcony or bring to the street. Leave for the day.
If over time they remain the same, the seedlings are ready for planting in open ground. If the nights are still cold, the sprouts are a bit twisted, it is better to wait with the landing in the ground.
Planting plants in the ground, it is important to observe the distance between them in half a meter. So, they will not obscure each other. When planting bitter pepper and bulgarian in the open ground, it is necessary to observe an interval of at least three meters in order to avoid intercirculation of crops. The age of planted seeds must be at least three years.
We learned how to grow bitter pepper from seeds. But what kind of care require seedlings in the open field? Content rules are to perform the following actions:
- Systematic soil loosening.
- Regular moisturizing.
- Weed removal.
- Top dressing with suitable fertilizers.
Before the beginning of the flowering period, it is recommended to feed the plants with nitrogen fertilizers. At the end of the flowering period, phosphorus-potassium fertilizers are used.
With proper preparation, planting seedlings, planting in open ground, fruiting bitter pepper lasts almost until the beginning of autumn. Harvesting is carried out at a time when the fruits are solid. Soft peppercorn should not be plucked, they have not yet matured.
Experienced gardeners do not recommend planting peppers in too hot weather, it is better to hold this event in the early morning or late evening. Tall pepper varieties are recommended to tie up as they grow to supports. This will save thin stalks from damage. With the right approach to cultivation, it is possible to ensure good fruiting of this crop.
To grow hot pepper at home, you need to choose the right grade. Among the most popular varieties noted:
- Astrakhan 147. The plant has a high level of resistance to adverse environmental factors, diseases. It is actively cultivated in the southern regions. Medium-sized bushes attract attention with their elongated shape and moderate burning of fruits. Productivity indicators are characterized as above average.
- Yellow hungarian. The term of ripening fruit is 4 months, the immunity is high, the plant is able to withstand the main ailments. Especially high level of resistance to vertex rot. Due to the compactness of the bushes planted in flowerbeds and garden beds. Pods have a pronounced yellow color and an elongated shape. Juicy fruits are characterized as weak burning.
- Danube. Hot pepper is grown in the open field, it is not afraid of temperature fluctuations, dry weather, diseases. The term of fruit ripening from the moment of laying the seeds in the soil is 3.5 months, which allows growers to collect high-quality crops in temperate regions. The main feature of the variety is the height of the plant - over 1 m. Surprise is the large size of the pods, which are distinguished by their elongated shape, red or green color.
- Impala The hybrid was bred for cultivation in areas with difficult climatic conditions. The short phase of the growing season (2 months) allows you to grow peppers in the northern regions. The variety does not require special care, it has a sufficient level of immunity to viruses and bacteria. Elegant fruits have a pleasant taste and aroma.
- Ukrainian chili pepper. The duration of the ripening period for this species is 4 months. The plant is resistant to many known diseases, which simplifies the process of its cultivation. From 1Q m can collect up to 1.5 kg of fruit. It is recommended to plant seedlings in open sunny glade.
Features of sowing and cultivation
It is necessary to choose a grade taking into account climatic features in a residence. When growing hot pepper in the open field, it is important to know the time of planting, and how to care for seedlings. So in the southern areas of the bookmark seed in the ground do in January and February, and in the cool - in February and March.
Proper cultivation of hot pepper involves preparing a place for growth. This plant grows more effectively on fertile soils with a high level of humidity. During watering on the leaves do not pour water, just under the root. Competent sowing of seeds, planting and care are key factors in the process of obtaining hot peppers.
How to sow seeds for seedlings
Pretreatment of seed with potassium permanganate and boron allows you to protect it from fungal diseases in the future. For these purposes, a solution of manganese sulphate (1%) or boric acid-based working fluid (0.05%) is used. The procedure time is 15-20 minutes. Seeds are kept in solution, the temperature of which is within 20 degrees.
It is important here not to neglect the dosage of the selected drug and the soaking time, otherwise the viability of the planting material is reduced.
Sowing seeds in the soil for rapid emergence should be already germinated. They are laid out on a damp napkin and covered with another one. In order for the seedlings to hatch, the room must be kept at an air temperature of between 20-25 degrees. As the wipes dry, it is periodically moistened. It can not be completely dry. Duration of the procedure is 2-3 days. Sprouted seeds are planted in separate containers of 2 pcs. Pots, containers put on the lit place.
Grown up germs pass into other containers of a larger volume, or bags of 3-4 plants. On a permanent place seedlings are planted at the age of 50-60 days.
Care for seedlings of bitter pepper
When growing vegetables, it is important after the emergence of seedlings to properly care for the seedlings. Only under favorable conditions, young plants will be able to grow and develop normally. Care activities include monitoring the moisture in the soil, maintaining the optimum temperature in the room. For pepper, regular irrigation and the ambient temperature in the daytime at around 20-22 degrees, and at night - 18-20 degrees are important. In order not to expose young plants to stressful situations, it is necessary to use exceptionally warm water.
If it was noticed that the leaf plates began to change their natural color to yellow, then it is advisable to use directly fertilizers such as wood ash (2 tbsp. Liters of funds for 3 liters of water), special liquid formulations. If the seedlings are stunted, then Bud is used.
Before transplanting shrubs to an open area, they should be hardened so that they can quickly adapt to new growing conditions. A month before the day of the proposed disembarkation, the window should be open for 2-3 hours, but avoiding drafts.
How to plant a plant in the open ground
Planting bitter pepper in the garden is recommended at an air temperature of 13-15 degrees. Planting work is best planned for the evening. Planting plants is carried out after the appearance of 8-12 leaves.
Technology for determining seedlings for a permanent place:
- Make holes at a distance of 40-45 cm from each other, keeping a distance between rows of 50-60 cm.
- In each hole add 1 tbsp. l fertilizers (superphosphate).
- Remove the seedling along with the earthy ball and place in the hole.
- Sprinkle with a layer of fertile soil, pour the pepper.
- On top of planting hot pepper put mulch.
If weather changes are expected, the plants are protected by covering material (agrofibre).
How and when to harvest the pepper
To grow large fruits of hot pepper, the gardener will need knowledge of agricultural technology, but also to save the pods also need to be able to. Harvesting begins on the first days of July and ends in October. They reach their consumer maturity after acquiring a pronounced red color.
Store pepper at a temperature of 18-20 degrees. If there is a need for long-term preservation of the crop, drying should be carried out as a whole, pre-strung vegetables on the thread through the stem. To dry them more effectively in sunny weather under glass for a week. Alternatively, peppers grown in open ground can be frozen.
Bitter pepper when grown in open ground requires special care. Culture needs to be fed, watered, to carry out preventive measures. Only an integrated approach allows to obtain large and burning fruits.
Habanero (350 000-570 000 ECU)
- peppers in the form of a flashlight, usually of a bright orange color. There are legends about this pepper: allegedly once the Indians of Yucatan offered a person a choice: to be sacrificed to the gods or to drink half a liter of tincture of this pepper, and many chose the first. Today, Habanero pepper is used to make Tabasco sauce and make tequila sharp. Of particular interest are:
- – White Habanero (100 000-350 000 ECU) - variety with small white fruits. However, to grow it is not easy, so it is rare,
- – Chocolate Habanero, or Congo Black (300 000-425 000 ECU) - variety grown from Mexico to Jamaica for making hot sauces,
- – Red Caribbean Habanero (300 000-475 000) - Mexicans use this pepper for salsa and other sauces.
Jamaican Pepper (100 000-200 000 ECU)
- pepper flavored but dangerous to humans, which can cause burns. In terms of the persistence of this group of varieties close to Habanero. In the culture of the popular varieties of Jamaican red and Jamaican yellow. Jamaican pepper is used for making sauces, it is also put in pickles, pickles, meat and dairy dishes. The sharpest variety of Jamaican pepper:
- – Scottish cap or Scotch Bonnet (100 000-350 000 ECU) - most often this pepper can be found in the Canary Islands, in Guyana. Scottish cap may be red or yellow. The name got its own pepper for the similarity of the fruit with the Scotch beret. The acuteness of this pepper causes numbness of the limbs and dizziness. They use it for making sauces and first courses, and some gourmets like to enjoy its fruits with fruits and chocolate,
Thai pepper (75 000-150 000 ECU)
- Portugal is the birthplace of this pepper, but it is grown mainly in Thailand. Используют тайские сорта жгучего перца для приготовления рыбных и мясных блюд, соусов, салатов, а также для избавления от целлюлита. Самый известный в наших широтах сорт:
- – Тайский дракон – сорт с красными или желтыми плодами до 7 см в длину и до 8 мм в диаметре. Широко применяется во вьетнамской, малазийской, филиппинской и тайской кухне.
Cayenne pepper (30 000-50 000 ECU)
- The name of the pepper comes from the toponym of the port city in French Guiana, through which spices from South America were brought to Europe from the 15th to the 19th century. This group includes peppers from Malaga, Tabasco peppers and Tiri Tiri, Malawi peppers Kambuzi and all Thai peppers. Use cayenne pepper varieties for cooking canned food, sausages, pickles. Apply it for medical purposes for the treatment of sciatica. Cayenne pepper is one of the most popular varieties in amateur gardening,
Poblano (1,000-1,500 ECU)
- The main pepper of Mexico, the softest of all described. Its large green fruits of elongated shape with a thick rind resemble prunes to their liking, in stewed form with white peanut sauce and pomegranate seeds are traditionally prepared on Independence Day. It is stuffed with cream cheese, seafood, pork, potatoes, beans and other products.
Among the gardeners of the middle band, the following hot red pepper varieties are popular: Jalapeno, Thai Dragon, Astrakhan, Chinese Fire, Satan's Kiss, Indian Elephant, Shishito, Peter, Sharp Tongue, Anaheim, Hybrids Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprout New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprut New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprut New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Sprut New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Octopus, New Years, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Octopus, New Year, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell, Double Abundance, Octopus, Flying Moths, Spicy Bell others.
Useful properties of hot pepper.
What is useful chili pepper? The composition of red hot pepper includes:
- - vitamins: A, B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, PP, K, E, C,
- - macro-and micronutrients: potassium, iron, magnesium, manganese, copper, calcium, sodium, zinc, selenium, phosphorus and others, but in smaller quantities, as well as dietary fiber, proteins, fats, carbohydrates, saturated fatty acids, mono - and disaccharides, wax, colorants and the most valuable alkaloid capsaicin.
What is the effect of hot pepper on the human body? It is a good means to stimulate appetite and, having a bacterial action, relieves bowel disorder, and as an external agent is used for myositis, rheumatism, polyarthritis, gout, and upper respiratory catarrh. Chili is useful for its strong antioxidant effect, it stimulates the metabolic process, activating the burning of calories. Bitter pepper enhances immunity, increasing the body's resistance to colds, viral and bacterial diseases, thinning the blood, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases, tones the nervous system and increases the potency. Red pepper treats such diseases as bronchitis and other bronchopulmonary diseases, vitiligo and felon. Chilli helps produce endorphins that increase pain threshold and resistance to stress, and recent studies have shown that it is effective in treating some of the complications of diabetes.
The harm of bitter pepper - contraindications.
The use of bitter pepper is contraindicated for people suffering from diseases of the gastrointestinal tract - gastritis, duodenitis, ulcers, diseases of the liver and kidneys. It is not recommended for patients with angina pectoris, arrhythmia, and hypertension. Bitter pepper and preparations from it can cause skin irritation, and they are especially dangerous if they come in contact with eyes, so do not forget to wash your hands after touching them. If you have accidentally eaten hot peppers, it is useless to drink it with water, in this case it is better to drink milk or yogurt. May relieve steam burning sips of fresh lemon juice.
Seedling care rules
Care for seedlings of bitter pepper is to maintain optimal humidity, temperature and provide useful substances. Irrigation of seedlings is carried out after 2-3 days. The soil should always be kept wet. After the appearance of 3-4 leaves, we change the irrigation mode - now it is 1 time per day. Water for irrigation must be heated to 20-25 ° C.
A fortnight before planting, the seedlings must be hardened:
- watering is gradually limited,
- temperature decreases
- increases stay in natural conditions.
Planting hot pepper in open ground
2 months after growing the seedlings, the peppers can be transplanted into the open ground. When it comes to planting hot pepper seedlings, the soil will be warmed to 16 ° C: this temperature helps to avoid the threat of possible spring frosts. This period falls on the third decade of May - the first half of June. Before planting, seedlings are irrigated abundantly.