In this article we want to talk about such a tree as a pear Conference. Description of the variety is interesting for gardeners, because many of them want to have a high-quality fruit tree, and this pear is a favorite delicacy for a large number of people. That is why we decided to pay attention to this sweet fruit. Gardeners are known summer, autumn and winter varieties of pears. The description of varieties gives us to understand that they differ in the time of ripening and storage of fruits. We will tell you about one of the autumn varieties, which attracts both taste and easy care.
Pear Conference: variety description
This variety has been known in the world for a long time, it has been cultivated for two centuries already, and it received its name in honor of the British Conference, which was dedicated to the cultivation of pears. Speaking about the characteristics of the tree, it should be noted that fruit ripening takes place in mid-September. According to the taste parameters, the pear is very sweet and juicy, and also rather large. Fruit weight can fluctuate around 140 grams. The elongated shape of the fruit and the green color of the peel distinguish it from other varieties. Despite the juiciness, the pulp of the pear has a dense structure and a pleasant aroma. An interesting fact is that, studying the reviews of gardeners, you can understand that this tree is praised and loved even by those who prefer winter pear varieties. The description of varieties of different categories allows us to choose the right thing that we want. And the Conference is chosen by many. Considerable role in the selection is the usefulness of the fetus. Pears of this type contain such amount of substances necessary for the body that it cannot be overlooked. So, in their composition:
- acid (citric, malic, oxalic),
- vitamins (A, B, C),
- trace elements (iodine, potassium, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, iron, zinc),
As for the tree itself, it can grow up to five meters in height and has a wide crown with thick branches.
Pros and cons varieties
By this time you have already understood what a pear Conference is. Variety description, care and recommendations are needed so that not only you choose the right kind of this fruit, but your tree will grow and develop properly. Like every tree, the Conference has its own dangers and disadvantages. Let's start with the positive:
- the tree starts to bear fruit very quickly after landing on a permanent place,
- a pear does not need anything to pollinate itself, since the variety belongs to self-pollinating, moreover, it can pollinate other varieties, so if you have a lot of space in the garden, plant pears and the Conference will provide pollination,
- The quality of taste is considered one of the best among all varieties.
You can not get around the minus varieties:
- the tree survives only in the southern parts and in a warm climate, it does not tolerate the winter, and at temperatures below eighteen degrees it dies,
- the influence of weather conditions on taste: little sun and a lot of rain will make fruit unsweetened,
- sensitivity to pest and disease attacks.
But, despite all the drawbacks, gardeners still strive to have this wonderful fruit tree in their garden, because if they succeed, they receive very tasty fruits.
The Pear Conference, the variety description of which we present here, is planted taking into account some recommendations:
- the site for planting should contain loose soil of neutral acidity, black soil is best suited,
- the tree prefers a lot of sunlight, but does not tolerate drafts,
- do not plant a tree in the recess, as this leads to the accumulation of moisture, and the pear does not like high humidity in the ground,
- do not plant anything near the pear, as the crown of the tree reaches five meters in diameter,
- it is important not to have a pear next to buildings,
- It is recommended to plant a tree in the fall, while carefully choose a sapling, inspect it for integrity and strength,
- before planting, lower the roots of the tree for twelve hours in the water, in which you add "Kornevin",
- to secure the roots, you need to coat them with a mixture of water, clay and manure in the ratio 6: 1: 2, after the procedure you need to wait until they dry, and then plant,
- The planting process itself does not differ from the standard procedure, which is characteristic of all pear trees.
A detailed description of the pears of the variety. The conference is primarily necessary for the tree to grow and produce a good harvest. What you need to know when caring for this inhabitant of the garden?
- Fertilize the land where the pear grows. Use organic fertilizers (every three years) and mineral (annually). You can also feed the tree in the spring to increase yields.
- Water the tree regularly, but do not allow water to accumulate. This will lead to rotting roots. After watering necessarily loosen the ground.
- It is important to monitor the formation of the crown of the tree. Pruning need to bud before the buds begin to bloom. Having chosen the tactics of crown formation, follow it every year and get a well-groomed tree.
Possible problems and their solution
The Pear Conference, the description of the variety you are reading, may be attacked by some pests and diseases. Watch your tree carefully and react to changes in time if you do not want to lose such a valuable fruit. Here are some possible problems.
- Spots appear on the leaves. Variant can be white or brown spot. For prevention it is necessary to carry out spraying the tree with special preparations.
- On the fetus appear fleecy character. At first they are small, but over time spread to the entire fetus. This is a fungus. Immediately remove the fruits and branches, which grow sick fruit, then burn everything. The rest of the tree is treated with an anti-fungus agent.
- Fruit rot. This disease is moniliosis. Fruits are removed, and the tree is treated with an appropriate preparation.
- White bloom on the leaves of the tree. This is powdery mildew. To prevent such a disease, you need to water the tree with the addition of manganese (to pink).
- A tree can also hit aphid, caterpillar, mite or other pest. In order to respond and remove the problem in time, you need to monitor the state of the tree. Having noticed the problem, immediately treat the tree with a preparation that is used to kill one or another pest.
We told you about such a plant as a pear conference. Description of the variety, reviews and tips that we represent, say that this tree is worthy of your attention. Most of the reviews boil down to the fact that everyone praises the tree for its tasty fruits and numerous crops. And these are important factors. Gardeners who grow fruit for sale are especially pleased with this variety. Providing the right care, they get a decent result and earn a good sale, because this variety is always popular with buyers.
Description of the pear variety Conference
Conference - pear variety. The name of the fruit was due to the conference on the cultivation of pears, which was held in Britain. Mass acquaintance took place with this variety much later.
Fruit ripening occurs in the second half of September. Fruits of the extended form, large size. The color is greenish yellow, the skin is tough with a matte shade, with inclusions of small brown spots. The flesh is juicy, aromatic, soft and melts in the mouth. The variety has a tart taste due to tannin content in the skin.
The crown of the tree is wide and dense, reminiscent of a cone. Do not ripen the fruit can only if the summer is cool. Winter varieties bad.
Advantages and disadvantages
- Abundant and regular fruiting.
- Self pollinated.
- The variety does not need pollinating trees. Pear tree takes up a lot of space, so it can serve as a pollinator for other varieties of pears.
- Excellent taste of fruit, give the opportunity to grow pears for sale.
- Store a variety of pears "Conference" can be for six months, it is enough to put them in a cellar or a refrigerator. She will not lose taste and aesthetic qualities.
- Weak winter hardiness, temperature drops below 20 degrees will negatively affect the condition of the variety.
- Fruiting may depend on weather conditions. Cold, rain and wind will not give the fruits to ripen well, and this will affect their taste. The sun contributes to the proper ripening of the fetus.
- Unpresentable appearance, but this is not important, because the taste is more important.
- Susceptibility to diseases caused by fungi.
The fruit does not ripen on the tree, so the crop must be removed and folded in a cool, dry place. After lying for several days, the pear will ripen, will begin to gain flavor and delicate taste.
The advantages include flexibility for heat treatment without loss of taste and useful properties. From it you can make jam and other treats. Due to the fact that it contains acids, which contribute to the improvement of digestive processes.
The calorie content of pear is quite low, only 42 kcal per 100 grams of product. They are recommended to be included in various types of diets.
Care spring and autumn
Care in the spring is to remove the winter shelter and inspect for damage. All damages must be disinfected. For this you can use copper sulphate. The lower part of the stem is whitened with a solution of lime with the addition of PVA glue. In this way, you can destroy pests and pathogens. Around the tree loosen the earth well, as a result of which bacteria, spores and larvae of pests are destroyed.
Before flowering, the tree is sprayed with a solution of urea, or vitriol. In the fall, the tree is fed with nitrogenous fertilizers. Feeding should be carried out immediately after harvest, otherwise the plant will not have time to prepare for winter.
Fruits on the pear Conference, ready for collection and storage
Preparing for the winter is a fairly important event. In November, the tree must be sheltered. Cover the roots and the lower third of the trunk with a ground about 25 cm thick.
The first harvest from a young tree will be after about 5 years of living in one place. About 40 kg of fruits are removed from one adult tree. Harvesting begins in late September. It is better to shoot the fruits unripe, as they will not be able to gain juiciness and softness on the tree.
Harvesting is necessary only in good weather, it must be dry. In order to avoid damage to the fetus, collect them in baskets, then place them in a ventilated room for several days. This is necessary in order for them to evaporate unnecessary moisture that prevents long-term storage.
Diseases and pests
Pear Conference is subject to various pests and diseases. Watch the tree and in case of any changes, immediately solve the problem fundamentally.
- White or brown spots on the leaves - This is a sign of manifestation of entomosporia or septoria. The disease can affect not only the leaves, but also shoots, fruits. The disease leads to deformation of the fruit, shoots grow poorly, and the leaves fall. To deal with the problem by spraying wood Bordeaux mortar or other fungicides. For example, Kuprostat, Skor, Champion. For the prevention of each spring, it is necessary to handle the stem near the trunk with Nitrofen.
- Scab affects the fruit sometimes and leaves. To touch it is avarous, brown in color. Small spots are small, but over time extend to the whole fruit. As a result, it is deformed, the skin is cracking, it is not recommended to eat such fruits. To deal with the problem you need to drastically. At the first occurrence of infection, the infected place is cut off and burned. Harvest Fresh Conference Pears
Description of planting pear varieties Conference
Any landing should start at the right place. For varieties of pears, the conference will suit loose soil. Moisture must be kept. The best soil will be chernozem and loose loam.
The main condition is considered prevalence of sunlight. But it should be considered, the wind does not like pear. In winter, winds contribute to freezing, and in spring and summer time they knock down ovaries and fruits. You also need to know that in the lowlands plant a pear Conference should not be.
To get the harvest faster, you need to properly plant a tree. An adult pear has a large crown, so it is not necessary to plant perennials under it. It is not recommended to plant near residential buildings either. This is due to the fact that due to an incorrectly formed crown crop will be weak.
Planting young saplings is best in the autumn. Planted in open ground should be in the second half of September. And by winter the seedling will gain strength and take root well. To protect a young tree from rodents, it must be covered.
To obtain further rich harvests, it is necessary to choose the right seedlings.
- They should be annuals.
- The root system is well developed.
Before planting spend soaking in ordinary water. Be sure to need a growth stimulator, which is added to water for 12 hours.
Description of the main stages
Now everything is ready for landing. The work must be carried out in stages.
- Prepared pit. The depth and width should be one meter. This will serve the good development of the root system. At the very bottom of the pit should be laid drainage, then pour the ground, dug from the prepared hole. Humus is added to the soil. Take a little mineral fertilizers. It may be superphosphate. Non-burnt manure is not recommended, as it can damage the tree.
- The soil is ready. Now you need to make a mound in the middle of the hole. A sapling is installed in the center. Before falling asleep, it is necessary to straighten the roots well. The root neck of the tree rises above the ground level by three centimeters.
- It is good to tamp the ground.
- It is necessary to ensure good watering. As soon as the water is completely absorbed, mulching is necessary. Moisture under straw is well preserved you can use sawdust. At a distance of 15 centimeters from the seedling they put a peg and tie a planted tree.
- A young tree should be warned against open sunlight. It is necessary to make a shadow to avoid falling leaves.
Pear Conference: description of care in the spring season
Spring care requires release from the winter shelter. A thorough examination of all kinds of damage should be carried out. Problem areas should be sanitized. Copper sulfate is a reliable assistant in pest control. The lower part of the barrel must be lime. And it would be good to add PVA glue to the lime. This will help get rid of all pests and various pathogens of dangerous diseases.
Now it is necessary to loosen the earth around the tree. After the work done, spring dressing is added.
Very soon, the tree will move to flowering. During this period, you can process copper sulphate or urea solution. And in the autumn, it is best to feed with nitrogen fertilizers. As soon as the crop is harvested, you need to immediately feed. During this period, the tree has time to prepare for winter.
Preparing a fruit tree for winter is considered to be a fairly important undertaking. With the onset of November, the pear should be covered. Roots fall asleep ground. The thickness of the hill should be 25 centimeters.
Description and distinctive features of the Conference variety
Pear Conference - Old English variety
Pear Conference (from the English. Conference) - the old English variety, has established itself as one of the most common in Western Europe. He was bred in the UK, but the year of origin is not exactly set. There is an opinion that this culture appeared in 1893. The selection involved the Leon Leclaire de Laval variety, opened in 1884 by the Englishman T. Rivers.
Important! The name of the variety was given on the occasion of the British National Conference on the cultivation of pears.
Pear Conference gives a bountiful harvest in warm regions
Characteristics of a grade are reduced to such aspects:
- The tree is vigorous, reaching a height of 5 m. The crown is dense, wide, strongly leafy, and has a pyramidal or conical shape. Shoots during the season grow by 40–60 cm. They move away from the tree at an acute angle.
- Fruits are large in size, their weight varies from 130 to 240 g. Pears are elongated, shaped like a bottle. They are covered with a dense matte skin of a yellow-green color with brown spots, which become orange when ripe. The stem is thick, short, curved in the shape of an arc.
- The flesh is oily, soft, juicy with a fine-grained structure. The color may be light pink, cream or yellowish.
- The taste is predominantly sweet, but there is a slight acid. There is a pronounced aroma.
- Fruits Conference varieties have high nutritional value. They contain malic acid, citric acid and oxalic acid, as well as vitamins A, C, B. Peel contains tannin, which gives it a tart flavor.
The variety is characterized by long-term preservation of the fruit, because pears for five months do not lose their taste. At the same time, they fully preserve the appearance.
Важно учесть, что вкусовые характеристики плодов зависят от погодных условий. В прохладное лето груши полностью не созревают. Выращивают сорт Конференция в южных регионах, поскольку культура имеет слабую морозоустойчивость. Показатель -20 °C представляют для растения серьёзную опасность. But the hot weather pear transfers well.
How to plant a tree?
Pear Conference loves loam or chernozem
Variety Conference can be grown without the use of pollinators. The tree has sufficiently viable pollen, the resistance indicators of which reach 80%. Due to this, the pear itself is capable of pollinating varieties such as Stryiska, Goverla, Kucheryanka. But to increase yields, you can plant Bere Gardi, Bere Bosc, Williams, or Bere Giffard near the Conference.
Important! Since the size of the pear conference is quite large, pollinators can be planted no closer than at a distance of 4–5 m.
The criteria for choosing a landing site are as follows:
- Pear prefers chernozem, loamy and forest soils with neutral acidity. But sand, sandy, silty, peat and clay soils for this culture will not work.
- The place should be sunny and warm, because the wind gusts detrimental effect on the tree. In winter, the plant freezes, and in summer it loses flowers and ovaries. Therefore, the pear is planted in a place protected from the wind. These can be southeastern, southwestern or southern areas.
- Do not place a tree near the buildings. This will prevent the development of the crown and as a result will lead to its deformation.
- It is also not recommended to plant a pear near the mountain ash, as these crops are subject to the same diseases.
- Lowland sites should be avoided. Groundwater level should not exceed 1.5 m.
Important! The close occurrence of groundwater can cause root decay.
Since the Conference variety is grown in the southern regions, the best time to plant will be from the second half of September to the beginning of October.. This contributes to the formation of new roots. Also in the fall in the ground accumulates a sufficient amount of moisture, which increases the rate of survival of the plant. But you can plant a pear in spring, from the last decade of April to the first half of May.
Sapling must be healthy and developed
Sapling choose according to several criteria:
- powerful root system consisting of 4–5 shoots 30 cm long,
- bark smooth, without damage,
- at least three side shoots.
To prevent the seedling from drying out, it is recommended that its roots be coated with a mixture of manure, clay and water in 2–3 layers (2: 1: 6). Save the plant for several months as follows: a tree before planting is instilled in a pit 40-50 cm deep.
Video: seedling prikopka master class
The process of planting pears is performed in the following sequence:
- Preparation of the site begins in 3-4 weeks during the autumn planting or fall, if the landing is planned in the spring. First, dig a hole 60–70 cm deep and 100 cm wide. A drainage layer 10 cm thick is poured at the bottom. For this, a pebble, crushed brick or expanded clay is suitable.
- The soil removed from the pit is mixed with two buckets of compost, humus or peat, 500 g of superphosphate, 700 g of dolomite flour and 100 g of potassium chloride.
- Further from the center of a hole 20 cm recede and drive in a peg. In the hole they form a mound of the nutrient mixture, on which the tree is placed. The root collar should not be deeply buried; it should exceed the ground level by 5 cm.
- The pit is filled with soil composition. Soil near the tree tamped.
- At a distance of 20–30 cm, a hole is dug around the seedling, where 20 liters of water are poured.
- When moisture is well absorbed, the area is covered with humus, grass, peat or sawdust.
- In conclusion, the pear is fixed to the set peg.
Irrigation rules and regulations
Timely watering - the key to successful fruiting pears
For full development and fruiting pear requires watering. In order to moisten the tree well, you need to retreat from the trunk of 30 cm and dig up an annular groove 10–12 cm deep. After watering, the groove is covered with earth. The next day, loosening and mulching are performed. Alternative irrigation - sprinkling. However, you need to consider that this procedure is carried out in the evening or morning hours. Otherwise, sunburns may form on the leaves.
Terms and rates of fertilizer application
Top dressing of the Conference begins with 2 years of plant life
Feed the pear start in the second year. During the first season, it consumes substances introduced during the planting process.
Important! Root top dressing is applied around the perimeter of the crown, since it is this zone where the ends of the root system are located, which absorb fertilizer.
Table: feed application scheme
- 600 g of urea per 10 liters of water
- 30 g of ammonium nitrate per 10 liters,
- 3-4 buckets of humus.
- 300 g of urea per 10 liters,
- 100 g of superphosphate per 10 liters,
- 2 liters of liquid bird droppings per 10 liters.
- 300 g of simple superphosphate 10 l,
- 200 g of urea per 10 liters.
Consumption - 3-4 liters per tree.
Suitable for the Conference as a sparsely-bright crown, and palmette
In the spring before bud break, pruning and crown formation are carried out. The procedure can be started after the positive temperature has been established at night.
For pears fit two types of crown:
In the first embodiment, the scheme looks like this:
- Three rows of branches are formed on the tree, located at a distance of 50–60 cm. Shoots should be placed 20 cm apart. Each row is formed one by one.
- In the lower tier should be three branches, in the middle row - two branches, and in the uppermost - only one escape.
- Formation begin with the second year after landing. The main conductor is cut to 20 cm above the side branches.
- After the forming process is completed, a third of the length of the side shoots is removed each year. And the conductor is maintained at the same level.
- In the autumn after the leaves fall, they perform sanitary pruning. Sick, damaged and dry branches are removed from the crown.
The second version of the form involves minimal intervention:
- Each year, the main shoot is shortened by 30 cm.
- Also remove the branches that thicken the crown or grow in the inner direction. In both cases, it is necessary to remove the shoots growing up, since the fruits on them do not form. But in case of severe damage to the tree in winter, it is recommended to leave two or three such branches.
Preparing for the winter
Preparing for winter will allow the tree to comfortably wait out the harsh period
- At the end of October or early November, the near-stem circle is cleared of fallen leaves.
- Water recharge irrigation is carried out and, after absorbing moisture, they dig up the soil to a depth of 20 cm.
- The trunk and skeleton branches are treated with whitewash (2.5 kg of lime, 400 g of copper sulfate, 200 g of wood glue per 10 liters of water). This coating will reflect the sun's rays and protect the tree from burns. Also whitewashing is a pest prevention.
- The area of the roots and the base of the trunk are covered with earth to a height of 20–25 cm.
Important! The trunk should be covered with straw or wound with a sacking cloth or a piece of paper, this will help protect the tree from frost.
Table: Diseases Affecting the Conference
- The fruits rot, but do not fall off the branches.
- Buds, ovaries and leaves dry out.
- Destruction of fallen leaves.
- If a juniper grows near the tree, it must be removed.
- Buds, flowers, leaves, shoots are covered with velvety white bloom.
- The branches are deformed.
- At the beginning of spring spraying with Scor or Topaz solution (1 ampoule per 10 l). After the flowering stage use homa.
- After the harvest, the processing of blue vitriol (50 g per 5 l).
- Regular watering and pruning.
- Elimination of diseased branches.
Table: insects attacking a pear
- The pest feeds on leaf sap. This causes the plates to dry out and fall off.
- On leaves, mites form galls in which females lay eggs.
- Removal of dead bark parts.
- Wood coating whitewash.
- Removing leaves from branches.
- Attraction in the garden tits with the help of feeders.
- Leaves turn yellow and fold.
- Ovaries and buds fall.
- Digging autumn soil.
- Removal of dead areas from the surface of the bark.
- Burning leaves.
Harvesting and storage
Pears of this variety are great for desserts and preservation.
The tree grafted on a quince stalk enters fructification for 3-4 years, and when using a pear stock, they start to harvest only 5-6 years. Fruit ripening occurs in the third decade of September. From a tree receive up to 45 kg of fruit. It is recommended to remove pears of this grade in an unripe condition. They should be placed in a lighted and cool place and after a week the flesh will become juicy, grainy and sweet.
To collect the fruit choose sunny weather. Remove the fruit after precipitation, as well as in the morning, when they are covered with dew, it is not necessary. Harvest is laid out in one layer for 2–3 days in a dry room. During this time, moisture from the pears evaporates, which allows to extend the shelf life. Fruits are stored at a temperature of 1–2 ° C and a humidity of 85–95%.
Pears are not recommended to be put in paper or plastic bags or cardboard boxes. Condensate forms in such containers, which provokes the development of fungal diseases.
It is better to store the harvest in plastic or wooden boxes. Conference varieties of pears are made from jam, jams, compotes, jams, marshmallows, and pie fillings. They can also be consumed fresh.
Description of the variety and its characteristics
Conference - autumnal varietal pears. It is considered one of the most productive species.
Description of the pear variety Conference:
- fruits of this type are large (up to 10-11 cm long, weighing from 150 to 190 g),
- they are elongated in shape, strongly narrowed at the top and rounded at the bottom,
- the fruit stem of a pear is short, thick, resembles an arc, but in this species it is located not in the center of the fruit, but slightly diagonally,
- on one tree all the fruits of the Conference are approximately the same in size and shape.
At the rind of the pear Conference the description is as follows: tough, with roughness, color brownish yellow. When ripe fruit, it becomes rust-spotted. A golden-brown "flank" forms on the side of the fruit facing the sun.
This is not a particularly presentable fruit surface. The conference hides the delicious pulp. In ripe fruits it is yellow, oily, soft, sweet, fragrant, it just melts in the mouth. The taste of the fruits of this species is gentle. Only tannin present in the peel gives the fruit some tartness.
Unripe fruits are dense, with pinkish-creamy pulp and a tart aftertaste. But having rest, they are softer, become juicy, fragrant.
Where and how is the variety bred?
The name of the variety that is unusual for a fruit - the Conference - has an interesting history. At the end of the 19th century, this hybrid of pears was created by UK breeders by crossing a wild pear with a European pear cultivar Leon LeClerc de Naval. They presented a novelty at the World Conference of Gardeners, after which the fruit gained its name.
In Europe, pear Conference cultivated almost half a century. This species reached the CIS countries and Asia only in the 20th century.
The form and taste is similar to the Conference Russian variety of pears Bryansk beauty. The spotting of the peel makes the Conference related to the pears of the Beret group of pears.
The plant gives a generous harvest. With age, its yield only increases - from 30–40 kg of fruit in young saplings to 75–95 kg of pears in old seedlings per season from each “trunk”.
The peculiarity of the Conference variety is that pears on a tree never fully abide. Even if the weather is favorable.
Harvest fruits should be left in a warm place with ventilation. A few days later they reach the desired condition. The excess moisture will evaporate, and the fruit can be laid for long-term storage.
Pears have about fifty ingredients needed by the human body:
- proteins fats carbohydrates,
- minerals - sulfur, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, phosphorus, others,
- vitamins - A, E, C, P, group B,
- amino acids.
These fruits, including the Conference view, are also good for health for other reasons:
- Pears have a lower percentage of sugar than apples, but they are sweeter.
- These fruits strengthen the immune system, improve mood.
- Pears are needed to activate digestion, general metabolism.
- Their fiber lowers cholesterol, creating a feeling of satiety.
- Tannins, which are rich in the rind of the fruit, make the pear an effective remedy for diarrhea.
- Potassium contained in fruits inhibits the deposition of salts in the liver or kidneys.
Pears are sweet, but low-calorie - 42-45 kcal per 100 g, which is why they are in demand for an aesthetic or therapeutic diet.
The most tasty, healthy fresh. However, pear jam or jam adequately replace them in the off-season. After all, fresh fruit can be stored only up to six months.
How Pears Grow Conference
Pear trees of the Conference type have the following features:
- Grow quickly, adding half a meter each year. In general, seedlings grow to 5-8 meters.
- Their crown is luxurious: thick, spreading (3.50-5.50 m), pyramidal outlines.
- Pear blooms from late May, and the fruits ripen by the second half of September or early October.
- The first fruits of the pear conference appear on the tree already 4 years after planting.
- Pear tree lives 38-46 years.
- The conference is a self-polled look. But if you want to increase the yield from one tree or to diversify the taste of the fruit, in the neighborhood you need to plant pear saplings of the Bere group varieties (Williams, Klapp's Pet, or others).
- Large farms cultivate dwarf pears on the trellis, forming a crown-palmette.
The plant tolerates heat, drought, but not frost. This led to the region of distribution of the species of the Conference: the gardeners of Western and Southern Europe grow up most of all planting.
Over the past two decades, China has become one of the leading producers of this type of fruit.
Pear variety The conference in Russia grows well only in the southern regions: the Crimea, the Caucasus, the Krasnodar Territory.
Choosing a place
For seedlings of this class, the location on the site is chosen according to the following criteria:
- preferably a place protected from the wind,
- it should be well lit by the sun,
- the depth of groundwater should be at least 2.2 m,
- the soil needs loose, well-drained, the best soil types are black soil, loose loam or gray earth,
- in the vicinity of the pear seedlings Conference there should be no capital facilities that could prevent the tree crown from growing.
Experienced gardeners do not advise planting a rowan near: such a neighborhood of plants makes the pear Conference "painful."
For planting pear trees of this species will fit late spring or mid-September. The main thing - to have time before the start of sap flow in the trunk of the plant.
- Before planting a pear conference, the roots of a seedling need to be cut a little, hold it in water for an hour, then coat with a mixture of water, clay, manure (3: 0.5: 1).
- Dimensions of the pit - a cube with an edge of about a meter.
- At the bottom you need to lay a nutrient mineral-organic substrate of peat with humus plus superphosphate or dolomite milled to powder. Fresh manure is no good: it is digested problematically, but it can burn rhizomes.
- When planting, the roots are straightened, buried, leaving the basal neck 65-85 mm above the ground.
- Next, you need to fill the roots with soil, soil compacted.
- Sapling must be watered, this requires 17-23 liters of water.
- The pristvolny site requires mulching. That is, it is covered with sawdust, straw or grass.
Newly planted pear trees Conference can destroy the sun, so they need to artificially shading.
A tree of this species at different ages requires different amounts of water:
- 1-2 years. Watering seedlings daily, 2-2.5 buckets of 10 liters at a time. On sunless days - every few days.
- 3-6 years. Water weekly, 3-4 buckets.
- 6+ years. “Older” trees need only one watering in a fortnight, up to 6 buckets of water.
To preserve the moisture of the soil around the trunk, carry out mulching with a layer of sawdust or hay (you need at least 75-110 mm).
Pear trees need to be fed in the spring and autumn. General principles:
- If the soil when planting a pear seedling Conference was fertilized according to the rules, the first mineral fertilizers are applied after two years. Further, every year the tree requires a mixture of complex fertilizers (32-36 g), potassium sulfate (23-28), urea (22-24).
- In the spring, on the eve of flowering, the plant is sprayed with iron sulphate (1% solution), urea (2%) or superphosphate (3%). For an adult tree you need 3.5-4.5 liters of fluid.
- In autumn, seedlings require additional fertilization with nitrogen fertilizers. This should be done immediately after harvest. Otherwise, the plant does not have time to prepare for the cold.
Loosening the soil around the trunk for the winter, every three years it is necessary to add humus (7.5-10.5 kg / m2).
The conference is a fast growing pear species. Therefore, the formation of the crown must be controlled from the first years of the life of a tree:
- Pruning is carried out annually. The interval is chosen at the beginning of spring, when it is already sustainably warm, but the buds have not yet dissolved.
- When thinning the trunk is cut by 25-30 cm, the main branches. It is also necessary to remove the damaged areas.
- Experts recommend pruning the branches, creating a crown in the shape of a cone. It is beautiful and practical: the lower branches are open to the sun's rays, which ensures the ripening of all fruits.
The best time to work with the ovaries is mid-July, when the fruits of the pear conference began to form. Only the largest strong specimens are left - from each group a maximum of three.
Preparing for the winter
Этот вид боится холода, поэтому, собрав урожай, растение нужно защитить на зиму:
- В ноябре почву вокруг ствола перекапывают, чтобы дать доступ кислороду, уничтожить личинки, споры грибка или других вредителей. Fallen leaves, branches are removed, weeds are pulled out. Form a mulch layer (10-20 cm).
- The trunk and large branches need to be covered with a solution - lime (3 kg), copper sulphate (450 g) and clay ground into powder (750 g) in 15 liters of water. This is the norm for young plants. Old enough 10 liters.
- The barrel must be insulated with several layers of breathable material (eg, burlap). Layers preferably pave coniferous lapnik or reed.
On the origin of the pear The conference has little information in the Internet space. It is reliably known that the variety is of British origin. In some sources, the year 1884 is mentioned, in others - 1885. It is believed that pear got its name thanks to the British National Conference, which addressed the cultivation of pear trees. There is evidence that the Conference emerged as a result of free pollination of the León Leclerc de Laval variety in wild-growing pear species.
Free pollination is one of the simplest methods of selection: seedlings are grown from seeds of the parent variety, which are subsequently pollinated by bees. The result with this method is impossible to predict.
In this case, the result of breeding was so successful that after 10 years the pear gained wide popularity in Western Europe, then conquered Eastern Europe, America and China. And also the grade is grown up in Ukraine and in Moldova. In Russian gardens, the Conference grows in the southern regions with mild climatic conditions. There is information about the successful cultivation of varieties in the Moscow region and Belarus, but such cases are not widespread. Most likely, the Conference can grow in the mentioned regions only if there are favorable micro-conditions. In 2014, the variety was registered in the Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation and allowed to grow in the North Caucasus region.
Table: distinctive characteristics of a pear Conference grafted on different stocks
Other characteristics are common to both types of stock. The trees have a dense, leafy crown of a wide pyramidal shape. Shoots grow intensely, the growth on the rootstock of a forest pear is up to 60 cm per season. Since the branches of the first order grow at an acute angle, they need to bend down from the trunk, fastening with straps or in any other way. The undersized pear (grafted on a quince) for sealing plantings is often grown on a trellis, forming a crown in one plane. Flowering is more average.
Pear Tree The conference has a broad-pyramidal crown, dense with a lot of leaves.
Fruits are large, on average 143 grams, one-dimensional. On young trees can be larger and reach 180-240 grams. The shape is elongated-pear-shaped, the upper part is very narrowed. The skin is thin, but strong, slightly harsh. A greenish color as it ripens acquires yellowness, multiple rust points and spots appear on the surface. On the sunny side, a light orange tan can be observed. Glitter is missing. The fruits look unattractive, it is difficult to call them smart.
Fruits of a pear. The conference is greenish-yellow in color with a strong rustiness; they have a strongly pear-shaped form, narrowed upwards.
Despite the unpresentable appearance of pears, their taste is excellent. Variety of table destination. Juicy oily flesh of yellowish-pink color is very fragrant, tender, melting, sweet with light sourness. Sugar content - 10.0%, acid - 0.17%. Ukrainian tasters tasted 4.8–4.9 points. Inside the fruit there is a small amount of seed, often there are pears without seeds.
Fruits of pears The conference does not look presentable, however, their juicy, oily, cream-colored flesh has an excellent taste, quite often there are fruits without seeds.
Fruiting annual. The variety has a high degree of self-fertility. Autumnal term, ripening maturity begins in the period from late September to mid-October. The stem is thick, of medium length, until the harvest itself, the fruit is held tightly on the branches. After lying for some time, the fruits reach consumer maturity. In a cool basement, pears can be stored until December; in refrigerators, the shelf life is extended until January without loss of taste. Transportability is good.
The fruits of the pear Conference have good transportability and keeping quality; they can be stored in the refrigerator until January.
Endurance The conference is no different: in addition to the low winter hardiness, trees do not tolerate drought and are highly susceptible to thermal burn of the leaves. The variety is moderately resistant to diseases, has increased immunity to scab.
The most significant advantages of the variety are excellent fruit quality, high productivity, self-fertility, good keeping quality and transportability, tosignificant disadvantages include low winter hardiness and insufficient disease resistance.
How a variety is pollinated
Pear Conference is self-fertile - this means that without pollinating trees growing near it, 15–40% of the fruits of the total number of flowers will form. There is the opinion of experts confirmed by practice: if you plant a tree pollinator next to a self-fertile variety with overlapping flowering periods between them, the number of ovaries formed will increase. The yield of the variety can be higher if you plant pears next to Williams, Bere Giffard, Bere Bosc, Good Louise, Klapp's Pet, Chizhovskaya. And the Conference itself is known as a good pollinator for other varieties.
Pear Conference has a high degree of self-fertility, but if planted next to pollinating varieties, yields will increase
Features of pear cultivation Conference
The variety requires a fairly high level of agricultural technology. A decent harvest and good quality of fruits can be expected only with proper care, taking into account all its features.
Low frost resistance of the Conference provides for its cultivation in regions with a warm climate, therefore, both autumn and spring planting are permissible. It is better to protect a young tree planted in the fall with a covering material from frost. Growing conditions usual for pears:
- solar ventilated place with protection from cold winds,
- the depth of groundwater is not less than 2–2.5 m,
- the best soils are loose fertile loam or chernozem,
- the level of soil acidity - pH 5.0-6.5.
Tall trees are planted at a distance of not less than 5.5–6 m between each other, short-growing trees - according to the scheme of 3–4х5–6 m. A fertile mixture of the following composition is introduced into the prepared pits of 80x80x80 cm (100x100x100 cm on sandy soils) in advance:
- peat, humus, chernozem and sand, taken in equal shares,
- superphosphate - 400 g,
- potassium chloride - 200 g (or 3-4 liter jars of wood ash).
Next comes the standard process of planting seedlings, followed by watering and mulching.
Types of trim
Since trees on different rootstocks differ in height, and undersized can be grown on the trellis, the types of crown forming will depend on these factors and may be as follows:
- For trees grafted on a forest pear (tall), apply a common and fairly simple to perform rarefied-tiered forming. For 4–5 years, 2–3 tiers are formed, consisting of 6–8 skeletal branches.
For the crown of a tall conference tree grafted on a forest pear, apply sparsely-tiered forming
Low-growing pear tree The conference is better formed in the shape of a bowl, this shaping ensures breathability and access of sunlight to the fruit
When growing dwarf pears, the conference on the trellis uses a crown shaped like a palmette, in which the skeletal branches are in the same plane
The Conference crown, which is genetically prone to thickening, is necessarily thinned annually (regulatory pruning). On sanitary pruning (removal of sick, dried and damaged branches) also do not forget.
Watering and feeding
The conference is not drought resistant, lack of moisture affects the size and quality of the fruit. During a severe drought, a pear may lose some of the ovary or even lose all its fruit. For the formation of a full crop it is necessary to maintain a sufficient level of moisture. Oriented to rainfall: during the season can be from 5 to 10–12 irrigations. It is recommended to maintain the soil in such a condition that a lump of earth, if rolled between the fingers, stick together in a ball. If the ground crumbles, it needs to be watered. The use of drip irrigation systems and soil mulching will reduce water consumption. And also it is necessary not to forget to carry out water-charging irrigation in autumn to increase the endurance of trees in the winter.
The conference needs to be watered regularly and plentifully, to reduce the water consumption they use drip irrigation and mulching.
Fertilizers applied during planting will be enough for 3-4 years of vegetation. Then the trees will need to be fed regularly, as the lack of nutrients can affect the quantity and quality of the crop. The terms and types of annual fertilizing are usual for this culture, they are carried out as follows:
- Nitrogen fertilizers are applied in early spring and before flowering. In June, after falling off the ovaries, you can feed the nitrogen-containing fertilizers one more time (last).
- During the formation and pouring of the fruit, plants need potassium and phosphorus; they are fed 3–4 times with such fertilizers. One or two supplements can be replaced with liquid organic matter: the infusion of bird droppings (1:10) or cow manure (2:10) is diluted in water (1:10) and applied at the rate of 10 l / m 2.
- In the fall, superphosphate is added during digging.
Every 3 years in the springtime organics contribute. Humus and compost are the best fertilizers for Pear Conference.
Compost is an excellent organic fertilizer for pear Conference
Possible diseases and probable pests
The variety is moderately resistant to diseases, increased immunity has only scab, therefore it is necessary to regularly carry out preventive measures. Resistance to pest damage is not mentioned in the sources, the probability of their attack, most likely, exists. In order to prevent the occurrence of diseases and pests, you need to perform the following work:
- To free the area from affected plant debris.
- Autumn deeply dig the soil, turning layers of earth.
- In the pre-winter period, whiten the trunks and skeletal branches, as well as timely treat bark cracks.
- In early spring, install sticky belts on pest fishing trunks.
- Treating trees with fungicides (Chorus, Fundazol and others) and insecticides (Fufanon, Iskra Biot, Fitoverm and others) according to the schedule of preventive treatments.