One of the best options for decorating your summer cottage is a Serbian spruce. It attracts buyers not only for its external characteristics, but also for its durability, as well as ease of care. But are these virtues enough to outperform all other candidates?
In total, there are 16 species of Serbian spruce in nature. The most popular of them are “Karel”, “Nana”, “Pendula”. About all in order.
Serbian spruce "Karel" differs from others in its tiny size and high level of frost resistance. The permissible temperature range is from -23 to -29 degrees Celsius. The height of an adult plant varies between 60-80 cm. The diameter of the crown is up to 1.2 m. The annual growth rate is 7 cm. Description of the Serbian fir "Nana" slightly different from the previous one. All the same dwarf sizes (100-120 cm), frost resistance (withstands temperatures from -34 to -40 degrees) and annual growth (7-10 cm). Cardinally, “Nana” differs from “Karela” in its adaptability to any type of soil and air. Therefore, it is this type of tree used in landscaping large cities. Pendula Serbian Spruce often used in the design of various parks, gardens, estates, etc. Such a demand for the "Pendulu" exists due to the curved trunk, which gives the tree originality and elegance. Height can reach 10 meters. The crown is very dense, so its diameter is small - only 1.5 m. “Pendula”, like the spruces described above, has a good level of frost resistance.
Choosing a place
You don’t have to fool your head for choosing a place as the Serbian spruce adapts to almost any conditions. Exceptions include saline or marshy soils. They can cause yellowing of the needles. Absolutely unprincipled is the choice between shady and sunny terrain. As for watering, in the summer on one tree can take 20 liters of water per week.
Stepwise landing process
- First you need to dig a landing hole about 60 centimeters deep. Its upper diameter should be 40-60 cm, and the lower diameter - 30-50 cm. For group planting, the distance between dwarf spruces should be 0.5-1 m. If we are talking about trees of medium size, then the interval is about 3-5 meters and if it’s big, it’s over 5 meters. If the ground is heavy or its soil water is high, drainage should be placed at the bottom of the pit. It consists of crushed stone or broken brick with a layer of sand 15-20 cm thick. Then, in order for the growth of the tree to be as productive and rapid as possible, it is necessary to prepare a soil mixture. For this you need peat, humus, sand and fertilizer "Nitroammofoska." This mixture is poured into the pit on top of the drainage layer and poured with 5 liters of water.
- We turn directly to the planting of the seedling. The first thing you need to get the plant from the container. It is desirable that in the root system of the tree ate a lump of earth. Otherwise, the tree will often hurt or not take root at all. It is necessary to place the seedling in a hole in such a way that the trunk is exactly vertical and the root neck is not immersed in the ground. Ideally, it should be flush with the ground. By placing the plant according to the instructions, you can cover it with earth and lightly tamp it.
- Having done the main work, it remains only to water the tree. Water volumes depend on the size of the plant. If necessary, the seedling can be tied to two stakes. Do not forget that the best time for planting firs is autumn (early September) and spring (late April).
Watering, loosening, mulching
In the summer, water should be watered once a week, while spending 10-20 liters of water, depending on the size.
If the plant is young, then it is necessary to loosen the soil no deeper than 7 cm.
Only young plants need mulching. 5 centimeters of peat or sawdust will replace mineral supplements for a whole year.
There are 2 types of trimming: decorative and sanitary.In the first case pruning should be carried out immediately after planting. Thus, you will be able to make the crown and root system commensurate with each other. This type of pruning is best done in the spring, because if you do this during the growing season (the period of the year when the spruce grows and develops), there is a big risk of exposing the plant to various diseases.
- hung down.
The most convenient way to do any kind of pruning is with the help of special scissors or a hand saw. These tools will help you create the most thorough trim, because in the case of rough and inaccurate cuts there is a big risk of getting infections.
Preventive measures against diseases and pests
As mentioned earlier, the main enemies of the Serbian spruce are aphids and spider mites.
For the prevention of the first pest, spraying with potash oil or infusions of insecticidal plants is recommended. One of these is onions. To prepare the infusion will need only 200 g of its husk. It should be placed in 10 liters of warm water and kept there for 4-5 days, and then filtered. Spray the plant with the liquid 3 times in 5 days.
Spider mites appear in the event of failure to care for the spruce. The main way to protect against such a parasite is to avoid prolonged drought. Among other methods of prevention should be noted the most effective: spraying with colloidal sulfur or infusion of garlic. Prepare this infusion is quite simple. Ingredients Required:
- liter jar of garlic cloves,
- 0.5 liters of purified vegetable oil,
- 30 ml of liquid soap.
In order for the plant to remain as it was after winter, you need to follow a number of rules.
Firstly it is necessary to provide the tree with a large supply of moisture, which will help it to winter. This must be done before the start of severe frosts, namely, at the end of November. If the spruce is small, then 2-3 buckets of water may be enough. In the opposite case, if your spruce reaches several meters / tens of meters in height, the volume of water should not be less than 5 buckets.
Secondlyafter heavy snowfall it is recommended to clear the branches from the snow.
But there is another misfortune, similar to snowfall, - freezing rain. Since the sticking drops to clear the branches will not work, they just need to tie up. Over time, the ice will melt and the crowns will no longer need support.
Thirdly, even in winter you need to beware of burns. Often such a nuisance happens in February, during the thaw period. To avoid it, it is necessary to cover the fir with sacking and wrap with a rope. Thus, the crowns will not overheat and, therefore, dry out. But you should not cover absolutely the entire surface of the tree: you must leave a few slots, and if the spruce is large, then you just need to close only its southern part.
Use in landscape design
Spruce is a killer weapon in the arsenal of every landscape designer. A correctly selected and placed tree is able to transform a regular, mediocre section to complete unrecognizability! Successfully combine all the details can only be a professional, but the following tips will be interesting to everyone without exception.
1. Serbian spruce appears in its best light only as a tapeworm. To emphasize all its graceful forms the lawn of emerald shade perfectly works.
2. A hedge is the most suitable option for naturofiles and people who are tired of the conservatism and mediocrity of ordinary fences. We hope this article has helped you reveal the intricacies of planting and leaving the Serbian spruce, learn about all the pros and cons of this plant. Now you can confidently give yourself the answer to the question of whether it is worth being planted in your yard.
Pit for landing.
If the soil in your area is heavy, clay, then when planting it is necessary to put a layer of broken brick or crushed stone (20 cm) at the bottom of the pit, and to pour sand on top, since many coniferous species do not tolerate stagnant water in the soil. If you have sandy and sandy soil - drainage is not required.
The landing pit is prepared in the size of 1,5 times more coma and depth:
- 100cm - if you have clay or black soil, the drainage depth is 20 cm
- 80cm - if sand or sandy loam.
There is no point digging holes deeper than 80 cm, since all conifers have a shallow root system and fertile soil deeper than 80 cm will almost never be used by the plant.
The prepared landing pit is filled with the prepared mixture (read below for preparing the earth mixture).
How to plant.
Lower the root ball into the pit without removing the mesh and burlap (after 2-3 years they will decompose themselves). When planting container plants, the container must be removed.
Turn the spruce the most beautiful side to the most prominent place. Align the barrel vertically to the horizon. Hold until the end of the landing in this position.
Fill the pit with an earthen mixture in parts (20-30cm each) shedding or tamping uniformly from all sides. Make sure that there are no voids under the lump and from the sides.
Fall asleep to the level - the top level of the coma. When planting, the root collar is not buried (during the burial, the bark on the trunk dies off and nutrition ceases to be supplied to the plant - the spruce dies).
Watering during transplantation.
Do not forget that the older the transplanted plant with a lump, the harder it is to adapt. The root system of his small and in the first year requires more frequent watering. Once a week in spring and autumn, 2 times a week - in summer.
On one plant:
- up to 1m - 10l. Water
- up to 1,5m. - 15-20l. Water.
- up to 2.5m - 20-30l. Water.
- up to 5m. - 30-40l. Water.
Care after landing.
During the first 7 days, pour the root formation stimulant. Additionally good results are obtained by spraying the needles and branches with solutions "epin" (1 ampoule per 5 l of water) or "zircon" (1 ml per 10 l of water). Spray abundantly, so that the needles flow down.
Also spraying with Appin partially protects the needles from UV radiation in early spring.
In the first year after planting from February to April, cover the spruce with a shielding grid (or a green building grid with a small cell) - just not tight. Since in the first year the food will be low due to the shortened root system, the needles can dry out in the spring sun (spring burns). In firs and all conifers, evaporation from the needles occurs all year round, and when the root system is still frozen in the spring (the ground is frozen), and the sun is very hot, the needles dry out. At this time, it is necessary to thaw the clod of earth under the plant so that it can consume moisture by its roots. Bottom line: start watering your conifers (growing in the sun) from March 15 - with warm water and scoop the snow from the trunk, so that the earth would quickly thawed.
From spring you need to start feeding "for conifers," only for conifers.
Never fertilize with urea, humus, manure - deadly!
Description of Serbian spruce
The range of coniferous trees is quite wide, but when the choice is what to plant in your own garden, then you need to choose according to some criteria:
- The kind of tree should fit the Russian climate,
- Must be resistant to frost.
These parameters are perfect Picea omorikaKarelKarelian spruce.
The reasons why it is better to plant this kind of tree:
- Resistant to Russian frosts. This spruce can withstand severe frosts, up to 42 degrees below zero. It tolerates both frost and high humidity,
- It tolerates strong wind and shade. The slopes of the mountains are her native places, such as Bulgaria and Yugoslavia. This tree has always grown to a height, it was often hidden from the sun's rays, they were shadowed by the shadow of the rocks. The fact that it hid behind the rocks from the sun made it perfectly able to withstand the shadow and strong winds.
- It is undemanding in leaving. This kind of wood is unpretentious in the care, which is considered a huge plus.
- Ease of care. Almost never gets sick and is not affected by pests. It does not need pruning, but if everything is necessary for you to prune the tree, then it will transfer its spruce tree without any problems.
- Resistant to smoke and gas. On needles of needles there is a patina, which consists of wax, of course, there is such plaque on all the trees of the conifer family, but on this species the plaque layer is thicker than in other species. This raid protects the spruce from the penetration of harmful atmospheric effects into the table, such as gases, acid rain and industrial emissions.
- This tree is decorative. It has a slender and graceful trunk, a dense crown that covers the entire trunk almost completely. When it reaches the age of fifteen, then a large number of cones appear on it. The size of the bumps is small. Cones ripen in May after flowering.
- Serbian spruce has various shapes and colors. Many thanks to the selection, thanks to her developed new varieties and forms. If you have a small garden, then dwarf forms will look great.
Serbian spruce is growing rapidly, in the year its increase is thirty centimeters. On green needles on the lower side there are light stripes. This combination of colors gives a wonderful silver-blue hue.
Care and landing
This type of tree is unpretentious in the soil, you can plant it on different grounds. In the process of growth, the soil is compacted, and the spruce can suffer from this, in order to solve this problem, it is simply necessary to loosen the soil. If the tree is still young, then for him the best place to disembark is shadow. Plant it better in the spring. It is better to dig a hole for planting in such a size that the root fits well in it. If you plant a group of such a variety of trees, then they should be planted at a distance of two or three meters.
If it has not rained for a long time, the spruce needs to be watered. On a small tree you need at least one bucket of water, twice in 30 days. Watering depends on the amount of past rains.
Fertilize the tree every 12 months. The crown can also be watered, which will make it look fresher and cleaner. If the tree grows in a free form, then pruning is not required, it is necessary to cut only dry branches, usually this procedure takes place in late May. Many experts advise planting spruce for the winter, they believe that in this way the spruce tree takes root better. The pit must be prepared in advance, otherwise later, when the ground freezes, it will not be possible to dig a hole. Transplant do better at low sub-zero temperatures. In the recess, you must place the root along with a lump of earth, and fill it with soil, the soil should not be frozen. After disembarking, it is necessary to warm from above with snow.
Spruce is mainly propagated by seed. If the form is decorative, reproduction occurs by cuttings or grafting. Seeds can be stored for fifteen years with proper storage. It is necessary to store in a closed container, the temperature should be from zero to five degrees above zero. If you do not comply with these nuances, the seeds will lose their germination in 12 months. Before sowing seeds, they must be stratified. This is a method of seed germination, when the seeds create winter conditions artificially.
For seed germination, it is necessary to provide cold and moisture, the seeds begin to grow faster. Seed stratification takes place within three or two months, they are kept in wet sand, the temperature should be three or five degrees above zero. This method of reproduction gives healthy sunrises.. And if reproduction takes place by cutting, it should be done in spring, not in summer, the fact is that in summer, cuttings do not take root well.
If you did decide to plant a Serbian spruce, then you made the right choice. This tree is very beautiful, unpretentious, and care for it will not be difficult.
Description of Serbian Nana Spruce Variety (nana)
This is one of the most decorative conifers. It grows to a height of three meters. Attractive in that it has brilliant needles, which changes only once in eight years.
Serbian spruce Nana is picky, takes out any type of soil (but loves more loamy) and any climate, is cold-resistant and withstands cold to -40 degrees. Serbian Nana spruce can grow in a smoky and polluted area, so it is often used in urban plantings. Practically does not require care, can grow in the shade and endures periods of drought better than even spruce. Spruce Serbian Nana does not require protection from the wind. Propagated by seed or graft on the common spruce.
Interesting! A subspecies of the Serbian spruce, later called Nana, was obtained in 1930 as a result of a mutation.
Description of Serbian spruce variety Karel (karel)
Serbian spruce Karel is a not less popular grade of Serbian spruce. This is a dwarf variety, spruce grows up to only 60-80 centimeters in height, the diameter of the crown - up to 1.2 meters. For the year, spruce gives a gain of up to seven centimeters. This is a photovoltaic Serbian spruce variety. It was bred in 1930 by German specialists.
Serbian Spruce Karel looks very fluffy due to the fact that it is well branched, she has not many skeletal branches.
Description of Serbian Pendula Spruce Variety (pendula)
Spruce Serbian Pendula very unusual for its falling down branches and curved trunk. Pendula looks like a fabulous plant sometimes as if sad, sometimes ominous. Сейчас этот вид ели сербской очень популярен среди садоводов и ландшафтных дизайнеров.
На заметку! Хотите, чтобы главный ствол Ели сербской Пендулы был ровный и не искривлялся Просто подвязывайте его. Pendula spruce spruce can grow up to ten meters in height and have a crown about two meters in diameter.
El Pendula well feels in the sun, but can grow in partial shade, preserving the beauty of its dark green needles. Pendula refers to frost-resistant plants. We can say that this species ate Serbian unpretentious. And the growth for the year is as much as ten centimeters.
Planting Serbian spruce
The most important thing in planting a Serbian spruce is choosing the right place for planting. Since the Serbian spruce can reach a very impressive size, you need to take this into account when planting. That is, there should be no interference over the tree, such as wires or other structures. Light conditions also play a role. Whatever shade-tolerant spruce was not, this beauty she grows in a place only with good lighting.
Soil Serbian spruce does not like swampy, but otherwise not picky to the ground. But if you know that the soil in the area is acidic, it is not bad to add lime to it before planting spruce. And if it is too loose or heavy, then dilute it with clay or sand.
The season for planting Serbian spruce is not important (but it is preferable to plant in the fall or spring), except for the winter months, of course. When you have determined the landing area for the spruce, dig a hole and fill the bottom with sand and rubble for drainage. Spruce sapling should be placed in the center of the pit, while the roots need to be gently straightened and then covered with soil mixed with sand and peat. It is important that the root neck is not below ground level. The ideal position of the root collar is flush with the ground surface.
If you plant spruce in groups, the distance between the plants must be maintained:
- For dwarf trees - half a meter,
- For medium - three to five meters,
- For large - not less than five meters.
Caring for the Serbian spruce does not require special knowledge and skills. It is only necessary to loosen the soil around, water the plant, mulch, trim and periodically carry out prevention against diseases and pests.
It is worth describing in detail the care of young seedlings of the Serbian spruce:
- loosen the soil near the Serbian spruce can be no deeper than seven centimeters, so as not to damage the roots,
- fertilize the tree only once during planting (you can prepare the soil according to the following recipe: take peat, humus and sand and add fertilizer "nitroammofosk."
- water in the summer once a week, but with plenty of water (at least twelve liters),
- only young trees need to be mulched and only natural materials
- trim branches,
Covering required only young plants. Also, some species need shelter from the sun. Nonwoven fabric is used for this. Sunburn can be very dangerous for the plant and even destroy it.
Pruning Serb spruce
Trimming spruce differ sanitary and decorative.
- Decorative trimming make to form a plant. It is better to make it immediately after planting Serbian spruce. Best formative or decorative pruning done in the spring. If you cut a tree during the growing season, then cutting the spruce, we put it at risk of falling ill. Important! Do not cut the top of the spruce, it will adversely affect its decorative properties.
- Sanitary pruning conducted according to indications at any time of the year. The indications are broken, dry and diseased branches. Trimming should be done with a sharpened tool (garden shears, pruner, hand saw, etc.). If the slices are inaccurate with notches, they can become infected and infect the tree.
Diseases and pests of the Serbian spruce
The main pests for Serbian fir trees are aphid and spider mite.
In order for our conifer tree not to be hit by aphids, it must be prophylactically sprayed with potash oil or infusions of insecticidal plants. For example, infusion of onions. For its preparation will require 200 grams of onion peel and 10 liters of warm water. Husk need to pour and insist for four to five days, and after - strain. Spray the plant three times with an interval of 5 days.
Spider mite occurs as a result of prolonged drought. To protect our coniferous plant, spraying with colloidal sulfur or garlic infusion is required. Prepare garlic solution can be according to the following recipe: clean a liter jar of garlic cloves and chop them. Pour this mass into the jar and pour half a liter of vegetable oil. Leave to infuse for a day. We take two teaspoons of this mixture and mix with half a liter of water, add 30 ml of liquid soap and shake. Infusion for spraying against spider mites ready.
Winter care for Serbian spruce
For a successful wintering you need to very well sate the tree with moisture. For this, in front of severe frosts, somewhere in the end of November, water-filling is carried out. For a small spruce enough 2-3 buckets of water, if the tree is large, then you need at least five buckets.
After a heavy snowfall, it is recommended to clear the branches from the snow. But it is forbidden to do this shaking branches or trunk. The snow is cleaned gently with a broom or brush from the tips to the trunk. But if nature sent an icy rain to your region and stuck ice was formed on the branches, you do not need to clean them. We urgently need to help the tree to keep this weight by installing supports under the branches. Over time, the pieces of ice will melt and the branches will become free.
In winter you need to fear burns from the bright sun. Especially in early spring, when the sun is already shining brightly and white snow reflects the rays, doubling their strength. It is best to protect your spruce in February by covering the crown with sacking or agrofibre. But this should be done carefully and leaving a gap free of burlap. If the situation allows, you can simply protect the tree from the sun on the south side.
Serbian spruce is an excellent type of coniferous tree for decorating your country plot or the local area in the city. It is durable, not demanding, beautiful and elegant. Give this plant some time and it will please you for many years.
Subtleties of care on the main articles:
- the depth of loosening for young plants should not exceed 7 cm,
- fertilizers are applied only once in the process of planting,
- watering: in the summer, no more than once a week with a cost of at least 12 liters of water per plant,
- mulch exclusively young plants. Only natural materials are used as mulch - sawdust and peat,
- in the process of pruning, only dry and diseased branches are removed,
- Shelter: only necessary for decorative forms and only for the first few years of life. Some species need protection from the sun. For these purposes, non-woven material or boards installed on the south side of the plant are used. Remember that sunburn can cause not only severe damage to the Serbian spruce, but also the death of the plant.
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