Stately and spectacular hyacinth is a real decoration of the garden in early spring. Appearing on the flowerbed one of the first, when there is still snow in some places, he pleases those around him with large and fragrant flowers of the most diverse range of shades and shapes. Such magnificence on a miniature scale can be repeated in the winter, having pleased ourselves, loved ones and friends with a great gift for the New Year or Christmas. How the plant is being distilled, how to take care of hyacinth at home - recommendations in our article.
Hyacinth: Botanical Description
Hyacinth is a genus of bulbous perennial plants of the Asparagus family and includes only three species. They all have a distinctive look and fragrant flowers. The bulb of the plant is dense, consisting of fleshy leaves, the bases of which occupy the entire circumference of the bottom. The stem is thick and dense, with an inflorescence at the apex. After flowering, he dies with the leaves under it. Very fragrant flowers are collected in a brush, perianth - brightly colored, in the form of a bell-shaped funnel with bent blades. Fruit - a three-capsule box. Three species are known: Hyacinthus transcaspicus, Litvinova and Oriental. The most common and well-known is the latter, which became the basis for the breeding of many varieties and hybrids. Possible care and planting hyacinth at home in a pot or in the open ground.
Eastern Hyacinth: Description
It is considered to be a type species of the genus, that is, acting as a nomenclature. In the event of any disputable situation, he acts as the sole bearer of the generic name from an objective point of view. Homeland plants - the Mediterranean and Asia Minor. However, at the moment it is cultivated everywhere, not only in decorative quality, but also in medicinal. The plant is perennial, bulbous, up to 30 cm high and with a stele thickness up to 0.5 cm, fleshy linear leaves, has a bell-shaped flower. Hyacinth, home care for which is quite simple, is dissolved in early spring, one of the first in the garden. In the culture has become particularly popular since the 15th century in Europe, since then, more than three hundred quality and proven varieties. The Netherlands is famous for raising hyacinths, especially the Haarlem region, from which millions of bulbs of these flowers come to the world market every year.
It is difficult to say in a few sentences about a huge assortment of varieties of hyacinth. When choosing one of them for home or garden, pay attention to the manufacturer, the seller, as well as botanical characteristics (height, timing of flowering, suitable for forcing, etc.). Planting and caring for hyacinths at home suggest the choice of a particular hybrid. We offer conditional division of varieties by color of flowers.
- White: Argentina Arendsen (up to 28 cm, diameter of a single flower up to 4 cm), L'Innozance (an early vintage variety created in Holland in 1863, height up to 26 cm), Carnegie (medium grown up to 22 cm, cylindrical inflorescence ), Edelweiss (medium early, up to 25 cm, with a wide brush).
- Pink: Anna Marie (late, up to 25 cm high), Fondant (industrial variety with large 20 cm inflorescences, photo above), Pink Pearl (early, conical inflorescence with characteristic long bracts), China Pink, Marconi.
- Blue: King of the Blues (old Dutch variety 1865, late, pictured below), Delft Blue (up to 20 cm, suitable for forcing, long flowering period), Maria (up to 25 cm, dark blue in rich tint, one of the most common hybrids), Miozotis (early, pale blue).
- Violet: Amethyst (short flowering period, unpretentious, pale lilac shade, height up to 25 cm), Bismarck (early, up to 30 cm light violet inflorescence, ideal for forcing and cutting), Menelik (purple-black, compact, late) .
- Yellow: City of Haarlem, Orange Bowen, Yellow Hummer.
Lush, spectacular flowering, bright colors and unique thick and rich aroma - these are the main reasons for growing hyacinth in a pot. Care at home is quite simple, but involves distillation, and therefore some features appear. They try to get a flowering plant, as a rule, for a particular holiday: New Year, March 8, etc.
What is distillation?
This process involves complex measures to accelerate plant growth. It is widely used in greenhouse cultivation and floriculture. The plant is placed in conditions with high ambient temperature, humidity and additionally highlight, thereby stimulating them to active development, flowering and fruiting. In this way, tulips, daffodils, lilies and hyacinth are grown in a pot at home. How to save the plant after a similar procedure, read further in the text.
In fact, forcing mobilizes all the forces of the plant and in a short time allows you to get beautiful flowers. Only healthy and strong copies can withstand it. Choose high-quality planting material, large, dense bulbs without damage, grown in open ground. Pay attention to the weight, it should not be too light and create the impression of emptiness inside. In addition, as mentioned above, it makes sense to pay attention to the variety, there are hybrids specifically designed for forcing.
Preparation of bulbs for planting
Preparation of hyacinth bulbs begins in the summer, at the moment when you decide that you will grow hyacinth in a pot (home care - hereinafter referred to). As soon as the foliage is dry, the planting material must be dug out, rinsed in warm water and dried in a draft in a shady place, and then stored for storage in a cool and dry basement or cellar. Experienced flower growers know one secret. As soon as in the spring on the flowerbed hyacinth flower stalks appear, they notice the largest and most powerful, but they do not give up their bloom and are cut off. This allows the plant to put all the power on the development of the bulb, which can later be successfully expelled in winter.
Terms of planting bulbs in the ground depends directly on when you want to get blooming hyacinths on your window. Care and cultivation at home in the future are quite simple, it is important to do everything correctly at the initial stage. The cooling period for forcing in early periods is 10-13 weeks, for late varieties it increases to 12-16. The start date can be set as follows. Determine the day when you need to get a flower and, in the reverse order, subtract the number of established weeks from it, plus another 3-4 for growth for early and late varieties, respectively.
In order to strengthen the immune system, the bulbs should be placed for 30 minutes in a solution of potassium permanganate or the drug "Home" (concentration - 4 g per 1 liter of water) before planting.
How to grow hyacinths at home?
Hyacinth is interesting because it can be grown in garden conditions, and in the home. But he can not always grow in some capacity and please you with flowering. In the process of forcing, the bulbs are very depleted, and they do not have enough strength to re-bloom. Therefore, the bulbs need to buy already prepared, the last period of rest. With proper observance of all conditions, you will get wonderful fragrant hyacinth blossoms.
How does a hyacinth grow at home?
The plant grows best on windows facing the south or southeast, because it is very fond of the sun. During the day, the flower must be under illumination for at least 15 hours; in winter, you can additionally illuminate the hyacinth using fluorescent lamps.
But, despite all the love of the plant to the light, it should be protected from direct sunlight, so in the midst of a sunny day it is better to remove the flower from the window or to shade it with something. So that the plant does not lean in one direction, it must be periodically rotated.
Temperature regime should be from 20 to 22 degrees, there should be no sudden changes in temperature and drafts.
It is also possible to grow hyacinths without soil - in water. This method is called hydroponics. In the water must be present dissolved mineral fertilizers. It is necessary to ensure that the bulb was immersed in the container only partially - bottom. The first time the plant is placed in a dark and cool place, and with the advent of roots transferred to a bright room.
Breeding hyacinths at home
Due to the success of breeders, at this stage of time, there are many varieties of hyacinths. Many of them can be grown at home. All household hyacinths belong to the same species - Eastern.
For the cultivation of beautiful and healthy hyacinths at home, you need to properly prepare:
- choose quality planting material
- select the appropriate capacity
- buy or prepare the ground.
The bulbs are recommended to use healthy, without damage and rot, with a diameter of not less than 5 centimeters, it is desirable to take them in a specialty store. Small bulb may not bloom in the first year. It is preferable to purchase bulbs at the end of the summer, after a natural rest period.
Before disembarking, it is necessary to treat it with special disinfectants.
Next, you need to choose a suitable container for landing. It should not be very deep. It doesn’t matter what material it is made of, the main thing is to have drainage holes.
The soil can be purchased at the store (but it should not have an acidic environment) or make it yourself by mixing components such as turf, compost, leaf soil and humus in a 1: 1 ratio, and adding a little peat and sand.
Hyacinth must be constantly fed and fertilized. Universal fertilizer for indoor plants is perfect for this.
How to plant hyacinths at home?
A drainage layer of expanded clay is poured at the bottom of the tank. Spread a small layer of soil and fall asleep with a thin layer of sand. On the sand is placed one or several bulbs, to form a whole bunch of flowers.
When placing several bulbs it is necessary to ensure that they do not come into contact with each other and with the container.
Carefully press the bulbs into the ground and cover them with earth, the top of the bulbs must remain on the air, one and a half centimeters. Top can be filled with a thin layer of sand, it will protect the plant from rotting.
After planting, it is necessary to moisten the soil, wrap the container in an opaque bag and place it in a cold room, for example, a cellar or a garage; this can also be a refrigerator. In the cold bulb should be from 6 to 10 weeks. The temperature should not be higher than 5 degrees and there is no lighting at all.
For hyacinth, such conditions serve as an imitation of winter, without them it will not be able to bloom. During this period, care is reduced to a minimum, it is necessary only occasionally to get the plant and check that the soil does not dry out.
As soon as a sprout appears, no more than 5 cm high, the plant must be moved to a lighter and warmer room, to create the effect of "spring." There, the flower is located before the formation of the first buds, then increase the temperature to 20-22 degrees. The change in temperature should be smooth, otherwise the plant may get sick and not bloom.
How to care for hyacinths at home?
After flowering in hyacinth comes a period of rest, during this period it is important to observe the optimum temperature indicators. Need moderate watering. After the hyacinth has faded and its leaves withered, you can start preparing the bulb. Peduncle and leaves are pruned, and onion digging. Most often, such manipulations are carried out in early summer.
The bulb is thoroughly examined for damage, if necessary, or for prophylaxis it can be disinfected. And then, gradually reducing the temperature from 30 to 17 degrees, it must be maintained before disembarking.
The content of hyacinth at home
If you place a container with a flower away from heating devices and open air vents, the plant will long delight in its flowering. If the peduncle of a hyacinth is large, it may break off due to the severity of the inflorescences, so it will need to install a support.
Hyacinth is an unpretentious plant and with proper care it will be able to grow growers with different skill levels.
With the wrong care of hyacinth, the following problems may occur:
- The flower stops flowering. Most often this is due to improper temperature conditions.
- The plant leaves turn yellow. This can occur when improper watering or due to drafts.
- Wilting leaves. With a lack of natural lighting.
- The fall of the buds. This is due to improper watering.
- Rotting flowers. This happens when too much or abundant watering.
Hyacinth: how to water at home?
Care must be taken to ensure that the soil around the bulb does not dry out. It must be watered regularly and gently, while it must be controlled so that water does not fall on the plant itself (leaves, flowers), this can cause them to rot. Water should be poured on the edge of the container or in the pan. It is obligatory to pour out the excess water so that the root system does not rot. Water must be separated or filtered at room temperature.
The plant does not need spraying.
Every two weeks, feed a flowering plant with a liquid complex fertilizer for flowering plants, according to the instructions.
Preparation for growing hyacinth at home
To date, breeders bred several dozen varieties of hyacinth. And most of them are suitable for growing at home. But in order to grow a strong and beautiful flower you need to prepare yourself how to:
- Selection of bulbs. First you need to select the appropriate material for planting. It is recommended to use bulbs with a diameter of at least 5 cm. Because it is easier to grow a full-grown plant from a large bulb. A small bulb can throw out the leaves, but never give flowers. In addition, it is necessary to make sure that it is dense, without rot and damage. And immediately before disembarking, it is desirable to treat it with a disinfectant solution.
- Pot selection. Then you must select the appropriate pot. It should be wide and shallow. Drain holes must be present in the pot.
- Soil preparation. Soil can buy or prepare it yourself. To do this, mix in the same proportions turf, compost, leaf soil, humus and add a small amount of sand and peat.
When growing hyacinth at home, there is one nuance - this flower can not bloom for several years in a row. Flowering is stimulated by artificial forcing, which weakens the bulbs. Therefore, after 1-2 years they need to be planted in the garden plot so that they will go through a period of restoration.
Planting and caring for hyacinths in indoor conditions
After preparing the necessary materials, you can start planting bulbs. Proper planting and care for hyacinths in ambient conditions include the following steps:
- At the bottom of the pot lay out the drainage layer, for this purpose is suitable clay.
- Fall asleep a small layer of soil.
- Then put a thin layer of fine sand.
- On top of the sand have bulbs. It is possible to plant one onion in a pot, or several, so that a whole bunch will form during flowering. In the latter case, the bulbs are laid out so that they are not in contact with each other and with the pot (the optimal distance is 2-3 cm).
- Onions gently pressed into the ground and covered with the remaining earth. Top soil can be sprinkled with a thin layer of sand to protect planting material from rotting.
The bulbs do not immerse completely in the soil, their tops must necessarily remain in the air.
Now a rest period is created for the plants so that the bulbs are well rooted. The pot is placed for 1.5–2.5 months in a dark and cool place, for example, in the basement. The air temperature in this room should be from +5 to +10 degrees. In the absence of a basement or cellar, flowers can be placed in the refrigerator. However, be sure to ensure that the temperature in it was not less than 5 degrees Celsius. During this period, it is necessary to monitor the condition of the soil to prevent it from drying out.
A dormant period is necessary for the successful cultivation of hyacinths in indoor conditions. If the plant is brought out earlier "to the light", it may still be weak, develop poorly and, as a result, do not bloom. Perederzhivat in the dark is also not recommended. The plant will throw away the leaves, all the power will go into them, and as a result the formation of buds will be delayed.
After the rooting of the hyacinth bulbs, an artificial spring is arranged; for this, the flowers move into the house. Here hyacinths should be in a bright room, with the recommended air temperature + 10-15 degrees.
As soon as the plant begins to bloom, it is transferred to the desired room, and placed away from the radiators. Чтобы гиацинт долго радовал хозяев пышными роскошными цветами, температура воздуха должна быть не выше +20 градусов. Кроме этого, необходимо исключить существование сквозняков и обеспечить растению хорошее освещение.
Как ухаживать за гиацинтом в домашних условиях?
To grow lush, beautiful flowers, you need to take care of them. How to care for hyacinth at home, so that it quickly began to blossom and for a long time pleased the owners with beautiful flowers?
Hyacinth care is relatively uncomplicated, and includes three essential ingredients:
Watering. The basis of care for hyacinth in room conditions is competent watering. The ground should be wet, so you need to carefully monitor that it does not dry out, and water the plant in a timely manner. This requirement is important during growth, flowering and during the wintering period. However, the stagnation of water for this plant is also destructive and can provoke a fungal infection. Therefore, you need to make sure that the excess water goes into the pan, and be sure to drain it from there.
During irrigation, you only need to moisturize the soil, and make sure that the water does not fall on the buds, onion and in the sinuses of the leaves. To do this, it is recommended to pour water into the edge of the pot, or pan.
Good lighting. From time to time it is necessary to turn the flower to the lighting with different sides. This contributes to the uniform growth of the plant. In the evening and on cloudy days, you can additionally highlight the plant with fluorescent lamps. With a lack of lighting the plant can wither, throw off the leaves and young buds.
Fertilizer. Fertilizing hyacinths is recommended 2 times a month. For this, special fertilizers are used, which are diluted according to the instructions.
Dispelling hyacinths at home
A nice feature of the hyacinth is the ability to combine its flowering with a specific period or holiday. To do this, the distillation of hyacinths at home. It is of three types:
- early - the bulbs are planted in October, and the hyacinth blooms by the New Year,
- medium - planting is carried out in November, and flowering falls at the end of January - beginning of February,
- late - bulbs are planted in December - January and admire the flowers in March - April.
The period from planting to flowering is on average 2.5–3 months.
For homemade hyacinths, forcing the bulbs at home, bulbs must go through several stages of preparation with a gradual decrease in air temperature. After digging, they should be stored for 2 weeks in a warm and humid place with an air temperature of + 28-30 degrees. Then for 2 weeks they are placed in a cool room with a temperature of + 22-25 degrees. Further, for 2 weeks, even colder conditions are created - + 15-17 degrees. And after that the bulbs are ready for planting in the pot.
What to do after flowering hyacinth?
Like all flowering plants, hyacinth will fade over time. What to do with hyacinth after flowering at home? To save his life, it is necessary to cut the flower stalks and do not stop watering and fertilize the plant until the leaves wither. At this time, the maternal bulb is restored and can form affiliated onions.
Then you need to remove the hyacinth from the ground, clean the wilted leaves and for 2–3 days put the onion to dry. If, after digging out the bulbs, the babies are already well developed, they can be separated. If they are badly disconnected, it is better not to touch them until next year. Since the faded bulbs are preferably not used for re-forcing, they are transplanted to the garden plot. Planting is carried out in the fall, and next year they will delight the owners with flowers in a flowerbed.
To get the bulbs that can be used for growing in room conditions, the plant is not allowed to bloom properly. The buds are cut off so that the bulb can recover. In the fall, it is taken out of the ground, dried, and the distillation procedure is again carried out.
House Hyacinth Breeding
Hyacinth breeds children (daughter of onions), which are carefully disconnected from the adult bulb. Natural division occurs slowly, in one year the mother bulb can form a maximum of 4 children. Therefore, in horticulture using an artificial method of breeding hyacinths at home. In order to quickly get a large number of babies, they practice special techniques - cutting and incising Donets.
Before starting artificial reproduction, the bulbs are treated with a 1% solution of potassium permanganate and dried at an air temperature of + 20–23 degrees for 2–3 days.
Cutting Donets. This technique is carried out after a period of rest. A teaspoon in the bulbs is carefully cut out the bottom, then stored in boxes cut up at an air temperature of at least +21 degrees. After 2–3 months, small children in the amount of 20–40 pieces begin to form in sections.
After the appearance of the babies, the onion is planted in a cool greenhouse. Young onions begin to grow and throw away the first leaves. After the growing season, they are taken out of the ground, separated and planted for rearing. After 3-4 years, ripened bulbs throw out their first flower stalks.
Cutting Donets. This method is similar to the previous one, with the difference that the bottom is not cut, and 2–4 cuts are made in it at a depth of 0.5–0.6 cm. The processing and storage conditions are the same as in the first method. The number of babies with this method decreases (8–15 pcs.), But they will be larger and stronger. The growing period in this case is reduced to 2-3 years.
The process of growing hyacinths at home is quite simple, but very fruitful. For its successful implementation, you need to have a great desire and a little patience. And, of course, follow all the rules and recommendations that relate to planting and caring for hyacinths in indoor conditions.
In accordance with the planned time of flowering in the fall, the bulbs of the soil should be planted in the ground (purchased or prepared independently). Use individual pots or group planting - depending on your own preferences. Hyacinth in a pot care at home suggests a minimum, but it blooms great. Fill the pots with soil almost to the top, then plant the bulb in such a way that its tip is at the level of the edges of the dish. For group planting, observe a distance of 2.5-3 cm. From above, cover the pot with dark polyethylene, making holes for ventilation. Transfer the plants to a dark and cool place for a set period, the temperature of the content should be within 5-8 ° C.
As the earthy coma dries, moisten it slightly, the soil should be slightly damp. During this time, the hyacinth appear small shoots, when they reach 3-5 cm in height, the plants should be brought into the house. The initial temperature of the content should not exceed 12 ° C, choose a shaded place for several days, and then move them closer to the window (but not the radiators). At a permanent place the pot is placed at the moment when the buds appear on the plant.
Hyacinth in a pot: home care during flowering
In order for the plant to please you with a beautiful flowering, it needs to ensure stable conditions of detention. After the appearance of the buds, the pot with hyacinth is moved to a permanent, light, draft-free place. The temperature should be in the range of 15-20 ° C, keep the soil in a constantly hydrated state, not allowing it to dry out. Spend one-time podkor complex mineral fertilizer, strictly observing the dosage and concentration indicated on the package.
What to do with the bulb after flowering?
The hyacinth bulb used for forcing cannot be reused. However, you can plant it in an open ground on a flower bed in the garden, where it will delight you with natural flowering in early spring. After the forcing is over and the desired result is obtained, leave the bulb in the ground - this is necessary in order to preserve the flower. Hyacinth in a pot care at home suggests the same as in the ground. Continue to water the plant and feed it with fertilizer until the leaves start to wither. After they dry up, carefully separate them. Remove the onion from the ground, dry and store in a cool and dry place. Landing in the ground spend the late fall: in the middle or end of October, when the soil temperature drops to 5-10 ° C. Thus, the hyacinth before the strong cold weather will have time to give roots.
Remember that the plant prefers a sunny and open place, perhaps with a slight shading, protected from wind and excessive moisture. The soil is recommended loose, containing in its composition sand, humus, and having good moisture permeability.
Dispelling a garden hyacinth flower requires providing him with conditions close to the street. The key to success is the selection of a healthy, dense, ripe bulb of five centimeters diameter, as well as knowledge of how to plant a hyacinth in a pot at home.
The size of the planting material for this flower is crucial for success. Since only a large one can get a full-fledged plant.
The appearance of the bulb is also an important factor. It should be without rotting elements, mechanical damage, tight to the touch.
To get a nice, bright flower, you must provide proper storage of the bulb. It must be excavated at the end of June and placed in a damp, warm room. Storage temperature during the rest period is 27-30 degrees. In such conditions, the bulb should be 14 days.
After that, it is moved to a cool, 22-24 degrees, room for 2 weeks, and then the temperature is reduced to 15 degrees. All these resettlement activities - important stages Prepare a hyacinth to distill a flower, carefully read all the information on how to plant hyacinths at home in a pot, then the flowers will delight you with flowering for more than one season.
More details about how to multiply and grow hyacinths at home, you can find here.
Planting and care at home
How to plant a hyacinth at home in a pot? The plant must be planted in shallow, wide pot. The soil for planting is suitable ready for planting bulbous. In the absence of the possibility of buying, mixed turf, sheet soil and compost in equal quantities. For the looseness of the composition is added part of the sand or peat.
Before planting a layer of expanded clay is laid on the bottom of the pot. On it is poured a layer of sand and soil mixture. Then closely folded onions. From one to three bulbs can be placed in one pot.
Hyacinths sprinkle the soil in such a way to keep their heads open. After landing, they are created conditions for rest in the most cool and dark room. Ideal conditions are content in the cellar or basement. If you do not have them, find a cool place in the apartment and cover the pots with a dark cloth or an opaque cap.
About 2.5 months your hyacinths will sleep and prepare for flowering. During this time they should be rooted as much as possible.
Hyacinths are planted not only at home but also on the street. More details about planting and caring for hyacinth in open ground can be found here.
When to plant at home?
The time when planting hyacinths at home in a pot plays a big role in distilling a plant and it depends on what time you want to get flowers. It is important consider which grade of hyacinth you purchased. Early varieties are planted in early October, and the flower is obtained from them by December.
For flowering in February, selected varieties with medium flowering periods. They disembark at the end of October. Later varieties when planting hyacinth in a pot in late December, bloom in late March and early April.
The process of forcing peduncle
After a two-month period of sleep, spring hyacinths are arranged. They are placed in a warm, bright place and begin to water. The soil should be slightly wet, but not wet. Stagnant water is detrimental to the bulbs, they can rot.
During the forcing period, hyacinth care is in watering. Try to keep the water when watering does not fall into the center of the bulb. The roots of the flower are quite long, so watering can be carried out in the pan.
Hyacinths sufficient illumination needed. For even flowering pot should be turned to the light on different sides. If the weather is cloudy, you must provide additional artificial lighting.
Twice a month, the plant must be fed with mineral fertilizers, preferably special ones.
Leaving after flowering
After flowering on the bulbs flower stalks are cut out. Watering and fertilizer continue until the leaves finally wilt. During this period, the bulb restores strength for future flowering and forms daughter processes.
After complete drying of the whole foliage, the bulbs are removed from the soil, cleaned and dried. Starting from 4-5 years of age, the mother bulb begins to form children. They can be carefully separated if possible.
You can learn more about what to do next with hyacinth at home, when it has bloomed, here.
How to distill a flower in water?
A feature of this flower is the possibility of obtaining a full-fledged flower in the conditions of complete absence of soil. Distillation can be done in water, filling the bulb in half. The whole procedure of preparing to receive a flower is carried out in the same way as the variant with the soil.
At the end of the cooling period of the bulb placed in a warm placebut continue to protect them from light. As soon as sprouts reach a length of 10 centimeters, the bulbs are exposed to light. Add mineral fertilizers to the water, so the process of forcing the flower will accelerate.
The process of planting and transplanting hyacinths in indoor conditions in a pot requires strict compliance with the rules, as well as knowledge of how to care for them. Only in this case you can get beautiful bright flower at the required time.
Description and characteristics of indoor hyacinth, popular species
This extraordinarily beautiful plant attracts attention due to its colorful and bright colors like small bells, which are located on the fleshy peduncle in the form of racemose inflorescence. Flowers can be both simple and terry yellow, pink, blue, purple, blue or white.
Bright green smooth and fleshy leaves, in the amount of from 5 to 8 pieces, form a rosette sprouting from the bulb, from which the stems come out. The flower reaches a height of 30 cm. The blooming of Hyacinth is accompanied by a subtle pleasant aroma.
There are many types of Hyacinth, among them: Ostara, Amethyst, Rosalia, Sunflower, La Victoire, Litvinova, Zakayspysky, Arentina Arendsen.
But the most popular and common in home growing is East Hyacinth.
Distillation at home
Care for Hyacinth is not difficult, but you need to follow some rules. The first rule - the choice of bulbsfrom which the flower will be grown. The size of the bulb in diameter is required not less than 5 cm, it should be dense, not affected by rot, diseases and insects. The second rule is to create the necessary atmosphere. for the successful cultivation of the flower.
Choosing a pot and soil for planting bulbs
The vessel for breeding Hyacinth should be of medium size and have drainage holes at the bottom. From 1 to 3 bulbs per container. They should not be in contact with each other and with the walls of the pot.
The bulb is placed in the soil is not completely, its upper part should not be covered. The substrate is used such that it has a neutral level of acidity, since high acidity does not suit the flower. To avoid rotting of the bulb, the surface of the soil is also covered with sand.
Planting Hyacinth Bulbs
After planting the bulbs, they need to create a dormant period for about two months. The pot is placed in a dark cool place, maybe even in a refrigerator, the temperature should be + 5-7 degrees. Occasionally, the soil needs to be watered to maintain constant humidity. During this time, the bulbs are well rooted and in the future will give flower stalks. After the bulbs are released on a pair of sheets, the flower is transferred to a bright place with a temperature not higher than +15 degrees.
Care during flowering
The period of flowering Hyacinth lasts an average of about two weeks, during this period care is needed, due to which flowering will be lush and longer.
Hyacinth loves light very much he needs it at least 15 hours a day. If you place it in a place where the light is not enough, you must additionally use artificial light sources. On hot summer days, the plant should be pritenyat to avoid direct sunlight.
Watering and spraying
Land in a pot should always be a little wet, it is especially important during flowering, active growth and wintering. You should also avoid stagnation of water, which can lead to rotting bulbs and the development of fungal diseases. To do this, water from the pan is poured immediately after watering. Another important point is the very method of watering: in order that whatever water falls on the bulb, in the leaf axils and buds, water must be poured near the edge of the pot.
Spraying a flower is not recommended, it is especially bad for its condition during the flowering period.
The plant requires frequent feeding, about twice a month. To do this, use any universal fertilizer for indoor bulbous plants. Before feeding you need to water the flower.
Удобрение для Гиацинта
Видео об уходе за Гиацинтом после цветения
Очень часто цветоводы подгоняют цветение Гиацинта к определенному времени года, например чтобы получить соцветие на 8 марта, это нужно делать в октябре. Для этого используется такая манипуляция, как выгонка – при этом луковицы специально выводят из состояния покоя.
In this case, the planted bulbs are covered with a bag in which a hole is made so that the plant can breathe. Next, the flower is grown, as in the usual planting of bulbs.
There are several ways to breed Hyacinth. Among them: reproduction by children, reproduction by seeds, cutting out of the bottom and incision of the bottom. At home, most often use the first method, as the rest is very long and complex, they are used by breeders and professionals.
On average, a bulb can form 2-4 children per year. They must be carefully separated from the parent bulb and planted in a separate container. If the baby is difficult to separate, then after a period of rest, the mother bulb is planted with it and separated only after the next blooming of Hyacinth.
Hyacinth Bulb with babies
Pruning of the peduncle is imperative after completion of flowering, because if after the flowers there will be fruit, it will pull all the forces from the flower. Also when the leaves dry, they are also cut off.
Diseases and pests
Most often, Hyacinth is resistant to all sorts of threats when grown at home, because the bulbs are transplanted with disinfectants during transplantation. But sometimes hyacinths are threatened by such diseases and pests:
- Bacterial rot. There are many causes of infection with this disease and various symptoms of its manifestation, such as the appearance of black dots on the leaves, bulb rot, drying of roots and so on. It is possible to cope with the disease only in industrial production, in the domestic conditions it leads to the death of a flower. At the same time, it is necessary to get rid of the plant and the soil, and to disinfect the pot.
- Insects. For example: aphid, mite and others. You can get rid of them by spraying the flower with chemicals, but only before the flowering period.
- Physiological disorders. These are deformations of the peduncle, for example, curvature or irregular flowering, which appear in the event of noncompliance with the “forcing” mode, or rather the cooling period.
General characteristics of hyacinth
Hyacinths are quite possible to cultivate and at home. Moreover, plant bulbs can be viable for quite a long time, about 10 years. One bulb can form from itself others, which in a few years are also able to release color. And with proper planting and care, hyacinths may bloom even in winter.
Planting hyacinth at home
For planting at home, it is best to choose large and dense onions with a diameter of about 5 cm, since small onions may have sprouted and released, but most likely they will not produce flowers.
Before planting hyacinths, bulbous roots should be checked for putrid changes and other visible damage. It is best to make treatment with a disinfectant composition (fungicide). The pot for planting should be chosen small, but always with drainage holes. Soil can be purchased at a flower shop or cook yourself. Hyacinths don't like sour soils, it is better that the earth is neutral or with low acidity.
Independently substrate do this:
- take the turf and leaf land,
- add humus and compost in equal volumes,
- and quite a bit include in the resulting composition peat and sand.
- in the pot, pre-poured drainage (expanded clay),
- then prepared substrate or purchased floral primer,
- from above sprinkle with a small layer of river sand,
- onion is set on a layer of sand and slightly pressed into it,
- sprinkled with the rest flower substrate,
- a small layer of sand is poured in from above (this is necessary in order to avoid bulb rotting),
- It is not necessary to completely fill the onion, the top must remain open.
A pot with a planted onion should be put in a dark, cool place for rooting for about 1.5–3 months. The temperature in the room where the container will be located should not be at room temperature, it is better that it does not exceed +10 degrees. If there is no such possibility, the pot can be stored on the balcony, in the refrigerator, in another cool environment, pre-warmed with soft material and wrapped in a cardboard box. It is important that the bulb was in the cold, but not frozen (the temperature of the environment where the plant is located, should not be below +5 degrees).
The flower at this time should be watered a little so that the onion in dry soil does not dry. And after roots will appear on the bulb, the pot can be transferred to a bright and warm room.
Please note that if a pot with a hyacinth is brought to the light earlier, it will not develop and blossom. And if you are late with its transfer to a bright and warm room, then all the power of the plant will go to the formation of leaves, and the formation of flowers will be delayed.
If the culture is planted correctly, but still does not bloom, then the flower must be further stimulated. This is called forcing. The plant is cleaned again in a cold environment and left for another month. If this does not help to achieve the desired result, namely the flowering of hyacinth, then you can perform the so-called rehabilitation of the flower, this is the procedure for planting hyacinth in open ground.
Hyacinth in a pot, home care
Care includes measures to create temperature, humidity, lighting. Culture needs feeding complex mineral fertilizers, as well as protection from pests and diseases.
Let's take a look at how to care for hyacinth:
- It is advisable to place the pot with a flower not in direct sunlight, but in a well-lit room. You need to know that hyacinths are light-loving enough. Sunlight is necessary for them for violent flowering. It is desirable for the plant to provide continuous illumination for 15 hours. With a lack of daylight illumination, you need to add room lighting or purchase special lamp for lighting indoor plants. If this is not foreseen during the care, the flowering that has begun may not develop, the flower will simply discard the first flowers that have formed.
- In the room where the flowering plant is located, there should be a comfortable temperature of about 18–23 degrees. And also the hyacinth absolutely does not transfer drafts. Sudden changes in temperature are unacceptable, in connection with which it is not recommended to install the plant on the kitchen windowsill, where it is assumed periodic ventilation. At the same time, the flower pot does not need to be placed next to the heating devices (on the windowsill above the central heating radiators) and under the operating air conditioner.
- Watering this crop should be done regularly and abundantly. Water for this is better to use rain or filtered, at most, settled at room temperature. Water the flowering plant should be carefully, at the root, so that water does not fall on the leaves. Otherwise there is a danger that they will rot from this. The plant is in no case sprayed, especially during the flowering period. If water is formed in the pan after watering, it should be drained so as not to provoke dilution pathogenic bacterialoving wet environment.
- Blooming brush-inflorescence hyacinth is quite heavy. Under its weight, the stem bends strongly and can break. In order to avoid this, it is necessary to insert a support in advance into the pot, and tie a large flower stalk to it. And hyacinths bloom very beautifully, but not for long, not longer than 15–20 days.
- After the blooming of the hyacinth is finished, the yellowed inflorescence should be cut off. The leaves remain green for some time, they are removed after they also dry up and turn yellow. In this period watering is reduced to a minimumReturning to this as the soil dries. Strong drying of the soil is also impossible to prevent.
- When the leaves wither, the bulb is dug out of the pot and dried for 5–10 days at room temperature, but not in the open sun. During drying, it is necessary to remove dry roots, separate the new onion (kids), but only those that have formed their own roots. Now the bulbs can be sent back to rest for 3-4 months.
Proper storage conditions for hyacinth bulbs will ensure successful germination and lush flowering next year.
Growing hyacinths for the holiday date
Now you can see in many stores hyacinths, put up for sale in a half-disguised form. Most often this happens for the spring holiday. Preparation of plants for flowering on this date is carried out in advance starting in the summer. At home you can also get the desired result, and to any day that you need. Consider the sequence of hyacinth care in this case.
- It is necessary to purchase a strong, healthy onion in a flower shop, where it was in the correct storage conditions until now. Often it is in stores that sell hyacinth bulbs for forcing (cultivation in artificial conditions). In this case, the plant has already experienced a period of winter dormancy and is ready to bloom.
- And also the bulb of a plant can be found and dug in the garden after the garden hyacinth has completely bloomed and dried. For example, by March this should be done in September. Next, put the onion to dry and in the fridge on the lower shelf, previously wrapped in a dry cotton cloth (in the newspaper).
- If you want to get a bloom of hyacinth by March 8, then you need to plant a plant in November. Planting in a pot should be done in exactly the same way as described above. with drainage layer, flower soil (or homemade substrate) and the upper sandy layer. If you take a spacious pot, you can plant several bulbs at once, keeping a distance of about 3–5 cm between them, then you will get a whole festive bouquet when flowering.
- Root the bulbs in a cold environment.
- After 3 months, in late January and early February, leaves will appear. That's when the plant can be transferred to the room, but not to a bright light. It is in the shade (from lack of light) that the leaves will begin to grow rapidly. If at home it is not possible to leave the flower in the dark, then it is better to cover it with a paper bag.
- If the bulb for some reason does not release the shoot for a long time, it must be kept for some time at a warm, even hot, temperature of about +28 degrees. Then a young kidney will be formed in it, subsequently ready to give out for the holiday a new beautiful plant.
- A hyacinth is ready to bloom when its leaves reach sizes up to about 15 cm in height. The flower can be put from a penumbra into a well-lit place, but not in a draft. Now the plant needs the sun to form buds and bright color of the inflorescence. If the holiday turns out not fully formed brush, then it is not scary. Better to let the flower be donated in its infancy and it pleases with daily additions in growth, which will quickly wither (do not forget that only 20 days of hyacinth blooms).
- Hyacinth blooms can be achieved and growing it in water. To get a flower by March 8th, distillation in water is also started in November. For this, the bulb is simply placed in a glass bottle with a narrow neck. And the water should touch only the roots of the bulb, for which you can use a plastic cover with a cut-out hole for the roots. It is recommended to add activated (if there is wood charcoal) charcoal to the water for disinfection. Water periodically needs to be changed.
- The first time the bank with the bulb should be in the cold, in a box on the loggia, glassed-in balcony, in the refrigerator, but the temperature should not be below +5 degrees. When the first shoots appear, jar with flower clean in a warm room. Then do everything the same way as when growing hyacinth in the ground. But, after forcing the plant in the water, the onion will be unsuitable for the next recovery, it is completely depleted, it will have to be thrown away.
Planting hyacinth flowers in the garden
In central Russia hyacinths are planted in open ground in September and October. If this is done too early (in warm autumn), then the flower may start growing and die in winter. If you plant late, when the temperature is already below +5 degrees, the bulbs will not have time to take root.
When planting a plant in a garden, you need to take care of it and observe some factors:
- The place where the planting of hyacinths is planned must be warmed in advance. This can be done with autumn leaves or other materials at hand, and covered with a film from cold autumn rains and the first snow. And after landing - again to protect the weatherization.
- Bulbs for disembarkation it is necessary to choose not the largest but the medium ones in the beds (when buying at a flower shop they are called flower beds). This condition will provide the plant with the greatest resistance to weather changes.
- In the wells prepared for planting, it is necessary to add peat or rotted compost, if this was not done during a preliminary digging of the earth.
- The density of planting bulbs should be greater than when planting a bouquet composition at home. The area that each flower needs for food is about 15x20 cm. The depth of planting from the beginning of the root system should be about 20 cm. If the onions are very small, then they can be seated more often.
- If you plan to plant a lot of flowers, they are planted on a bed up to 20 cm high. This will protect the bulbs in spring from melt water. The beds in the spring sun warm up faster and provide good ventilation of the upper layer.
- With the onset of severe frost planted hyacinth bulbs better to warm. To do this, use any mulching materials:
- dry peat
- dry fallen leaves
In the spring, as the soil begins to thaw, the warming coating needs to be removed. Doing so need to be careful, since the hyacinth flower sprouts appear early and can be damaged.